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  • 1 λατρεία

    A the state of a hired labourer, service, A.Pr. 966;

    ἐπίπονον ἔχειν λ. S.Tr. 830

    (lyr.): pl.,

    οἵας λατρείας ἀνθ' ὅσου ζήλου τρέφει Id.Aj. 503

    , cf. E.Ph. 225 (lyr.), etc.: metaph., the business or duties of life, Plu.2.107c.
    2 λ. τοῦ θεοῦ, θεῶν, service to the gods, divine worship, Pl.Ap. 23c, Phdr. 244e (pl.): abs., LXX Ex.12.25, al., Ep.Rom.9.4, etc.

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  • 2 μυρίος

    μῡρίος [ῐ], α, on (ος, ον APl.4.40 (Crin.)),
    A numberless, countless, infinite, prop. of Number, and commonly in pl., as mostly in Hom., Il.2.468, al.: also in sg. with collective Nouns,

    χέραδος μυρίον 21.320


    λόγχη E.Ph. 441


    χαλκός Pi.N.10.45


    χρυσός Theoc.16.22

    : strengthd.,

    μάλα μυρίοι Od.17.422

    , 19.78;

    πολλάκις μυριοι Pl.Tht. 175a


    μυρίαι ἐπὶ μυριαις πόλεις Id.Lg. 676b

    , cf. Tht. 155c, D.H.Rh. 7.4.
    2 in Poets also, of Size, measureless, immense, in finite,

    μυρίος ὦνος Od.15.452

    ; πένθος, ἄχος μ., Il.18.88, 20.282; μυρία ἄλγεα, κήδεα, 1.2, 24.639; μ. παντᾷ κέλευθος a boundless course, Pi.I.4(3).1, cf. B. 5.31;

    πάρεστι μ. κέλευθος μελέων Id.18.1


    μ. παντᾷ φάτις Id.8.48

    ; μ. μόχθοι, ἄχθος, A.Pr. 541 (lyr.), S.Ph. 1168 (lyr.);

    χάρις E.Alc. 544


    κλέος Theoc.Ep.21.2

    ; μ. εὐφροσύνη APl. l.c. (Crin.): in [dialect] Ion. Prose, ὄψις μυρίη all kinds of sights, Hdt.2.136; μ. κακότης, εὐδαιμονίη, Id.6.67;

    θῶμα Id.2.148

    : sts. in Pl., μ. πενία, διαφορότης, ἐρημία, Ap. 23c, Phlb. 13a, Lg. 677e: so in later Prose,

    μ. ἀχλύς Jul.Or.7.232a

    3 of Time,

    μ. χρόνος Pi.I.5(4).28

    , S.OC 397, 617.
    4 neut. pl. μυρία as Adv., immensely, incessantly,

    ἔκλαυσεν μ. AP7.374

    (Marc. Arg.), cf. 12.169 (Diosc.).
    b dat. as Adv., μυρίῳ σοφώτερος infinitely wiser, E.Andr. 701; μυρίῳ βέλτιον, μυριῳ κάλλιον, Pl.R. 520c, Ti. 33b; μυρίῳ πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν διαφέρειν to differ infinitely, Id.Plt. 272c; but

    μυρίον διαφέρειν Id.Tht. 166d

    II as a definite numeral, in pl. [full] μύριοι, αι, α, ten thousand, first in Hes.,

    τρὶς μ. Op. 252

    , cf. Hdt.3.95, IG12.63.37, etc.: sg. in military phrases,

    ἵππος μ. 10

    ,000 horse, A.Pers. 302, Hdt.1.27, 7.41;

    ἀσπὶς μ. X.An.1.7.10

    : rarely with other words,

    κατὰ μυρίαν δεσμήν

    by the


    , 000 bundles, PPetr.3p.101 (iii B. C.), cf. PSI4.393.11 (iii B. C.); οἱ Μύριοι the Ten Thousand, an assembly of the Arcadians, X.HG7.1.38, IG5(2).1.4 (Tegea, iv B. C.);

    οἱ Μ. ἐν Μεγάλῃ πόλει D.19.11

    III in late Greek, Adv.

    μυρίως Alex.

    Trall.5.4, Tz.H.13.521:—acc. to Gramm., μυρίος (parox.) is the indefinite, μύριος (proparox.) the definite number, μύριος ὁ ὡρισμένος ἀριθμός, μυρίος ἀόριστος Hdn.Gr.1.125, cf. Suid., Eust.907.8, etc.; but this distn. is not observed in codd.

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  • 3 πενία

    πενία, [dialect] Ion. - ιη, , ([etym.] πένομαι)
    A poverty, need,

    πενίῃ εἴκων Od.14.157

    ; οὐλομένην π. Hes. Op. 717;

    στάσις πενίας δότειρα Pi.Fr.109.5


    τῇ Ἑλλάδι π. σύντροφός ἐστι,.. [ἀρετῇ] δὲ διαχρεωμένη τὴν πενίην ἀπαμύνεται Hdt.7.102


    τῆς πτωχείας πενίαν φαμὲν εἶναι ἀδελφήν Ar.Pl. 549

    ; π. δὲ σοφίαν ἔλαχε διὰ τὸ συγγενές (v.l. δυστυχές) E.Fr. 641 ; ἐν πενίᾳ εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, Pl.Ap. 23c, R. 613a ;

    εἰς π. πολλὴν καὶ ἀπορίαν καταστῆναι And.1.144

    : pl.

    πενίαι Isoc.8.128

    , Pl.Prt. 353d, R. 618a, etc.
    2 lack, need, τινος Plot.2.4.16.
    II Πενία personified, Poverty, Alc.92, Pl.Smp. 203b.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > πενία

  • 4 περιλείπομαι

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > περιλείπομαι

  • 5 φθορά

    φθορ-ά, [dialect] Ion. [full] φθορή, , ([etym.] φθείρω)
    A destruction, ruin, Hdt.2.161, 7.18, Hp.Vict.1.5, A.Ag. 406 (lyr.), etc.; of persons, death, esp. by some general visitation, as pestilence, Th.2.47, Pl.Lg. 677a (pl.), GDI 5104c11 (Crete, pl.);

    ἀνδροθνῆτας Ἰλίου φθοράς A.Ag. 814

    b of animals, loss by death, PStrassb.24.26,31 (ii A. D.).
    2 Philos., passing out of existence, ceasing to be,

    γενομένῳ παντὶ φ. ἐστι Pl.R. 546a


    περὶ γενέσεως καὶ φθορᾶς Id.Phd. 95e

    , title of work by Arist., cf. Pl.Phlb. 55a, Arist.Ph. 229b13, Gal.6.6; ἡ φ. μεταβολή τίς ἐστι

    τῶν φθειρομένων εἰς τοὐναντίον ἑκάστῳ Plu.2.948f

    : pl., Pl.Phd. 96b, R. 490e, al.: with dat. (instrumental),

    ἡ μεγίστηφθορὰ ὕδασιν Id.Ti. 23c

    , cf. 22d.
    3 deterioration, εἰς καρπογονίαν in respect of.. Thphr.CP 5.8.2.
    b loss by deterioration,

    ἐκφορίου.. ἀνυπολόγου πάο ης φθορᾶς PTeb.105.3

    ,18 (ii B. C.); damage,

    ἐκτεῖσαι τὴν γεγονυῖαν ὑπ' αὐτῶν τοῦ χόρτου.. φ. BGU1824.29

    (i B. C.); misspelt φθαρά ib.1866.3 (i B. C.).
    4 seduction, ἐλευθέρων Lexap. Aeschin.1.12; παρθένων, γυναικῶν, Plu.2.712c (pl.), Vett.Val.2.37 (pl.), cf. Parth.35.3, D.H.2.25; rape, Str.6.1.6.
    5 abortion or miscarriage, IG22.1365.22, 1366.7, Sor.1.56, Gal.17(1).800;

    τοῦ ἐμβρύου Sor.1.59

    7 = φθόη, Hp.Aph.7.80.
    8 storm-tossings or shipwrecks,

    τί τοι λέγοιμ' ἂν τὰς ἐν Αἰγαίῳ φθοράς; E.Hel. 766

    ; cf.

    φθείρω 11.4


    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > φθορά

  • 6 ἀφθονία

    II of things, plenty, abundance, Pi.N.3.9;

    τῶν ὠφελούντων Pl.Ap. 24e

    , cf. 23c;

    κακῶν Men.589

    ; ἀφθονίας οὔσης ὀργίζεσθαι abundance of matter for.., Lys.12.2;

    ἀ. ἦν καταπίνειν Telecl.1.10


    τοσαύτην ἀ. κατηγοριῶν D.21.102

    ; εἰς ἀ. in abundance, X.An.7.1.33; opp. ἀφορία, Id.Smp.4.55: pl.,

    καρπῶν ἀφθονίησι Emp.78

    III = κακία, Hsch.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἀφθονία

  • 7 ἄν

    ἄν (A), [pron. full] [ᾰ], [dialect] Ep., Lyr., [dialect] Ion., Arc., [dialect] Att.; also κεν) [dialect] Ep., [dialect] Aeol., Thess., κᾱ [dialect] Dor., [dialect] Boeot., El.; the two combined in [dialect] Ep. (infr. D. 11.2) and Arc.,

    εἰκ ἄν IG5(2).6.2

    , 15 (iv B. C.):—modal Particle used with Verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. In Hom. κε is four times as common as ἄν, in Lyr. about equally common. No clear distinction can be traced, but κε as an enclitic is somewhat less emphatic; ἄν is preferred by Hom. in negative clauses, κε ([etym.] ν) with the relative.
    A In Simple Sentences, and in the Apodosis of Compound Sentences; here ἄν belongs to the Verb, and denotes that the assertion made by the Verb is dependent on a condition, expressed or implied: thus ἦλθεν he came, ἦλθεν ἄν he would have come (under conditions, which may or may not be defined), and so he might have come; ἔλθοι may he come, ἔλθοι ἄν he would come (under certain conditions), and so he might come.
    1 with historical tenses, generally [tense] impf. and [tense] aor., less freq. [tense] plpf., never [tense] pf., v. infr.,
    a most freq. in apodosis of conditional sentences, with protasis implying nonfulfilment of a past or present condition, and apod. expressing what would be or would have been the case if the condition were or had been fulfilled. The [tense] impf. with ἄν refers to continued action, in Hom. always in past time, exc. perh.

    καί κε θάμ' ἐνθάδ' ἐόντες ἐμισγόμεθ' Od.4

    . 178; later also in [tense] pres. time, first in Thgn.905; πολὺ ἂν θαυμαστότερον ἦν, εἰ ἐτιμῶντο it would be far more strange if they were honoured, Pl.R. 489a; οὐκ ἂν νήσων ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν he would not have been master of islands if he had not had also some naval power, Th.1.9. The [tense] aor. strictly refers only to past time, Pi.N.11.24, etc.; εἰ τότε ταύτην ἔσχε τὴν γνώμην, οὐδὲν ἂν ὧν νυνὶ πεποίηκεν ἔπραξεν if he had then come to this opinion, he would have accomplished nothing of what he has now done, D.4.5, al., but is used idiomatically with Verbs of saying, answering, etc., as we say I should have said,

    εἰ μὴ πατὴρ ἦσθ', εἶπον ἄν σ' οὐκ εὖ φρονεῖν S.Ant. 755

    , cf. Pl.Smp. 199d, Euthphr. 12d, etc.: the [tense] plpf. refers to completed actions, as ὃ εἰ ἀπεκρίνω, ἱκανῶς ἂν ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ τὴν ὁσιότητα ἐμεμαθήκη I should have already learnt.., ib. 14c;

    εἰ ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀπέθανεν, δικαίως ἂν ἐτεθνήκει Antipho 4.2.3

    c with no definite protasis understood, to express what would have been likely to happen, or might have happened in past time: ἢ γάρ μιν ζωόν γε κιχήσεαι, ἤ κεν Ὀρέστης κτεῖνεν ὑποφθάμενος for either you will find him alive, or else Orestes may already have killed him before you, Od.4.546; ὃ θεασάμενος πᾶς ἄν τις ἀνὴρ ἠράσθη δάϊος εἶναι every man who saw this (the 'Seven against Thebes') would have longed to be a warrior, Ar. Ra. 1022; esp. with τάχα, q. v., ἀλλ' ἦλθε μὲν δὴ τοῦτο τοὔνειδος τάχ' ἂν ὀργῇ βιασθὲν μᾶλλον ἢ γνώμῃ φρενῶν, i. e. it might perhaps have come, S.OT 523; τάχα ἂν δὲ καὶ ἄλλως πως ἐσπλεύσαντες (sc. διέβησαν ) and they might also perhaps have crossed by sea (to Sicily) in some other way, Th.6.2, cf. Pl.Phdr. 265b.
    d ἄν is freq. omitted in apodosi with Verbs expressing obligation, propriety, or possibility, as ἔδει, ἐχρῆν, εἰκὸς ἦν, etc., and sts. for rhetorical effect, εἰ μὴ.. ᾖσμεν, φόβον παρέσχεν it had caused (for it would have caused) fear, E.Hec. 1113. This use becomes more common in later Gk.
    2 with [tense] fut. ind.:
    a frequently in [dialect] Ep., usu. with κεν, rarely ἄν, Il.9.167, 22.66, indicating a limitation or condition, ὁ δέ κεν κεχολώσεται ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι and he will likely be angry to whom- soever I shall come, ib.1.139; καί κέ τις ὧδ' ἐρέει and in that case men will say, 4.176;

    ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι καταλέξω Od.3.80

    ; so in Lyr.,

    μαθὼν δέ τις ἂν ἐρεῖ Pi.N.7.68

    , cf. I.6(5).59.
    b rarely in codd. of [dialect] Att. Prose writers,

    σαφὲς ἂν καταστήσετε Th.1.140


    οὐχ ἥκει, οὐδ' ἂν ἥξει δεῦρο Pl.R. 615d

    , cf. Ap. 29c, X.An.2.5.13; dub. in Hp.Mul.2.174: in later Prose, Philostr. V A2.21, S E.M.9.225: also in Poetry, E.El. 484, Ar.Av. 1313;

    οὐκ ἂν προδώσω Herod.6.36

    (corr. - δοίην):— for ἄν with [tense] fut. inf. and part. v. infr.
    II WITH SUBJUNCTIVE, only in [dialect] Ep., the meaning being the same as with the [tense] fut. ind. (1.2a), freq. with [ per.] 1st pers., as εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώῃσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι in that case I will take her myself, Il.1.324; πείθευ, ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι εἰδέω χάριν obey and if so I will be grateful, 14.235 (the subj. is always introduced by δέ in this usage); also with other persons, giving emphasis to the future,

    οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίσμῃ κίθαρις 3.54

    , al.
    III WITH OPTATIVE (never [tense] fut., rarely [tense] pf. πῶς ἂν λελήθοι [με]; X.Smp.3.6):
    a in apodosis of conditional sentences, after protasis in opt. with εἰ or some other conditional or relative word, expressing a [tense] fut. condition:

    ἀλλ' εἴ μοί τι πίθοιο, τό κεν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴη Il.7.28


    οὐ πολλὴ ἂν ἀλογία εἴη, εἰ φοβοῖτο τὸν θάνατον; Pl.Phd. 68b

    :—in Hom. [tense] pres. and [tense] aor. opt. with κε or ἄν are sts. used like [tense] impf. and [tense] aor. ind. with ἄν in Attic, with either regular ind. or another opt. in the protasis: καί νύ κεν ἔνθ' ἀπόλοιτο.. εἰ μὴ.. νόησε κτλ., i. e. he would have perished, had she not perceived, etc., Il.5.311, cf. 5.388, 17.70; εἰ νῦν ἐπὶ ἄλλῳ ἀεθλεύοιμεν, ἦ τ' ἂν ἐγὼ.. κλισίηνδε φεροίμην if we were now contending in another's honour, I should now carry.., ib.23.274: so rarely in Trag., οὐδ' ἂν σὺ φαίης, εἴ σε μὴ κνίζοι λέχος (for εἰ μὴ ἔκνιζε) E.Med. 568.
    b with protasis in [tense] pres. or [tense] fut., the opt. with ἄν in apodosi takes a simply future sense: φρούριον δ' εἰ ποιήσονται, τῆς μὲν γῆς βλάπτοιεν ἄν τι μέρος they might perhaps damage, Th.1.142, cf. 2.60, Pl.Ap. 25b, R. 333e;

    ἢν οὖν μάθῃς.. οὐκ ἂν ἀποδοίην Ar.Nu. 116

    , cf. D.1.26, al.
    c with protasis understood:

    φεύγωμεν· ἔτι γάρ κεν ἀλύξαιμεν κακὸν ἦμαρ Od.10.269

    ; οὔτε ἐσθίουσι πλείω ἢ δύνανται φέρειν· διαρραγεῖεν γὰρ ἄν for (if they should do so) they would burst, X. Cyr.8.2.21; τὸν δ' οὔ κε δύ' ἀνέρε.. ἀπ' οὔδεος ὀχλίσσειαν two men could not heave the stone from the ground, i. e. would not, if they should try, Il.12.447;

    οὐδ' ἂν δικαίως ἐς κακὸν πέσοιμί τι S.Ant. 240

    , cf. D.2.8: in Hom. sts. with ref. to past time,

    Τυδεΐδην οὐκ ἂν γνοίης ποτέροισι μετείη Il.5.85

    d with no definite protasis implied, in potential sense: ἡδέως δ' ἂν ἐροίμην Λεπτίνην but I would gladly ask Leptines, D.20.129; βουλοίμην ἄν I should like , Lat. velim (but ἐβουλόμην ἄν I should wish, if it were of any avail, vellem); ποῖ οὖν τραποίμεθ' ἄν; which way then can we turn? Pl.Euthd. 290a; οὐκ ἂν μεθείμην τοῦ θρόνου I will not give up the throne, Ar.Ra. 830; idiomatically, referring to the past, αὗται δὲ οὐκ ἂν πολλαὶ εἶεν but these would not (on investigation) prove to be many, Th.1.9; εἴησαν δ' ἂν οὗτοι Κρῆτες these would be (i. e. would have been) Cretans, Hdt.1.2: used in order to soften assertions by giving them a less positive form, as οὐκ ἂν οὖν πάνυ γέ τι σπουδαῖον εἴη ἡ δικαιοσύνη, i.e. it would not prove to be, etc. (for, it is not, etc.), Pl.R. 333e.
    e in questions, expressing a wish:

    τίς ἂν θεῶν.. δοίη; S.OC 1100

    , cf.A.Ag. 1448;

    πῶς ἂν θάνοιμι; S.Aj. 389

    : hence (with no question) as a mild command, exhortation, or entreaty,

    τλαίης κεν Μενελάῳ ἐπιπροέμεν ταχὺν ἰόν Il.4.94

    ; σὺ μὲν κομίζοις ἂν σεαυτὸν ᾗ θέλεις you may take yourself off (milder than κόμιζε σεαυτόν), S.Ant. 444; χωροῖς ἂν εἴσω you may go in, El. 1491; κλύοις ἂν ἤδη, Φοῖβε hear me now, Phoebus, ib. 637; φράζοις ἄν, λέγοις ἄν, Pl.Phlb. 23c, 48b.
    f in a protasis which is also an apodosis: εἴπερ ἄλλῳ τῳ ἀνθρώπων πειθοίμην ἄν, καὶ σοὶ πείθομαι if I would trust any (other) man (if he gave me his word), I trust you, Id.Prt. 329b; εἰ μὴ ποιήσαιτ' ἂν τοῦτο if you would not do this (if you could), D.4.18, cf. X.Mem.1.5.3, Plot.6.4.16.
    g rarely omitted with opt. in apodosis:

    ῥεῖα θεός γ' ἐθέλων καὶ τηλόθεν ἄνδρα σαώσαι Od.3.231

    , cf. 14.123, Il.5.303; also in Trag.,

    θᾶσσον ἢ λέγοι τις E.Hipp. 1186


    τεὰν δύνασιν τίς.. κατάσχοι; S.Ant. 605

    h ἄν c. [tense] fut. opt. is prob. always corrupt (cf. 1.2b), as τὸν αὐτὸν ἂν ἐπαινέσοι ( ἐπαινέσαι Bekk.) Pl.Lg. 719e; εἰδὼς ὅτι οὐδέν' ἂν καταλήψοιτο ( οὐδένα Bekk.) Lys.1.22.
    IV WITH INF. and PART. (sts. ADJ. equivalent to part.,

    τῶν δυνατῶν ἂν κρῖναι Pl.R. 577b

    ) representing ind. or opt.:
    1 [tense] pres. inf. or part.:
    a representing [tense] impf. ind., οἴεσθε τὸν πατέρα.. οὐκ ἂν φυλάττειν; do you think he would not have kept them safe? ([etym.] οὐκ ἂν ἐφύλαττεν), D.49.35; ἀδυνάτων ἂν ὄντων [ὑμῶν] ἐπιβοηθεῖν when you would have been unable, Th.1.73, cf. 4.40.
    2 [tense] aor. inf. or part.:
    a representing [tense] aor. ind., οὐκ ἂν ἡγεῖσθ' αὐτὸν κἂν ἐπιδραμεῖν; do you not think he would even have run thither? ([etym.] καὶ ἐπέδραμεν ἄν), D.27.56; ἴσμεν ὑμᾶς ἀναγκασθέντας ἄν we know you would have been compelled, Th.1.76, cf. 3.89; ῥᾳδίως ἂν ἀφεθείς when he might easily have been acquitted, X.Mem.4.4.4.
    b representing [tense] aor. opt., οὐδ' ἂν κρατῆσαι αὐτοὺς τῆς γῆς ἡγοῦμαι I think they would not even be masters of the land ([etym.] οὐδ' ἂν κρατήσειαν), Th.6.37, cf. 2.20; ὁρῶν ῥᾳδίως ἂν αὐτὸ ληφθέν ([etym.] ληφθείη ἄν) Id.7.42; οὔτε ὄντα οὔτε ἂν γενόμενα, i.e. things which are not and never could happen ([etym.] ἃ οὔτε ἂν γένοιτο), Id.6.38.
    3 [tense] pf. inf. or part. representing:
    a [tense] plpf. ind., πάντα ταῦθ' ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἂν ἑαλωκέναι ([etym.] φήσειεν ἄν ) he would say that all these would have been destroyed by the barbarians ([etym.] ἑαλώκη ἄν), D.19.312.
    b [tense] pf. opt., οὐκ ἂν ἡγοῦμαι αὐτοὺς δίκην ἀξίαν δεδωκέναι, εἰ.. καταψηφίσαισθε I do not believe they would (then) have suffered ([etym.] δεδωκότες ἂν εἶεν) punishment enough, etc., Lys.27.9.
    4 [tense] fut. inf.or part., never in [dialect] Ep., and prob. always corrupt in [dialect] Att., νομίζων μέγιστον ἂν σφᾶς ὠφελήσειν (leg. - ῆσαι) Th.5.82, cf. 6.66, 8.25,71; part. is still more exceptional,

    ὡς ἐμοῦ οὐκ ἂν ποιήσοντος ἄλλα Pl.Ap. 30c

    (codd.), cf. D.19.342 (v. l.); both are found in later Gk.,

    νομίσαντες ἂν οἰκήσειν οὕτως ἄριστα Plb.8.30.8

    , cf. Plu.Marc.15, Arr.An.2.2.3; with part., Epicur. Nat.14.1, Luc.Asin.26, Lib.Or.62.21, dub. l. in Arr.An.6.6.5.
    I In the protasis of conditional sentences with εἰ, regularly with the subjunctive. In Attic εἰ ἄν is contracted into ἐάν, ἤν, or ἄν ([etym.] ) (q. v.): Hom. has generally εἴ κε (or αἴ κε), sts. ἤν, once

    εἰ δ' ἄν Il.3.288

    , twice

    εἴπερ ἄν 5.224

    , 232. The protasis expresses either future condition (with apod. of [tense] fut. time) or general condition (with apod. of repeated action): εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἔρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοί, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ' ὅς .. if thus thou shalt do.., ib.2.364; ἢν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death (ever) come near.., E.Alc. 671.
    2 in relative or temporal clauses with a conditional force; here ἄν coalesces with ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, cf. ὅταν, ὁπόταν, ἐπήν or ἐπάν ([dialect] Ion. ἐπεάν) , ἐπειδάν: Hom. has ὅτε κε (sts. ὅτ' ἄν) , ὁππότε κε (sts. ὁπότ' ἄν or ὁππότ' ἄν) , ἐπεί κε (

    ἐπεὶ ἄν Il.6.412

    ), ἐπήν, εὖτ' ἄν; v. also εἰσόκε ([etym.] εἰς ὅ κε):—τάων ἥν κ' ἐθέλωμι φίλην ποιήσομ' ἄκοιτιν whomsoever of these I may wish.., Il.9.397; ὅταν δὴ μὴ σθένω, πεπαύσομαι when I shall have no strength.., S.Ant.91; ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος.. ὅς χ' ἕτερον μὲν κεύθῃ ἐνὶ φρεσίν, ἄλλο δὲ εἴπῃ who ever conceals one thing in his mind and speaks another, Il.9.312, cf. D.4.6, Th.1.21. —Hom. uses subj. in both the above constructions (1 and 2 ) without ἄν; also Trag. and Com., S.Aj. 496, Ar.Eq. 805; μέχρι and πρίν occasionally take subj. without ἄν in prose, e.g. Th.1.137,4.16 ([etym.] μέχρι οὗ), Pl.Phd. 62c, Aeschin.3.60.
    3 in final clauses introduced by relative Advbs., as ὡς, ὅπως (of Manner), ἵνα (of Place), ὄφρα, ἕως, etc. (of Time), freq. in [dialect] Ep.,

    σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι Il.1.32


    ὄφρα κεν εὕδῃ Od.3.359


    ὅπως ἂν εἰδῇ.. φράσω A.Pr. 824


    ὅπως ἂν φαίνηται κάλλιστος Pl.Smp. 198e


    μηχανητέον ὅπως ἂν διαφύγῃ Grg. 481a

    (where ὅπως with [tense] fut. ind. is the regular constr.); also after ὡς in Hdt., Trag., X.An.2.5.16, al., once in Th.6.91 (but [tense] fut. ind. is regular in [dialect] Att.); ἵνα final does not take ἄν or κε exc.

    ἵνα εἰδότες ἤ κε θάνωμεν ἤ κεν.. φύγοιμεν Od.12.156

    ( ἵνα = where in S.OC 405). μή, = lest, takes ἄν only with opt. in apodosis, as S.Tr. 631, Th.2.93.
    II in [dialect] Ep. sts. with OPTATIVE as with subj. (always κε ([etym.] ν), exc.

    εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν Il.2.597


    εἴ κεν Ἄρης οἴχοιτο Od.8.353

    ; ὥς κε.. δοίη ᾧ κ' ἐθέλοι that he might give her to whomsoever he might please, ib.2.54: so in Hdt. in final clauses, 1.75,99:—in Od.23.135 ὥς κέν τις φαίη, κέν belongs to Verb in apod., as in

    ὡς δ' ἂν ἥδιστα ταῦτα φαίνοιτο X.Cyr.7.5.81

    2 rarely in oratio obliqua, where a relat. or temp. word retains an ἄν which it would have with subj. in direct form, S.Tr. 687, X.Mem.1.2.6, Isoc.17.15;

    ἐπειδὰν δοκιμασθείην D.30.6

    :—similarly after a preceding opt.,

    οὐκ ἀποκρίναιο ἕως ἂν.. σκέψαιο Pl.Phd. 101d

    III rarely with εἰ and INDICATIVE in protasis, only in [dialect] Ep.:
    1 with [tense] fut. ind. as with subj.:

    αἴ κεν Ἰλίου πεφιδήσεται Il.15.213

    :—so with relat.,

    οἵ κέ με τιμήσουσι 1.175

    2 with εἰ and a past tense of ind., once in Hom.,

    εἰ δέ κ' ἔτι προτέρω γένετο δρόμος Il.23.526

    ; so Ζεὺς γάρ κ' ἔθηκε νῆσον εἴ κ' ἐβούλετο Orac. ap. Hdt.1.174, cf. Ar.Lys. 1099 (cod. R), A.R.1.197.
    IV in later Greek, ἄν with relative words is used with INDICATIVE in all tenses, as

    ὅπου ἂν εἰσεπορεύετο Ev.Marc.6.56


    ὅσ' ἂν πάσχετε PFay. 136

    (iv A. D.);

    ἔνθ' ἂν πέφυκεν ἡ ὁλότης εἶναι Phlp. in Ph.436.19

    ; cf. ἐάν, ὅταν.
    C with [tense] impf. and more rarely [tense] aor. ind. in ITERATIVE construction, to express elliptically a condilion fulfilled whenever an opportumty offered; freq. in Hdt. (not in Pi. or A.), κλαίεσκε ἂν καὶ ὀδυρέσκετο she would (i. e. used to) weep and lament, 3.119;

    εἶτα πῦρ ἂν οὐ παρῆν S.Ph. 295

    ; εἴ τινες ἴδοιεν.., ἀνεθάρσησαν ἄν whenever they saw it, on each occasion, Th.7.71;

    διηρώτων ἂν αὐτοὺς τί λέγοιεν Pl.Ap. 22b

    : inf. representing [tense] impf. of this constr., ἀκούω Λακεδαιμονίους τότε ἐμβαλόντας ἂν.. ἀναχωρεῖν, i. e. I hear they used to retire ([etym.] ἀνεχώρουν ἄν), D.9.48.
    1 in A, when ἄν does not coalesce with the relat. word (as in ἐάν, ὅταν), it follows directly or is separated only by other particles, as μέν, δέ, τε, ga/r, kai/, νυ, περ, etc.; as

    εἰ μέν κεν.. εἰ δέ κε Il.3.281

    -4; rarely by τις, as

    ὅποι τις ἄν, οἶμαι, προσθῇ D.2.14

    :—in Hom. and Hes. two such Particles may precede κε, as

    εἴ περ γάρ κεν Od.8.355

    , cf. Il.2.123; εἰ γάρ τίς κε, ὃς μὲν γάρ κε, Hes.Op. 280, 357; rarely in Prose,

    ὅποι μὲν γὰρ ἄν D.4.45


    ὁπότερος οὖν ἄν Ar.Ra. 1420

    : also

    ὁπόσῳ πλέον ἄν Pl.Lg. 647e

    , cf. 850a;

    ὅπου τὸ πάλαι λεγόμενον ἂν γίγνηται 739c

    2 in apodosis, ἄν may stand either next to its Verb (before or after it), or after some other emphatic word, esp. an interrog., a negative (e. g. οὐδ' ἂν εἷς, οὐκ ἂν ἔτι, etc.), or an important Adjective or Adverb; also after a participle which represents the protasis, λέγοντος ἄν τινος πιστεῦσαι οἴεσθε; do you think they would have believed it if any one had told them? ([etym.] εἴ τις ἔλεγεν, ἐπίστευσαν ἄν), D.6.20.
    3 ἄν is freq. separated from its inf. by such Verbs as οἴομαι, δοκέω, φημί, οἶδα, etc., οὐκ ἂν οἴει .. ; freq. in Pl., Grg. 486d, al.; καὶ νῦν ἡδέως ἄν μοι δοκῶ κοινωνῆσαι I think that I should, X.Cyr.8.7.25;

    οὕτω γὰρ ἄν μοι δοκεῖ ἥ τε πόλις ἄριστα διοικεῖσθαι Aeschin.3.2

    ; ἃ μήτε προῄδει μηδεὶς μήτ' ἂν ᾠήθη τήμερον ῥηθῆναι (where ἄν belongs to ῥηθῆναι) D. 18.225:—in the phrase οὐκ οἶδ' ἂν εἰ, or οὐκ ἂν οἶδ' εἰ, ἄν belongs not to οἶδα, but to the Verb which follows, οὐκ οἶδ' ἂν εἰ πείσαιμι, for οὐκ οἶδα εἰ πείσαιμι ἄν, E.Med. 941, cf. Alc.48;

    οὐκ ἂν οἶδ' εἰ δυναίμην Pl. Ti. 26b


    οὐκ οἶδ' ἂν εἰ ἐκτησάμην X.Cyr.5.4.12

    4 ἄν never begins a sentence, or even a clause after a comma, but may stand first after a parenthetic clause,

    ἀλλ', ὦ μέλ', ἄν μοι σιτίων διπλῶν ἔδει Ar. Pax

    II REPETITION OF ἄν:—in apodosis ἄν may be used twice or even three times with the same Verb, either to make the condition felt throughout a long sentence, or to emphasize certain words,

    ὥστ' ἄν, εἰ σθένος λάβοιμι, δηλώσαιμ' ἄν S.El. 333

    , cf. Ant.69, A.Ag. 340, Th.1.76 (fin.), 2.41, Pl.Ap. 31a, Lys.20.15;

    ἀφανεῖς ἂν ὄντες οὐκ ἂν ὑμνήθημεν ἄν E.Tr. 1244

    , cf. S.Fr. 739; attached to a parenthetical phrase, ἔδρασ' ἄν, εὖ τοῦτ' ἴσθ' ἄν, εἰ .. Id.OT 1438.
    2 ἄν is coupled with κε ([etym.] ν ) a few times in Hom., as Il.11.187, 202, Od.5.361, al.; cf. ἤν περ γάρ κ' ἐθέλωσιν v.l. ib.18.318.
    III ELLIPSIS OF VERB:—sts. the Verb to which ἄν belongs must be supplied, in Hom. only εἰμί, as τάτ' ἔλδεται ὅς κ' ἐπιδευής (sc. ) Il.5.481; ἀλλ' οὐκ ἂν πρὸ τοῦ (sc. ἔρρεγκον) Ar.Nu.5; τί δ' ἂν δοκεῖ σοι Πρίαμος (sc. πρᾶξαι)

    , εἰ τάδ' ἤνυσεν; A.Ag. 935

    :—so in phrases like πῶς γὰρ ἄν; and πῶς οὐκ ἄν (sc. εἴη); also in ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (or ὡσπερανεί), as φοβούμενος ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ παῖς (i. e. ὥσπερ ἂν ἐφοβήθη εἰ παῖς ἦν) Pl.Grg. 479a; so τοσοῦτον ἐφρόνησαν, ὅσον περ ἂν (sc. ἐφρόνησαν)

    εἰ.. Isoc.10.48

    :—so also when κἂν εἰ ( = καὶ ἂν εἰ) has either no Verb in the apod. or one to which ἄν cannot belong, Pl.R. 477a, Men. 72c; cf. κἄν:—so the Verb of a protasis containing ἄν may be understood, ὅποι τις ἂν προσθῇ, κἂν μικρὰν δύναμιν (i. e. καὶ ἐὰν προσθῇ) D.2.14; ὡς ἐμοῦ οὖν ἰόντος ὅπῃ ἂν καὶ ὑμεῖς (sc. ἴητε) X.An.1.3.6.
    IV ELLIPSIS OF ἄν:—when an apodosis consists of several co-ordinate clauses, ἄν is generally used only in the first and understood in the others:

    πείθοι' ἂν εἰ πείθοι'· ἀπειθοίης δ' ἴσως A.Ag. 1049

    : even when the construction is continued in a new sentence, Pl.R. 352e, cf. 439b codd.: but ἄν is repeated for the sake of clearness or emphasis, ib. 398a, cf. D.19.156 (where an opt. is implied with the third ὡς): rarely expressed with the second of two co-ordinate Verbs and understood with the first, τοῦτον ἂν.. θαρσοίην ἐγὼ καλῶς μὲν ἄρχειν, εὖ δ' ἂν ἄρχεσθαι θέλειν (i. e. καλῶς μὲν ἂν ἄρχοι, εὖ δ' ἂν θέλοι ἄρχεσθαι) S.Ant. 669.
    ἄν (B), [pron. full] [ᾱ], [dialect] Att.,
    A = ἐάν, ἤν, Th.4.46 codd., al.; freq. in Pl.,

    ἂν σωφρονῇ Phd. 61b

    ; ἂν θεὸς θέλῃ ib. 80d, cf. D.4.50;

    ἄν τ'.. ἄν τε Arist. Ath.48.4

    : not common in earlier [dialect] Att. Inscrr., IG1.2a5, 2.179b49, al.: but freq. later, SIG1044.27 (iv/iii B. C.), PPetr.2p.47 (iii B. C.), PPar.32.19 (ii B. C.), PTeb.110.8 (i B. C.), Ev.Jo.20.23, etc.
    ἄν (C) or [full] ἀν, Epic form of ἀνά, q. v.
    ἄν (D), shortened from ἄνα, v. sub ἀνά G.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἄν

  • 8 Ἄρης

    Ἄρης, , [dialect] Ep.gen. Ἄρεος, [dialect] Att.

    Ἄρεως A.Th.64

    , E.El. 1258; but Ἄρεος (never [var] contr. ) is required by the metre in A.Th. 115 (lyr.), S.OC 947, Ant. 125 (lyr.), El. 1423 (lyr.), E.Heracl. 275, El. 950, Fr.16; dat. Ἄρεϊ, [var] contr. Ἄρει; acc.

    Ἄρεα S.OT 190

    (lyr.), [dialect] Att. Ἄρη (never Ἄρην, which is not found in Attic Inscrr. and is never required by the metre; Ἄρη' is the true reading in Il.5.909, Hes.Sc.59, cf. AP7.237 (Alph.), D.S. 5.72); voc. Ἄρες, [dialect] Ep. (metri gr.) Ἆρες:—[dialect] Ion. and [dialect] Ep. declens. [full] Ἄρης, ηος, ηι, ηα: [dialect] Aeol. [full] Ἄρευς, ευος, ευα, ευι, ευ, Sapph.66, Alc. 28 ff.:— Ares: in Trag., the god of destruction generally, S. OT 190, etc.;

    ἐς Οἰδίπου παῖδε.. Ἄρης κατέσκηψ' Ar.Fr. 558

    ; in Com., Ἄρεως νεοττός chicken of Ares, Id.Av. 835.
    2 the planet Mars, Arist. Cael. 292a5, Cleom.1.11.59, etc.;

    Ἄρεος ἡμέρα D.C.37.19

    II in Poets, Appellat. for war, slaughter,

    ξυνάγωμεν Ἄρηα Il.2.381


    Ἄρη μείξουσιν S.OC 1046


    χρονίῳ σὺν Ἄρει Pi.P.11.36

    ; Ἄρης ἐμφύλιος, Ἄ. τιθασός, A.Eu. 862, 355;

    θηλυκτόνῳ Ἄρει δαμέντων Id.Pr. 861


    ναύφαρκτος Ἄ. Id.Pers. 951

    (lyr.); λιθόλευστον Ἄρη death by stoning, S.Aj. 254(lyr.); ἔνθα μάλιστα γίγνετ' Ἄ. ἀλεγεινὸς ὀϊζυροῖσι βροτοῖσι, of a mortal wound, Il.13.569.
    2 warlike spirit, A.Ag.78, E.Ph. 134;

    κἀν γυναιξὶν.. Ἄ. ἔνεστιν S.El. 1242


    οὔτ' ὄλβος οὔτ' Ἄ. Id.Ant. 952


    μέγαν ἐκ θυμοῦ κλάζοντας Ἄ. A.Ag.48


    Ἄρη βλέπειν Ar.Pl. 328

    , Timocl.12.7: in Prose,

    ἔμφυτος Ἄ. Gorg.Fr.6

    3 the sword,

    ὀξὺς Ἄ. Il.7.330

    , cf. AP7.531 (Antip. Thess.), Plu.2.23c.
    III epith. of Zeus, as the avenger of perjury, in oaths, IG5(2).343c (Arc.); of Ἐνυάλιος, ibid., Poll.8.106. (Akin to ἀρή, q. v.) [[pron. full] in Hom., but α of voc. may be long, e.g.

    Ἆρες, Ἄρες βροτολοιγέ Il.5.31

    , and gen.

    Ἄ ¯ ρηος 2.767

    , Call.Jov.77 (s.v.l.),

    Ἄ ¯ ρεος A.R.3.1187

    , dat.

    Ἄ ¯ ρηϊ Id.2.991

    : in Trag., regularly , but A. uses [pron. full] even in dialogue, as Th. 244, 469; and S. in lyr., Aj. 252, 614, Ant. 139.]

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > Ἄρης

  • 9 ἐνστατικός

    A setting oneself in the way, stubborn, savage, of beasts, Arist.HA 488b13.
    II opposing, checking, Plu.2.975a; ἐ. ταύτης τῆς ὁδοῦ hindering from this course, M.Ant.5.20. Adv. -κῶς, gloss on διασταδόν, Sch.Opp.H.1.502.
    III able to find objections, Arist.Top. 164b3, Cael. 294b11; controversial,

    ἐνέργεια Procl.in Prm.p.502S.

    ; addicted to controversy, Id.in Alc.p.23C.; οἱ ἐνστατικοί Grammarians who started difficulties in Homer, opp. λυτικοί or ἐπιλυτικοί, Eust.1166 fin.: -κόν, τό, Hermog.Inv.3.6. Adv. - κῶς ibid.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἐνστατικός

  • 10 ἐπακολουθέω

    A follow close upon, follow after, pursue,

    τινί Ar.V. 1328

    , Pl.Ap. 23c, al.; move with,

    τῷ ἄλλῳ σώματι Hp.Fract.16


    ἐ. ἡ χεὶρ τοῦ νεκροῦ X.Cyr.7.3.8

    2 pursue as an enemy, Th.4.128,5.65, X.An.[4.1.1], etc.
    3 attend to, follow mentally, understand,

    τῷ λόγῳ Pl.Phd. 107b


    τοῖς λεγομένοις Id.Lg. 861c


    αὐτοῖς λέγουσι Id.Sph. 243a


    κάλλιστ' ἐπακολουθεῖς Id.Lg. 963a

    , etc.
    4 attend to, follow, i.e. obey or comply with,

    ταῖς τῶν συμμάχων γνώμαις Isoc.6.90


    τοῖς πάθεσι D.26.18

    ; αὐτῶν τῇ προαιρέσει Philipp. ap. D.18.167; ταῖς τῶν ποιητῶν βλασφημίαις ἐ. follow them (as authorities), Isoc.11.38: c. dat.pers., Arist.EN 1096b7.
    5 attend to, i.e. execute, a task,

    τῷ πραττομένῳ Pl.R. 370c

    ; wait upon, of bees,

    τοῖς βασιλεῦσι Arist.GA 760b15

    6 supervise, attend to,

    τῇ ἐγχύσει τοῦ γλεύκους PPetr.2p.136

    (iii B.C.), cf. PAmh.2.40.24 (ii B.C.), etc.: abs., POxy.1024.33 (ii A.D.), etc.
    7 concur, PFay.24.19 (ii A.D.).
    8 verify, check, PEleph.10.8 (iii B.C.), PGen.22.1 (i A.D.), etc.
    II accompany, result, accrue,

    τινί Phld.Ir.p.59

    W., al.: βλάβος, ζημία ἐ., PRyl.126.19 (i A.D.), BGU3.14 (iii A.D.).
    2 τὰ ἐπακολουθοῦντα σημεῖα confirmatory, authenticating signs (cf. 1.7), Ev.Marc.16.20.
    3 of the offspring of cattle,

    πρόβατα σὺν τοῖς -οῦσι ἄρνασι POxy.245.11

    (i A.D.), cf. 244.9 (i A.D.).

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ἐπακολουθέω

  • 11 ὀργίζω

    ὀργ-ίζω, X.Eq.9.2: [tense] aor.

    ὤργισα Ar.

    and Pl. (v. infr.): ( ὀργή II):— make angry, provoke to anger, irritate, τινα Ar.V. 223, 404, Pl.Phdr. 267c ; opp. εὔνουν ποιῆσαι, Arist.Rh. 1415a35.
    II more freq. in [voice] Pass., Pl.Phdr. 267d, etc.: [tense] fut. [voice] Med. (in pass. sense)

    ὀργιοῦμαι X.An.6.1.30

    , Lys.15.9, Isoc.18.4, etc. ; but

    ὀργισθήσομαι Lys.21.20

    , D.59.111 : [tense] aor.

    ὠργίσθην Lys.22.2

    , Pl.Prt. 346b, etc.: [tense] pf.

    ὤργισμαι E.Hipp. 1413

    , Ar.V. 431, etc.: grow angry, be wroth, S.OT 364, etc.: c. part., τίς γὰρ.. οὐκ ἂν ὀργίζοιτ'.. κλύων; ib. 339, etc. ; τινι with a person or thing, E.Hel. 1646, Th.4.128, Pl.Ap. 23c, al. ;

    ὑπέρ τινος Th.1.143

    , Isoc.9.60 ;

    ἐπί τινι And.1.30

    , Lys.28.2, etc. ;

    ἐπί τινος D.21.183


    διά τι X.An.1.2.26

    : abs., in part.,

    ἄνθρωπος -όμενος

    in a passion,

    Antipho 5.72

    ; τὸ -όμενον τῆς γνώμης their angry feelings, Th.2.59. Cf.ὀργαίνω.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ὀργίζω

  • 12 ὑπακούω

    ὑπᾰκού-ω, [tense] fut.

    - ακούσομαι LXX Ge.41.40

    (v. sub fin.); later

    - ακούσω Mim.Oxy.413.222

    I hearken, give ear,

    θεοὶ δ' ὑπὸ πάντες ἄκουον Il.8.4


    ὁ δ' ἄρ' ἐμμαπέως ὑπάκουσε Od.14.485

    , cf. h.Ven. 180: c. gen.,

    ὄττις.. πλάσιον ἆδυ φωνείσας ὐπακούει Sapph.2.4


    ὑμῶν Ar.V. 318


    τῆς κρίσεως Aeschin.3.56

    2 answer (by voice or act) when called, ἢ ἐξελθέμεναι

    ἢ ἔνδοθεν αἶψ' ὑπακοῦσαι Od.4.283

    , cf. 10.83, E.Alc. 400 (lyr.), Ar.V. 273 (lyr.), Theoc.13.59: in Prose,

    ὁ κῆρυξ ἐκήρυττε τίς τὴν ἱκετηρίαν καταθείη, καὶ οὐδεὶς ὑπήκουεν And.1.112


    τῷ παιδίῳ Ar.Lys. 878

    , cf. Nu. 360 (anap.), X.Ages.3.4, Aeschin.1.49, D.19.266.
    b in a dialogue, answer when questioned, σοι Pl.Sph. 217d;

    τοῖς λόγοις Id.Lg. 898c

    3 listen to, heed, regard, c. gen. rei, Id.Tht. 162d, X. Cyr.8.1.20;

    ὑ. νόμων Pl.Lg. 708d

    ; ὑ. διαίτῃ submit to a regimen, Id.R. 459c;

    λόγῳ Arist.Pol. 1333a18

    ; ὑ. τῷ ξυμφόρῳ τινός comply with his interest, Th.5.98; δείπνῳ ὑ. accept an invitation to dinner, Ath. 6.247d: abs., give way, submit, comply, Hdt.3.148, 4.119, Pl.Prt. 325a, PCair.Zen.367.15 (iii B.C.): with a neut. Pron., μάλα γε τοῦτο ὑπήκουσεν in this matter he obeyed, X.Cyr.2.2.3;

    οὐδὲν τούτων ὑπήκουον Th.1.29

    , cf. 139, 140, etc.; ὑ. τινός τι or τινί τι, obey one in a thing, ib.26, Pl.Lg. 774b.
    II Special senses:
    1 of porters, answer a knock at the door,

    ὑ. τινί Id.Cri. 43a

    : abs., Id.Phd. 59e, Act.Ap.12.13;

    < παρὰ> τὴν θύραν Thphr.Char.4.9

    , 28.3; ὁ ὑπακούσας the porter, X.Smp.1.11, cf. D.47.35.
    2 of a judge, listen to a complainant, τινι X.Cyr.8.1.18; also of the parties in legal proceedings, appear before the court, Is.4.28, D.19.257,290;

    ὑ. εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον Hyp.Eux.2

    , cf. PSI10.1100.10 (ii A.D.), Sammelb.7369.10 (ii/iii A.D.).
    3 of dependants, subjects, etc., obey, submit to,

    Δαρείου οὐδαμὰ ὑ. Hdt. 3.101


    Ἀθηναίων Th.4.56

    , cf. 6.82;

    τοῖς πέλας Id.2.61

    b Astrol., to aspect from South to North, of the southernmost of two zodiacal signs equidistant from an equinoctial point, opp. προστάσσειν, Ptol. Tetr.35; = ἀκούω v, Paul.Al.E.2.
    6 of ailments, yield, give way to a remedy, τινι Hp.Epid.3.8, Gal.6.354: abs., Hp.Prorrh. 2.39, Sor.1.122, Gal.6.439: metaph.,

    τὸ μυθῶδες ὑ. λόγῳ Plu.Thes. 1


    τοῖς ἰσχυρῶς φερομένοις ὑ. ὁ ἀήρ Archyt.1

    ; πληγαῖς ὑ., of metal, Plu.2.802b;

    ὑποχόνδριον ὑπακοῦον

    yielding to pressure,



    μὴ εὐθέως ὑπακούοντος εἰς ἐξολκὴν τοῦ ἐμβρύου Sor.2.62

    , cf. 86.
    7 concede a point in dispute, Arist.Top. 161b15.
    8 correspond, πᾶσα παραγωγὴ ἐπιρρηματικὴ.. μιᾷ ὑπακούει πτώσει κατὰ τὴν διάλυσιν every adverbial derivative corresponds to a case, e.g. οἴκοθι to ἐν οἴκῳ, A.D.Adv.206.21; conform to a theory, Id.Synt.236.14.
    III κοινὸν ὑ. understand under the term κοινόν .., Pl.Phlb. 31c, cf. Plu.2.23c:—[voice] Pass., κοινῶς ὑ. to be understood in a general sense, Phld.Po. 5.35.
    2 in Gramm., understand a word omitted, A.D.Synt.22.21 ([voice] Pass.): τὸ -όμενον what one has in mind, the subject, Id.Pron. 68.15, al.
    3 understand, c. acc. et inf., Phld.Mus.p.72 K., Po. 5.9.
    IV [tense] fut. ὑπακούσεται in Th.6.69, if correct, must be [voice] Pass., if their service shall be lighter; but Sch. gives ὑπακούσονται, whence ξυγκαταστρεψάμενοι (for - οις) is conjectured.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ὑπακούω

  • 13 ὑπέρ

    ὑπέρ [], [dialect] Ep. also [full] ὑπείρ, used by Hom. (metri gr.) only in the phrase ὑπεὶρ ἅλα (v. ὑπείρ); Arc. [full] ὁπέρ (q. v.): in [dialect] Aeol. replaced by περί (v.

    περί A.

    V): Prep. governing gen. and acc., in Arc. also dat. (Cf. Skt. upaári 'above', Goth. ufar, OE. ofer 'over':—from it are formed the [comp] Comp. and [comp] Sup. ὑπέρτερος, -τατος, also Adv. ὕπερθεν, and Nouns ὑπέρα, ὕπερος.)
    I of Place, over;
    1 in a state of rest, over, above, freq. in Hom.,

    βάλε.. στέρνον ὑ. μαζοῖο Il.4.528

    ; χιτωνίσκους ἐνεδεδύκεσαν ὑ. γονάτων not reaching to the knees, X.An.5.4.13;

    ἕστηκε.. ὅσον τ' ὄργυι' ὑ. αἴης Il.23.327


    εἴθ' ὑ. γῆς, εἴτ' ἐπὶ γῆς, εἴθ' ὑπὸ γῆς Thphr.Ign.1

    ; στῆ δ' ἄρ' ὑ. κεφαλῆς stood over his head as he lay asleep, Il.2.20, Od.4.803, al.;

    πασάων ὕ. ἥ γε κάρη ἔχει 6.107


    ὑ. πόλιος, ὅθι Ἕρμαιος λόφος ἐστίν, ἦα 16.471

    ; ὑ. κεφαλῆς οἱ ἐγίνετο διεξελαύνοντι over head, i. e. over the gateway, Hdt.1.187;

    ὑ. τῆς ὀροφῆς IG12.373.246

    ; ὑ. τοῦ ἀγάλματος ib.264;

    ὄρος τὸ ὑ. Τεγέης Hdt.6.105

    ; τὰ ὑ. κεφαλῆς the higher ground, X.Ages.2.20; Ἰονίας ὑ. ἁλὸς οἰκέων on the Ionian sea, i.e. on its shores, Pi.N.7.65;

    λιμὴν καὶ πόλις ὑ. αὐτοῦ κεῖται Th.1.46

    , cf. 6.4, D.C.40.14: of relative geographical position, above, farther inland,

    οἰκέοντες ὑ. Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ μεσόγαιαν Hdt.1.175


    ἐξ Αἰθιοπίας τῆς ὑ. Αἰγύπτου Th.2.48


    τοῖς ὑ. Χερρονήσου Θρᾳξίν X.An.2.6.2


    ὑ. Μασσαλίας Plb.2.14.8

    , cf. 5.73.3, al.: in Hellenistic Gr. the acc. is commoner in this sense, v. infr. B. I.
    b of ships at sea, off a place, Th.1.112, 8.95;

    ναυμαχίην τὴν ὑ. Μιλήτου γενομένην Hdt.6.25

    ; ὑ. τούτου (sc. Φαλήρου) ἀνακωχεύσαντες τὰς νέας ib. 116.
    2 in a state of motion, over, across,

    κῦμα νηὸς ὑ. τοίχων καταβήσεται Il.15.382


    τὸν δ' ὑ. οὐδοῦ βάντα προσηύδα Od.17.575


    πηδῶντος.. τάφρων ὕ. S.Aj. 1279


    ὑ. θαλάσσης καὶ χθονὸς ποτωμένοις A.Ag. 576

    ; ἐκκυβιστᾶν ὑ. [ τῶν ξιφῶν] X.Smp.2.11.
    3 over, beyond,

    ἐν Κρήτῃ εὐρείῃ τηλοῦ ὑ. πόντου Od.13.257

    II metaph., in defence of, on behalf of,

    τεῖχος ἐτειχίσσαντο νεῶν ὕ. Il.7.449


    ἑκατόμβην ῥέξαι ὑ. Δαναῶν 1.444

    : generally, for the prosperity or safety of,

    τὰ ἱερὰ ὑ. τῆς Εὐβοίας θῦσαι IG12.39.65

    , cf. 45.5;

    ἱερὰ θυόμενα ὑ. τῆς πόλεως X.Mem.2.2.13


    ἐπιτελεῖν τὰς θυσίας ὑ. τε ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν τέκνων UPZ14.27

    (ii B.C.); in dedications (always with reference to living persons),

    Σμικύθη μ' ἀνέθηκεν.. εὐξαμένη.. ὑ. παίδων καὶ ἑαυτῆς IG12.524

    , cf. 22.4403, 42(1).569 (Epid.);

    Ἀρτέμιδι Σωτείρᾳ ὑ. βασιλέως Πτολεμαίου Ἐπικράτης Ἀθηναῖος OGI18

    (Egypt, iii B. C.), cf. 365 (Amasia, ii B. C.), al.; ὑ. τῆς εἰς αἰῶνα διαμονῆς Ἀντωνείνου Καίσαρος ib.702.3 (Egypt, ii A.D.); ὑ. τῆς τύχης.. Ἀντωνείνου Σεβαστοῦ Εὐσεβοῦς ib.703.2 (Ptolemais, ii A.D.); ὑ. σωτηρίας τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.. Ἀντωνείνου ib.706 (Egypt, ii/iii A. D.);

    εὑδόντων ὕ. φρούρημα A.Eu. 705

    ; ὑ. τινὸς κινδυνεύειν, μάχεσθαι, βοηθεῖν, Th.2.20, Pl.Lg. 642c, X.An.3.5.6;

    ἧς ἔθνῃσχ' ὕ. S.Tr. 708


    ὑ. γῆς τῆς Ἀθηναίων ναυμαχέειν Hdt.8.70


    ὑ. τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀμῦναι Pl.Lg. 692d

    ; ἀμυνῶ ὑ. ἱερῶν καὶ ὁσίων Jusj. ap. Poll.8.105;

    νῦν ὑ. πάντων ἀγών A.Pers. 405


    ὑ. δόξης τελευτήσαντες D.23.210

    , cf. Isoc.6.93; πάνθ' ὑ. ὑμῶν φανήσεται πράξας Χαβρίας, καὶ τὴν τελευτὴν αὐτὴν τοῦ βίου πεποιημένος οὐχ ὑ. ἄλλου τινός in your interests, D.20.80, cf. 83;

    ὑ. τῆς Ἀσίας στρατηγήσας Isoc.4.154

    ; of things sought,

    ὑ. τοῦ νεκροῦ ὠθισμὸς ἐγένετο πολύς Hdt.7.225

    ; ἀφίκετο ὑ. γενεᾶς, ὑ. φωνᾶς, ὑ. τοῦ θησαυροῦ, IG42 (1).121.10,42, 123.11 (Epid., iv B.C.);

    γίνωσκέ με πεπορεῦσθαι εἰς Ἡρακλέους πόλιν ὑ. τῆς οἰκίας UPZ68.3

    (ii B. C.); sts. even of the thing to be averted, ἱκέσιον λόχον δουλοσύνας ὕ. about slavery, A.Th. 111 (lyr.), cf. Aeschin.3.10.
    2 for, instead of, in the name of, ὑ. ἑαυτοῦ τι προϊδεῖν on his own behalf, Th.1.141;

    ὑ. τινὸς ἀποκρίνεσθαι Pl.R. 590a


    προλέγειν X.An.7.7.3


    ἐπεὶ οὖν σὺ σιωπᾷς, ἐγὼ λέξω καὶ ὑ. σοῦ καὶ ὑ. ἡμῶν Id.Cyr.3.3.14

    , cf. S.El. 554; ὑ. Ζήνωνος πράσσων as Zeno's representative, PSI4.389.8 (iii B. C.);

    ἔγραψεν ὑ. αὐτῶν διὰ τὸ φάσκειν αὐτοὺς μὴ εἰδέναι γράμματα PGrenf.2.17.9

    (ii B. C.); θεάσασθε ὃν τρόπον ὑμεῖς ἐστρατηγηκότες πάντ' ἔσεσθ' ὑ. Φιλίππου as though by commission from P., D.3.6; so in other dialects c. acc., v. infr. B. v.
    3 in adjurations, with verbs of entreaty, entreat one as representative of another, τῶν ὕ. ἐνθάδ' ἐγὼ γουνάζομαι οὐ παρεόντων, i. e. I entreat you as they would if they were here, Il.15.665, cf. 660; then more metaph., by, λίσσομ' ὑ. ψυχῆς ( as you value your life)

    καὶ γούνων σῶν τε τοκήων 22.338

    , cf. 24.466;

    λίσσομ' ὑ. θυέων καὶ δαίμονος.. σῆς τ' αὐτοῦ κεφαλῆς καὶ ἑταίρων Od.15.261


    λίσσου' ὑ. μακάρων σέο τ' αὐτῆς ἠδὲ τοκήων A.R.3.701

    ; ὑ. ξενίου λίσσεται ὔμμε Διός in the name of Zeus, AP7.499.2 (Theaet.); so [dialect] Aeol. περ (v.

    περί A.

    4 of the cause or motive, for, because of, by reason of,

    ἀλγέων ὕ. E.Supp. 1125


    ὑ. παθέων Id.Hipp. 159


    ἔριδος ὕ. Id.Andr. 490

    (lyr.); of punishment or reward, for, on account of,

    τοῖσιν ἄγουσιν κλαύμαθ' ὑπάρξει βραδυτῆτος ὕ. S.Ant. 932

    (anap.), cf. Isoc.11.39, Lys.3.43, 4.20, 13.41,42, X.An.1.3.4; ἀτῆθθαι ὑ. τῶ πατρὸς τὰ πατρώϊα the father's property shall pay the fine for the father, Leg.Gort.11.42;

    ἀποτεισάτω ὁ δεσπότης ὑ. τοῦ δούλου PHal. 1.198

    (iii B. C.); τοῦτον (viz. a runaway slave)

    ὃς ἂν ἀναγάγῃ, λήψεται ὅσα καὶ ὑ. τοῦ προγεγραμμένου UPZ121.24

    (ii B. C.);

    τὸ κατεσκευασμένον ὑ. τῆς ἡμετέρας σωτηρίας Ἰσιδεῖον

    as a thank-offering for..,


    (i B. C.);

    ὑ. ὧν ἐτιμήσαμεν αὐτοὺς ταῖς μεγίσταις τιμαῖς Isoc.9.57


    ἀποδοῦναι χάριν ὑ. ὧν.. ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους εὐεργέτησεν Id.4.56

    ; of payment,

    ἡμιωβέλιον ὑ. ἑκάστου IG12.140.2

    ; μέτρησον Ποσειδωνίῳ ὑ. Ἡρακλείδου on account of H., i.e. debiting H.'s account, PFay.16 (i B. C.); μετρήσω ὑ. σοῦ εἰς τὸ δημόσιον for the credit of your account, PAmh.2.88.22 (ii A. D.);

    ὑ. λαογραφίας Ostr.Bodl. iii 80

    (i A. D.);

    ὑ. λόγου ἀννώνης Ostr. 1479

    (iii A. D.);

    ὑ. ὧν ἔμαθεν καταβαλεῖν μισθόν Jul.Or.3.126a

    , cf. Ael.NA3.39.
    5 ὑ. τοῦ μή c. inf., for the purpose of preventing or avoiding,

    ὑ. τοῦ μηδένα.. βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν X.Hier.4.3


    ὑ. τοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν τὸ προσταττόμενον Isoc.7.64

    , cf. 12.80;

    τὴν πόλιν ἐκλιπεῖν ὑπέμειναν.. ὑ. τοῦ μὴ τὸ κελευόμενον ποιῆσαι D.18.204

    : also without μή, for the sake of, ὑ. τοῦτοῖς ἄλλοις ἐπιτάττειν ἐθέλειν ἀποθνῄσκειν to be ready to die for the sake of.., Isoc.6.94;

    μὴ τοσαύτην ποιεῖσθαι σπουδὴν ὑ. τοῦ βλάψαι τοὺς πολεμίους ἡλίκην ὑ. τοῦ μηδὲν αὐτοὺς παθεῖν δεινόν Plb.3.94.9

    , cf. 5.32.1, 5.86.8: this constr. is found also in signf. A. 111.
    III concerning,

    ὑ. σέθεν αῐσχε' ἀκούω Il.6.524


    κᾶρυξ ἀνέειπέ νιν ἀγγέλλων Ἱέρωνος ὑ. καλλινίκου ἅρμασι Pi.P.1.32


    Σκύθαι μὲν ὧδε ὑ. σφέων τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς χώρης τῆς κατύπερθε λέγουσι Hdt.4.8

    ; τὰ λεγόμενα ὑ. ἑκάστων v.l. in Id.2.123;

    τοὺς ὑ. τοῦ αἰῶνος φόβους Epicur.Sent.20

    ; διαλεχθῆναι, ἀγορεύειν ὑ. τινός, Pl.Ap. 39e, Lg. 776e; περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθω, ὑ. ὧν δέ μοι προσήκει λέγειν .. Lys.24.4, cf. 21, 16.20;

    ὑ. οὗ.. ὁμολογῶ.. διαφέρεσθαι τούτοις D.18.31

    ; βουλευομένων ὑ. τοῦ ποίαν τινὰ [ εἰρήνην ποιητέον] Id.19.94;

    ἔγραψάς μοι ὑ. τῶν καμίνων PCair.Zen. 273.2

    (iii B. C.);

    ἐνεκάλουν ὑ. σύκων PSI6.554.24

    (iii B. C.);

    ἐπεδώκαμέν σοι ὑπόμνημα ὑ. τοῦ μὴ εἰληφέναι τὴν.. ὄλυραν UPZ46.4

    (ii B. C.);

    συλλαλήσαντες ὑ. τοῦ τὴν πόλιν ἐνδοῦναι τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις Plb.1.43.1

    ; θροῦς ὑ. τοῦ τὸν Λυκοῦργον ἐκπέμπειν talk of sending L., Id.5.18.5, cf. 6; γνώμην ὑ. τῆς κοινῆς [ δόξης] Isoc.6.93;

    ὑ. τῶν τούτου λῃτουργιῶν.. ὡδὶ γιγνώσκω D.21.152


    ἐκ τῶν ἐμφανῶν ὑ. τῶν ἀφανῶν πιστεύειν Jul.Or. 4.138b

    ; with vbs. expressing emotion,

    ποίας.. γυναικὸς ἐκφοβεῖσθ' ὕ.; S.OT 989


    εἰ τὰ παρὰ σοὶ καλῶς ἔχει, θάρρει ὑ. ἐκείνων X.Cyr.7.1.17


    οὐδεὶς ὑ. μου δαιμόνων μηνίεται κατασφαγείσης A.Eu. 101

    (approaching sense 11.1).
    I of Place in reference to motion, over, beyond, freq. in Hom., e.g.

    ὑ. ὦμον ἤλυθ' ἀκωκή Il.5.16

    , cf. 851;

    ἀλάλησθε.. ὑπεἰρ ἅλα Od.3.73

    , cf. 7.135, al., A.Eu. 250, S.Ant. 1145 (lyr.);

    ὑ. τὸν δρύφακτον ὑπερτιθέμενοι Plb.1.22.10

    : without such reference,

    ὑ. Ἡρακλείας στήλας ἔξω κατοικοῦσι Pl.Criti. 108e

    , cf. Jul.Or.1.6d;

    τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑ. τὸ ὑγρὸν ὑπερίσχον Plb.3.84.9


    τῶν ὑ. τὸ Σαρδῷον πέλαγος τόπων Id.2.14.6


    ὑ. Μασσαλίαν Id.2.16.1


    λόφον κείμενον ὑ. τὴν ὁδόν Id.2.27.5

    , cf. 3.47.2, al.;

    τῶν συριῶν ὑ. τὴν σκηνὴν οὐσῶν PHib. 1.38.7

    (iii B. C.);

    οὐλὴ.. ὑ. ὀφρὺν δεξιάν PCair.Zen.76.13

    (iii B. C.);

    τὸ ὑ. τὸν ἔσχατον.. σπόνδυλον Sor.1.102


    ὑ. τὸν οὐρανόν Jul.Or. 4.135a

    II of Measure, above, exceeding, beyond,

    ὑ. τὸν ἀλαθῆ λόγον Pi.O.1.28


    ὑ. τὸ βέλτιστον A.Ag. 378


    ὑ. ἐλπίδα S.Ant. 366


    ὑ. δύναμιν Th.6.16


    μεγέθει ὑ. τοὺς ἐν τῇ νηΐ Pl.R. 488b


    ὑ. ἄνθρωπον εἶναι Id.Lg. 839d

    , Luc.Vit.Auct.2; ὑ. ἡμᾶς beyond our powers, Pl.Prm. 128b;

    ὑ. τὴν ἀξίαν E.HF 146


    ὑ. τὴν οὐσίαν Pl. R. 372b

    ; ὑ. τὸ ὕδωρ (cf.

    ὕδωρ 1.4

    ) Luc.Pr.Im.29.
    b after [comp] Comp., than, δυνατώτεροι ὑ. .. LXX Jd.18.26: so after Posit., τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ὑ. αὐτόν better than he, ib.3 Ki.2.32.
    2 of transgression, in violation of, ὑ. αἶσαν, opp. κατ' αἶσαν, Il.3.59, al.;

    ὑ. Διὸς αἶσαν 17.321


    ὑ. μοῖραν 20.336

    ; ὑ. μόρον (or ὑπέρμορον) ib.30;

    ὑ. θεόν 17.327


    ὑ. ὅρκια 3.299

    , al.
    III of Number, above, upwards of, τὰ ὑ. δέκα μνᾶς [ ξυμβόλαια] IG12.41.23, cf. 22.48, al.;

    ὑ. τεσσεράκοντα ἄνδρας Hdt.5.64

    ; ὑ. τετταράκοντα (sc. ἔτη) X.HG5.4.13;

    ὑ. τὰ στρατεύσιμα ἔτη γεγονόσι Id.Cyr.1.2.4

    ; ὑ. ἥμισυ more than half, ib.3.3.47.
    IV of Time, beyond, i.e. before, earlier than,

    ὁ ὑ. τὰ Μηδικὰ πόλεμος Th.1.41


    ὑ. τὴν φθοράν Pl.Ti. 23c

    V in some dialects, in sense A. 11.1,2, on behalf of,

    ὑ. τὰν πόλιν SIG437

    (Delph., iii B. C.), al., cf. IG42(1).109iv113 (Epid., iii B. C.), 5(2).438-40,442 (Megalop., ii B. C.), 42(1).380,665 (Epid., i A. D.), IPE4.71.10 (Cherson., ii A. D.); in sense A. 111, concerning,

    ἐπικράνθη μοι ὑ. ὑμᾶς LXX Ru.1.13

    C WITH DAT., only Arc., μαχόμενοι ὑ. τᾷ τᾶς πόλιος ἐλευθερίᾳ fighting for.., IG5(2).16 (Tegea, iii B. C.).
    D POSITION: ὑπέρ may follow its Subst., but then by anastrophe becomes ὕπερ, Il.5.339, Od.19.450, al., S.OT 1444, etc.
    E AS ADV., over-much, above measure,

    ὑπὲρ μὲν ἄγαν E.Med. 627

    (lyr.); also written ὑπεράγαν, Str.3.2.9, Ael.NA3.38, etc.; cf. ὑπέρφευ: as a predicate, διάκονοι Χριστοῦ εἰσι; ὑπὲρ ἐγώ I am more [ than they], 2 Ep.Cor.11.23.
    F IN COMPOS. ὑπέρ signifies over, above, in all relations, e. g.,
    1 of Place, over, beyond, as in ὑπεράνω, ὑπέργειος, ὑπερβαίνω, ὑπερπόντιος.
    2 of doing a thing for or in defence of, as in ὑπερμαχέω, ὑπερασπίζω, ὑπεραλγέω.
    3 above measure, as in ὑπερήφανος, ὑπερφίαλος.

    Greek-English dictionary (Αγγλικά Ελληνικά-λεξικό) > ὑπέρ

  • 14 νόμος

    νόμος, ου, ὁ (νέμω; [Zenodotus reads ν. in Od. 1, 3] Hes.+; loanw. in rabb.—On the history of the word MPohlenz, Nomos: Philol 97, ’48, 135–42; GShipp, Nomos ‘Law’ ’78; MOstwald, Nomos and the Beginnings of Athenian Democracy ’69). The primary mng. relates to that which is conceived as standard or generally recognized rules of civilized conduct esp. as sanctioned by tradition (Pind., Fgm. 152, 1=169 Schr. νόμος ὁ πάντων βασιλεύς; cp. SEG XVII, 755, 16: Domitian is concerned about oppressive practices hardening into ‘custom’; MGigante, ΝΟΜΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ [Richerche filologiche 1] ’56). The synonym ἔθος (cp. συνήθεια) denotes that which is habitual or customary, especially in reference to personal behavior. In addition to rules that take hold through tradition, the state or other legislating body may enact ordinances that are recognized by all concerned and in turn become legal tradition. A special semantic problem for modern readers encountering the term ν. is the general tendency to confine the usage of the term ‘law’ to codified statutes. Such limitation has led to much fruitless debate in the history of NT interpretation.—HRemus, Sciences Religieuses/Studies in Religion 13, ’84, 5–18; ASegal, Torah and Nomos in Recent Scholarly Discussion, ibid., 19–27.
    a procedure or practice that has taken hold, a custom, rule, principle, norm (Alcman [VII B.C.], Fgm. 93 D2 of the tune that the bird sings; Ocellus [II B.C.] c. 49 Harder [1926] τῆς φύσεως νόμος; Appian, Basil. 1 §2 πολέμου ν., Bell. Civ. 5, 44 §186 ἐκ τοῦδε τοῦ σοῦ νόμου=under this rule of yours that governs action; Polyaenus 5, 5, 3 ν. πόμπης; 7, 11, 6 ν. φιλίας; Sextus 123 τοῦ βίου νόμος; Just., A II, 2, 4 παρὰ τὸν τῆς φύσεως ν.; Ath. 3, 1 νόμῳ φύσεως; 13, 1 θυσιῶν νόμῳ)
    gener. κατὰ νόμον ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης in accordance w. the rule of an external commandment Hb 7:16. εὑρίσκω τὸν νόμον I observe an established procedure or principle or system Ro 7:21 (ν. as ‘principle’, i.e. an unwritten rightness of things Soph., Ant. 908). According to Bauer, Paul uses the expression νόμος (which dominates this context) in cases in which he prob. would have preferred another word. But it is also prob. that Paul purposely engages in wordplay to heighten the predicament of those who do not rely on the gospel of liberation from legal constraint: the Apostle speaks of a principle that obligates one to observe a code of conduct that any sensible pers. would recognize as sound and valid ὁ νόμος τ. νοός μου vs. 23b (s. νοῦς 1a). Engaged in a bitter struggle w. this νόμος there is a ἕτερος νόμος which, in contrast to the νοῦς, dwells ἐν τοῖς μέλεσίν μου in my (physical) members vs. 23a, and hence is a νόμος τῆς ἁμαρτίας vs. 23c and 25b or a νόμος τ. ἁμαρτίας καὶ τ. θανάτου 8:2b. This sense prepares the way for the specific perspective
    of life under the lordship of Jesus Christ as a ‘new law’ or ‘system’ of conduct that constitutes an unwritten tradition ὁ καινὸς ν. τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 2:6; in brief ν. Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ IMg 2 (cp. Just., D. 11, 4; 43, 1; Mel., P. 7, 46). Beginnings of this terminology as early as Paul: ὁ ν. τοῦ Χριστοῦ =the standard set by Christ Gal 6:2 (as vs. 3 intimates, Christ permitted himself to be reduced to nothing, thereby setting the standard for not thinking oneself to be someth.). The gospel is a νόμος πίστεως a law or system requiring faith Ro 3:27b (FGerhard, TZ 10, ’54, 401–17) or ὁ ν. τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χρ. Ἰ. the law of the spirit (=the spirit-code) of life in Chr. J. 8:2a. In the same sense Js speaks of a ν. βασιλικός (s. βασιλικός) 2:8 or ν. ἐλευθερίας vs. 12 (λόγος ἐλ. P74), ν. τέλειος ὁ τῆς ἐλευθερίας 1:25 (association w. 1QS 10:6, 8, 11 made by EStauffer, TLZ 77, ’52, 527–32, is rejected by SNötscher, Biblica 34, ’53, 193f. On the theme of spontaneous moral achievement cp. Pind., Fgm. 152 [169 Schr.] 1f νόμος ὁ πάντων βασιλεὺς | θνατῶν τε καὶ ἀθανάτων | ἄγει δικαιῶν τὸ βιαιότατον| ὑπερτάτᾳ χειρί=custom is lord of all, of mortals and immortals both, and with strong hand directs the utmost power of the just. Plut., Mor. 780c interprets Pindar’s use of νόμος: ‘not written externally in books or on some wooden tablets, but as lively reason functioning within him’ ἔμψυχος ὢν ἐν αὐτῷ λόγῳ; Aristot., EN 4, 8, 10 οἷον ν. ὢν ἑαυτῷ; Diod S 1, 94, 1 ν. ἔγγραπτος; cp. also Ovid, Met. 1, 90 sponte sua sine lege fidem rectumque colebat; Mayor, comm. ‘Notes’ 73.—RHirzel, ΑΓΡΑΦΟΣ ΝΟΜΟΣ 1903.). Some would put ὁ νόμος Js 2:9 here (s. LAllevi, Scuola Cattol. 67, ’39, 529–42), but s. 2b below.—Hermas too, who in part interprets Israel’s legal tradition as referring to Christians, sees the gospel, exhibited in Christ’s life and words, as the ultimate expression of God’s will or ‘law’. He says of Christ δοὺς αὐτοῖς (i.e. the believers) τὸν ν., ὅν ἔλαβε παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ Hs 5, 6, 3, cp. Hs 8, 3, 3. Or he sees in the υἱὸς θεοῦ κηρυχθεὶς εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς γῆς, i.e. the preaching about the Son of God to the ends of the earth, the νόμος θεοῦ ὁ δοθεὶς εἰς ὅλον. τ. κόσμον 8, 3, 2. Similarly to be understood are τηρεῖν τὸν ν. 8, 3, 4. ὑπὲρ τοῦ ν. παθεῖν 8, 3, 6. ὑπὲρ τοῦ ν. θλίβεσθαι 8, 3, 7. ἀρνησάμενοι τὸν νόμον ibid. βλασφημεῖν τὸν ν. 8, 6, 2.
    constitutional or statutory legal system, law
    gener.: by what kind of law? Ro 3:27. ν. τῆς πόλεως the law of the city enforced by the ruler of the city (ν. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι γραπτός Orig., C. Cels. 5, 37, 2); the penalty for breaking it is banishment Hs 1:5f. τοῖς ν. χρῆσθαι observe the laws 1:3; πείθεσθαι τοῖς ὡρισμένοις ν. obey the established laws Dg 5:10; νικᾶν τοὺς ν. ibid. (νικάω 3). Ro 7:1f, as well as the gnomic saying Ro 4:15b and 5:13b, have been thought by some (e.g. BWeiss, Jülicher) to refer to Roman law, but more likely the Mosaic law is meant (s. 3 below).
    specifically: of the law that Moses received from God and is the standard according to which membership in the people of Israel is determined (Diod S 1, 94, 1; 2: the lawgiver Mneves receives the law from Hermes, Minos from Zeus, Lycurgus from Apollo, Zarathustra from the ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, Zalmoxis from Hestia; παρὰ δὲ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, Μωϋσῆς receives the law from the Ἰαὼ ἐπικαλούμενος θεός) ὁ ν. Μωϋσέως Lk 2:22; J 7:23; Ac 15:5. ν. Μωϋσέως Ac 13:38; Hb 10:28. Also ὁ ν. κυρίου Lk 2:23f, 39; GJs 14:1. ὁ ν. τοῦ θεοῦ (Theoph. Ant. 2, 14 [p. 136, 4]) Mt 15:6 v.l.; Ro 8:7 (cp. Tat. 7, 2; 32, 1; Ath. 3:2). ὁ ν. ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτῶν etc. J 18:31; 19:7b v.l.; Ac 25:8. κατὰ τὸν ἡμέτερον ν. 24:6 v.l. (cp. Jos., Ant. 7, 131). ὁ πατρῷος ν. 22:3. τὸν ν. τῶν ἐντολῶν Eph 2:15. Since the context of Ac 23:29 ἐγκαλούμενον περὶ ζητημάτων τοῦ νόμου αὐτῶν points to the intimate connection between belief, cult, and communal solidarity in Judean tradition, the term νόμος is best rendered with an hendiadys: (charged in matters) relating to their belief and custom; cp. ν. ὁ καθʼ ὑμᾶς 18:15. Ro 9:31 (CRhyne, Νόμος Δικαιοσύνης and the meaning of Ro 10:4: CBQ 47, ’85, 486–99).—Abs., without further qualification ὁ ν. Mt 22:36; 23:23; Lk 2:27; J 1:17; Ac 6:13; 7:53; 21:20, 28; Ro 2:15 (τὸ ἔργον τοῦ νόμου the work of the law [=the moral product that the Mosaic code requires] is written in the heart; difft. Diod S 1, 94, 1 ν. ἔγγραπτος, s. 1b, above), 18, 20, 23b, 26; 4:15a, 16; 7:1b, 4–7, 12, 14, 16; 8:3f; 1 Cor 15:56; Gal 3:12f, 17, 19, 21a, 24; 5:3, 14; 1 Ti 1:8 (GRudberg, ConNeot 7, ’42, 15); Hb 7:19 (s. Windisch, Hdb. exc. ad loc.), 28a; 10:1; cp. Js 2:9 (s. 1b above); μετὰ τὸν ν. Hb 7:28b; οἱ ἐν τῷ ν. Ro 3:19; κατὰ τὸν ν. according to the (Mosaic) law (Jos., Ant. 14, 173; 15, 51 al.; Just., D. 10, 1) J 19:7b; Ac 22:12; 23:3; Hb 7:5; 9:22. παρὰ τ. νόμον contrary to the law (Jos., Ant. 17, 151, C. Ap. 2, 219; Ath. 1, 3 παρὰ πάντα ν.) Ac 18:13.—νόμος without the art. in the same sense (on the attempt, beginning w. Origen, In Ep. ad Ro 3:7 ed. Lomm. VI 201, to establish a difference in mng. betw. Paul’s use of ὁ νόμος and νόμος s. B-D-F §258, 2; Rob. 796; Mlt-Turner 177; Grafe [s. 3b below] 7–11) Ro 2:13ab, 17, 23a, * 25a; 3:31ab; 5:13, 20; 7:1a (s. above); Gal 2:19b; 5:23 (JRobb, ET 56, ’45, 279f compares κατὰ δὲ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστι νόμος Aristot., Pol. 1284a). δικαίῳ νόμος οὐ κεῖται, ἀνόμοις δὲ … 1 Ti 1:9. Cp. ἑαυτοῖς εἰσιν νόμος Ro 2:14 (in Pla., Pol. and in Stoic thought the wise person needed no commandment [Stoic. III 519], the bad one did; MPohlenz, Stoa ’48/49 I 133; II 75). Used w. prepositions: ἐκ ν. Ro 4:14; Gal 3:18, 21c (v.l. ἐν ν.); Phil 3:9 (ἐκ νόμου can also mean corresponding to or in conformity with the law: PRev 15, 11 ἐκ τῶν νόμων); cp. ἐκ τοῦ νόμου Ro 10:5. διὰ νόμου Ro 2:12b; 3:20b; 4:13; 7:7b; Gal 2:19a, 21; ἐν ν. (ἐν τῷ ν. Iren. 3, 11, 8 [Harv. II 49, 9]) Ro 2:12a, 23; Gal 3:11, 21c v.l.; 5:4; Phil 3:6. κατὰ νόμον 3:5; Hb 8:4; 10:8 (make an offering κατὰ νόμον as Arrian, Anab. 2, 26, 4; 5, 8, 2); χωρὶς ν. Ro 3:21a; 7:8f; ἄχρι ν. 5:13a. ὑπὸ νόμον 6:14f; 1 Cor 9:20; Gal 3:23; 4:4f, 21a; 5:18 (cp. Just., D. 45, 3 οἱ ὑπὸ τὸν ν.).—Dependent on an anarthrous noun παραβάτης νόμου a law-breaker Ro 2:25b ( 27b w. art.); Js 2:11. ποιητὴς ν. one who keeps the law 4:11d (w. art. Ro 2:13b). τέλος ν. the end of the law Ro 10:4 (RBultmann and HSchlier, Christus des Ges. Ende ’40). πλήρωμα ν. fulfilment of the law 13:10. ν. μετάθεσις a change in the law Hb 7:12. ἔργα ν. Ro 3:20a, 28; 9:32 v.l.; Gal 2:16; 3:2, 5, 10a.—(ὁ) ν. (τοῦ) θεοῦ Ro 7:22, 25a; 8:7 because it was given by God and accords w. his will. Lasting Mt 5:18; Lk 16:17 (cp. Bar 4:1; PsSol 10:4; Philo, Mos. 2, 14; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 277).—Used w. verbs, w. or without the art.: ν. ἔχειν J 19:7a; Ro 2:14 (ApcSed 14:5). πληροῦν ν. fulfill the law Ro 13:8; pass. Gal 5:14 (Mel., P. 42, 291). πληροῦν τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ ν. fulfill the requirement of the law Ro 8:4. φυλάσσειν τὸν ν. observe the law Ac 21:24; Gal 6:13. τὰ δικαιώματα τοῦ ν. φυλάσσειν observe the precepts of the law Ro 2:26; διώκειν ν. δικαιοσύνης 9:31a; πράσσειν ν. 2:25a. ποιεῖν τὸν ν. J 7:19b; Gal 5:3; Ro 2:14b, s. below; τὸν ν. τηρεῖν Js 2:10. τὸν ν. τελεῖν Ro 2:27. φθάνειν εἰς ν. 9:31b. κατὰ ν. Ἰουδαϊσμὸν ζῆν IMg 8:1 v.l. is prob. a textual error (Pearson, Lghtf., Funk, Bihlmeyer, Hilgenfeld; Zahn, Ign. v. Ant. 1873 p. 354, 1 [difft. in Zahn’s edition] all omit νόμον as a gloss and are supported by the Latin versions; s. Hdb. ad loc.). τὰ τοῦ ν. ποιεῖν carry out the requirements of the law Ro 2:14b (ApcSed 14:5; FFlückiger, TZ 8, ’52, 17–42). καταλαλεῖν νόμου, κρίνειν ν. Js 4:11abc. ἐδόθη ν. Gal 3:21a.—Pl. διδοὺς νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν Hb 8:10; cp. 10:16 (both Jer 38:33).—Of an individual stipulation of the law ὁ νόμος τοῦ ἀνδρός the law insofar as it concerns the husband (Aristot., Fgm. 184 R. νόμοι ἀνδρὸς καὶ γαμετῆς.—SIG 1198, 14 κατὰ τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐρανιστῶν; Num 9:12 ὁ ν. τοῦ πάσχα; Philo, Sobr. 49 ὁ ν. τῆς λέπρας) Ro 7:2b; cp. 7:3 and δέδεται νόμῳ vs. 2a (on the imagery Straub 94f); 1 Cor 7:39 v.l.—The law is personified, as it were (Demosth. 43, 59; Aeschin. 1, 18; Herm. Wr. 12, 4 [the law of punishment]; IMagnMai 92a, 11 ὁ ν. συντάσσει; b, 16 ὁ ν. ἀγορεύει; Jos., Ant. 3, 274) J 7:51; Ro 3:19.
    a collection of holy writings precious to God’s people, sacred ordinance
    in the strict sense the law=the Pentateuch, the work of Moses the lawgiver (Diod S 40, 3, 6 προσγέγραπται τοῖς νόμοις ἐπὶ τελευτῆς ὅτι Μωσῆς ἀκούσας τοῦ θεοῦ τάδε λέγει τ. Ἰουδαίοις=at the end of the laws this is appended: this is what Moses heard from God and is telling to the Jews. ὁ διὰ τοῦ ν. μεταξὺ καθαρῶν καὶ ἀκαθάρτων διαστείλας θεός Iren. 3, 12, 7 [Harv. II 60, 3]; cp. Hippol., Ref. 7, 34, 1) τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ νόμου Gal 3:10b (cp. Dt 27:26). Also simply ὁ νόμος (Jos., Bell. 7, 162 ὁ ν. or 2, 229 ὁ ἱερὸς ν. of the holy book in a concrete sense) Mt 12:5 (Num 28:9f is meant); J 8:5; 1 Cor 9:8 (cp. Dt 25:4); 14:34 (cp. Gen 3:16); Gal 4:21b (the story of Abraham); Hb 9:19. ὁ ν. ὁ ὑμέτερος J 8:17 (cp. Jos., Bell. 5, 402; Tat. 40, 1 κατὰ τοὺς ἡμετέρους ν.). ἐν Μωϋσέως νόμῳ γέγραπται 1 Cor 9:9. καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν νόμῳ κυρίου Lk 2:23 (γέγραπται ἐν νόμῳ as Athen. 6, 27, 23c; IMagnMai 52, 35 [III B.C.]; Mel., P. 11, 71; cp. Just., D. 8, 4 τὰ ἐν τῷ ν. γεγραμμένα); cp. vs. 24. ἔγραψεν Μωϋσῆς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ J 1:45 (cp. Cercidas [III B.C.], Fgm. 1, 18f Diehl2 [=Coll. Alex. p. 204, 29=Knox p. 196] καὶ τοῦθʼ Ὅμηρος εἶπεν ἐν Ἰλιάδι).—The Sacred Scriptures (OT) referred to as a whole in the phrase ὁ ν. καὶ οἱ προφῆται (Orig., C. Cels. 2, 6, 4; cp. Hippol., Ref. 8, 19, 1) the law (הַתּוֹרָה) and the prophets (הַנְּבִיאִים) Mt 5:17; 7:12; 11:13; 22:40; Lk 16:16; Ac 13:15; 24:14; 28:23; Ro 3:21b; cp. Dg 11:6; J 1:45. τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ ν. Μωϋσέως καὶ τοῖς προφήταις καὶ ψαλμοῖς Lk 24:44.
    In a wider sense=Holy Scripture gener., on the principle that the most authoritative part gives its name to the whole (ὁ ν. ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ Theoph. Ant. 1, 11 [p. 82, 15]): J 10:34 (Ps 81:6); 12:34 (Ps 109:4; Is 9:6; Da 7:14); 15:25 (Ps 34:19; 68:5); 1 Cor 14:21 (Is 28:11f); Ro 3:19 (preceded by a cluster of quotations fr. Psalms and prophets).—Mt 5:18; Lk 10:26; 16:17; J 7:49.—JHänel, Der Schriftbegriff Jesu 1919; OMichel, Pls u. s. Bibel 1929; SWesterholm, Studies in Religion 15, ’86, 327–36.—JMeinhold, Jesus u. das AT 1896; MKähler, Jesus u. das AT2 1896; AKlöpper, Z. Stellung Jesu gegenüber d. Mos. Gesetz, Mt 5:17–48: ZWT 39, 1896, 1–23; EKlostermann, Jesu Stellung z. AT 1904; AvHarnack, Hat Jesus das atl. Gesetz abgeschafft?: Aus Wissenschaft u. Leben II 1911, 225–36, SBBerlAk 1912, 184–207; KBenz, D. Stellung Jesu zum atl. Gesetz 1914; MGoguel, RHPR 7, 1927, 160ff; BBacon, Jesus and the Law: JBL 47, 1928, 203–31; BBranscomb, Jes. and the Law of Moses 1930; WKümmel, Jes. u. d. jüd. Traditionsged.: ZNW 33, ’34, 105–30; JHempel, D. synopt. Jesus u. d. AT: ZAW 56, ’38, 1–34.—Lk-Ac: JJervell, HTR 64, ’71, 21–36.—EGrafe, D. paulin. Lehre vom Gesetz2 1893; HCremer, D. paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre 1896, 84ff; 363ff; FSieffert, D. Entwicklungslinie d. paul. Gesetzeslehre: BWeiss Festschr. 1897, 332–57; WSlaten, The Qualitative Use of νόμος in the Pauline Ep.: AJT 23, 1919, 213ff; HMosbech, Pls’ Laere om Loven: TT 4/3, 1922, 108–37; 177–221; EBurton, ICC, Gal 1921, 443–60; PFeine, Theol. des NT6 ’34, 208–15 (lit.); PBenoit, La Loi et la Croix d’après S. Paul (Ro 7:7–8:4): RB 47, ’38, 481–509; CMaurer, D. Gesetzeslehre des Pls ’41; PBläser, D. Gesetz b. Pls ’41; BReicke, JBL 70, ’51, 259–76; GBornkamm, Das Ende d. Gesetzes ’63; HRaisänen, Paul and the Law2 ’87; PRichardson/SWesterholm, et al., Law in Religious Communities in the Rom. Period, ’91 (Torah and Nomos); MNobile, La Torà al tempo di Paolo, alcune ri-flessioni: Atti del IV simposio di Tarso su S. Paolo Apostolo, ed. LPadovese ’96, 93–106 (lit. 93f, n. 1).—Dodd 25–41.—B. 1358; 1419; 1421. DELG s.v. νέμω Ic. Schmidt, Syn. I 333–47. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > νόμος

  • 15 οὐρανός

    οὐρανός, οῦ, ὁ 24:31 (Hom.+; ‘heaven’ in various senses)
    the portion or portions of the universe gener. distinguished from planet earth, heaven (so mostly in the sing.; s. B-D-F §141, 1)
    mentioned w. the earth
    α. forming a unity w. it as the totality of creation (Pla., Euthyd. 296d οὐρανὸς καὶ γῆ; Gen 1:1; 14:19, 22; Tob 7:17 BA; Jdth 9:12; Bel 5; 1 Macc 2:37 al.; PsSol 8:7; ParJer 5:32; Just., D. 74, 1; PGM 13, 784 ὁ βασιλεύων τῶν οὐρανῶν κ. τῆς γῆς κ. πάντων τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἐνδιατριβόντων; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 59, 6; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 13]) ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ Mt 5:18; 11:25; 24:35; Mk 13:31; Lk 10:21; 16:17; 21:33; Ac 4:24; 14:15; 17:24 (on the absence of the art. s. B-D-F §253, 3); Rv 14:7; 20:11; Dg 3:4; AcPlCor 2:9; 19.
    β. standing independently beside the earth or contrasted w. it: Mt 5:34f; Ac 7:49 (cp. on both Is 66:1). ἐν (τῷ) οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ (τῆς) γῆς Mt 6:10; 28:18; Lk 11:2 v.l.; Rv 5:13.—1 Cor 8:5; Rv 5:3; ISm 11:2. τὸ πρόσωπον τ. γῆς καὶ τ. οὐρανοῦ Lk 12:56. Cp. Hb 12:26 (Hg 2:6); Js 5:12.—τὰ ἔσχατα τ. γῆς as extreme contrast to heaven 1 Cl 28:3. By God’s creative word the heaven was fixed and the earth founded on the waters Hv 1, 3, 4. Neither heaven nor earth can be comprehended by human measure 16:2 (Is 40:12). On ἀπʼ ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ Mk 13:27 s. under ἄκρον. ὁ πρῶτος οὐρ. καὶ ἡ πρώτη γῆ will give way in the last times to the οὐρ. καινός and the γῆ καινή Rv 21:1 (cp. Is 65:17; 66:22).
    as firmament or sky over the earth; out of reach for humans Hm 11:18. Hence ἕως οὐρανοῦ (ApcEsdr 4:32) Mt 11:23; Lk 10:15 or εἰς τὸν οὐρ. Hv 4, 1, 5 as an expr. denoting a great height. Likew. ἀπὸ τ. γῆς ἕως τ. οὐρανοῦ 1 Cl 8:3 (scripture quot. of unknown origin); GPt 10:40 (for a transcendent being who walks on the earth and whose head touches the sky, s. Il. 4, 443). Since the heaven extends over the whole earth, ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. under (the) heaven = on earth, throughout the earth (Pla., Tim. 23c, Ep. 7, 326c; UPZ 106, 14 [99 B.C.]; Eccl 1:13; 3:1; Just., A II, 5, 2) Ac 2:5; 4:12; Col 1:23; Hs 9, 17, 4; m 12, 4, 2. ὑποκάτωθεν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ throughout the earth 1 Cl 53:3 (Dt 9:14). ἐκ τῆς (i.e. χώρας) ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. εἰς τὴν ὑπʼ οὐρανόν from one place on earth to another Lk 17:24 (cp. Dt 29:19; Bar 5:3; 2 Macc 2:18 ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. εἰς τὸν ἅγιον τόπον).—In the last days there will appear τέρατα ἐν τ. οὐρανῷ ἄνω wonders in the heaven above Ac 2:19 (Jo 3:3 v.l.). σημεῖον ἐν τῷ οὐρ. Rv 12:1, 3 (cp. Diod S 2, 30, 1 τὰ ἐν οὐρανῷ γινόμενα=what takes place in the heavens; Ael. Aristid. 50, 56 K.=26 p. 519 D., where the statue of Asclepius from Pergamum appears ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ). The sky can even be rolled up; s. ἑλίσσω.—Rain falls fr. heaven (X., An. 4, 2, 2) and heaven is closed to bring about a drought Lk 4:25.—Rv 11:6; Js 5:18 (cp. 2 Ch 6:26; 7:13; Sir 48:3). Lightning also comes fr. heaven (Bacchylides 17, 55f ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ … ἀστραπάν [=Attic-ήν]) Lk 10:18. Likew. of other things that come down like rain to punish sinners: fire Lk 9:54 (cp. 4 Km 1:10; TestAbr A 10 p. 88, 14 [Stone p. 24]); Rv 20:9; fire and brimstone Lk 17:29 (cp. Gen 19:24); apocalyptic hail Rv 16:21; AcPl Ha 5, 7.
    as starry heaven IEph 19:2. τὰ ἄστρα τοῦ οὐρ. (cp. ἄστρον and s. Eur., Phoen. 1; Diod S 6, 2, 2 ἥλιον κ. σελήνην κ. τὰ ἄλλα ἄστρα τὰ κατʼ οὐρανόν; Ael. Aristid. 43, 13 K.=1 p. 5 D.; TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 1 [Stone p. 4]; JosAs 2:11) Hb 11:12. οἱ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρ. 1 Cl 32:2 (Gen 22:17); cp. 10:6 (Gen 15:5). In the time of tribulation at the end of the world the stars will fall fr. heaven Mt 24:29a; Mk 13:25a; Rv 6:13; 12:4. Cp. 8:10; 9:1. ἡ στρατιὰ τοῦ οὐρ. (s. οὐράνιος) the host of heaven, of the stars, which some Israelites illicitly worshipped Ac 7:42 (worship of the στρατιὰ τοῦ οὐρ. in enmity to Yahweh also Jer 7:18; 19:13; Zeph 1:5; 2 Ch 33:3, 5). These are also meant by the δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν Mt 24:29b; Lk 21:26; cp. Mk 13:25b (cp. δύναμις 4).
    as place of atmosphere (cp. TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 15 [Stone p. 22] εἰς τὴν αἰθέρα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ); clouds hover in it, the νεφέλαι τοῦ οὐρ. (s. νεφέλη) Mt 24:30b; 26:64; Mk 14:62; D 16:8. Likew. the birds, τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (Gen 1:26; Ps 8:9; Jdth 11:7; ParJer 7:3; cp. Bar 3:17) Mt 6:26; 8:20; 13:32; Mk 4:32; Lk 8:5; 9:58; Ac 10:12; 11:6; 6:12 (Gen 1:26), 18; Hs 9, 24, 1; GJs 3:2 codd.; 18:2 codd.—πυρράζει ὁ οὐρανός Mt 16:2, 3.—In connection w. τὸν σατανᾶν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα Lk 10:18 the atmosphere may well be thought of as an abode of evil spirits. On Satan as the ἄρχων τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, s. ἀήρ. Cp. also the λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρ. εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς 1 Cor 8:5. In any case Rv 12:7f speaks of the dragon and his angels as being in heaven.
    The concept of more than one heaven (the idea is Semitic; but s. FTorm, ZNW 33, ’34, 48–50, who refers to Anaximander and Aristot. Also Ps.-Apollod. 1, 6, 1, 2 ms. and Achilles Tat. 2, 36, 4 and 37, 2 ms. have οὐρανοί; Himerius, Or. 66 [=Or. 20], 4 οὐρανοί as the abode of the gods; also Hesychius Miles. [VI A.D.] c. 66 JFlach of the ‘godless heathen’ Tribonian.—Schlatter, Mt2 p. 58 on 3:2: ‘The pl. οὐρανοί is found neither in Philo nor Joseph.’ Cp. PKatz, Philo’s Bible ’50, 141–46; Mussies 84) is also found in our lit. (s. 1aα; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 15]), but it is not always possible to decide with certainty just where the idea is really alive and where it simply survives in a formula (in J’s Gospel the pl. is entirely absent; Rv has it only 12:12 [fr. LXX]. Eph always has the pl. In others the sing. and pl. are interchanged for no apparent reason [cp. Hb 9:23 w. 24 or Hv 1, 1, 4 w. 1, 2, 1; also GPt 10:40f; Ps. 113:11 lines 1 and 2; TestAbr, TestJob, Just., Tat.]): the third heaven (cp. Ps.-Lucian, Philopatris 12 ἐς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀεροβατήσας [s. on ἀνακαινίζω and πνεῦμα 8]; PSI 29, 2ff [IV A.D.?] ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὸν καθήμενον ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ οὐρανῷ … ἐν τῷ β´ οὐρ. … ἐν τῷ γ´ οὐρ.; Simplicius, In Epict. p. 100, 13 Düb. ὀκτὼ οὐρανοί; TestLevi 3:3; GrBar 11:1 εἰς πέμπτον οὐ. Combination of the third heaven and paradise, GrBar 10:1ff; ApcMos 37. S. τρίτος 1a) 2 Cor 12:2 (s. JohJeremias, Der Gottesberg 1919, 41ff; Ltzm., Hdb.4 ’49, exc. on 2 Cor 12:3f [lit.]). ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν Eph 4:10. τ. πάντα ἐν τ. οὐρανοῖς κ. ἐπὶ τ. γῆς Col 1:16; cp. vs. 20. ἔργα τ. χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρ. Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26).—4:14; 7:26; 2 Pt 3:5, 7, 10, 12f (of the heavens, their destruction in the final conflagration, and their replacement by the καινοὶ οὐρ.); 1 Cl 20:1; 33:3. τακήσονταί τινες τῶν οὐρανῶν 2 Cl 16:3.—S. also Lampe s.v. 2.—From the concept of various celestial levels a transition is readily made to
    transcendent abode, heaven (the pl. is preferred for this mng.: B-D-F §141, 1; Rob. 408)
    as the dwelling-place (or throne) of God (Sappho, Fgm. 56 D.2 [=Campbell 54] of Eros; Solon 1, 22 D.3 of Zeus; Hom. Hymn to Aphrodite 291 [all three οὐρ. in the sing. as the seat of the gods]; Pla., Phdr. 246e ὁ μέγας ἐν οὐρανῷ Ζεύς; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 2, 2; 3, 4 ὁ οὐρ. as οἰκητήριον θεοῦ or θεῶν; Dio Chrys. 19[36], 22 θεῶν μακάρων κατʼ οὐρανόν; Artem. 2, 68 p. 159, 13 ὁ οὐρανὸς θεῶν ἐστὶν οἶκος; Ael. Aristid. 43, 14 K.=1 p. 5 D.; Maximus Tyr. 11, 11b; ins from Saïtaï in Lydia [δύναμις 5]; IAndrosIsis, Cyrene 8 p. 129.—On the OT: GWestphal, Jahwes Wohnstätten 1908, 214–73) Mt 23:22; Ac 7:55f; Hb 8:1; 16:2b (Is 66:1); Dg 10:7. ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρ. Hv 1, 1, 6 (cp. Tob 5:17 S). ὁ θεὸς τοῦ οὐρ. (Gen 24:3) Rv 11:13; 16:11. ὁ κύριος ἐν οὐρανοῖς Eph 6:9; cp. Col 4:1. ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν (μου, ἡμῶν) ὁ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρ. (silver tablet fr. Amisos: ARW 12, 1909, 25 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ μέγας ὁ ἐν οὐρανῷ καθήμενος) Mt 5:16, 45; 6:1, 9; 7:11, 21b; 10:33; 12:50; 16:17; 18:10b, 14, 19; Mk 11:25f; Lk 11:2 v.l.; D 8:2 (here the sing. ὁ ἐν τῷ οὐρ. Cp. PGM 12, 261 τῷ ἐν οὐρανῷ θεῷ). ὁ πατὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ the Father who (gives) from heaven Lk 11:13 (Jos., Ant. 9, 73 ἐκχέαι τὸν θεὸν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ). God dwells in τὰ ὕψη τῶν οὐρ. 1 Cl 36:2. Therefore the one who prays looks up toward heaven: ἀναβλέπειν εἰς τὸν οὐρ. (s. ἀναβλέπω 1) Mt 14:19; Mk 6:41; 7:34; Lk 9:16; MPol 9:2; 14:1. ἀτενίσας εἰς τὸν οὐρ. εἶδεν δόξαν θεοῦ Ac 7:55; ἐπάρας τ. ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν οὐρ. J 17:1.—The Spirit of God comes fr. (the open) heaven Mt 3:16; Mk 1:10; Lk 3:21; J 1:32; Ac 2:2(–4); 1 Pt 1:12; AcPlCor 2:5. The voice of God resounds fr. it (Maximus Tyr. 35, 7b Διὸς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ μέγα βοῶντος, the words follow) Mt 3:17; Mk 1:11; Lk 3:22; J 12:28; Ac 11:9; MPol 9:1 (cp. Just., D. 88, 8), and it is gener. the place where divine pronouncements originate Ac 11:5 and their end vs. 10. The ὀργὴ θεοῦ reveals itself fr. heaven Ro 1:18 (s. Jos., Bell. 1, 630 τὸν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ δικαστήν). Also, a σημεῖον ἐκ (ἀπὸ) τοῦ οὐρ. is a sign given by God Mt 16:1; Mk 8:11; Lk 11:16; cp. 21:11.—Lampe s.v. 4.
    Christ is ἐξ οὐρανοῦ from heaven, of a heavenly nature 1 Cor 15:47 (s. ἄνθρωπος 1d. On this HKennedy, St. Paul and the Conception of the ‘Heavenly Man’: Exp. 8th ser., 7, 1913, 97–110; EGraham, CQR 113, ’32, 226) and has come down from heaven J 3:13b, 31; 6:38, 42, 50 (Ar. 15, 1 ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς; Mel., P. 66, 467 ἀφικόμενος ἐξ οὐρανῶν), as ὁ ἄρτος ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (s. ἄρτος 2). Cp. Ro 10:6. He returned to heaven (τὴν ἔνσαρκον εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺ ἀνάληψιν Iren. 1, 10, 1 [Harv. I 91, 2]; on the ascension s. CHönn, Studien zur Geschichte der Hf. im klass. Altertum: Progr. Mannheim 1910; EPfister, Der Reliquienkult im Altertum II 1912, 480ff; HDiels, Himmels u. Höllenfahrten v. Homer bis Dante: NJklA 49, 1922, 239–53; RHolland, Zur Typik der Himmelfahrt: ARW 23, 1925, 207–20; JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32, 533 [ind.: Ascensus]; WMichaelis, Zur Überl. der Hf.s-geschichte: ThBl 4, 1925, 101–9; AFridrichsen, D. Hf. bei Lk: ibid. 6, 1927, 337–41; GBertram, Die Hf. Jesu vom Kreuz: Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 187–217 [UHolzmeister, ZKT 55, ’31, 44–82]; HSchlier, Christus u. d. Kirche im Eph 1930, 1ff; VLarrañaga, L’Ascension de Notre-Seigneur dans le NT ’38 [fr. Spanish]. S. also at ἀνάστασις 2 end, and διά A 2a) to live there in glory: Mk 16:19; Lk 24:51; Ac 1:10f (AZwiep, The Ascension of the Messiah in Lukan Christology ’97); 2:34; 7:55f; 9:3; 22:6; 1 Pt 3:22; 15:9. Christians await his return fr. heaven: Ac 1:11; Phil 3:20; 1 Th 1:10; 4:16; 2 Th 1:7 (Just., A I, 51, 8 al.).—When Messianic woes have come to an end, τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ υἱοῦ τ. ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ then the sign of the Human One (who is) in heaven will appear; acc. to the context, the sign consists in this, that he appears visibly in heavenly glory Mt 24:30.—Lampe s.v. 10b.
    as the abode of angels (Gen 21:17; 22:11; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 8, 12; TestAbr A 4 p. 80, 34 [Stone p. 8]; ParJer 3:2; ApcMos 38; Just., D. 57, 2) Mt 18:10a; 22:30; 24:36; 28:2; Mk 12:25; 13:32; Lk 2:15; 22:43; J 1:51; Gal 1:8; Rv 10:1; 18:1; 19:14; 20:1. Cp. Eph 3:15.—Lampe s.v. 7.
    Christians who have died also dwell in heaven (cp. Dio Chrys. 23 [40], 35 οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ θείων κ. μακαρίων αἰώνιον τάξιν; Libanius, Or. 21 p. 459, 9 F. πόρρω τοῦ τὸν οὐρανὸν οἰκοῦντος χοροῦ; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 33, 5; 12; Artem. 2, 68 p. 160, 25 τὰς ψυχὰς ἀπαλλαγείσας τῶν σωμάτων εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνιέναι τάχει χρωμένας ὑπερβάλλοντι; Himerius, Or. 8 [=23], 23: the daemon of the dead holds the σῶμα of the dead person, τὴν ψυχὴν ὁ οὐρανός; Quintus Smyrn. 7, 88; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 26 [Stone p. 54]; TestJob 39:13; ApcEsdr 7:3). Their life, τὸ ἀληθῶς ἐν οὐρανῷ ζῆν, stands in strong contrast to the ὄντως θάνατος, that leads to the everlasting fire Dg 10:7b. Rhoda, who greets Hermas from heaven Hv 1, 1, 4, need not have died (s. MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc.), and still she shows us that heaven is open to the devout. Furthermore, the true citizenship of Christians is in heaven (Tat. 16, 1 τὴν ἐν οὐρανοῖς πορείαν; s. πολίτευμα) Phil 3:20; cp. Dg 5:9. Their names are enrolled in heaven (s. βίβλος 2) Lk 10:20; Hb 12:23. In heaven there await them their glorified body 2 Cor 5:1f, their reward Mt 5:12; Lk 6:23, their treasure Mt 6:20; Lk 12:33, the things they hoped for Col 1:5, their inheritance 1 Pt 1:4. It is a place of peace Lk 19:38.—ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ the New Jerusalem (s. Ἱεροσόλυμα 2) will come down to earth Rv 3:12; 21:2, 10.
    The concept of a heaven in which God, attendant spirits of God, and the righteous dead abide, makes it easy to understand the taking over of certain OT expressions in which heaven is personified εὐφραίνεσθε οἱ οὐρανοί (cp. Is 44:23; 49:13; Mel., P. 98, 747) Rv 12:12; cp. 18:20; 9:3 (Is 1:2); 11:2 (Jer 2:12); 1 Cl 27:7 (Ps 18:2).
    an indirect reference to God, God fig. ext. of 2 (s. βασιλεία 1b.—A common Hebrew practice, but not unknown among polytheists: Philippides Com. [IV/III B.C.] 27 νὴ τὸν οὐρανόν. Acc. to Clem. Al., Protr. 5, 66, 4 Θεόφραστος πῇ μὲν οὐρανὸν, πῇ δὲ πνεῦμα τὸν θεὸν ὑπονοεῖ=Theophrastus at one time thinks of God as heaven and at another time as spirit; Appian, Hann. 56 §233 σημεῖα ἐκ Διός [ln. 14 Viereck-R.]=ἐξ οὐρανοῦ [ln. 16]; JosAs 19:2; SEG XXVIII, 1251, 3 [III/IV A.D.; s. New Docs 3, 49f]). ἁμαρτάνειν εἰς τὸν οὐρ. sin against God Lk 15:18, 21. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἢ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30f; Lk 20:4f. βασιλεία τῶν οὐρ. (GrBar 11:2) in Mt=βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19f; 7:21; 8:11; 10:7; 11:11f; 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44f, 47, 52; 16:19; 18:1, 3f, 23; 19:12, 14, 23; 20:1; 22:2; 23:13; 25:1: J 3:5 v.l.; AcPl Ha 8, 31 (restored)=BMM verso 3.—B. 53; 1484. DELG. M-M. DLNT 439–43. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οὐρανός

  • 16 σπέρμα

    σπέρμα, ατος, τό (σπείρω; Hom.+)
    the source from which someth. is propagated, seed
    seed of plants pl. seeds 1 Cl 24:5; AcPlCor 2:26, 28 (Ath. 33, 1); (kinds of) seeds (ApcMos 29; Mel., P. 48, 341) Mt 13:32; Mk 4:31; 1 Cor 15:38 (MDahl, The Resurrection of the Body [ 1 Cor 15], ’62, 121–25). Sing., collective (POslo 32, 15 [1 A.D.] τὸ εἰς τ. γῆν σπέρμα) Mt 13:24, 27, 37f; 2 Cor 9:10 v.l. (Is 55:10). See Papias (1:3, Lat.).
    male seed or semen (Pind. et al.; ApcEsdr 5:12 p. 30, 7 Tdf.; Just., A I, 19, 1 al.; Ath. 21, 1; 22, 4), so perh. Hb 11:11 (s. καταβολή 2 and s. 2b below, also Cadbury [αἷμα 1a]) and J 7:42; Ro 1:3; 2 Ti 2:8; IEph 18:2; IRo 7:3 (s. also 2a below on these passages). Then, by metonymy
    the product of insemination, posterity, descendants
    descendants, children, posterity (in Pind. and Trag., but mostly of an individual descendant; Pla., Leg. 9, 853c ἄνθρωποί τε καὶ ἀνθρώπων σπέρμασιν νομοθετοῦμεν. The pl. also 4 Macc 18:1; Ps.-Phoc. 18; Jos., Ant. 8, 200) in our lit. (as well as Aeschyl.; Soph., Trach. 1147; Eur., Med. 669 and, above all, LXX; TestAbr A 8 p. 85, 21 [Stone 18, 21]; ApcEsdr 3:10 p. 27, 19 Tdf.; ApcMos 41; Just., A I, 32, 14 al.) collective τῷ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ Lk 1:55. See J 8:33, 37; Ac 7:5, 6 (Gen 15:13); 13:23; Ro 4:13; 11:1; 2 Cor 11:22; Hb 2:16; 11:18 (Gen 21:12); 1 Cl 10:4–6 (Gen 13:15f; 15:5); 16:11 (Is 53:10); 32:2 (cp. Gen 22:17); 56:14 (Job 5:25); B 3:3 (Is 58:7); Hv 2, 2, 2; Hs 9, 24. Of Salome σπ. εἰμὶ ʼ Αβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακώβ GJs 20:2.—ἀνιστάναι σπ. τινί raise up children for someone Mt 22:24 (s. ἀνίστημι 3 and Dt 25:5); GJs 1:3b. Also ἐξανιστάναι σπ. Mk 12:19; Lk 20:28 (s. ἐξανίστημι 2). ἔχειν σπ. Mt 22:25; ἀφιέναι σπ. Mk 12:20, 22; also καταλείπειν σπ. vs. 21. ποιεῖν σπ. (Is 37:31) GJs 1:2f. ὅπως εὐλογηθῇ τὸ σπ. σου so that your posterity may be blessed 15:4.—Hb 11:11 may belong here (s. καταβολή 1 and s. 1b above); ἐκ (τοῦ) σπέρματος Δαυίδ w. ref. to Jesus may be classed here (s. Ps 88:5 and s. 1b above) J 7:42; Ro 1:3; 2 Ti 2:8; IEph 18:2; IRo 7:3; AcPlCor 2:5.—In imagistic use of metonymy σπ. is also used w. ref. to Abraham’s spiritual descendants, i.e. those who have faith like his Ro 4:16, 18 (Gen 15:5); 9:8; cp. vs. 7ab (Gen 21:12); Gal 3:29.—It is contrary to normal OT usage (for, even if Gen 4:25; 1 Km 1:11 σπέρμα is used w. ref. to a single individual, he stands as the representative of all the descendants) when one person, i.e. the Messiah, is called σπέρμα and thus is exalted above the mass of Abraham’s descendants (s. MWilcox, JSNT 5, 79, 2–20 on Targumim and rabbinic sources for application to individuals). In Ac 3:25 the promise of Gen 22:18 is referred to him, and s. esp. Gal 3:16, 19 (EBurton, ICC Gal 1921, 505–10).—In Rv 12:17 the Christians are called οἱ λοιποὶ τοῦ σπέρματος αὐτῆς the rest (in addition to the son just born to her) of her (the heavenly woman’s) children.
    of a few survivors, fr. whom a new generation will arise (cp. Wsd 14:6; 1 Esdr 8:85; Jos., Ant. 11, 144; 12, 303; also Pla., Tim. 23c; Phlegon: 257 Fgm. 36 II, 3, 8 vs. 21 Jac. [p. 1174] ὅ τί που καὶ σπέρμα λίποιτο) Ro 9:29 (Is 1:9). Then
    genetic character, nature, disposition, character, of the divine σπέρμα (acc. to BWeiss = the word of God; acc. to EHaupt, Westcott, HHoltzmann, OBaumgarten, OHoltzmann, HHWendt, FHauck = the beginning or germ of a new life, planted in us by the Spirit of God; acc. to HWindisch and THaering, who are uncertain, = word or spirit; acc. to WWrede = the grace that makes us holy; RSV et al. ‘nature’) that dwells in one who is γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ (γεννάω 1b) and makes it ‘impossible for such a pers. to sin’ 1J 3:9 (JPainter, NTS 32, ’86, 48–71). The imagery suggests a person of exceptional merit, in Greco-Roman circles a model citizen, possesser of ἀρετή (q.v.; on the importance of ancestral virtue s. Pind., O. 7, 90–92; P. 10, 11–14; N. 3, 40–42; 6, 8–16; cp. Epict. 1, 13, 3: the slave has, just as you do, τὸν Δία πρόγονον, ὥσπερ υἱὸς ἐκ τῶν αὐτῶν σπερμάτων γέγονεν; s. also Herm. Wr. 9, 3; 4a; 6 ἀπὸ τ. θεοῦ λαβὼν τὰ σπέρματα; Philo, Ebr. 30 τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ σπέρματα al.; Synes., Ep. 151 p. 289b τὸ σπ. τὸ θεῖον; Just. A I, 32, 8 τὸ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ σπέρμα, ὁ λόγο.—Musonius p. 8, 1 ἀρετῆς σπ. Maximus Tyr. 10, 4g σπ. ψυχῆς.—Pind., P. 3, 15 σπέρμα θεοῦ καθαρόν refers to Asclepius, Apollo’s son by Coronis.).—B. 505. DELG s.v. σπείρω. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σπέρμα

  • 17 ἀνάκειμαι

    ἀνάκειμαι impf. ἀνεκείμην (s. κεῖμαι; Pind., Hdt.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestJob 15:4 [for ἐνέκειντο]; ParJer 9:9 [of deceased Jer.]; Jos., Ant. 3, 38 al.; Ath. 37, 1 ἀνακείσθω … ὁ λόγος of Ath.’s apologetic statement ‘suffice, be concluded’), functions as pass. of ἀνατίθημι.
    gener. (opp. ἑστηκέναι, of one who appears to be dead ParJer 9:9) lie, recline Mk 5:40 v.l.; Hv 3, 12, 2. (Most ancient writers prefer κεῖμαι in this sense, s. Phryn. in 2.)
    otherw. always of reclining at table, equals dine (Aristot. and Diphilus [300 B.C.] in Athen. 1, 23c; Polyb. 13, 6, 8; 1 Esdr 4:11; for discussion on proper usage s. Phryn. 216f Lob. A character in a drama cited Ath. 1, 23c sarcastically asks in ref. to a banquet scene whether statues were being entertained on the couch.) αὐτοῦ ἀνακειμένου ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ as he was dining in the house Mt 9:10.—26:7; Mk 14:18; 16:14; Lk 7:37 v.l. ἀ. μετά τινος Mt 26:20. σύν τινι J 12:2; ἀ. ἐν τῷ κόλπῳ τινός lean on someone’s chest=take the place of honor, if it was the chest of the head of the house 13:23 (cp. Lk 16:23, where sc. ἀνακείμενον [some mss. supply ἀναπαυόμενον]; Pliny, Epist. 4, 22, 4 cenabat Nerva cum paucis; Veiento proximus atque etiam in sinu recumbebat). ἐργάτας ἀνακειμένους GJs 18:2 (not pap) laborers reclining for dinner—ὁ ἀνακείμενος the one who is reclining, the guest Mt 22:10f; Mk 6:26 (v.l. συνανάκειμαι q.v.); Lk 22:27 (opp. ὁ διακονῶν); J 6:11; 13:28.—On the v.l. κατάκειμαι s. GKilpatrick, JTS n.s. 17, ’66, 67–69; For pictures on ancient reliefs and vases s. e.g. JJung, Leben u. Sitten d. Römer I 1883, 24; ABaumeister, Denkmäler d. klass. Altert. I 1885, 365f.—DELG s.v. κεῖμαι. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἀνάκειμαι

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