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suas+spes+sen

  • 1 ex-spēs

        ex-spēs adj.    (only nom sing.), without hope, hopeless: inops, exspes, O.: enatat exspes, H.

    Latin-English dictionary > ex-spēs

  • 2 spēs

        spēs speī (spei, monosyl., T.), f    [SPA-], hope: aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur: miserum est nec habere ne spei quidem extremum: spem ponere in armis, V.: spem deponere, abandon, H.: spem salutis suae in Meleagri morte deponebat, placed, Cu.: spem Catilinae mollibus sententiis alere: ut eos homines spes falleret: nostris militibus spem minuit, Cs.: de spe conatuque depulsus: morando spem destituere, L.: Philippus, magnā spe depulsus, L.: repente praeter spem dixit, etc.: cetera contra spem salva invenit, L.: omnia bona in spe habere, S.: omnīs Catilinae spes atque opes concidisse: (cadus) Spes donare novas largus, H.: spem istoc pacto nuptiarum omnem eripis, T.: qui spem salutis in aliā ratione non habuerit: unius recuperandi fili spes: Antiochus a spe societatis Prusiae decidit, L.: Spem suae mortis conceperat, O.: magna me spes tenet, explicare, etc.: in spem maximam adducti, hunc ipsum annum salutarem civitati fore: magnam in spem veniebat, fore, uti, etc., Cs.: te in istam spem inducere, ut, etc.: leniter in spem Adrepe officiosus, ut scribare Heres, H.: spem de eo iam puero habuerant: tantum spei habere ad vivendum: Gallis ad temptanda ea defuit spes, L.— A hope, ground of hope, object of desire, deliverance, trust: puppes, Spes vestri reditūs, O.: vestras spes uritis, V.: Spe (i. e. re speratā) potitur, O.—Of offspring, a hope, promise: Devovit nati spemque caputque parens, O.: nec spes iam restat Iuli, V.: spes reliqua nostra, Cicero.— An anticipation, expectation, apprehension, dread: si meam spem vis improborum fefellerit: mala res, spes multo asperior, S.: (bellum) spe omnium serius, L.: cum Tarentinorum defectio in spe Hannibali esset, L.—Person., as a divinity, Hope: ad Spei, at the temple of Hope, L., C., H.
    * * *
    I
    Spes, goddess of hope, hope personified
    II
    hope/anticipation/expectation

    Latin-English dictionary > spēs

  • 3 spes

    spes, spēi ( gen. spe, Liv. 1, 40, 7 dub.; Weissenb. spei; plur. nom. and acc. speres, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 333 Müll., or Ann. v. 410 and 132 Vahl.; gen. sperum, Eum. Paneg. Const. 15; abl. speribus, Varr. ap. Non. 171, 27 and 30:

    spebus,

    Sid. Apollin. Ep. 3, 6; Sulp. Sev. Dial. 3, 10; Paul. Nol. Carm. 18, 243; Hilar. in Psa. 119; cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 570), f. [perh. root spa-, to draw out; Gr. spaô; cf.: prosper, spondeo; v. spatium].
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., the expectation of something desired, hope (the predom. signif. of the word; syn. exspectatio).
    (α).
    Absol.:

    si spes est exspectatio boni, mali exspectationem esse necesse est metum,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 80:

    bona spes cum omnium rerum desperatione confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25: ut aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur;

    sic, etc.,

    id. Att. 9, 10, 3: nolite nimiam spem habere, Cat. ap. Gell. 13, 17, 1:

    spem habere in fide alicujus,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 71; cf.:

    nostros tantum spei habere ad vivendum, quantum accepissent ab Antonio,

    id. Att. 15, 20, 2:

    miserum est nec habere ne spei quidem extremum,

    id. N. D. 3, 6, 14:

    in quīs plurimum habebat spei,

    Curt. 3, 3, 1:

    spem sibi aliquam proponere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41:

    spem reliquorum in vestrā potestate positam esse,

    id. Fl. 1, 3:

    spem ponere in armis,

    Verg. A. 2, 676:

    spem deponere,

    abandon, Hor. S. 2, 5, 26;

    but: spem salvis in alicujus morte deponere,

    to place, Curt. 10, 9, 7:

    spem alicujus alere,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 12, 30; cf.:

    auxerat meam spem, quod, etc.,

    id. Phil. 12, 1, 2:

    aliquem in spem adducere,

    id. Att. 3, 19, 2:

    quae (salus nostra) spe exiguā extremāque pendet,

    id. Fl. 2, 4:

    ut eos homines spes falleret,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 2, 4:

    quantā de spe decidi,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 9:

    hac spe lapsus Indutiomarus,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 55:

    nostris militibus spem minuit,

    id. ib. 5, 33:

    Helvetii eā spe dejecti,

    id. ib. 1, 8:

    ab hac spe repulsi Nervii,

    id. ib. 5, 42; cf.:

    de spe conatuque depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 7, 14:

    pro re certā spem falsam domum retulerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110:

    non solum spe, sed certā re jam et possessione deturbatus est,

    id. Fam. 12, 25, 2:

    spei nostrae finem inponere,

    Liv. 5, 4, 10:

    morando spem destituere,

    id. 1, 51, 5:

    dolor tantae ad inritum cadentis spei,

    id. 2, 6, 1:

    spes ad inritum redacta,

    id. 28, 31, 1:

    Philippus, magnā spe depulsus,

    id. 31, 25, 11:

    Tyrii ab ingenti spe destituti erant,

    Curt. 4, 3, 20:

    tantā spe destituti,

    id. 8, 6, 20: spem pro re [p. 1741] ferentes, Liv. 36, 40, 7:

    hominem sine re, sine fide, sine spe, etc.,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78:

    sunt omnia, sicut adulescentis, non tam re et maturitate quam spe et exspectatione laudata,

    id. Or. 30, 107:

    ego jam aut rem aut ne spem quidem exspecto,

    id. Att. 3, 22, 4:

    nemo umquam animo aut spe majora suscipiet, qui, etc.,

    id. Lael. 27, 102:

    multa praeter spem scio multis bona evenisse,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 69; so,

    praeter spem evenit!

    Ter. And. 2, 6, 5; 4, 1, 55; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 51:

    repente praeter spem dixit, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 3:

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    omnia bona in spe habere,

    Sall. C. 31, 7.— Plur.:

    ubi sunt spes meae?

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 28:

    si mihi mulierculae essent salvae, spes aliquae forent,

    id. Rud. 2, 6, 69; id. Capt. 2, 3, 85:

    in quo nostrae spes omnesque opes sitae Erant,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 33; id. Phorm. 3, 1, 6; cf.:

    omnes Catilinae spes atque opes concidisse,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 7, 16;

    so often: spes opesque,

    Sall. J. 107, 4:

    (cadus) Spes donare novas largus,

    Hor. C. 4, 12, 19 al. —
    (β).
    With gen. obj.:

    spem istoc pacto nuptiarum omnem eripis,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 35:

    spe mercedis adducti,

    Cic. Lael. 9, 31:

    spes dignitatis suae,

    id. de Or. 1, 7, 25:

    spes diuturnitatis atque imperii,

    id. Rep. 2, 3, 5:

    nec in praemiis humanis spem posueris rerum tuarum,

    id. ib. 6, 23, 25; cf. id. de Or. 1, 7, 25:

    quoniam me tui spem das,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 15:

    ni mihi esset spes ostensa Hujusce habendae,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 4, 7:

    spes amplificandae fortunae fractior,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 59:

    ut reo audaci spem judicii corrumpendi praeciderem,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 7, § 20:

    Antiochus a spe societatis Prusiae decidit,

    Liv. 37, 26, 1:

    hoc conloquium abstulit spem Hannibali recipiendae Nolae,

    id. 33, 44, 3:

    exulanti Amyandro spes recuperandi regni facta est,

    id. 38, 1, 3; Tac. Or. 14 fin.:

    spe templi capiendi,

    Liv. 31, 25, 2:

    spem suae mortis conceperat,

    Ov. M. 6, 554. —
    (γ).
    With obj.-clause:

    spes est, eum melius facturum,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 22; id. Ep. 3, 1, 11; Auct. Her. 2, 17, 25:

    magna me spes tenet, explicare, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 3, 7:

    in spem maximam adducti, hunc ipsum annum salutarem civitati fore,

    id. Mil. 28, 78:

    ne spes quidem ulla ostenditur, fore melius,

    id. Att. 11, 11, 1:

    magnam in spem veniebat, fore, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 42:

    magnam se habere spem, Ariovistum finem injuriis facturum,

    id. ib. 1, 33:

    injecta est spes patri, Posse illam extrudi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 11:

    si qui vestrum spe ducitur, se posse, etc.,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 9, 27:

    in spem venio, appropinquare tuum adventum,

    id. Fam. 9, 1, 1:

    magna me spes tenet, bene mihi evenire, quod mittar ad mortem,

    id. Tusc. 1, 41, 97:

    ad Aetolos legatum misit, magis ut nudaret animos, quam spe impetrari posse,

    Liv. 34, 24, 7:

    a spe scalis capi urbem posse,

    id. 6, 9, 9:

    spe castra eo die se oppugnaturos,

    id. 40, 31, 6.—
    (δ).
    With ut:

    quae te ratio in istam spem induxit, ut eos tibi fidelis putaris fore?

    Cic. Off. 2, 15, 53:

    si spem afferunt, ut... fructus appareat,

    id. Lael. 19, 68:

    spes mihi certa fuit ut, etc.,

    Aus. Idyll. 2, 46:

    irritā spe agitari, ut, etc.,

    Tac. A. 16, 26.—
    (ε).
    With de:

    spes est de argento,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 40; Cic. Lael. 3, 11:

    de flumine transeundo spem se fefellisse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10:

    quam spem tunc ille de me concepit,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 3:

    nato filio pater spem de illo quam optimam capiat,

    Quint. 1, 1, 1.—
    (ζ).
    With ad and gerund.:

    postea vero quam vidi nostros tantum spei habere ad vivendum,

    Cic. Att. 15, 20, 2:

    spem habere ad ejus salutem exstinguendam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5:

    Gallis ad temptanda ea defuit spes,

    Liv. 21, 25, 10 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    cum spei ad resistendum nihil esset,

    id. 43, 18, 10; 43, 19, 9.—
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    The hope of being appointed heir (rare):

    leniter in spem Arrepe officiosus, ut et scribare secundus Heres,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 47:

    in spem secundam nepotes pronepotesque (assumebantur),

    Tac. A. 1, 8. —
    b.
    Spes, a Roman divinity who had several temples in Rome, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 8, 52; id. Ps. 2, 4, 19; id. Cist. 4, 1, 18; Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; id. N. D. 2, 23, 61; 3, 18, 47; Liv. 2, 51, 2; 25, 7, 6; 40, 51, 6; Tac. A. 2, 49; Plin. 2, 7, 5, § 14; Tib. 1, 1, 9 (19); Ov. A. A. 1, 445; Aus. Idyll. 12, 9; cf. Hartung, Relig. d. Röm. 2, p. 264.—
    B.
    Transf, concr., like the Engl. hope, of that in which hope is placed, or which is hoped for ( poet. and in postAug. prose).
    1.
    In gen.:

    puppes, Spes vestri reditus,

    Ov. M. 13, 94; cf.: vestras spes uritis, Verg. A. 5, 672:

    spes o fidissima Teucrum (of Aeneas),

    id. ib. 2, 281:

    spem suam (i. e. exta) circumvolat alis (milvus),

    Ov. M. 2, 719; cf.:

    spe (i. e. re speratā) potitur,

    id. ib. 11, 527.—
    2.
    In partic., of hopeful children, and, by analogy, of the young of animals, or of the fruits of the earth:

    devovit nati spemque caputque parens,

    Ov. H. 3, 94 Ruhnk.; cf. also in plur., of one child:

    per spes surgentis Iuli,

    Verg. A. 6, 364; 10, 524; 4, 274; cf.:

    tuosne ego, o meae spes inanes, labentis oculis vidi,

    Quint. 6, prooem. §

    12: (capella) gemellos, Spem gregis, silice in nudā connixa reliquit,

    Verg. E. 1, 15; cf. id. G. 4, 162:

    (sus) quia semina pando Eruerit rostro spemque interceperit anni,

    Ov. M. 15, 113.—
    b.
    In gen., as a term of endearment, hope:

    spes mea,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 27:

    o spes mea, o mea vita, o mea voluptas, salve,

    id. Stich. 4, 2, 5:

    o salutis meae spes,

    id. Rud. 3, 3, 17:

    et mea carissima filiola, et spes reliqua nostra, Cicero,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 6.—
    II.
    An anticipation or apprehension of something not desired, elpis (very rare):

    si meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 11, 23:

    mala res, spes multo asperior,

    Sall. C. 20, 13:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissimis animis excipitur,

    id. J. 88, 1:

    id (bellum) quidem spe omnium serius fuit,

    Liv. 2, 3, 1:

    omnium spe celerius,

    id. 21, 6, 5:

    in malā jam spe,

    id. 22, 48:

    in spe Hannibali fuit defectio Tarentinorum,

    id. 25, 7:

    dum spes nulla necis,

    Stat. Th. 9, 129; cf.:

    naufragii spes omnis abit,

    Luc. 5, 455.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > spes

  • 4 Aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur

    It is said that for a sick man, there is hope as long as there is life

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur

  • 5 Credula vitam spes fovet et melius cras fore semper dicit

    Credulous hope supports our life, and always says that tomorrow will be better. (Tibullus)

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Credula vitam spes fovet et melius cras fore semper dicit

  • 6 Dum vita est spes est

    While life is, hope is. / While there is life there is hope

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Dum vita est spes est

  • 7 spes

    hope.

    Latin-English dictionary of medieval > spes

  • 8 dis-cēdō

        dis-cēdō cessī, cessus, ere,    to go apart, part asunder, divide, separate, disperse, scatter: ex hac fugā auxilia discesserunt, Cs.: lignationis causā in silvas, Cs.: ut sodalitates decuriatique discederent: cum discedere populum iussissent tribuni, L.: in duas partīs, S.: cum terra discessisset: caelum, opens: scaena ut versis discedat frontibus, open, V.—To go away, depart, leave: petebat ut discedere liceret, Cs.: misere discedere quaerens, H.: ab exercitu, Cs.: a senis latere: e Galliā: ex contione, Cs.: de foro: templo, O.: longius ab agmine discedi, Cs.: de colloquio discessum, L.: in loca occulta, S.: ad urbem, V.: ex castris domum, Cs.: domos suas, N.—Of troops, to march off, march away, decamp: discessit a Brundisio, Cs.: ex hibernis, Cs.: Tarracone, Cs.: ab signis, to leave the standard, Cs.: exercitus ab signis discessit, disbanded, L.: ab armis, to lay down their arms, Cs.: in itinere ab eo, desert, Cs. — From a battle, to get away, come away, come off, be left, remain: se superiores discessisse existimare, Cs.: victor discessit ab hoste, H.: victus, S.: graviter volneratus, S.: ut inanes discederent: aequā manu, S.: aequo Marte, L.: sine detrimento, Cs. —From a trial or struggle, to come off, get off, be left, remain: ut spoliis ex hoc iudicio ornati discedant: se superiorem discessurum: liberatus, N.: si istius haec iniuria inpunita discesserit: pulchre, T.: turpissime: a iudicio capitis maximā gloriā, N.: Discedo Alcaeus puncto illius, he votes me an Alcaeus, H.—Fig., to depart, deviate, swerve from, leave, forsake, give up, abandon: nihil a statu naturae: a fide: a suā sententiā, Cs.: ab amicis in magnā re peccantibus.—To pass away, vanish, cease: audivi quartanam a te discessisse: ex animo illius memoria: hostibus spes potiundi oppidi discessit, Cs.: ubi hae sollicitudines discessere, L.—In the phrase, in sententiam discedere, to adopt a view, pass over to a party, vote for a measure: senatus in Catonis sententiam discessit, S.: senatus in alia omnia discessit: in hanc sententiam ut discederetur, L.: illud SC, quo numquam ante discessum est, Cs.—To leave in thought, depart: cum a vobis discesserim, i. e. except you: ut cum ab illo discesserint, me habeant proximum.

    Latin-English dictionary > dis-cēdō

  • 9 teneō

        teneō tenuī, —, ēre    [2 TA-], to hold, keep, have, grasp, hold fast: flabellulum, T.: facem, V. telum, L.: cruentum gladium: manu Fragmina, O.: Dextra tenet ferrum, O.: ore cibum, Ph.: Hanc teneo sinu, O.; cf. cum res non coniecturā, sed oculis ac manibus teneretur, i. e. was palpable. —Fig., to hold in mind, take in, understand, conceive, comprehend, know: rem tenes, you understand the situation, T.: teneo, I understand, T.: quae a Romanis auguribus ignorantur, a Cilicibus tenentur: quo pacto cuncta tenerem, H.—Implying possession or control, to hold, possess, be master of, control, occupy: multa hereditatibus tenebantur sine iniuriā: quae tenuit dives Achaemenes, H.: loca, L.: colles praesidiis, Cs.: terras, H.: alterum cornu, command, N.: provincias aliaque omnia, S.: rem p. opes paucorum tenere coeperunt, to control public affairs: ut res p. vi tribuniciā teneretur, should be mastered, cf. qui tenent (sc. rem p.), qui potiuntur, i. e. who are in supreme power: me Galatea tenebat, i. e. held my affections, V.: teneone te? i. e. are you restored to me? T.—Implying persistence, to hold fast, keep, occupy, watch, guard, defend, maintain, retain: legio locum non tenuit, Cs.: Capitolia celsa, V.: in manicis te sub custode, H.: Athenae tuae sempiternam in arce oleam tenere potuerunt.—Of a way or course, to hold, keep, maintain, follow up: secundissimo vento cursum, to hold one's course: vento intermisso cursum, Cs.: Quove tenetis iter? V.: tenuit tamen vestigia Bucar, L.: Aeneam... ab Siciliā classe ad Laurentem agrum tenuisse (sc. cursum), sailed, L.: medio tutissimus ibis... Inter utrumque tene, O.; cf. hic ventus adversum tenet Athenis proficiscentibus, blows the wrong way, N.—Fig., to hold fast, guard, preserve, uphold, keep, insist on: consuetudinem meam: non tenebat ornatum suum civitas: ius suum: haec duo in amicitiā, etc.: imperium in suos: silentium, L. — To hold fast, maintain, support, defend, uphold, insist: illud arcte tenent, voluptatem esse summum bonum: propositum, maintain, Cs.: suas leges: quo causae teste tenentur, H.: plebs tenuit, ne consules in proximum annum crearentur, L.: tenuere patres, ut Fabius consul crearetur, L.— Of the memory, to hold, keep: tui memoriam cum summā benevolentiā, preserve a recollection of: memoriā tenetis, res esse, etc., you remember numeros memini, si verba tenerem, recollect, V.: dicta tenere, H.—Of disposition or desire, to possess, occupy, control: quae te tanta pravitas mentis tenuerit, ut, etc., has had possession of you: magna me spes tenet: nisi forte quem perniciosa libido tenet, S.: neque irā neque gratiā teneri, to be controlled: pompā, ludis, to be fascinated: ab <*>ratore iam obsessus est ac tenetur.— To hold position, maintain oneself, stay, be posted: quā abscisae rupes erant, statio paucorum armatorum tenebat, L.: tenent Danai, quā deficit ignis, V.— To hold out, hold on, last, endure, continue, maintain itself, prevail: imber per noctem totam tenuit, L.: tenet fama, lupam, etc, L.: fama tenuit, haud plus fuisse modio, L.—Implying attainment, to reach, arrive at, attain, occupy: montes Sabini petebant et pauci tenuere, L.: portum, L.: Hesperiam, O.—Fig., to reach, gain, acquire, obtain, attain: per cursum rectum regnum tenere: virtute regnum, L.: teneri res aliter non potest: causam, O.—Implying restraint, to hold fast, hold back, hinder, restrain, detain, check, control, stay: naves, quae vento tenebantur, Cs.: classem ibi tenebat, L.: si id te non tenet, advola: Marcellum ab gerundis rebus: ne diutius teneam: tene linguam, O.: pecus omne tenendum, V.: manum, H.: quo me decet usque teneri? V.: lacrimas in morte miserā: exercitum in stativis, L.—With pron reflex., to keep back, remain, stay: castris sese, Cs.: castris se pavidus tenebat, L.: a conventu se remotum domi, N.: me ab accusando, refrain.— Fig., to hold, hold back, repress, restrain, bind, fetter: iracundiam: risum: iram, Cu.: ea, quae occurrunt, keep to themselves: Sed te, ne faceres, tenuit reverentia famae, O.—Implying constraint, to bind, hold, obligate, be binding on, control: quamquam leges eum non tenent: interdicto non teneri: ut plebi scita omnes Quirites tenerent, L.: teneri alienis foederibus, L.: poenā teneri, to be liable: testibus in re perspicuā teneri, to be convicted.— Implying comprehension, to take in, comprise, comprehend, include: haec magnos formula reges tenet. H.: ut homines deorum agnatione et gente teneantur: id quod (genus officiorum) teneatur hominum societate.
    * * *
    tenere, tenui, tentus V
    hold, keep; comprehend; possess; master; preserve; represent; support

    Latin-English dictionary > teneō

  • 10 amplissime

    amplus, a, um, adj. [some regard this as a shortened form of anapleôs, = filled up, full; others, as for ambulus from amb-, rounded out, as superus from super, etc.; v. Doed. Syn. II. p. 113; but perh. it is better to form it from am- and -plus, akin to -pleo, plenus, q. v. Pott], thus pr., full all round; hence, great, large. —In space, of large extent, great, large, wide, ample, spacious (the forms amplus and amplior are very rare in the ante-class. per., and rare in all periods. Amplius is com. in the ante-class., freq. in the class., and very freq. in the post-class. per., the Vulg. rarely using the other forms, but using this 121 times. Amplissimus belongs to prose, and is scarcely used before Cicero, with whom it was a very favorite word. It was also used by Plin. Maj. and Min., but never by Tac., Sall. (in his genuine works), nor the Vulg. Catullus used only the form amplius, and Prop. only amplus, while Tib. and Pers. never used this word in any form. Ampliter is found mostly in Plaut.; and ample and amplissime are used a few times by Cic. and by writers that followed him; syn.: magnus, ingens, latus, late patens, spatiosus, laxus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    amplus et spectu protervo ferox,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 94 Rib.:

    qui (Pluto) ter amplum Geryonen compescit unda,

    Hor. C. 2, 14, 7:

    ampla domus dedecori domino fit, si est in ea solitudo,

    Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139; so Verg. A. 2, 310:

    admodum amplum et excelsum signum,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 74:

    collis castris parum amplus,

    Sall. J. 98, 3:

    porticibus in amplis,

    Verg. A. 3, 353:

    per amplum mittimur Elysium,

    id. ib. 6, 743:

    vocemque per ampla volutant Atria,

    id. ib. 1, 725:

    nil vulva pulchrius ampla,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 41:

    amplae aures,

    Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274:

    milium amplum grano,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 55:

    cubiculum amplum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 6:

    baptisterium amplum atque opacum,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 25.— Comp.:

    quanto est res amplior,

    Lucr. 2, 1133:

    Amplior Urgo et Capraria,

    Plin. 3, 6, 12, § 81:

    avis paulo amplior passere,

    id. 10, 32, 47, § 89:

    amplior specie mortali,

    Suet. Aug. 94; id. Caes. 76 (for the neutr. amplius, v. infra).— Sup.:

    amplissima curia... gymnasium amplissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53:

    urbs amplissima atque ornatissima,

    id. Agr. 2, 76:

    amplissimum peristylum,

    id. Dom. 116:

    (candelabrum) ad amplissimi templi ornatum esse factum,

    id. Verr. 4, 65:

    mons Italiae amplissimus,

    Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48:

    amplissimum flumen,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 3:

    amplissimus lacus,

    id. ib. 10, 41, 2:

    amplissima insula,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 71:

    amplissimi horti,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 18, 11:

    amplissima arborum,

    Plin. 16, 39, 76, § 200:

    est (topazon) amplissima gemmarum,

    id. 37, 8, 32, § 109:

    amplissimum cubiculum,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 23.—
    B.
    Transf., great, abundant, ample, much, long:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6 and Ep. 2, 2, 117:

    pabula miseris mortalibus ampla,

    Lucr. 5, 944:

    ampla civitas,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 81; 4, 96:

    civitas ampla atque florens,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 3:

    gens ampla,

    Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 125:

    amplae copiae,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19:

    ampla manus militum,

    Liv. Epit. 1, 4, 9:

    pecuaria res ampla,

    Cic. Quinct. 12:

    res familiaris ampla,

    id. Phil. 13, 8:

    (res) ampla,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 3, 82, 20 Kritz:

    patrimonium amplum et copiosum,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 6; id. Dom. 146: id. Phil. 2, 67:

    amplae divitiae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 101:

    esse patri ejus amplas facultates,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 9:

    in amplis opibus heres,

    Plin. 9, 36, 59, § 122.— Comp.:

    amplior numerus,

    Cic. Mil. 57; Sall. J. 105, 3; Tac. A. 14, 53:

    ampliores aquae,

    Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 58:

    amplior exercitus,

    Sall. J. 54, 3; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    commeatus spe amplior,

    Sall. J. 75, 8:

    amplior pecunia, Auct. B. Alex. 56: pecunia amplior,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 2:

    pretia ampliora,

    Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84:

    omnia longe ampliora invenire quam etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10:

    ampliores noctes,

    Plin. 18, 26, 63, § 232:

    ut ampliori tempore maneret,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 20.— Sup.:

    peditatus copiae amplissimae e Gallia,

    Cic. Font. 8:

    exercitus amplissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; 9, 13, 11:

    amplissima pecunia,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 31:

    amplissimae fortunae,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 8; id. Quinct. 49; id. Phil. 10, 4:

    amplissimae patrimonii copiae,

    id. Fl. 89:

    amplissimas summas emptionibus occupare,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 2, 3:

    opes amplissimae,

    id. ib. 8, 18, 4:

    amplissima dies horarum quindecim etc.,

    the longest day, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 218.—Also subst. in comp. neutr. (v. amplius, adv. infra), more:

    ut quirem exaudire amplius,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    si vis amplius dari, Dabitur,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 18:

    jam amplius orat,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    daturus non sum amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29:

    non complectar in his libris amplius quam quod etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 22:

    tantum adfero quantum ipse optat, atque etiam amplius,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 10:

    ni amplius etiam, quod ebibit,

    id. Trin. 2, 1, 20: Ph. Etiamne amplius? Th. Nil, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 63: Tr. Dimidium Volo ut dicas. Gr. Immo hercle etiam amplius, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 21: Th. Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae? Tr. Haud nummo amplius, id. Most. 3, 3, 16:

    etiam amplius illam adparare condecet,

    Turp. Com. Rel. p. 100 Rib.:

    hoc onere suscepto amplexus animo sum aliquanto amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1:

    si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 54:

    omnis numerus amplius octingentis milibus explebat,

    Vell. 2, 110, 3:

    Segestanis imponebat aliquanto amplius quam etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 76:

    illa corona contentus Thrasybulus neque amplius requisivit,

    Nep. Thras. 4, 3:

    amplius possidere,

    Plin. 18, 4, 3, § 17:

    Ille imperio ei reddito haud amplius, quam ut duo ex tribus filiis secum militarent, exegit,

    Curt. 8, 4, 21:

    dedit quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius, si potuisset,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 21, 6:

    cum hoc amplius praestet, quod etc.,

    id. ib. 7, 25, 1.—Also with part. gen., more of, a greater quantity or number of:

    gaudeo tibi liberorum esse amplius,

    Plaut. Cist. 5, 4:

    te amplius bibisse praedicet loti,

    Cat. 39, 21:

    amplius frumenti auferre,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 49:

    expensum est auri viginti paulo amplius,

    id. Fl. 6, 8:

    amplius negotii contrahi,

    id. Cat. 4, 9:

    si amplius obsidum vellet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9, ubi v. Herz.:

    quanto ejus amplius processerat temporis,

    id. B. C. 3, 25.—
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Of internal power or force, great, strong, violent, impetuous:

    pro viribus amplis,

    Lucr. 5, 1174:

    amplae vires peditum,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 75;

    ampla nepotum Spes,

    Prop. 4, 22, 41:

    poena sera, sed ampla,

    full, strict, id. 4, 5, 32. — Comp.:

    haec irae factae essent multo ampliores,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 9:

    si forte morbus amplior factus siet, i. e. gravior,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 50:

    amplior metus,

    Cic. Clu. 128:

    amplior potentia feris,

    Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153:

    ampliorem dicendi facultatem consequi,

    Quint. 2, 3, 4:

    amplior eoque acrior impetus,

    Flor. 4, 2, 66:

    spes amplior,

    Sall. J. 105, 4:

    amplius accipietis judicium,

    severer, Vulg. Matt. 23, 14:

    amplior auctoritas,

    Plin. 37, 3, 12, § 47:

    amplior virtus,

    higher merit, Quint. 8, 3, 83:

    idem aut amplior cultus (dei),

    Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 18:

    amplior est quaestio,

    Quint. 3, 5, 8:

    ampliora verba,

    of larger meaning, id. 8, 4, 2: scientia intellegentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventae sunt in te, Vulg. Dan. 5, 14:

    quo legatis animus amplior esset,

    Sall. C. 40, 6; 59, 1:

    spiritus amplior,

    Vulg. Dan. 5, 12; 6, 3.— Sup.:

    (honos) pro amplissimis meritis redditur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 41:

    cujus sideris (Caniculae) effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur,

    very violent, Plin. 2, 40, 40, § 107:

    amplissima spes,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    his finis cognitionis amplissimae,

    most important trial, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 23.—
    B.
    Of external splendor, great, handsome, magnificent, splendid, glorious:

    illis ampla satis forma, pudicitia,

    great enough, Prop. 1, 2, 24:

    haec ampla sunt, haec divina,

    Cic. Sest. 102; id. Arch. 23:

    res gestae satis amplae,

    Sall. C. 8, 2:

    cur parum amplis adfecerit praemiis,

    Cic. Mil. 57:

    ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus meritis praemia acceperunt,

    Tac. A. 14, 53:

    amplum in modum praemia ostentare,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 26, 6:

    amplis honoribus usi,

    Sall. J. 25, 4:

    amplis honoribus auctos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 11.—Sometimes in mal. part. or ironically:

    amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    a fine opportunity, Cic. Verr. 2, 61:

    spolia ampla refertis Tuque puerque tuus,

    glorious spoils, Verg. A. 4, 93.— Comp.:

    ne ullum munus aedilitatis amplius aut gratius populo esse possit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5; id. Mur. 37:

    praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri,

    id. de Or. 1, 4, 13:

    alicui ampliorem laudem tribuere,

    id. Sest. 27:

    in aliqua re esse laudem ampliorem,

    id. Marcell. 4:

    corporis membris plus dedit, id amplius atque augustius ratus (Zeuxis),

    Quint. 12, 10, 5:

    ut Augustus vocaretur ampliore cognomine,

    Suet. Aug. 7.— Subst.:

    in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur,

    of something greater, Sall. J. 63, 5.— Sup.:

    ut consules monumentum quam amplissimum faciundum curent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 38; 14, 31; id. Verr. 4, 82:

    hoc munus aedilitatis amplissimum,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 36; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 1, 74:

    alicui amplissimas potestates dare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31:

    insignibus amplissimis ornatus,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    dona amplissima conferre,

    Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9:

    praemia legatis dedistis amplissima,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5; id. Phil. 2, 32:

    spe amplissimorum praemiorum adduci,

    id. Mil. 5; id. de Or. 1, 5, 16:

    velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi laboris,

    Quint. 10, 7, 1:

    munera amplissima mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    vestris beneficiis amplissimis adfectus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 51; id. Dom. 98:

    laudi amplissimae lauream concedere,

    id. Pis. 74:

    laudibus amplissimis adficere,

    id. Phil. 7, 11:

    amplissimam gloriam consequi,

    id. Prov. Cons. 39:

    ut eum amplissimo regis honore et nomine adfeceris,

    id. Deiot. 14:

    amplissimis aliquem efferre honoribus,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 17, 3:

    amplissimis uti honoribus,

    Cic. Fl. 45:

    amplissimos honores adipisci,

    id. Verr. 5, 181:

    honores adsequi amplissimos,

    id. Mil. 81:

    aliquem ad honores amplissimos perducere,

    id. Am. 20, 73:

    meus labor fructum est amplissimum consecutus,

    id. Imp. Pomp 2:

    mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur,

    in the handsomest termis, id. Cat. 3, 14; id. Phil. 2, 13; id. Quir. 15:

    ei amplissimis verbis gratias egimus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3:

    provincia Gallia merito ornatur verbis amplissimis ab senatu,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    amplissimis verbis conlaudatus,

    Suet. Caes. 16:

    amplissimo populi senatusque judicio exercitus habuistis,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 12; id. Fl. 5; id. Dom. 86; id. Planc. 93:

    de meo consulatu amplissima atque ornatissima decreta fecerunt,

    id. Dom. 74:

    quam universi populi, illius gentis, amplissimum testimonium (said of Cic.),

    Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116.—
    C.
    In respect of the opinion of others, esteemed, renowned, etc.:

    quicquid est, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare (putare possumus), qui etc.,

    great or noble, id. Imp. Pomp. 37:

    omnia, quae vobis cara atque ampla sunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 9; id. Arch. 23:

    convenerunt corrogati et quidem ampli quidam homines,

    id. Phil. 3, 20:

    hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli,

    small and great, Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 28:

    amplis doctoribus instructus,

    Tac. A. 14, 52:

    sin autem sunt amplae et honestae familiae plebeiae,

    Cic. Mur. 7, 15.— Comp.:

    cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    ampliores ordines,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 77, where Dinter reads priores: quo (ingenio) neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, [p. 112] Sall. J. 2, 4:

    nihil amplius potes (tribuere) amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    quid amplius facitis?

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 47.— Sup.:

    ex amplissimo genere nubere,

    Cic. Cael. 34:

    amplissimo genere natus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    genere copiisque amplissimus, id. ib 6, 15: quam (familiam) vidit amplissimam,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12:

    amplissimos patruos habere,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 147:

    amplissima civitas,

    id. Verr. 5, 122:

    apud illos Fabiorum nomen est amplissimum,

    id. Font. 36; id. Caecin. 104; id. Verr. 3, 96; id. Deiot. 14:

    mihi hic locus ad agendum amplissimus est visus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    non adgrediar ad illa maxima atque amplissima prius quam etc.,

    id. Sest. 5:

    licet tribuas ei quantum amplissimum potes, nihil tamen amplius potes amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplissimis operibus increscere,

    id. ib. 8, 4, 3:

    honores in amplissimo consilio collocare,

    Cic. Sen. 2:

    amplissimi orbis terrae consilii principes,

    id. Phil. 3, 34: honoris amplissimi puto esse accusare improbos, I esteem it to be the greatest honor, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 70:

    promotus ad amplissimas procurationes,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 31, 3:

    praeter honores amplissimos cognomenque etc.,

    Plin. 7, 44, 45, § 142:

    spes amplissimae dignitatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 49; id. Sen. 19, 68; Suet. Vit. 2.—
    D.
    Hence, amplissimus (almost always thus in sup.) as a title for persons holding great and honored offices, as consul, senator, etc., or as an honorable epithet of the office itself or the body of officers, distinguished, very distinguished, honorable, right honorable, most honorable, etc.:

    is mihi videtur amplissimus, qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 83:

    homo et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimus,

    id. Mur. 8:

    P. Africanus rebus gestis amplissimus,

    id. Caecin. 69:

    ut homines amplissimi testimonium de sua re non dicerent,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 102; id. Clu. 197:

    Q. Catuli atque ceterorum amplissimorum hominum auctoritas,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 63:

    vir amplissimus ejus civitatis,

    id. Verr. 4, 17; id. Fl. 32:

    exercitum Cn. Domitii, amplissimi viri, sustentavit,

    id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem (of L. Lucullus),

    id. Arch. 4, 8; id. Lig. 22:

    in quo consilio amplissimi viri judicarent,

    id. Mil. 5; id. Balb. 1; id. Dom. 2:

    comitatus virorum amplissimorum,

    id. Sull. 9:

    viros primarios atque amplissimos civitatis in consilium advocare,

    id. Verr. 3, 18:

    ordinis amplissimi esse,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 13, 1; 37, 6:

    cives amplissimos legare,

    Cic. Balb. 42:

    hoc amplissimum nomen, i. e. senatorium,

    id. Verr. 3, 96:

    amplissimus honos, i. e. consulatus,

    id. Rep. 1, 6; so,

    amplissimo praeditus magistratu,

    Suet. Aug. 26:

    amplissimus ordo, i. e. senatorius,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 3; Suet. Calig. 49:

    amplissimi ordines, i. e. senatus et equites,

    id. Vesp. 9:

    amplissimum collegium decemvirale,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49:

    an vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 3:

    amplissimum sacerdotium,

    id. Verr. 2, 126; id. Phil. 13, 8:

    sacerdotium amplissimum,

    id. Verr. 2, 127.—
    E.
    As rhet. epithet:

    amplus orator,

    one that speaks richly and with dignity, Cic. Or. 9; id. Brut. 68:

    herous (pes), qui est idem dactylus Aristoteli amplior, iambus humanior videatur,

    grander, more stately, Quint. 9, 4, 88:

    amplius compositionis genus,

    more copious style, id. 9, 4, 129.— Adv. (on the extent of the use of the different forms of the adverb, v. supra init.), largely, abundantly, copiously.
    I.
    Lit.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    benigne ei largi atque ampliter,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    aptate munde atque ampliter convivium,

    Pomp. Com. Rel. p. 234 Rib.:

    extructam ampliter mensam,

    Lucil. 13, 7 Mull.:

    opsonato ampliter,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65:

    adpositum est ampliter,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 163:

    acceptus hilare atque ampliter,

    id. Merc. prol. 98:

    modeste melius facere sumptum quam ampliter,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 10:

    parum (digitulos) immersisti ampliter,

    not deep enough, id. Bacch. 4, 4, 26.—
    b.
    Form amplē:

    exornat ample magnificeque triclinium,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 62: qui ample valetudinarios nutriunt, in great numbers (v. the context), Cels. praef. med.
    II.
    Trop., fully, handsomely.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    ampliter dicere,

    fully, particularly, Gell. 10, 3, 4:

    laudare ampliter,

    id. 2, 6, 11.—
    b.
    Form amplē: duo genera sunt: unum attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, with great fulness, richly (v. amplus, II. E.), Cic. Brut. 55, 201; so,

    elate ampleque loqui,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 24:

    satis ample sonabant in Pompeiani nominis locum Cato et Scipio,

    full grandly filled the place of, Flor. 4, 2, 65.— Comp.: amplĭus, more, longer, further, besides (syn.: ultra, praeterea); of time, number, and action (while plus denotes more in quantity, measure, etc.; magis, more, in the comparison of quality, and sometimes of action; and potius, rather, the choice between different objects or acts), constr. absol., with comp. abl., and, in the case of numerals, like minus, plus, propius, q. v., without quam with the nom., acc., or gen., or rarely with the abl. comp., or with quam, but chiefly in the post-Aug. per.; cf. Zumpt, § 485; Madv. § 305; Roby, § 1273; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 4, 12; and Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 521 sq.
    a.
    In gen.:

    deliberatum est non tacere [me] amplius,

    Afran. Com. Rel. p. 199 Rib.:

    otium ubi erit, de istis rebus tum amplius tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18:

    cui amplius male faxim,

    id. Aul. 3, 2, 6: De. Etiam? Li. Amplius, id. As. 1, 1, 29: Ar. Vale. Ph. Aliquanto amplius valerem, si hic maneres, id. ib. 3, 3, 2:

    etiam faxo amabit (eam) amplius,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 40:

    multo tanto illum accusabo, quam te accusavi, amplius,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 49:

    quo populum servare potissit amplius,

    Lucil. 1, 15 Mull.:

    At ego amplius dico,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 26:

    amplius posse,

    Sall. J. 69, 2:

    armis amplius valere,

    id. ib. 111, 1:

    si lamentetur miser amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 953:

    tribus vobis opsonatumst an opsono amplius Tibi et parasito et mulieri?

    besides, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 45:

    Quam vellem invitatum, ut nobiscum esset amplius,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    in illo exercitu cuncta (probra) fuere et alia amplius,

    Sall. J. 44, 5:

    felices ter et amplius,

    Hor. C. 1, 13, 17:

    binas aut amplius domos continuare,

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    ter nec amplius,

    Suet. Caes. 25:

    cum non solum de his scripserit, sed amplius praecepta (reliquerit),

    Quint. 12, 11, 24:

    multa promi amplius possunt,

    Plin. 2, 17, 15, § 77:

    si studere amplius possum,

    Quint. 6, prooem. 4:

    auram communem amplius haurire potui?

    id. 6, prooem. 12:

    sagum, quod amplius est,

    Vulg. Exod. 26, 12.—
    b.
    And so very often with the pron. quid, etc.; with the negatives nihil, non, neque, nec, ne; and sometimes with nemo and haud.
    (α).
    With quid, etc.:

    Quid faciam amplius?

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 14, and Cic. Har. Resp. 42:

    quid dicam amplius?

    Quint. 8, 4, 7:

    quid a me amplius dicendum putatis?

    Cic. Verr. 3, 60:

    quid quaeris amplius?

    id. Sex. Rosc. 145; id. Dom. 41; id. Verr. 2, 191:

    quid vultis amplius?

    id. Mil. 35:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    quid exspectatis amplius?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 174:

    quid amplius exspectabo,

    Vulg. 4 Reg. 6, 33:

    quid loquar amplius de hoc homine?

    Cic. Caecin. 25:

    quid amplius laboremus?

    Quint. 8, prooem. 31:

    quid habet amplius homo?

    Vulg. Eccl. 1, 3; 6, 8:

    quid ego aliud exoptem amplius, nisi etc.,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 134:

    quid amplius debeam optare?

    Quint. 4, 1, 51: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 11; Ter. And. 2, 1, 25: De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, id. Ad. 3, 4, 22:

    quid est quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

    more than this, id. And. 1, 1, 4:

    Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 6; id. Sull. 90:

    si quid amplius scit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 23:

    si quid ego addidero amplius,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 13:

    si amplius aliquid gloriatus fuero,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 10, 8.—And often hoc amplius, where hoc is commonly an abl., but sometimes may be regarded as a nom. or an acc.:

    hoc amplius si quid poteris,

    any thing beyond this, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 44: et hoc amplius (additur), quod etc., and this further, that etc., id. Sull. 44; so Quint. 5, 13, 36:

    de paedagogis hoc amplius, ut aut sint etc.,

    id. 1, 1, 8:

    Mario urbe Italiaque interdicendum, Marciano hoc amplius, Africa,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19; Quint. 1, 5, 50; 1, 5, 55; sometimes in plur., his amplius:

    his amplius apud eundem (est) etc.,

    Quint. 9, 3, 15;

    so rarely eo amplius: inferiasque his annua religione, publice instituit, et eo amplius matri Circenses,

    Suet. Calig. 15:

    quaeris quid potuerit amplius adsequi,

    Cic. Planc. 60: prius quam (hic) turbarum quid faciat amplius, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 93:

    quare jam te cur amplius excrucies?

    Cat. 76, 10.—
    (β).
    With nihil, etc.:

    habet nihil amplius quam lutum,

    Lucil. 9, 46 Mull.:

    nihil habui amplius, quod praeciperem,

    Quint. 7, 1, 64:

    nihil enim dixit amplius,

    Cic. Deiot. 21:

    Nihil dico amplius: causa dicta est,

    I say no more; I have done with my case, id. ib. 8:

    nihil amplius dico, nisi me etc.,

    id. Planc. 96:

    nihil amplius dicam quam victoriam etc.,

    id. Marcell. 17.—Hence, nihil dico or dicam amplius, when one fears to wound by declaring his opinion, etc., I say no more, have nothing further to say or add:

    vetus est, Nihili cocio est. Scis cujus? non dico amplius,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51:

    si, quod equitis Romani filius est, inferior esse debuit: omnes tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico amplius,

    Cic. Planc. 7 (tacite significat eos dignitate inferiores esse Plancio, Manut. ad h.l.):

    Alterius vero partis nihil amplius dicam quam id, quod etc.,

    id. Marcell. 6, 17:

    amplius nihil respondit,

    Vulg. Marc. 15, 5:

    nihil amplius addens,

    ib. Deut. 5, 22:

    nihil noverunt amplius,

    ib. Eccl. 9, 5:

    nihil amplius optet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 46:

    nihil amplius potes,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplius quod desideres, nihil erit,

    this will leave nothing to be desired, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    nil amplius oro, nisi ut etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 4:

    ipse Augustus nihil amplius quam equestri familia ortum se scribit,

    Suet. Aug. 2:

    si non amplius, ad lustrum hoc protolleret unum,

    Lucil. 1, 33 Mull.:

    non luctabor tecum, Crasse, amplius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 17, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 98:

    verbum non amplius addam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 121:

    non amplius me objurgabis,

    Quint. 5, 10, 47:

    non amplius posse,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 3, 82, 19 Kritz:

    non habent amplius quid faciant,

    Vulg. Luc. 12, 4: non videbitis amplius faciem meam. ib. Gen. 44, 23; ib. Heb. 10, 17:

    amplius illa jam non inveniet,

    ib. Apoc. 18, 14:

    studium, quo non aliud ad dignitatem amplius excogitari potest,

    Tac. Or. 5:

    extra me non est alia amplius,

    Vulg. Soph. 2, 15:

    neque hoc amplius quam quod vides nobis quicquamst,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 21:

    neque va dari amplius neque etc.,

    Cic. Quinct. 23:

    nec jam amplius ullae Adparent terrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 192; 3, 260; 5, 8; 9, 426; 9, 519; 11, 807; 12, 680; id. G. 4, 503:

    nec irascar amplius,

    Vulg. Ezech. 16, 42; ib. Apoc. 7, 16:

    ne amplius dona petas,

    Cat. 68, 14:

    urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus,

    Lucr. 4, 874;

    ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    ut ne quem amplius posthac discipulum reciperet,

    Suet. Gram. 17:

    ne amplius morando Scaurum incenderet,

    Sall. J. 25, 10; id. Fragm. Hist. 1, 2, 10 Kritz;

    3, 82, 17: ne amplius divulgetur,

    Vulg. Act. 4, 17:

    ut nequaquam amplius per eamdem viam revertamini,

    ib. Deut. 17, 16:

    nolite amplius accipere pecuniam,

    ib. 4 Reg. 12, 7.—
    (γ).
    With nemo:

    cur non restipulatur neminem amplius petiturum?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 12, 36:

    cum amplius nemo occurreret,

    nobody further, no one more, Curt. 8, 10, 2; so,

    neminem amplius viderunt,

    Vulg. Marc. 9, 7:

    nemo emet amplius,

    no one will buy any longer, any more, ib. Apoc. 18, 11 (for cases of haud with amplius, v. c. a and g).—
    c.
    With numerals and numeral forms.
    (α).
    Without quam:

    amplius horam suffixum in cruce me memini esse,

    Cat. 69, 3:

    horam amplius jam in demoliendo signo homines moliebantur,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 95:

    amplius annos triginta tribunus fuerat,

    Sall. C. 59, 6:

    me non amplius novem annos nato,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 3:

    per annos amplius quadraginta,

    Suet. Aug. 72; 32:

    quid si tandem amplius triennium est?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 8:

    Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo,

    Verg. A. 1, 683:

    inveniebat Sabim flumen non amplius milia passuum decem abesse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 16; 4, 12:

    reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius pedum sexcentorum, mons continet,

    id. ib. 1, 28;

    2, 29: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 40; id. Fl. 68; so Plin. Ep. 10, 39, 1:

    huic paulo amplius tertiam partem denegem?

    id. ib. 5, 7, 3:

    cum eum amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14; 5, 155:

    victi amplius ducenti ceciderunt,

    Liv. 21, 29, 3: non amplius quattuordecim cohortes, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, C:

    ex omni multitudine non amplius quadraginta locum cepere,

    Sall. J. 58, 3: torrentes amplius centum, [p. 113] Plin. 5, 28, 29, § 103; 9, 5, 4, § 10.—And very rarely placed after the numeral:

    qui septingentos jam annos amplius numquam mutatis legibus vivunt,

    Cic. Fl. 63:

    pugnatum duas amplius horas,

    Liv. 25, 19, 15 Weissenb.:

    duo haud amplius milia peditum effugerunt,

    id. 28, 2:

    decem amplius versus perdidimus,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 12:

    tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas,

    Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    (β).
    With the comp. abl. (rare but class.):

    cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 5; 4, 37:

    pugnatum amplius duabus horis est,

    Liv. 27, 12:

    neque triennio amplius supervixit,

    Suet. Caes. 89:

    uti non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23; 2, 7;

    6, 29: non amplius patet milibus quinque et triginta,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 4, 1, 34 Kritz:

    est ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 90, 1:

    ab Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo,

    Sall. J. 91, 3:

    (Catilina) cum initio non amplius duobus milibus (militum) habuisset,

    id. C. 56, 2; so,

    denas alii, alii plures (uxores) habent, set reges eo amplius,

    id. J. 80, 7.—

    And prob. the following ambiguous cases: cum mille non amplius equitibus,

    Sall. J. 105, 3:

    oppidum non amplius mille passuum abesse,

    id. ib. 68, 3.—
    (γ).
    With quam (postAug. and eccl.):

    non amplius, cum plurimum, quam septem horas dormiebat,

    Suet. Aug. 78:

    nec amplius quam septem et viginti dies Brundisii commoratus,

    id. ib. 17:

    Toto triennio semel omnino eam nec amplius quam uno die paucissimis vidit horis,

    id. Tib. 51:

    demoratus dies non amplius quam octo aut decem,

    Vulg. Act. 25, 6:

    ut non amplius apud te quam quarta (pars) remaneret,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19:

    ut vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quam quingenti numero, copias fuderint,

    Tac. A. 3, 21:

    haud amplius quam ducentos misit,

    id. ib. 14, 32:

    insidiantur ei ex iis viri amplius quam quadraginta,

    Vulg. Act. 23, 21.—
    d. (α).
    Amplius, t. t. of judges when they deferred an important case for future examination:

    Amplius adeo prolixum temporis spatium significat, ut judices quotienscunque significarent, adhuc se audire velle, amplius dicebant. Itaque negotium differebant, unde hodieque ampliari judicium differri dicitur,

    Charis. 176 P.; so Don. ad Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 39; cf.

    also amplio and ampliatio: cum consules re audita amplius de consilii sententia pronuntiavissent,

    Cic. Brut. 22, 86:

    antea vel judicari primo poterat vel amplius pronuntiari,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26:

    ut de Philodamo amplius pronuntiaretur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 29.—

    And metaph.: ego amplius deliberandum censeo,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 17.—
    (β).
    Amplius non petere, judicial t. phr., to bring no further action, to make no further claim:

    quid ita satis non dedit, AMPLIVS [A SE] NEMINEM PETITVRVM?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35:

    Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero amplius eo nomine neminem, cujus petitio sit, petiturum,

    id. Brut. 5, 18:

    sunt duo, quae te rogo: primum, ut si quid satis dandum erit, AMPLIVS EO NOMINE NON PETI, cures etc.,

    id. Fam. 13, 28 A:

    quod ille recusarit satis dare amplius abs te non peti,

    id. Att. 1, 8, 1.—
    (γ).
    Hoc amplius, beside the general use given above (II. Comp. b. a), as t. phr. of senators when they approved a measure, but amended it by addition:

    Servilio adsentior et HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, magnum Pompeium fecisse etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 21, 50:

    cui cum essem adsensus, decrevi HOC AMPLIVS, ut etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 5, 1;

    so Seneca: fortasse et post omnes citatus nihil improbabo ex iis, quae priores decreverint, et dicam HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, Vit. Beat. 3, 2: Quaedam ex istis sunt, quibus adsentire possumus, sed HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO,

    id. Q. N. 3, 15, 1.—
    (δ).
    To this may be added the elliptical phrases, nihil amplius and si nihil amplius:

    nihil amplius, denoting that there is nothing further than has been declared: sese ipsum abs te repetit. Nihil amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 5, 49, 128;

    (res publica) ulta suas injurias est per vos interitu tyranni. Nihil amplius,

    id. Fam. 12, 1, 2; and, si nihil amplius, marking a limit, if nothing more, at least:

    excedam tectis? An, si nihil amplius, obstem?

    Ov. M. 9, 148.
    The form amplius has the ambiguity of the Engl.
    word more, which is sometimes an adj., sometimes a subst., and sometimes an adv., and some of the above examples would admit of different classifications; as, non amplius dicere, not to speak further (adv.) or not to say more (subst.), Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51; but some of them would admit of only one explanation;

    as, ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43. Sup.: amplissimē.
    I.
    Lit., very largely, most abundantly:

    ut quibus militibus amplissime (agri) dati adsignati essent,

    in the largest shares, Cic. Phil. 5, 53:

    duumviri (deos) tribus quam amplissume tum apparari poterat stratis lectis placavere,

    Liv. 5, 13, 6 Weissenb.—
    II.
    Fig., most generously, most handsomely:

    qui amplissime de salute mea decreverint,

    Cic. Dom. 44:

    amplissime laudare,

    in the handsomest style, Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11; Suet. Calig. 15:

    honores amplissime gessit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 112:

    pater cum amplissime ex praetura triumphasset,

    with the greatest pomp, id. Mur. 15:

    placere eum quam amplissime supremo suo die efferri,

    should be carried forth with every possible solemnity, id. Phil. 9, 7, 16. V. on this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 287-296.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amplissime

  • 11 amplus

    amplus, a, um, adj. [some regard this as a shortened form of anapleôs, = filled up, full; others, as for ambulus from amb-, rounded out, as superus from super, etc.; v. Doed. Syn. II. p. 113; but perh. it is better to form it from am- and -plus, akin to -pleo, plenus, q. v. Pott], thus pr., full all round; hence, great, large. —In space, of large extent, great, large, wide, ample, spacious (the forms amplus and amplior are very rare in the ante-class. per., and rare in all periods. Amplius is com. in the ante-class., freq. in the class., and very freq. in the post-class. per., the Vulg. rarely using the other forms, but using this 121 times. Amplissimus belongs to prose, and is scarcely used before Cicero, with whom it was a very favorite word. It was also used by Plin. Maj. and Min., but never by Tac., Sall. (in his genuine works), nor the Vulg. Catullus used only the form amplius, and Prop. only amplus, while Tib. and Pers. never used this word in any form. Ampliter is found mostly in Plaut.; and ample and amplissime are used a few times by Cic. and by writers that followed him; syn.: magnus, ingens, latus, late patens, spatiosus, laxus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    amplus et spectu protervo ferox,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 94 Rib.:

    qui (Pluto) ter amplum Geryonen compescit unda,

    Hor. C. 2, 14, 7:

    ampla domus dedecori domino fit, si est in ea solitudo,

    Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139; so Verg. A. 2, 310:

    admodum amplum et excelsum signum,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 74:

    collis castris parum amplus,

    Sall. J. 98, 3:

    porticibus in amplis,

    Verg. A. 3, 353:

    per amplum mittimur Elysium,

    id. ib. 6, 743:

    vocemque per ampla volutant Atria,

    id. ib. 1, 725:

    nil vulva pulchrius ampla,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 41:

    amplae aures,

    Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274:

    milium amplum grano,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 55:

    cubiculum amplum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 6:

    baptisterium amplum atque opacum,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 25.— Comp.:

    quanto est res amplior,

    Lucr. 2, 1133:

    Amplior Urgo et Capraria,

    Plin. 3, 6, 12, § 81:

    avis paulo amplior passere,

    id. 10, 32, 47, § 89:

    amplior specie mortali,

    Suet. Aug. 94; id. Caes. 76 (for the neutr. amplius, v. infra).— Sup.:

    amplissima curia... gymnasium amplissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53:

    urbs amplissima atque ornatissima,

    id. Agr. 2, 76:

    amplissimum peristylum,

    id. Dom. 116:

    (candelabrum) ad amplissimi templi ornatum esse factum,

    id. Verr. 4, 65:

    mons Italiae amplissimus,

    Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48:

    amplissimum flumen,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 3:

    amplissimus lacus,

    id. ib. 10, 41, 2:

    amplissima insula,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 71:

    amplissimi horti,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 18, 11:

    amplissima arborum,

    Plin. 16, 39, 76, § 200:

    est (topazon) amplissima gemmarum,

    id. 37, 8, 32, § 109:

    amplissimum cubiculum,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 23.—
    B.
    Transf., great, abundant, ample, much, long:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6 and Ep. 2, 2, 117:

    pabula miseris mortalibus ampla,

    Lucr. 5, 944:

    ampla civitas,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 81; 4, 96:

    civitas ampla atque florens,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 3:

    gens ampla,

    Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 125:

    amplae copiae,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19:

    ampla manus militum,

    Liv. Epit. 1, 4, 9:

    pecuaria res ampla,

    Cic. Quinct. 12:

    res familiaris ampla,

    id. Phil. 13, 8:

    (res) ampla,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 3, 82, 20 Kritz:

    patrimonium amplum et copiosum,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 6; id. Dom. 146: id. Phil. 2, 67:

    amplae divitiae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 101:

    esse patri ejus amplas facultates,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 9:

    in amplis opibus heres,

    Plin. 9, 36, 59, § 122.— Comp.:

    amplior numerus,

    Cic. Mil. 57; Sall. J. 105, 3; Tac. A. 14, 53:

    ampliores aquae,

    Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 58:

    amplior exercitus,

    Sall. J. 54, 3; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    commeatus spe amplior,

    Sall. J. 75, 8:

    amplior pecunia, Auct. B. Alex. 56: pecunia amplior,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 2:

    pretia ampliora,

    Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84:

    omnia longe ampliora invenire quam etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10:

    ampliores noctes,

    Plin. 18, 26, 63, § 232:

    ut ampliori tempore maneret,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 20.— Sup.:

    peditatus copiae amplissimae e Gallia,

    Cic. Font. 8:

    exercitus amplissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; 9, 13, 11:

    amplissima pecunia,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 31:

    amplissimae fortunae,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 8; id. Quinct. 49; id. Phil. 10, 4:

    amplissimae patrimonii copiae,

    id. Fl. 89:

    amplissimas summas emptionibus occupare,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 2, 3:

    opes amplissimae,

    id. ib. 8, 18, 4:

    amplissima dies horarum quindecim etc.,

    the longest day, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 218.—Also subst. in comp. neutr. (v. amplius, adv. infra), more:

    ut quirem exaudire amplius,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    si vis amplius dari, Dabitur,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 18:

    jam amplius orat,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    daturus non sum amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29:

    non complectar in his libris amplius quam quod etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 22:

    tantum adfero quantum ipse optat, atque etiam amplius,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 10:

    ni amplius etiam, quod ebibit,

    id. Trin. 2, 1, 20: Ph. Etiamne amplius? Th. Nil, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 63: Tr. Dimidium Volo ut dicas. Gr. Immo hercle etiam amplius, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 21: Th. Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae? Tr. Haud nummo amplius, id. Most. 3, 3, 16:

    etiam amplius illam adparare condecet,

    Turp. Com. Rel. p. 100 Rib.:

    hoc onere suscepto amplexus animo sum aliquanto amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1:

    si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 54:

    omnis numerus amplius octingentis milibus explebat,

    Vell. 2, 110, 3:

    Segestanis imponebat aliquanto amplius quam etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 76:

    illa corona contentus Thrasybulus neque amplius requisivit,

    Nep. Thras. 4, 3:

    amplius possidere,

    Plin. 18, 4, 3, § 17:

    Ille imperio ei reddito haud amplius, quam ut duo ex tribus filiis secum militarent, exegit,

    Curt. 8, 4, 21:

    dedit quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius, si potuisset,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 21, 6:

    cum hoc amplius praestet, quod etc.,

    id. ib. 7, 25, 1.—Also with part. gen., more of, a greater quantity or number of:

    gaudeo tibi liberorum esse amplius,

    Plaut. Cist. 5, 4:

    te amplius bibisse praedicet loti,

    Cat. 39, 21:

    amplius frumenti auferre,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 49:

    expensum est auri viginti paulo amplius,

    id. Fl. 6, 8:

    amplius negotii contrahi,

    id. Cat. 4, 9:

    si amplius obsidum vellet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9, ubi v. Herz.:

    quanto ejus amplius processerat temporis,

    id. B. C. 3, 25.—
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Of internal power or force, great, strong, violent, impetuous:

    pro viribus amplis,

    Lucr. 5, 1174:

    amplae vires peditum,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 75;

    ampla nepotum Spes,

    Prop. 4, 22, 41:

    poena sera, sed ampla,

    full, strict, id. 4, 5, 32. — Comp.:

    haec irae factae essent multo ampliores,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 9:

    si forte morbus amplior factus siet, i. e. gravior,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 50:

    amplior metus,

    Cic. Clu. 128:

    amplior potentia feris,

    Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153:

    ampliorem dicendi facultatem consequi,

    Quint. 2, 3, 4:

    amplior eoque acrior impetus,

    Flor. 4, 2, 66:

    spes amplior,

    Sall. J. 105, 4:

    amplius accipietis judicium,

    severer, Vulg. Matt. 23, 14:

    amplior auctoritas,

    Plin. 37, 3, 12, § 47:

    amplior virtus,

    higher merit, Quint. 8, 3, 83:

    idem aut amplior cultus (dei),

    Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 18:

    amplior est quaestio,

    Quint. 3, 5, 8:

    ampliora verba,

    of larger meaning, id. 8, 4, 2: scientia intellegentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventae sunt in te, Vulg. Dan. 5, 14:

    quo legatis animus amplior esset,

    Sall. C. 40, 6; 59, 1:

    spiritus amplior,

    Vulg. Dan. 5, 12; 6, 3.— Sup.:

    (honos) pro amplissimis meritis redditur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 41:

    cujus sideris (Caniculae) effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur,

    very violent, Plin. 2, 40, 40, § 107:

    amplissima spes,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    his finis cognitionis amplissimae,

    most important trial, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 23.—
    B.
    Of external splendor, great, handsome, magnificent, splendid, glorious:

    illis ampla satis forma, pudicitia,

    great enough, Prop. 1, 2, 24:

    haec ampla sunt, haec divina,

    Cic. Sest. 102; id. Arch. 23:

    res gestae satis amplae,

    Sall. C. 8, 2:

    cur parum amplis adfecerit praemiis,

    Cic. Mil. 57:

    ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus meritis praemia acceperunt,

    Tac. A. 14, 53:

    amplum in modum praemia ostentare,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 26, 6:

    amplis honoribus usi,

    Sall. J. 25, 4:

    amplis honoribus auctos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 11.—Sometimes in mal. part. or ironically:

    amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    a fine opportunity, Cic. Verr. 2, 61:

    spolia ampla refertis Tuque puerque tuus,

    glorious spoils, Verg. A. 4, 93.— Comp.:

    ne ullum munus aedilitatis amplius aut gratius populo esse possit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5; id. Mur. 37:

    praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri,

    id. de Or. 1, 4, 13:

    alicui ampliorem laudem tribuere,

    id. Sest. 27:

    in aliqua re esse laudem ampliorem,

    id. Marcell. 4:

    corporis membris plus dedit, id amplius atque augustius ratus (Zeuxis),

    Quint. 12, 10, 5:

    ut Augustus vocaretur ampliore cognomine,

    Suet. Aug. 7.— Subst.:

    in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur,

    of something greater, Sall. J. 63, 5.— Sup.:

    ut consules monumentum quam amplissimum faciundum curent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 38; 14, 31; id. Verr. 4, 82:

    hoc munus aedilitatis amplissimum,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 36; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 1, 74:

    alicui amplissimas potestates dare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31:

    insignibus amplissimis ornatus,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    dona amplissima conferre,

    Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9:

    praemia legatis dedistis amplissima,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5; id. Phil. 2, 32:

    spe amplissimorum praemiorum adduci,

    id. Mil. 5; id. de Or. 1, 5, 16:

    velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi laboris,

    Quint. 10, 7, 1:

    munera amplissima mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    vestris beneficiis amplissimis adfectus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 51; id. Dom. 98:

    laudi amplissimae lauream concedere,

    id. Pis. 74:

    laudibus amplissimis adficere,

    id. Phil. 7, 11:

    amplissimam gloriam consequi,

    id. Prov. Cons. 39:

    ut eum amplissimo regis honore et nomine adfeceris,

    id. Deiot. 14:

    amplissimis aliquem efferre honoribus,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 17, 3:

    amplissimis uti honoribus,

    Cic. Fl. 45:

    amplissimos honores adipisci,

    id. Verr. 5, 181:

    honores adsequi amplissimos,

    id. Mil. 81:

    aliquem ad honores amplissimos perducere,

    id. Am. 20, 73:

    meus labor fructum est amplissimum consecutus,

    id. Imp. Pomp 2:

    mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur,

    in the handsomest termis, id. Cat. 3, 14; id. Phil. 2, 13; id. Quir. 15:

    ei amplissimis verbis gratias egimus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3:

    provincia Gallia merito ornatur verbis amplissimis ab senatu,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    amplissimis verbis conlaudatus,

    Suet. Caes. 16:

    amplissimo populi senatusque judicio exercitus habuistis,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 12; id. Fl. 5; id. Dom. 86; id. Planc. 93:

    de meo consulatu amplissima atque ornatissima decreta fecerunt,

    id. Dom. 74:

    quam universi populi, illius gentis, amplissimum testimonium (said of Cic.),

    Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116.—
    C.
    In respect of the opinion of others, esteemed, renowned, etc.:

    quicquid est, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare (putare possumus), qui etc.,

    great or noble, id. Imp. Pomp. 37:

    omnia, quae vobis cara atque ampla sunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 9; id. Arch. 23:

    convenerunt corrogati et quidem ampli quidam homines,

    id. Phil. 3, 20:

    hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli,

    small and great, Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 28:

    amplis doctoribus instructus,

    Tac. A. 14, 52:

    sin autem sunt amplae et honestae familiae plebeiae,

    Cic. Mur. 7, 15.— Comp.:

    cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    ampliores ordines,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 77, where Dinter reads priores: quo (ingenio) neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, [p. 112] Sall. J. 2, 4:

    nihil amplius potes (tribuere) amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    quid amplius facitis?

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 47.— Sup.:

    ex amplissimo genere nubere,

    Cic. Cael. 34:

    amplissimo genere natus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    genere copiisque amplissimus, id. ib 6, 15: quam (familiam) vidit amplissimam,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12:

    amplissimos patruos habere,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 147:

    amplissima civitas,

    id. Verr. 5, 122:

    apud illos Fabiorum nomen est amplissimum,

    id. Font. 36; id. Caecin. 104; id. Verr. 3, 96; id. Deiot. 14:

    mihi hic locus ad agendum amplissimus est visus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    non adgrediar ad illa maxima atque amplissima prius quam etc.,

    id. Sest. 5:

    licet tribuas ei quantum amplissimum potes, nihil tamen amplius potes amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplissimis operibus increscere,

    id. ib. 8, 4, 3:

    honores in amplissimo consilio collocare,

    Cic. Sen. 2:

    amplissimi orbis terrae consilii principes,

    id. Phil. 3, 34: honoris amplissimi puto esse accusare improbos, I esteem it to be the greatest honor, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 70:

    promotus ad amplissimas procurationes,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 31, 3:

    praeter honores amplissimos cognomenque etc.,

    Plin. 7, 44, 45, § 142:

    spes amplissimae dignitatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 49; id. Sen. 19, 68; Suet. Vit. 2.—
    D.
    Hence, amplissimus (almost always thus in sup.) as a title for persons holding great and honored offices, as consul, senator, etc., or as an honorable epithet of the office itself or the body of officers, distinguished, very distinguished, honorable, right honorable, most honorable, etc.:

    is mihi videtur amplissimus, qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 83:

    homo et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimus,

    id. Mur. 8:

    P. Africanus rebus gestis amplissimus,

    id. Caecin. 69:

    ut homines amplissimi testimonium de sua re non dicerent,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 102; id. Clu. 197:

    Q. Catuli atque ceterorum amplissimorum hominum auctoritas,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 63:

    vir amplissimus ejus civitatis,

    id. Verr. 4, 17; id. Fl. 32:

    exercitum Cn. Domitii, amplissimi viri, sustentavit,

    id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem (of L. Lucullus),

    id. Arch. 4, 8; id. Lig. 22:

    in quo consilio amplissimi viri judicarent,

    id. Mil. 5; id. Balb. 1; id. Dom. 2:

    comitatus virorum amplissimorum,

    id. Sull. 9:

    viros primarios atque amplissimos civitatis in consilium advocare,

    id. Verr. 3, 18:

    ordinis amplissimi esse,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 13, 1; 37, 6:

    cives amplissimos legare,

    Cic. Balb. 42:

    hoc amplissimum nomen, i. e. senatorium,

    id. Verr. 3, 96:

    amplissimus honos, i. e. consulatus,

    id. Rep. 1, 6; so,

    amplissimo praeditus magistratu,

    Suet. Aug. 26:

    amplissimus ordo, i. e. senatorius,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 3; Suet. Calig. 49:

    amplissimi ordines, i. e. senatus et equites,

    id. Vesp. 9:

    amplissimum collegium decemvirale,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49:

    an vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 3:

    amplissimum sacerdotium,

    id. Verr. 2, 126; id. Phil. 13, 8:

    sacerdotium amplissimum,

    id. Verr. 2, 127.—
    E.
    As rhet. epithet:

    amplus orator,

    one that speaks richly and with dignity, Cic. Or. 9; id. Brut. 68:

    herous (pes), qui est idem dactylus Aristoteli amplior, iambus humanior videatur,

    grander, more stately, Quint. 9, 4, 88:

    amplius compositionis genus,

    more copious style, id. 9, 4, 129.— Adv. (on the extent of the use of the different forms of the adverb, v. supra init.), largely, abundantly, copiously.
    I.
    Lit.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    benigne ei largi atque ampliter,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    aptate munde atque ampliter convivium,

    Pomp. Com. Rel. p. 234 Rib.:

    extructam ampliter mensam,

    Lucil. 13, 7 Mull.:

    opsonato ampliter,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65:

    adpositum est ampliter,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 163:

    acceptus hilare atque ampliter,

    id. Merc. prol. 98:

    modeste melius facere sumptum quam ampliter,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 10:

    parum (digitulos) immersisti ampliter,

    not deep enough, id. Bacch. 4, 4, 26.—
    b.
    Form amplē:

    exornat ample magnificeque triclinium,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 62: qui ample valetudinarios nutriunt, in great numbers (v. the context), Cels. praef. med.
    II.
    Trop., fully, handsomely.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    ampliter dicere,

    fully, particularly, Gell. 10, 3, 4:

    laudare ampliter,

    id. 2, 6, 11.—
    b.
    Form amplē: duo genera sunt: unum attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, with great fulness, richly (v. amplus, II. E.), Cic. Brut. 55, 201; so,

    elate ampleque loqui,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 24:

    satis ample sonabant in Pompeiani nominis locum Cato et Scipio,

    full grandly filled the place of, Flor. 4, 2, 65.— Comp.: amplĭus, more, longer, further, besides (syn.: ultra, praeterea); of time, number, and action (while plus denotes more in quantity, measure, etc.; magis, more, in the comparison of quality, and sometimes of action; and potius, rather, the choice between different objects or acts), constr. absol., with comp. abl., and, in the case of numerals, like minus, plus, propius, q. v., without quam with the nom., acc., or gen., or rarely with the abl. comp., or with quam, but chiefly in the post-Aug. per.; cf. Zumpt, § 485; Madv. § 305; Roby, § 1273; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 4, 12; and Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 521 sq.
    a.
    In gen.:

    deliberatum est non tacere [me] amplius,

    Afran. Com. Rel. p. 199 Rib.:

    otium ubi erit, de istis rebus tum amplius tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18:

    cui amplius male faxim,

    id. Aul. 3, 2, 6: De. Etiam? Li. Amplius, id. As. 1, 1, 29: Ar. Vale. Ph. Aliquanto amplius valerem, si hic maneres, id. ib. 3, 3, 2:

    etiam faxo amabit (eam) amplius,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 40:

    multo tanto illum accusabo, quam te accusavi, amplius,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 49:

    quo populum servare potissit amplius,

    Lucil. 1, 15 Mull.:

    At ego amplius dico,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 26:

    amplius posse,

    Sall. J. 69, 2:

    armis amplius valere,

    id. ib. 111, 1:

    si lamentetur miser amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 953:

    tribus vobis opsonatumst an opsono amplius Tibi et parasito et mulieri?

    besides, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 45:

    Quam vellem invitatum, ut nobiscum esset amplius,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    in illo exercitu cuncta (probra) fuere et alia amplius,

    Sall. J. 44, 5:

    felices ter et amplius,

    Hor. C. 1, 13, 17:

    binas aut amplius domos continuare,

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    ter nec amplius,

    Suet. Caes. 25:

    cum non solum de his scripserit, sed amplius praecepta (reliquerit),

    Quint. 12, 11, 24:

    multa promi amplius possunt,

    Plin. 2, 17, 15, § 77:

    si studere amplius possum,

    Quint. 6, prooem. 4:

    auram communem amplius haurire potui?

    id. 6, prooem. 12:

    sagum, quod amplius est,

    Vulg. Exod. 26, 12.—
    b.
    And so very often with the pron. quid, etc.; with the negatives nihil, non, neque, nec, ne; and sometimes with nemo and haud.
    (α).
    With quid, etc.:

    Quid faciam amplius?

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 14, and Cic. Har. Resp. 42:

    quid dicam amplius?

    Quint. 8, 4, 7:

    quid a me amplius dicendum putatis?

    Cic. Verr. 3, 60:

    quid quaeris amplius?

    id. Sex. Rosc. 145; id. Dom. 41; id. Verr. 2, 191:

    quid vultis amplius?

    id. Mil. 35:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    quid exspectatis amplius?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 174:

    quid amplius exspectabo,

    Vulg. 4 Reg. 6, 33:

    quid loquar amplius de hoc homine?

    Cic. Caecin. 25:

    quid amplius laboremus?

    Quint. 8, prooem. 31:

    quid habet amplius homo?

    Vulg. Eccl. 1, 3; 6, 8:

    quid ego aliud exoptem amplius, nisi etc.,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 134:

    quid amplius debeam optare?

    Quint. 4, 1, 51: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 11; Ter. And. 2, 1, 25: De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, id. Ad. 3, 4, 22:

    quid est quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

    more than this, id. And. 1, 1, 4:

    Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 6; id. Sull. 90:

    si quid amplius scit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 23:

    si quid ego addidero amplius,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 13:

    si amplius aliquid gloriatus fuero,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 10, 8.—And often hoc amplius, where hoc is commonly an abl., but sometimes may be regarded as a nom. or an acc.:

    hoc amplius si quid poteris,

    any thing beyond this, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 44: et hoc amplius (additur), quod etc., and this further, that etc., id. Sull. 44; so Quint. 5, 13, 36:

    de paedagogis hoc amplius, ut aut sint etc.,

    id. 1, 1, 8:

    Mario urbe Italiaque interdicendum, Marciano hoc amplius, Africa,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19; Quint. 1, 5, 50; 1, 5, 55; sometimes in plur., his amplius:

    his amplius apud eundem (est) etc.,

    Quint. 9, 3, 15;

    so rarely eo amplius: inferiasque his annua religione, publice instituit, et eo amplius matri Circenses,

    Suet. Calig. 15:

    quaeris quid potuerit amplius adsequi,

    Cic. Planc. 60: prius quam (hic) turbarum quid faciat amplius, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 93:

    quare jam te cur amplius excrucies?

    Cat. 76, 10.—
    (β).
    With nihil, etc.:

    habet nihil amplius quam lutum,

    Lucil. 9, 46 Mull.:

    nihil habui amplius, quod praeciperem,

    Quint. 7, 1, 64:

    nihil enim dixit amplius,

    Cic. Deiot. 21:

    Nihil dico amplius: causa dicta est,

    I say no more; I have done with my case, id. ib. 8:

    nihil amplius dico, nisi me etc.,

    id. Planc. 96:

    nihil amplius dicam quam victoriam etc.,

    id. Marcell. 17.—Hence, nihil dico or dicam amplius, when one fears to wound by declaring his opinion, etc., I say no more, have nothing further to say or add:

    vetus est, Nihili cocio est. Scis cujus? non dico amplius,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51:

    si, quod equitis Romani filius est, inferior esse debuit: omnes tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico amplius,

    Cic. Planc. 7 (tacite significat eos dignitate inferiores esse Plancio, Manut. ad h.l.):

    Alterius vero partis nihil amplius dicam quam id, quod etc.,

    id. Marcell. 6, 17:

    amplius nihil respondit,

    Vulg. Marc. 15, 5:

    nihil amplius addens,

    ib. Deut. 5, 22:

    nihil noverunt amplius,

    ib. Eccl. 9, 5:

    nihil amplius optet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 46:

    nihil amplius potes,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplius quod desideres, nihil erit,

    this will leave nothing to be desired, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    nil amplius oro, nisi ut etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 4:

    ipse Augustus nihil amplius quam equestri familia ortum se scribit,

    Suet. Aug. 2:

    si non amplius, ad lustrum hoc protolleret unum,

    Lucil. 1, 33 Mull.:

    non luctabor tecum, Crasse, amplius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 17, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 98:

    verbum non amplius addam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 121:

    non amplius me objurgabis,

    Quint. 5, 10, 47:

    non amplius posse,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 3, 82, 19 Kritz:

    non habent amplius quid faciant,

    Vulg. Luc. 12, 4: non videbitis amplius faciem meam. ib. Gen. 44, 23; ib. Heb. 10, 17:

    amplius illa jam non inveniet,

    ib. Apoc. 18, 14:

    studium, quo non aliud ad dignitatem amplius excogitari potest,

    Tac. Or. 5:

    extra me non est alia amplius,

    Vulg. Soph. 2, 15:

    neque hoc amplius quam quod vides nobis quicquamst,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 21:

    neque va dari amplius neque etc.,

    Cic. Quinct. 23:

    nec jam amplius ullae Adparent terrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 192; 3, 260; 5, 8; 9, 426; 9, 519; 11, 807; 12, 680; id. G. 4, 503:

    nec irascar amplius,

    Vulg. Ezech. 16, 42; ib. Apoc. 7, 16:

    ne amplius dona petas,

    Cat. 68, 14:

    urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus,

    Lucr. 4, 874;

    ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    ut ne quem amplius posthac discipulum reciperet,

    Suet. Gram. 17:

    ne amplius morando Scaurum incenderet,

    Sall. J. 25, 10; id. Fragm. Hist. 1, 2, 10 Kritz;

    3, 82, 17: ne amplius divulgetur,

    Vulg. Act. 4, 17:

    ut nequaquam amplius per eamdem viam revertamini,

    ib. Deut. 17, 16:

    nolite amplius accipere pecuniam,

    ib. 4 Reg. 12, 7.—
    (γ).
    With nemo:

    cur non restipulatur neminem amplius petiturum?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 12, 36:

    cum amplius nemo occurreret,

    nobody further, no one more, Curt. 8, 10, 2; so,

    neminem amplius viderunt,

    Vulg. Marc. 9, 7:

    nemo emet amplius,

    no one will buy any longer, any more, ib. Apoc. 18, 11 (for cases of haud with amplius, v. c. a and g).—
    c.
    With numerals and numeral forms.
    (α).
    Without quam:

    amplius horam suffixum in cruce me memini esse,

    Cat. 69, 3:

    horam amplius jam in demoliendo signo homines moliebantur,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 95:

    amplius annos triginta tribunus fuerat,

    Sall. C. 59, 6:

    me non amplius novem annos nato,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 3:

    per annos amplius quadraginta,

    Suet. Aug. 72; 32:

    quid si tandem amplius triennium est?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 8:

    Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo,

    Verg. A. 1, 683:

    inveniebat Sabim flumen non amplius milia passuum decem abesse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 16; 4, 12:

    reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius pedum sexcentorum, mons continet,

    id. ib. 1, 28;

    2, 29: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 40; id. Fl. 68; so Plin. Ep. 10, 39, 1:

    huic paulo amplius tertiam partem denegem?

    id. ib. 5, 7, 3:

    cum eum amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14; 5, 155:

    victi amplius ducenti ceciderunt,

    Liv. 21, 29, 3: non amplius quattuordecim cohortes, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, C:

    ex omni multitudine non amplius quadraginta locum cepere,

    Sall. J. 58, 3: torrentes amplius centum, [p. 113] Plin. 5, 28, 29, § 103; 9, 5, 4, § 10.—And very rarely placed after the numeral:

    qui septingentos jam annos amplius numquam mutatis legibus vivunt,

    Cic. Fl. 63:

    pugnatum duas amplius horas,

    Liv. 25, 19, 15 Weissenb.:

    duo haud amplius milia peditum effugerunt,

    id. 28, 2:

    decem amplius versus perdidimus,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 12:

    tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas,

    Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    (β).
    With the comp. abl. (rare but class.):

    cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 5; 4, 37:

    pugnatum amplius duabus horis est,

    Liv. 27, 12:

    neque triennio amplius supervixit,

    Suet. Caes. 89:

    uti non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23; 2, 7;

    6, 29: non amplius patet milibus quinque et triginta,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 4, 1, 34 Kritz:

    est ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 90, 1:

    ab Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo,

    Sall. J. 91, 3:

    (Catilina) cum initio non amplius duobus milibus (militum) habuisset,

    id. C. 56, 2; so,

    denas alii, alii plures (uxores) habent, set reges eo amplius,

    id. J. 80, 7.—

    And prob. the following ambiguous cases: cum mille non amplius equitibus,

    Sall. J. 105, 3:

    oppidum non amplius mille passuum abesse,

    id. ib. 68, 3.—
    (γ).
    With quam (postAug. and eccl.):

    non amplius, cum plurimum, quam septem horas dormiebat,

    Suet. Aug. 78:

    nec amplius quam septem et viginti dies Brundisii commoratus,

    id. ib. 17:

    Toto triennio semel omnino eam nec amplius quam uno die paucissimis vidit horis,

    id. Tib. 51:

    demoratus dies non amplius quam octo aut decem,

    Vulg. Act. 25, 6:

    ut non amplius apud te quam quarta (pars) remaneret,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19:

    ut vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quam quingenti numero, copias fuderint,

    Tac. A. 3, 21:

    haud amplius quam ducentos misit,

    id. ib. 14, 32:

    insidiantur ei ex iis viri amplius quam quadraginta,

    Vulg. Act. 23, 21.—
    d. (α).
    Amplius, t. t. of judges when they deferred an important case for future examination:

    Amplius adeo prolixum temporis spatium significat, ut judices quotienscunque significarent, adhuc se audire velle, amplius dicebant. Itaque negotium differebant, unde hodieque ampliari judicium differri dicitur,

    Charis. 176 P.; so Don. ad Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 39; cf.

    also amplio and ampliatio: cum consules re audita amplius de consilii sententia pronuntiavissent,

    Cic. Brut. 22, 86:

    antea vel judicari primo poterat vel amplius pronuntiari,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26:

    ut de Philodamo amplius pronuntiaretur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 29.—

    And metaph.: ego amplius deliberandum censeo,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 17.—
    (β).
    Amplius non petere, judicial t. phr., to bring no further action, to make no further claim:

    quid ita satis non dedit, AMPLIVS [A SE] NEMINEM PETITVRVM?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35:

    Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero amplius eo nomine neminem, cujus petitio sit, petiturum,

    id. Brut. 5, 18:

    sunt duo, quae te rogo: primum, ut si quid satis dandum erit, AMPLIVS EO NOMINE NON PETI, cures etc.,

    id. Fam. 13, 28 A:

    quod ille recusarit satis dare amplius abs te non peti,

    id. Att. 1, 8, 1.—
    (γ).
    Hoc amplius, beside the general use given above (II. Comp. b. a), as t. phr. of senators when they approved a measure, but amended it by addition:

    Servilio adsentior et HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, magnum Pompeium fecisse etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 21, 50:

    cui cum essem adsensus, decrevi HOC AMPLIVS, ut etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 5, 1;

    so Seneca: fortasse et post omnes citatus nihil improbabo ex iis, quae priores decreverint, et dicam HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, Vit. Beat. 3, 2: Quaedam ex istis sunt, quibus adsentire possumus, sed HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO,

    id. Q. N. 3, 15, 1.—
    (δ).
    To this may be added the elliptical phrases, nihil amplius and si nihil amplius:

    nihil amplius, denoting that there is nothing further than has been declared: sese ipsum abs te repetit. Nihil amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 5, 49, 128;

    (res publica) ulta suas injurias est per vos interitu tyranni. Nihil amplius,

    id. Fam. 12, 1, 2; and, si nihil amplius, marking a limit, if nothing more, at least:

    excedam tectis? An, si nihil amplius, obstem?

    Ov. M. 9, 148.
    The form amplius has the ambiguity of the Engl.
    word more, which is sometimes an adj., sometimes a subst., and sometimes an adv., and some of the above examples would admit of different classifications; as, non amplius dicere, not to speak further (adv.) or not to say more (subst.), Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51; but some of them would admit of only one explanation;

    as, ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43. Sup.: amplissimē.
    I.
    Lit., very largely, most abundantly:

    ut quibus militibus amplissime (agri) dati adsignati essent,

    in the largest shares, Cic. Phil. 5, 53:

    duumviri (deos) tribus quam amplissume tum apparari poterat stratis lectis placavere,

    Liv. 5, 13, 6 Weissenb.—
    II.
    Fig., most generously, most handsomely:

    qui amplissime de salute mea decreverint,

    Cic. Dom. 44:

    amplissime laudare,

    in the handsomest style, Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11; Suet. Calig. 15:

    honores amplissime gessit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 112:

    pater cum amplissime ex praetura triumphasset,

    with the greatest pomp, id. Mur. 15:

    placere eum quam amplissime supremo suo die efferri,

    should be carried forth with every possible solemnity, id. Phil. 9, 7, 16. V. on this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 287-296.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amplus

  • 12 avarus

    ăvārus, a, um, adj. ( gen. plur. fem. avarūm, Plaut. Truc. 2, 8, 9 dub.; Speng., aurum) [1. aveo, Gell. 10, 5, 13], eagerly desirous of something, esp. of possessions, avaricious, covetous, greedy (opp. largus, Quadrig. ap. Non. p. 510, 20: avarum et avidum ita discernuntur: avarum semper in reprehensione est;

    avidum autem malis aliquando, aliquando bonis adjungitur,

    Non. p. 442, 12 sq.; v. II.; syn.: avidus, cupidus, tenax, sordidus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    meretrix,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 5, and Cat. 110, 7; cf.:

    Carmine formosae, pretio capiuntur avarae,

    Tib. 3, 1, 7:

    leno,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 39:

    avarus et furax homo,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 268:

    semper avarus eget,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 56:

    quantum discordet parcus avaro,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 194.—With gen.:

    publicae pecuniae,

    Tac. H. 1, 49:

    caedis,

    Claud. B. Get. 606 et saep.— Poet. transf. to inanimate things:

    fuge litus avarum,

    Verg. A. 3, 44 ( = avarorum, Serv.):

    Troja, i. e. with reference to the perjured avarice of Laomedon,

    Ov. M. 11, 208 (cf.:

    perjura Troja,

    Verg. A. 5, 811; Ov. M. 11, 215):

    fraus,

    Hor. C. 4, 9, 37:

    spes,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 25:

    venter,

    id. Ep. 1, 15, 32:

    mare,

    id. C. 3, 29, 61: Acheron. Verg. G. 2, 492:

    ignis,

    Prop. 3, 26, 10 al. —
    II.
    Transf., in the poets sometimes without the access. idea of reproach: Graiis praeter laudem nullius avaris, eager only for glory, Hor.A.P.324:

    agricola,

    Verg. G. 1, 48.— Comp.:

    avariores magistratus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 82:

    ruberes, Viveret in terris te si quis avarior uno,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 157. — Sup.:

    homo avarissime et spurcissime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 37.— Adv., covetously, greedily, avariciously, etc.
    a.
    Ante-class. form ăvārĭter, Cato and Quadrig. ap. Non. p. 510, 17:

    ingurgitare,

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 35. —Of gluttony:

    si quis avidus poscit escam avariter,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 7, 12; cf. avaritia, II.—
    b.
    Class. form ăvārē:

    avare pretium statui arti meae,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 48:

    aliquid facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 8, 37; Nep. Lys. 4, 1:

    superbe avareque imperitare victis,

    Liv. 21, 1, 3; cf. Curt. 4, 7.— Comp., more eagerly, more greedily:

    avarius exigere opus,

    Col. 1, 7, 1.— Sup.:

    avarissime horas suas servare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 32.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > avarus

  • 13 cado

    cădo, cĕcĭdi, cāsum, 3 ( part. pres. gen. plur. cadentūm, Verg. A. 10, 674; 12, 410), v. n. [cf. Sanscr. çad-, to fall away].
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In an extended sense, to be driven or carried by one ' s weight from a higher to a lower point, to fall down, be precipitated, sink down, go down, sink, fall (so mostly poet.; in prose, in place of it, the compounds decĭdo, occĭdo, excĭdo, etc.; cf. also ruo, labor;

    opp. surgo, sto): tum arbores in te cadent,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 25: (aves) praecipites cadunt in terram aut in aquam, fall headlong to the earth or into the water, Lucr. 6, 745; cf. id. 6, 828;

    imitated by Verg.: (apes) praecipites cadunt,

    Verg. G. 4, 80:

    nimbus, Ut picis e caelo demissum flumen, in undas Sic cadit, etc.,

    Lucr. 6, 258:

    cadit in terras vis flammea,

    id. 2, 215; so with in, id. 2, 209; 4, 1282; 6, 1006; 6, 1125; Prop. 4 (5), 4, 64:

    in patrios pedes,

    Ov. F. 2, 832.—With a different meaning:

    omnes plerumque cadunt in vulnus,

    in the direction of, towards their wound, Lucr. 4, 1049; cf.:

    prolapsa in vulnus moribunda cecidit,

    Liv. 1, 58, 11:

    cadit in vultus,

    Ov. M. 5, 292:

    in pectus,

    id. ib. 4, 579.—Less freq. with ad:

    ad terras,

    Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216:

    ad terram,

    Quint. 5, 10, 84.—The place from which is designated by ab, ex, de:

    a summo cadere,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 4, 15:

    a mento cadit manus,

    Ov. F. 3, 20:

    aves ab alto,

    Plin. 10, 38, 54, § 112:

    ut cadat (avis) e regione loci,

    Lucr. 6, 824:

    ex arbore,

    Plin. 17, 20, 34, § 148; Dig. 50, 16, 30, § 4; 18, 1, 80, § 2:

    cecidisse de equo dicitur,

    Cic. Clu. 62, 175:

    cadere de equo,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 125 (for which Cæsar, Nepos, and Pliny employ decidere):

    de manibus arma cecidissent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 7, 21; cf.:

    de manibus civium delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt,

    id. Off. 1, 22, 77:

    cadunt altis de montibus umbrae,

    Verg. E. 1, 84:

    de caelo,

    Lucr. 5, 791; Ov. M. 2, 322:

    de matre (i. e. nasci),

    Claud. in Rufin. 1, 92.—With per:

    per inane profundum,

    Lucr. 2, 222:

    per aquas,

    id. 2, 230:

    per salebras altaque saxa,

    Mart. 11, 91; cf.:

    imbre per indignas usque cadente genas,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 18.—With the adverb altius: altius atque cadant summotis nubibus imbres, and poured forth from a greater height, etc., Verg. E. 6, 38.—And absol.:

    folia nunc cadunt,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 24; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 12; Lucr. 6, 297:

    ut pluere in multis regionibus et cadere imbres,

    id. 6, 415:

    cadens nix,

    id. 3, 21; 3, 402:

    velut si prolapsus cecidisset,

    Liv. 1, 56, 12: quaeque ita concus [p. 259] sa est, ut jam casura putetur, Ov. P. 2, 3, 59:

    cadentem Sustinuisse,

    id. M. 8, 148:

    saepius, of epileptics,

    Plin. Val. 12, 58:

    casuri, si leviter excutiantur, flosculi,

    Quint. 12, 10, 73.—
    2.
    Esp.
    a.
    Of heavenly bodies, to decline, set (opp. orior), Ov. F. 1, 295:

    oceani finem juxta solemque cadentem,

    Verg. A. 4, 480; 8, 59; Tac. G. 45:

    soli subjecta cadenti arva,

    Avien. Descr. Orb. 273; cf. Tac. Agr. 12:

    quā (nocte) tristis Orion cadit,

    Hor. Epod. 10, 10:

    Arcturus cadens,

    id. C. 3, 1, 27.—
    b.
    To separate from something by falling, to fall off or away, fall out, to drop off, be shed, etc.:

    nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 57:

    dentes cadere imperat aetas,

    Lucr. 5, 671; Sen. Ep. 12, 3; 83, 3:

    pueri qui primus ceciderit dens,

    Plin. 28, 4, 9, § 41:

    barba,

    Verg. E. 1, 29:

    quam multa in silvis autumni frigore primo Lapsa cadunt folia,

    id. A. 6, 310; cf. Cat. 11, 22; Hor. A. P. 61:

    lanigeris gregibus Sponte suā lanae cadunt,

    Ov. M. 7, 541:

    saetae,

    id. ib. 14, 303:

    quadrupedibus pilum cadere,

    Plin. 11, 39, 94, § 231:

    poma,

    Ov. M. 7, 586:

    cecidere manu quas legerat, herbae,

    id. ib. 14, 350:

    elapsae manibus cecidere tabellae,

    id. ib. 9, 571:

    et colus et fusus digitis cecidere remissis,

    id. ib. 4, 229.—
    c.
    Of a stream, to fall, empty itself:

    amnis Aretho cadit in sinum maris,

    Liv. 38, 4, 3; 38, 13, 6; 44, 31, 4:

    flumina in pontum cadent,

    Sen. Med. 406:

    flumina in Hebrum cadentia,

    Plin. 4, 11, 18, § 50:

    tandem in alterum amnem cadit,

    Curt. 6, 4, 6.—
    d.
    Of dice, to be thrown or cast; to turn up:

    illud, quod cecidit forte,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 23 sq.; Liv. 2, 12, 16.—
    e.
    Alicui (alicujus) ad pedes, to fall at one ' s feet in supplication, etc. (post-class. for abicio, proicio), Sen. Contr. 1, 1, 19; Eutr. 4, 7; Aug. Serm. 143, 4; Vulg. Joan. 11, 32 al.—
    f.
    Super collum allcujus, to embrace (late Lat.), Vulg. Luc. 15, 20.—
    B.
    In a more restricted sense.
    1.
    To fall, to fall down, drop, fall to, be precipitated, etc.; to sink down, to sink, settle (the usual class. signif. in prose and poetry):

    cadere in plano,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 17 sq.:

    deorsum,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 89:

    uspiam,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 12:

    Brutus, velut si prolapsus cecidisset,

    Liv. 1, 56, 12; cf. id. 5, 21, 16; 1, 58, 12:

    dum timent, ne aliquando cadant, semper jacent,

    Quint. 8, 5, 32:

    sinistrā manu sinum ad ima crura deduxit (Caesar), quo honestius caderet,

    Suet. Caes. 82:

    cadere supinus,

    id. Aug. 43 fin.:

    in pectus pronus,

    Ov. M. 4, 579:

    cadunt toti montes,

    Lucr. 6, 546:

    radicitus exturbata (pinus) prona cadit,

    Cat. 64, 109:

    concussae cadunt urbes,

    Lucr. 5, 1236:

    casura moenia Troum,

    Ov. M. 13, 375; id. H. 13, 71:

    multaque praeterea ceciderunt moenia magnis motibus in terris,

    Lucr. 6, 588: languescunt omnia membra;

    bracchia palpebraeque cadunt,

    their arms and eyelids fall, id. 4, 953; 3, 596; so,

    ceciderunt artus,

    id. 3, 453:

    sed tibi tamen oculi, voltus, verba cecidissent,

    Cic. Dom. 52, 133; cf.:

    oculos vigiliā fatigatos cadentesque in opere detineo,

    Sen. Ep. 8, 1:

    patriae cecidere manus,

    Verg. A. 6, 33:

    cur facunda parum decoro Inter verba cadit lingua silentio?

    Hor. C. 4, 1, 36:

    cecidere illis animique manusque,

    Ov. M. 7, 347; Val. Fl. 1, 300; cf. II. F. infra.—
    2.
    In a pregn. signif. (as in most langg., to fall in battle, to die), to fall so as to be unable to rise, to fall dead, to fall, die (opp. vivere), Prop. 2 (3), 28, 42 (usu. of those who die in battle;

    hence most freq. in the histt.): hostes crebri cadunt,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 79 sq.:

    aut in acie cadendum fuit aut in aliquas insidias incidendum,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 3; Curt. 4, 1, 28; Ov. M. 7, 142:

    ut cum dignitate potius cadamus quam cum ignominiā serviamus,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 14, 35:

    pauci de nostris cadunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; id. B. C. 3, 53:

    optimus quisque cadere aut sauciari,

    Sall. J. 92, 8; so id. C. 60, 6; id. J. 54, 10; Nep. Paus. 1, 2; id. Thras. 2, 7; id. Dat. 1, 2; 6, 1; 8, 3; Liv. 10, 35, 15 and 19; 21, 7, 10; 23, 21, 7; 29, 14, 8; Tac. G. 33; Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 27; Ov. M. 7, 142:

    per acies,

    Tac. A. 1, 2:

    pro patriā,

    Quint. 2, 15, 29:

    ante diem,

    Verg. A. 4, 620:

    bipenni,

    Ov. M. 12, 611:

    ense,

    Val. Fl. 1, 812.—Not in battle:

    inque pio cadit officio,

    Ov. M. 6, 250.—With abl. of means or instrument:

    suoque Marte (i. e. suā manu) cadunt,

    Ov. M. 3, 123; cf. Tac. A. 3, 42 fin.:

    suā manu cecidit,

    fell by his own hand, id. ib. 15, 71:

    exitu voluntario,

    id. H. 1, 40:

    muliebri fraude cadere,

    id. A. 2, 71: cecidere justā Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae Flamma Chimaerae, Hor. C. 4, 2, 14 sq.:

    manu femineā,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 1179:

    femineo Marte,

    Ov. M. 12, 610.—With abl. of agent with ab:

    torqueor, infesto ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    should be slain by, Ov. H. 9, 36; so id. M. 5, 192; Suet. Oth. 5:

    a centurione volneribus adversis tamquam in pugnā,

    Tac. A. 16, 9.—And without ab:

    barbarae postquam cecidere turmae Thessalo victore,

    Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; imitated by Claudian, IV. Cons. Hon. 89; Grat. Cyn. 315.—
    b.
    Of victims, to be slain or offered, to be sacrificed, to fall ( poet.):

    multa tibi ante aras nostrā cadet hostia dextrā,

    Verg. A. 1, 334:

    si tener pleno cadit haedus anno,

    Hor. C. 3, 18, 5; Tib. 1, 1, 23; 4, 1, 15; Ov. M. 7, 162; 13, 615; id. F. 4, 653.—
    3.
    In mal. part., = succumbo, to yield to, Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 104; Tib. 4, 10, 2; Sen. Contr. 1, 3, 7.—
    4.
    Matre cadens, just born ( poet.), Val. Fl. 1, 355; cf. of the custom of laying the new-born child at the father's feet: tellure cadens. Stat. S. 1, 2, 209; 5, 5, 69.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To come or fall under, to fall, to be subject or exposed to something (more rare than its compound incidere, but class.); constr. usually with sub or in, sometimes with ad:

    sub sensus cadere nostros,

    i. e. to be perceived by the senses, Lucr. 1, 448:

    sub sensum,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 30, 48: in cernendi sensum. id. Tim. 3:

    sub oculos,

    id. Or. 3, 9:

    in conspectum,

    to become visible, id. Tusc. 1, 22, 50:

    sub aurium mensuram,

    id. Or. 20, 67:

    sponte suā (genus humanum) cecidit sub leges artaque jura,

    subjected itself to law and the force of right, Lucr. 5, 1146; so id. 3, 848:

    ad servitia,

    Liv. 1, 40, 3:

    utrorum ad regna,

    Lucr. 3, 836; so,

    sub imperium dicionemque Romanorum,

    Cic. Font. 5, 12 (1, 2):

    in potestatem unius,

    id. Att. 8, 3, 2:

    in cogitationem,

    to suggest itself to the thoughts, id. N. D. 1, 9, 21:

    in hominum disceptationem,

    id. de Or. 2, 2, 5:

    in deliberationem,

    id. Off. 1, 3, 9:

    in offensionem alicujus,

    id. N. D. 1, 30, 85:

    in morbum,

    id. Tusc. 1, 32, 79:

    in suspitionem alicujus,

    Nep. Paus. 2, 6:

    in calumniam,

    Quint. 9, 4, 57:

    abrupte cadere in narrationem,

    id. 4, 1, 79:

    in peccatum,

    Aug. in Psa. 65, 13.—
    B.
    In gen.: in or sub aliquem or aliquid, to belong to any object, to be in accordance with, agree with, refer to, be suitable to, to fit, suit, become (so esp. freq. in philos. and rhet. lang.):

    non cadit in hos mores, non in hunc pudorem, non in hanc vitam, non in hunc hominem ista suspitio,

    Cic. Sull. 27, 75:

    cadit ergo in bonum virum mentiri, emolumenti sui causā?

    id. Off. 3, 20, 81; so id. Cael. 29, 69; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    haec Academica... in personas non cadebant,

    id. Att. 13, 19, 5:

    qui pedes in orationem non cadere quī possunt?

    id. Or. 56, 188:

    neque in unam formam cadunt omnia,

    id. ib. 11, 37; 57, 191; 27, 95; id. de Or. 3, 47, 182; Quint. 3, 7, 6; 4, 2, 37; 4, 2, 93; 6, prooem. § 5; 7, 2, 30 and 31; Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 82:

    heu, cadit in quemquam tantum scelus?

    Verg. E. 9, 17; Cic. Or. 27, 95; 11, 37; Quint. 3, 5, 16; 3, 6, 91; 5, 10, 30; 6, 3, 52; 7, 2, 31; 9, 1, 7;

    9, 3, 92: hoc quoque in rerum naturam cadit, ut, etc.,

    id. 2, 17, 32:

    in iis rebus, quae sub eandem rationem cadunt,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 30, 47; Quint. 8, 3, 56.—
    C.
    To fall upon a definite time (rare):

    considera, ne in alienissimum tempus cadat adventus tuus,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 14, 4:

    in id saeculum Romuli cecidit aetas, cum, etc.,

    id. Rep. 2, 10, 18.—Hence, in mercantile lang., of payments, to fall due: in eam diem cadere ( were due) nummos, qui a Quinto debentur, Cic. Att. 15, 20, 4.—
    D.
    (Acc. to I. 1. e.) Alicui, to fall to one (as by lot), fall to one ' s lot, happen to one, befall; and absol. (for accidere), to happen, come to pass, occur, result, turn out, fall out (esp. in an unexpected manner; cf. accido; very freq. in prose and poetry).
    1.
    Alicui:

    nihil ipsis jure incommodi cadere possit,

    Cic. Quint. 16, 51:

    hoc cecidit mihi peropportune, quod, etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 4, 15; id. Att. 3, 1:

    insperanti mihi, cecidit, ut, etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 21, 96; id. Att. 8, 3, 6; id. Mil. 30, 81:

    mihi omnia semper honesta et jucunda ceciderunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 1:

    sunt, quibus ad portas cecidit custodia sorti,

    Verg. G. 4, 165:

    haec aliis maledicta cadant,

    Tib. 1, 6, 85:

    neu tibi pro vano verba benigna cadunt,

    Prop. 1, 10, 24:

    ut illis... voluptas cadat dura inter saepe pericla,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 40: verba cadentia, uttered at random, id. Ep. 1, 18, 12.—
    2.
    Ab sol., Afran. ap. Charis. p. 195 P.;

    Cic. Leg.2, 13, 33: verebar quorsum id casurum esset,

    how it would turn out, id. Att. 3, 24:

    aliorsum vota ceciderunt,

    Flor. 2, 4, 5:

    cum aliter res cecidisset ac putasses,

    had turned out differently from what was expected, Cic. Fam. 5, 19, 1:

    sane ita cadebat ut vellem,

    id. Att. 3, 7, 1; id. Div. 2, 52, 107; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 12, 3; Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 5; Caes. B. C. 3, 73, Nep. Milt. 2, 5 Dähne:

    cum, quae tum maxime acciderant, casura praemonens, a furioso incepto eos deterreret,

    Liv. 36, 34, 3; 22, 40, 3; 35, 13, 9; 38, 46, 6; Plin. Pan. 31, 1; Tac. A. 2, 80; 6, 8; Suet. Tib. 14 al.; Verg. A. 2, 709:

    ut omnia fortiter fiant, feliciter cadant,

    Sen. Suas. 2, p. 14:

    multa. fortuito in melius casura,

    Tac. A. 2, 77.—With adj.:

    si non omnia caderent secunda,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 73:

    vota cadunt, i.e. rata sunt,

    are fulfilled, realized, Tib. 2, 2, 17 (diff. from Prop. 1, 17, 4; v. under F.).—
    3.
    With in and acc.: nimia illa libertas et populis et privatis in nimiam servitutem cadit (cf. metaballei), Cic. Rep. 1, 44, 68.—Esp.: in (ad) irritum or cassum, to be frustrated, fail, be or remain fruitless:

    omnia in cassum cadunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 147; Lucr. 2, 1166:

    ad irritum cadens spes,

    Liv. 2, 6, 1; so Tac. H. 3, 26:

    in irritum,

    id. A. 15, 39; cf. with irritus, adj.:

    ut irrita promissa ejus caderent,

    Liv. 2, 31, 5:

    haud irritae cecidere minae,

    id. 6, 35, 10.—
    E.
    To fall, to become less (in strength, power, worth, etc.), to decrease, diminish, lessen:

    cadunt vires,

    Lucr. 5, 410:

    mercenarii milites pretia militiae casura in pace aegre ferebant,

    Liv. 34, 36, 7.—More freq. in an extended signif. (acc. to I. B. 2.),
    F. 1.
    In gen.: pellis item cecidit, vestis contempta ferina. declined in value, Lucr. 5, 1417:

    turpius est enim privatim cadere (i. e. fortunis everti) quam publice,

    Cic. Att. 16, 15, 6; so id. Fam. 6, 10, 2:

    atque ea quidem tua laus pariter cum re publicā cecidit,

    id. Off. 2, 13, 45:

    tanta civitas, si cadet,

    id. Har. Resp. 20, 42:

    huc cecidisse Germanici exercitus gloriam, ut, etc.,

    Tac. H. 3, 13:

    non tibi ingredienti fines ira cecidit?

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; Pers. 5, 91:

    amicitia nec debilitari animos aut cadere patitur,

    Cic. Lael. 7, 23:

    animus,

    to fail, Liv. 1, 11, 3; Ov. M. 11, 537; cf. id. ib. 7, 347:

    non debemus ita cadere animis, etc.,

    to lose courage, be disheartened, Cic. Fam. 6, 1, 4:

    tam graviter,

    id. Off. 1, 21, 73; cf. Sen. Ep. 8, 3.—Esp., to fail in speaking:

    magnus orator est... minimeque in lubrico versabitur, et si semel constiterit numquam cadet,

    Cic. Or. 28, 98:

    alte enim cadere non potest,

    id. ib. —So in the lang. of the jurists, causā or formulā, to lose one ' s cause or suit:

    causā cadere,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 19, 57; so id. de Or. 1, 36, 166 sq.; id. Fam. 7, 14, 1; Quint. 7, 3, 17; Luc. 2, 554; Suet. Calig. 39:

    formulā cadere,

    Sen. Ep. 48, 10; Quint. 3, 6, 69.—With in:

    ita quemquam cadere in judicio, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 28, 58.—Also absol.:

    cadere,

    Tac. H. 4, 6; and:

    criminibus repetundarum,

    id. ib. 1, 77:

    conjurationis crimine,

    id. A. 6, 14:

    ut cecidit Fortuna Phrygum,

    Ov. M. 13, 435:

    omniaque ingrato litore vota cadunt, i. e. irrita sunt,

    remain unfulfilled, unaccomplished, Prop. 1, 17, 4 (diff. from Tib. 2, 2, 17; v. above, D. 2.); cf.:

    at mea nocturno verba cadunt zephyro,

    Prop. 1, 16, 34:

    multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere, cadentque Quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula,

    to fall into disuse, grow out of date, Hor. A. P. 70 —Hence of theatrical representations, to fall through, to fail, be condemned (opp. stare, to win applause;

    the fig. derived from combatants): securus cadat an recto stet fabula talo,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 176.— Impers.. periculum est, ne cadatur, Aug. Don. Persev. 1.—
    2.
    Esp. of the wind (opp. surgo), to abate, subside, die away, etc.:

    cadit Eurus et umida surgunt Nubila,

    Ov. M. 8, 2:

    ventus premente nebulā cecidit,

    Liv. 29, 27, 10:

    cadente jam Euro,

    id. 25, 27, 11:

    venti vis omnis cecidit,

    id. 26, 39, 8:

    ubi primum aquilones ceciderunt,

    id. 36, 43, 11; cf.:

    sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor,

    Verg. A. 1, 154:

    ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae,

    id. E. 9, 58; id. G. 1, 354 Serv. and Wagn.—
    G.
    Rhet. and gram. t. t. of words, syllables, clauses, etc., to be terminated, end, close:

    verba melius in syllabas longiores cadunt,

    Cic. Or. 57, 194; 67, 223: qua (littera [p. 260] sc. m) nullum Graece verbum cadit, Quint. 12, 10, 31:

    plerique censent cadere tantum numerose oportere terminarique sententiam,

    Cic. Or. 59, 199; so id. Brut. 8, 34:

    apto cadens oratio,

    Quint. 9, 4, 32:

    numerus opportune cadens,

    id. 9, 4, 27:

    ultima syllaba in gravem vel duas graves cadit semper,

    id. 12, 10, 33 Spald.: similiter cadentia = omoioptôta, the ending of words with the same cases or verbal forms, diff. from similiter desinentia = omoioteleuta, similar endings of any kind, Cic. de Or. 3, 54, 206; id. Or. 34, 135; Auct. Her. 4, 20, 28; Quint. 9, 4, 42; cf. id. 9, 4, 18; 9, 3, 78; 9, 3, 79; 1, 7, 23; Aquil. Rom. Figur. §§ 25 and 26.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cado

  • 14 capio

    1.
    căpĭo, cepi, captum (old fut. perf. capso, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 61: capsit, Enn. ap. Non. p. 66, 27, or Ann. v. 324 Vahl.; Plaut. Ps. 4, 3, 6; Att. ap. Non. p. 483, 12, or Trag. Rel. v. 454 Rib.; Paul. ex. Fest. p. 57 Mull.:

    capsimus,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 1, 15: capsis, acc. to Cic. Or. 45, 154, = cape si vis, but this is an error; cf. Quint. 1, 5, 66; old perf. cepet, Col. Rostr. 5; v. Wordsworth, Fragm. and Spec. p. 170), 3, v. a. [cf. kôpê, handle; Lat. capulum; Engl. haft; Germ. Heft; Sanscr. root hri-, take; cf. Gr. cheir, Engl. and Germ. hand, and Goth. hinthan, seize].
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., to take in hand, take hold of, lay hold of, take, seize, grasp (cf.:

    sumo, prehendo): si hodie hercule fustem cepero aut stimulum in manum,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 9:

    cape hoc flabellum,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 47:

    cepit manibus tympanum,

    Cat. 6, 3, 8:

    tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque Penatis,

    Verg. A. 2, 717:

    cape saxa manu, cape robora, pastor,

    id. G. 3, 420:

    flammeum,

    Cat. 61, 8:

    acria pocula,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 69:

    lora,

    Prop. 3 (4), 9, 57:

    baculum,

    Ov. M. 2, 789:

    colum cum calathis,

    id. ib. 12, 475:

    florem ternis digitis,

    Plin. 24, 10, 48, § 81:

    pignera,

    Liv. 3, 38, 12; Dig. 48, 13, 9, § 6; Gai Inst. 4, 29:

    ut is in cavea pignus capiatur togae,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 68: rem manu, Gai Inst. 1, 121:

    rem pignori,

    Dig. 42, 1, 15, § 7; cf. ib. 42, 1, 15, § 4:

    scutum laeva,

    Plin. 33, 1, 4, § 13:

    capias tu illius vestem,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 79: cape vorsoriam, seize the sheet, i. e. take a tack, turn about, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 19.—Very freq. of arms (cf. sumo); so in gen.: arma, to take up arms, i. e. engage in war or battle, Cic. Rab. Perd. 7, 20 sq.; 9, 27; 11, 31; id. Planc. 36, 88; id. Phil. 4, 3, 7; Caes. B.G. 5, 26; 7, 4; Sall. C. 27, 4; 30, 1; 33, 2; 52, 27; id. J. 38, 5; 102, 12; Ov. M. 3, 115 sq.; 12, 91; 13, 221;

    and of particular weapons: ensem,

    Ov. M. 13, 435:

    tela,

    id. ib. 3, 307; 5, 366 et saep.—Of food, to take, partake of:

    quicum una cibum Capere soleo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 61; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 77; Sall. J. 91, 2:

    lauti cibum capiunt,

    Tac. G. 22.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Of living objects.
    a. (α).
    Of persons:

    oppidum expugnavimus, et legiones Teleboarum vi pugnando cepimus,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 258: summus ibi capitur meddix, occiditur alter, Enn. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 123 Mull. (Ann. v. 296 Vahl.):

    quoniam belli nefarios duces captos jam et comprehensos tenetis,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 7, 16:

    ibi Orgetorigis filia atque unus e filiis captus est,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26:

    reges capiuntur,

    Lucr. 4, 1013; Tac. A. 4, 33:

    capta eo proelio tria milia peditum dicuntur,

    Liv. 22, 49, 18:

    quos Byzantii ceperat,

    Nep. Paus. 2, 3; id. Alcib. 9, 2; id. Dat. 2, 5; Quint. 6, 3, 61:

    captos ostendere civibus hostes,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 33:

    captus Tarento Livius,

    Cic. Brut. 18, 72:

    servus ex hoste captus,

    Quint. 5, 10, 67.—Hence, P. a. as subst.: captus, i, m., = captivus, a prisoner, captive:

    in captos clementia uti,

    Nep. Alcib. 5, 7:

    inludere capto,

    Verg. A. 2, 64:

    quae sit fiducia capto,

    id. ib. 2, 75:

    ex captorum numero,

    Liv. 28, 39, 10; Tac. A. 6, 1; 12, 37; 15, 1.—Also, capta, ae, f., a female captive:

    dicam hanc esse captam ex Caria, Ditem ac nobilem,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 47.—
    (β).
    Of animals, birds, fish, etc., to catch, hunt down, take: quid hic venatu non cepit? Varr. ap. Non. p. 253, 31:

    si ab avibus capiundis auceps dicatur, debuisse ajunt ex piscibus capiundis, ut aucupem, sic piscicupem dici,

    id. L. L. 8, § 61 Mull.:

    hic jaculo pisces, illa capiuntur ab hamis,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 763:

    neque quicquam captum'st piscium,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 1, 12; cf.:

    nisi quid concharum capsimus,

    id. ib. v. 18; Cic. Off. 3, 14, 58; Plin. 33, 1, 6, § 27: acipenserem, Cic. ap. Macr. S. 2, 12:

    cervum,

    Phaedr. 1, 5, 5; cf.:

    hic (Nereus) tibi prius vinclis capiendus,

    Verg. G. 4, 396.—
    b.
    To win, captivate, charm, allure, enchain, enslave, fascinate; mostly with abl. of means: Ph. Amore ardeo. Pa. Quid agas? nisi ut te redimas captum quam queas Minumo, Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 29:

    quod insit in iis aliquid probi, quod capiat ignaros,

    Cic. Off. 3, 3, 15: [p. 284] animum adulescentis... pellexit eis omnibus rebus, quibus illa aetas capi ac deleniri potest, id. Clu. 5, 13:

    quamvis voluptate capiatur,

    id. Off. 1, 30, 105; Quint. 5, 11, 19:

    quem quidem adeo sua cepit humanitate,

    Nep. Alcib. 9, 3:

    secum habuit Pomponium, captus adulescentis et humanitate et doctrina,

    id. Att. 4, 1:

    nec bene promeritis capitur (deus), nec tangitur ira,

    Lucr. 2, 651: ut pictura poesis;

    erit quae si propius stes Te capiat magis, et quaedam si longius abstes,

    Hor. A. P. 362:

    hunc capit argenti splendor,

    id. S. 1, 4, 28:

    te conjux aliena capit,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 46:

    Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis,

    Prop. 1, 1, 1:

    carmine formosae, pretio capiuntur avarae,

    Tib. 3, 1, 7:

    munditiis capimur,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 133; id. M. 4, 170; 6, 465; 7, 802; 8, 124; 8, 435; 9, 511; 10, 529;

    14, 373: amore captivae victor captus,

    Liv. 30, 12, 18:

    dulcedine vocis,

    Ov. M. 1, 709; 11, 170:

    voce nova,

    id. ib. 1, 678:

    temperie aquarum,

    id. ib. 4, 344:

    (bos) herba captus viridi,

    Verg. E. 6, 59:

    amoenitate loci,

    Tac. A. 18, 52:

    auro,

    Hor. C. 2, 18, 36:

    neque honoris neque pecuniae dulcedine sum captus,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    splendore hominis,

    id. Fin. 1, 13, 42: ne oculis quidem captis in hanc fraudem decidisti;

    nam id concupisti quod numquam videras,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 45, § 102.—
    c.
    To cheat, seduce, deceive, mislead, betray, delude, catch:

    sapientis hanc vim esse maximam, cavere ne capiatur, ne fallatur videre,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 66:

    injurium autem'st ulcisci advorsarios? Aut qua via te captent eadem ipsos capi?

    Ter. Hec. 1, 1, 16: uti ne propter te fidemque tuam captus fraudatusque sim, form. ap. Cic. Off. 3, 17, 70:

    eodem captus errore quo nos,

    involved in the same error, Cic. Phil. 12, 2, 6; id. ap. Non. p. 253, 25; cf.:

    ne quo errore milites caperentur,

    Liv. 8, 6, 16:

    capere ante dolis Reginam,

    Verg. A. 1, 673:

    captique dolis lacrimisque coactis (Sinonis),

    id. ib. 2, 196:

    ubi me eisdem dolis non quit capere,

    Sall. J. 14, 11:

    adulescentium animi molles et aetate fluxi dolis haud difficulter capiebantur,

    id. C. 14, 5:

    capi alicujus dolo,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 1:

    dolum ad capiendos eos conparant,

    Liv. 23, 35, 2:

    quas callida Colchis (i.e. Medea) amicitiae mendacis imagine cepit,

    Ov. M. 7, 301.—
    d.
    To defeat, convict, overcome in a suit or dispute (rare):

    tu si me impudicitiae captas, non potes capere,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 189:

    tu caves ne tui consultores, ille ne urbes aut castra capiantur (cf. B. 2. b. infra),

    Cic. Mur. 9, 22:

    callidus et in capiendo adversario versutus (orator),

    id. Brut. 48, 178.—
    e. (α).
    Of the physical powers, to lame, mutilate, maim, impair or weaken in the limbs, senses, etc. (only pass. capi, and esp. in part. perf. captus):

    mancus et membris omnibus captus ac debilis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 7, 21:

    ipse Hannibal... altero oculo capitur,

    loses an eye, Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    captus omnibus membris,

    id. 2, 36, 8:

    capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere,

    id. 21, 58, 5:

    oculis membrisque captus,

    Plin. 33, 4, 24, § 83:

    congerantur in unum omnia, ut idem oculis et auribus captus sit,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 40, 117:

    si captus oculis sit, ut Tiresias fuit,

    id. Div. 2, 3, 9; Verg. G. 1, 183:

    habuit filium captum altero oculo,

    Suet. Vit. 6:

    censorem Appium deum ira post aliquot annos luminibus captum,

    Liv. 9, 29, 11; Val. Max. 1, 1, 17:

    lumine,

    Ov. F. 6, 204:

    princeps pedibus captus,

    Liv. 43, 7, 5; cf.:

    captum leto posuit caput,

    Verg. A. 11, 830;

    and of the mole: aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae,

    id. G. 1, 183.—
    (β).
    Of the mental powers, to deprive of sense or intellect; only in part. perf. captus, usu. agreeing with pers. subj., and with abl. mente, silly, insane, crazy, crazed, lunatic, mad:

    labi, decipi tam dedecet quam delirare et mente esse captum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    vino aut somno oppressi aut mente capti,

    id. Ac. 2, 17, 53; Quint. 8, 3, 4;

    rarely mentibu' capti,

    Lucr. 4, 1022; so,

    animo,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 107; very rarely with gen.:

    captus animi,

    Tac. H. 3, 73.— Absol.:

    virgines captae furore,

    Liv. 24, 26, 12.—Less freq. agreeing with mens or animus:

    viros velut mente capta cum jactatione fanatica corporis vaticinari,

    Liv. 39, 13, 12:

    captis magis mentibus, quam consceleratis similis visa,

    id. 8, 18, 11; cf.:

    capti et stupentes animi,

    id. 6, 36, 8.—
    f.
    To choose, select, elect, take, pick out, adopt, accept a person for a particular purpose or to sustain a particular office or relation:

    de istac sum judex captus,

    Plaut. Merc. 4, 3, 33:

    Aricini atque Ardeates de ambiguo agro... judicem populum Romanum cepere,

    Liv. 3, 71, 2:

    me cepere arbitrum,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 91:

    te mihi patronam capio, Thais,

    id. Eun. 5, 2, 48:

    quom illum generum cepimus,

    id. Hec. 4, 1, 22; cf.:

    non, si capiundos mihi sciam esse inimicos omnis homines,

    make them enemies thereby, id. And. 4, 2, 12:

    si quis magistrum cepit ad eam rem inprobum,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 21.—So the formula of the Pontifex Maximus, in the consecration of a vestal virgin: sacerdotem Vestalem, quae sacra faciat... ita te, Amata, capio, Fab. Pict. ap. Gell. 1, 12, 14; cf.:

    plerique autem capi virginem solam debere dici putant, sed flamines quoque Diales, item pontifices et augures capi dicebantur,

    Gell. 1, 12, 15:

    jam ne ea causa pontifex capiar?... ecquis me augurem capiat? Cat. ib. § 17: Amata inter capiendum a pontifice maximo appellatur, quoniam, quae prima capta est, hoc fuisse nomen traditum est, Gell. ib. § 19: rettulit Caesar capiendam virginem in locum Occiae,

    Tac. A. 2, 86; 4, 16; 15, 22:

    religio, quae in annos singulos Jovis sacerdotem sortito capi jubeat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 51, § 127:

    C. Flaccus flamen captus a P. Licinio pontifice maximo erat,

    Liv. 27, 8, 5 Weissenb. ad loc.—
    2.
    Of places.
    a.
    To occupy, choose, select, take possession of, enter into; mostly milit. t. t., to take up a position, select a place for a camp, etc.:

    loca capere, castra munire,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 23:

    castris locum capere,

    Liv. 9, 17, 15; Suet. Aug. 94 fin.:

    locum capere castris,

    Quint. 12, 2, 5:

    ut non fugiendi hostis, sed capiendi loci causa cessisse videar,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 294:

    ad Thebanos transfugere velle, et locum extra urbem editum capere,

    Nep. Ages. 6, 2:

    nocte media profectus, ut locum quem vellet, priusquam hostes sentirent, caperet,

    Liv. 34, 14, 1:

    neminem elegantius loca cepisse, praesidia disposuisse,

    id. 35, 14, 9:

    erat autem Philopoemen praecipuae in ducendo agmine locisque capiendis solertiae atque usus,

    id. 35, 28, 1:

    locum cepere paulo quam alii editiorem,

    Sall. J. 58, 3:

    duces, ut quisque locum ceperat, cedere singulos,

    Dict. Cret. 2, 46; so,

    of position on the battle-field: quod mons suberat, eo se recipere coeperunt. Capto monte, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 25:

    tenuit non solum ales captam semelsedem, sed, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 26, 5:

    quem quis in pugnando ceperat locum, eum amissa anima corpore tegebat,

    Flor. 4, 1; Sall. C. 61, 2; rarely with dat. of pers.:

    tumulum suis cepit,

    Liv. 31, 41, 9, for a tomb: LOCVM SIBI MONVMENTO CEPIT. Inscr. Grut. 346, 6;

    for taking the auspices' se (Gracchum) cum legeret libros, recordatum esse, vitio sibi tabernaculum captum fuisse,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11; cf.:

    Palatium Romulus, Remus Aventinum ad inaugurandum templa capiunt,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4;

    for refuge: omnes Samnitium copiae montes proximos fuga capiunt,

    id. 9, 43, 20:

    Anchises natum Conventus trahit in medios... Et tumulum capit,

    Verg. A. 6, 753; 12, 562:

    ante locum capies oculis ( = eliges),

    Verg. G. 2, 230 Serv. ad loc.: nunc terras ordine longo Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur (cycni), to select places on which to light, or to be just settling down on places already selected, id. A. 1, 396 Forbig. ad loc.—
    b.
    To take by force, capture, storm, reduce, conquer, seize:

    invadam extemplo in oppidum antiquom: Si id capso, etc.,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 61: oppidum vi, Cat. ap. Charis. 2, p. 191 P.:

    MACELLAM OPPVGNANDO,

    Col. Rostr. Inscr. Orell. 549:

    CORSICAM,

    Inscr. Orell. 551: oppida, Enn. ap. Prisc. 9, p. 868 P. (Ann. v. 487 Vahl.):

    ad alia oppida pergit, pauca repugnantibus Numidis capit,

    Sall. J. 92, 3; Prop. 3, 4 (4, 3), 16:

    Troja capta,

    Liv. 1, 1, 1; Hor. S. 2, 3, 191: Coriolos. Liv. 3, 71, 7:

    urbem opulentissimam,

    id. 5, 20, 1:

    ante oppidum Nolam fortissuma Samnitium castra cepit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 33, 72:

    castra hostium,

    Nep. Dat. 6, 7:

    concursu oppidanorum facto scalis vacua defensoribus moenia capi possent,

    Liv. 42, 63, 6:

    plurimas hostium vestrorum in Hispania urbes,

    id. 28, 39, 10:

    sedem belli,

    Vell. 2, 74, 3; cf. Cic. Mur. 9, 22 (B. 1. d. supra).— Trop.:

    oppressa captaque re publica,

    Cic. Dom. 10, 26: qui, bello averso ab hostibus, patriam suam cepissent, Liv. 3, 50, 15.—
    c.
    To reach, attain, arrive at, betake one ' s self to (mostly by ships, etc.):

    insulam capere non potuerant,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 26 fin.:

    onerariae duae eosdem quos reliqui portus capere non potuerunt,

    id. ib. 4, 36:

    accidit uti, ex iis (navibus) perpaucae locum caperent,

    id. ib. 5, 23:

    nostrae naves, cum ignorarent, quem locum reliquae cepissent,

    id. B. C. 3, 28: praemiis magnis propositis, qui primus insulam cepisset, Auct. B. Alex. 17.— Trop.:

    qui... tenere cursum possint et capere otii illum portum et dignitatis,

    Cic. Sest. 46, 99.—
    3.
    Of things of value, property, money, etc.
    a.
    In gen., to take, seize, wrest, receive, obtain, acquire, get, etc.:

    AVRVM, ARGENTVM,

    Col. Rostr. Inscr. Orell. 549:

    de praedonibus praedam capere,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 14:

    agros de hostibus,

    Cic. Dom. 49, 128:

    ut ager ex hostibus captus viritim divideretur,

    Liv. 4, 48, 2:

    quinqueremem una cum defensoribus remigibusque, Auct. B. Alex. 16, 7: naves,

    Nep. Con. 4, 4:

    classem,

    id. Cim. 2, 2:

    magnas praedas,

    id. Dat. 10, 2:

    ex hostibus pecuniam,

    Liv. 5, 20, 5; cf.:

    e nostris spolia cepit laudibus, Cic. poet. Tusc. 2, 9, 22: signum ex Macedonia,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 58, § 149:

    signum pulcherrimum Carthagine captum,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 38, §

    82: sed eccam ipsa egreditur, nostri fundi calamitas: nam quod nos capere oportet, haec intercipit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 35:

    cape cedo,

    id. Phorm. 5, 8, 57:

    ut reliqui fures, earum rerum quas ceperunt, signa commutant,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 25, 74:

    majores nostri non solum id, quod de Campanis (agri) ceperant, non imminuerunt, etc.,

    id. Agr. 2, 29, 81:

    te duce ut insigni capiam cum laude coronam,

    Lucr. 6, 95.—With abstr. objects:

    paupertatem adeo facile perpessus est, ut de republica nihil praeter gloriam ceperit,

    Nep. Epam. 3, 4:

    ut ceteri, qui per eum aut honores aut divitias ceperant,

    id. Att. 7, 2:

    quoniam formam hujus cepi in me et statum,

    assumed, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 110:

    quare non committeret, ut is locus ex calamitate populi Romani nomen caperet,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    regnum Tiberinus ab illis Cepit,

    succeeded to, Ov. M. 14, 615.—
    b.
    In particular connections.
    (α).
    With pecuniam (freq. joined with concilio; v. infra), to take illegally, exact, extort, accept a bribe. take blackmail, etc., esp. of magistrates who were accused de pecuniis repetundis:

    his ego judicibus non probabo C. Verrem contra leges pecuniam cepisse?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10:

    HS. quadringentiens cepisse te arguo contra leges,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 10, § 26; cf.:

    quicquid ab horum quopiam captum est,

    id. ib. §

    27: tamen hae pecuniae per vim atque injuriam tuam captae et conciliatae tibi fraudi et damnationi esse deberent,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 40, §

    91: utrum (potestis), cum judices sitis de pecunia capta conciliata, tantam pecuniam captam neglegere?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 94, §

    218: quid est aliud capere conciliare pecunias. si hoc non est vi atque imperio cogere invitos lucrum dare alteri?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 30, §

    71: sequitur de captis pecuniis et de ambitu,

    id. Leg. 3, 20, 46:

    ita aperte cepit pecunias ob rem judicandam, ut, etc.,

    id. Fin. 2, 16, 54:

    quos censores furti et captarum pecuniarum nomine notaverunt,

    id. Clu. 42, 120:

    nondum commemoro rapinas, non exactas pecunias, non captas, non imperatas,

    id. Pis. 16, 38:

    si quis ob rem judicandam pecuniam cepisset... neque solum hoc genus pecuniae capiendae turpe, sed etiam nefarium esse arbitrabantur,

    id. Rab. Post. 7, 16; id. N. D. 3, 30, 70; Sall. J. 32, 1:

    ab regibus Illyriorum,

    Liv. 42, 45, 8:

    saevitiae captarumque pecuniarum teneri reum,

    Tac. A. 3, 67; 4, 31.—
    (β).
    Of inheritance and bequest, to take, inherit, obtain, acquire, get, accept:

    si ex hereditate nihil ceperit,

    Cic. Off, 3, 24, 93:

    qui morte testamentove ejus tantundem capiat quantum omnes heredes,

    id. Leg. 2, 19, 48:

    abdicatus ne quid de bonis patris capiat,

    Quint. 3, 6, 96:

    aut non justum testamentum est, aut capere non potes,

    id. 5, 14, 16:

    si capiendi Jus nullum uxori,

    Juv. 1, 55:

    qui testamentum faciebat, ei, qui usque ad certum modum capere potuerat, legavit, etc.,

    Dig. 22, 3, 27: quod ille plus capere non poterat, ib. fin.:

    qui ex bonis testatoris solidum capere non possit,

    ib. 28, 6, 6; 39, 6, 30.—
    (γ).
    Of regular income, revenue, etc., rents, tolls, profits, etc., to collect, receive, obtain: nam ex [p. 285] eis praediis talenta argenti bina Capiebat statim, Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 7:

    capit ille ex suis praediis sexcenta sestertia, ego centena ex meis,

    Cic. Par. 6, 3, 49:

    stipendium jure belli,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 28:

    quinquagena talenta vectigalis ex castro,

    Nep. Alcib. 9, 4:

    vectigal ex agro eorum capimus,

    Liv. 28, 39, 13:

    quadragena annua ex schola,

    Suet. Gram. 23:

    si recte habitaveris... fundus melior erit... fructus plus capies,

    Cato, R. R. 4, 2.—
    C.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of profit, benefit, advantage, to take, seize, obtain, get, enjoy, reap (mostly in phrase fructum capere):

    metuit semper, quem ipsa nunc capit Fructum, nequando iratus tu alio conferas,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 59:

    honeste acta superior aetas fructus capit auctoritatis extremos,

    Cic. Sen. 18, 62:

    ex iis etiam fructum capio laboris mei,

    id. Div. 2, 5:

    ex quibus (litteris) cepi fructum duplicem,

    id. Fam. 10, 5, 1:

    multo majorem fructum ex populi existimatione illo damnato cepimus, quam ex ipsius, si absolutus esset, gratia cepissemus,

    id. Att. 1, 4, 2:

    fructum immortalem vestri in me et amoris et judicii,

    id. Pis. 14, 31:

    aliquem fructum dulcedinis almae,

    Lucr. 2, 971; 5, 1410; Luc. 7, 32.—In other connections:

    quid ex ea re tandem ut caperes commodi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 25:

    utilitates ex amicitia maximas,

    Cic. Lael. 9, 32:

    usuram alicujus corporis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 108.—
    2.
    Of external characteristics, form, figure, appearance, etc., to take, assume, acquire, put on:

    gestum atque voltum novom,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 6, 50 ' faciem aliquam cepere morando, Ov. M. 1, 421; 13, 605:

    figuras Datque capitque novas,

    id. ib. 15, 309:

    formam capit quam lilia,

    id. ib. 10, 212; cf.:

    duritiam ab aere,

    id. ib. 4, 751.— Transf., of plants, etc.:

    radicem capere,

    to take root, Cato, R. R. 51:

    cum pali defixi radices cepissent,

    Plin. 17, 17, 27, § 123:

    siliculam capere,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 23, 3:

    maturitatem capere,

    Col. 4, 23, 1:

    radix libere capit viris,

    Plin. 17, 21, 35, § 161:

    vires cepisse nocendi,

    Ov. M. 7, 417:

    (telinum) rursus refrigeratum odorem suum capit,

    Plin. 13, 1, 2, § 13.—
    3.
    Of mental characteristics, habits, etc., to take, assume, adopt, cultivate, cherish, possess:

    cape sis virtutem animo et corde expelle desidiam tuo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 24:

    qua re si Glabrionis patris vim et acrimoniam ceperis ad resistendum hominibus audacissimis, si avi prudentiam ad prospiciendas insidias, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 17, 52:

    aliquando, patres conscripti, patrium animum virtutemque capiamus,

    id. Phil. 3, 11, 29:

    consuetudinem exercitationemque,

    id. Off. 1, 18, 59:

    misericordiam,

    id. Quint. 31, 97:

    quam (adsuetudinem) tu dum capias, taedia nulla fuge,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 346:

    disciplinam principum,

    Plin. Pan. 46. —With dat.:

    quorum animis avidis... neque lex neque tutor capere est qui possit modum,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 14 Wagn. ad loc.—
    4.
    Of offices, employments, duties, etc., = suscipio, to undertake, assume, enter upon, accept, take upon one ' s self, etc.:

    nam olim populi prius honorem capiebat suffragio, Quam magistro desinebat esse dicto oboediens,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 34:

    o Geta, provinciam Cepisti duram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 23:

    in te cepi Capuam, non quo munus illud defugerem,

    took command at Capua, Cic. Att. 8. 3, 4:

    consulatum,

    id. Pis. 2, 3; Sall. J. 63, 2:

    honores,

    Nep. Att. 7, 2; Suet. Aug. 26:

    imperium,

    id. Claud. 10:

    magistratum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 21, 62; Liv. 2, 33, 1; Suet. Aug. 2:

    magistratus,

    Sall. H. 1, 41, 21 Dietsch; Nep. Phoc. 1, 1; Suet. Caes. 75:

    capiatque aliquis moderamina (navis),

    Ov. M. 3, 644:

    rerum moderamen,

    id. ib. 6, 677:

    pontificatum maximum,

    Suet. Vit. 11:

    rem publicam,

    Sall. C. 5, 6:

    neve cui patrum capere eum magistratum liceret,

    Liv. 2, 33, 1:

    ut ceperat haud tumultuose magistratum majore gaudio plebis, etc.,

    id. 5, 13, 2.—Rarely with dat. of pers., to obtain for, secure for:

    patres praeturam Sp. Furio Camillo gratia campestri ceperunt,

    Liv. 7, 1, 2.—
    5.
    In gen., of any occupation, work, or undertaking, to begin, enter upon, take, undertake, etc.:

    augurium ex arce,

    Liv. 10, 7, 10:

    augurium capienti duodecim se vultures ostenderunt,

    Suet. Aug. 95; id. Vesp. 11:

    omen,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104:

    in castris Romanis cum frustra multi conatus ad erumpendum capti essent,

    Liv. 9, 4, 1:

    rursus impetu capto enituntur,

    id. 2, 65, 5; Quint. 6, 1, 28; Suet. Aug. 42; id. Calig. 43: cursum, id. Oth. 6:

    a quibus temporibus scribendi capiatur exordium,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 3, 8:

    experimentum eorum inversa manu capitur,

    Plin. 13, 2, 3, § 19 ( poet.):

    nec vestra capit discordia finem,

    Verg. A. 10, 106:

    fugam,

    to take to flight, flee, Caes. B. G. 7, 26; so, capere impetum, to take a start, gather momentum:

    ad impetum capiundum modicum erat spatium,

    Liv. 10, 5, 6; cf.:

    expeditionis Germanicae impetum cepit,

    suddenly resolved to make, Suet. Calig. 43: capere initium, to begin:

    ea pars artis, ex qua capere initium solent,

    Quint. 2, 11, 1.— Transf., of place:

    eorum (finium) una pars, quam Gallos optinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    a dis inmortalibus sunt nobis agendi capienda primordia,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 3, 7.—
    6.
    Of an opportunity or occasion, to seize, embrace, take:

    si occassionem capsit,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 3, 6:

    si lubitum fuerit, causam ceperit,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 8:

    quod tempus conveniundi patris me capere suadeat,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 4, 9:

    si satis commode tempus ad te cepit adeundi,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 16, 1.—
    7.
    Of operations of the mind, resolutions, purposes, plans, thoughts, etc., to form, conceive, entertain, come to, reach:

    quantum ex ipsa re conjecturam cepimus,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 25 MSS. (Fleck. al. ex conj. fecimus); Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 32:

    cum jam ex diei tempore conjecturam ceperat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 35:

    hujusce rei conjecturam de tuo ipsius studio, Servi, facillime ceperis,

    Cic. Mur. 4, 9.— Absol.:

    conjecturam capere,

    Cic. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    nec quid corde nunc consili capere possim, Scio,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 12:

    capti consili memorem mones,

    id. Stich 4, 1, 72:

    quo pacto porro possim Potiri consilium volo capere una tecum,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 66; 5, 2, 28:

    temerarium consilium,

    Liv. 25, 34, 7:

    tale capit consilium,

    Nep. Eum. 9, 3.— With inf.:

    confitendum... eadem te hora consilium cepisse hominis propinqui fortunas funditus evertere,

    Cic. Quint. 16, 53; Caes. B. G. 7, 71 init. —With ut:

    subito consilium cepi, ut exirem,

    Cic. Att. 7, 10 init. —With gen. gerund. (freq.):

    legionis opprimendae consilium capere,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 2:

    obprimundae reipublicae consilium cepit,

    Sall. C. 16, 4.—With sibi:

    si id non fecisset, sibi consilium facturos,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 20:

    ut ego rationem oculis capio,

    Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 2:

    cepi rationem ut, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 11.—
    8.
    Of examples, instances, proofs, etc., to take, derive, draw, obtain:

    ex quo documentum nos capere fortuna voluit quid esset victis extimescendum,

    Cic. Phil. 11, 2, 5:

    quid istuc tam mirum'st, de te si exemplum capit? Ter And. 4, 1, 26: exemplum ex aliqua re,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    praesagia a sole,

    Plin. 18, 35, 78, § 341:

    illud num dubitas quin specimen naturae capi debeat ex optima quaque natura?

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 14, 32.—
    9.
    Of impressions, feelings, etc., to take, entertain, conceive, receive, be subjected to, suffer, experience, etc.:

    tantum laborem capere ob talem filium?

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 29:

    omnes mihi labores fuere quos cepi leves,

    id. Heaut. 2, 4, 19:

    laborem inanem ipsus capit,

    id. Hec. 3, 2, 9:

    ex eo nunc misera quem capit Laborem!

    id. And. 4, 3, 4: miseriam omnem ego capio;

    hic potitur gaudia,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 22:

    satietatem dum capiet pater Illius quam amat,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 10:

    plus aegri ex abitu viri quam ex adventu voluptatis cepi,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 9:

    cum illa quacum volt voluptatem capit,

    id. ib. prol. 114:

    angor iste, qui pro amico saepe capiendus est,

    Cic. Lael. 13, 48:

    quae (benevolentia) quidem capitur beneficiis maxime,

    id. Off. 2, 9, 32:

    laetitiam quam capiebam memoria rationum inventorumque nostrorum,

    id. Fin. 2, 30, 96:

    lenire desiderium quod capiebat e filio,

    id. Sen. 15, 54:

    opinione omnium majorem animo cepi dolorem,

    id. Brut. 1, 1:

    itaque cepi voluptatem, tam ornatum virum fuisse in re publica,

    id. ib. 40, 147:

    ex civibus victis gaudium meritum capiam,

    Liv. 27, 40, 9:

    ne quam... invidiam apud patres ex prodiga largitione caperet,

    id. 5, 20, 2:

    ad summam laetitiam meam, quam ex tuo reditu capio, magnus illius adventu cumulus accedet,

    id. Att. 4, 19, 2 (4, 18, 3):

    laetitia, quam oculis cepi justo interitu tyranni,

    id. ib. 14, 14, 4:

    ex praealto tecto lapsus matris et adfinium cepit oblivionem,

    lost his memory, Plin. 7, 24, 24, § 90: virtutis opinionem, Auct. B. G. 8, 8: somnum, Cic. Tusc. 4, 19, 44: taedium vitae, Nep. ap. Gell. 6 (7), 18, 11:

    maria aspera juro Non ullum pro me tantum (me) cepisse timorem, Quam, etc.,

    Verg. A. 6, 352 Forbig. ad loc.:

    et in futurum etiam metum ceperunt,

    Liv. 33, 27, 10:

    voluptatem animi,

    Cic. Planc. 1, 1:

    malis alienis voluptatem capere laetitiae (cum sit),

    id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66:

    quaeque mihi sola capitur nunc mente voluptas,

    Ov. P. 4, 9, 37.—
    10.
    Transf., with the feelings, experience, etc., as subj., to seize, overcome, possess, occupy, affect, take possession of, move, etc. (cf. lambanô, in this sense and like 9. supra): nutrix: Cupido cepit miseram nunc me, proloqui Caelo atque terrae Medeai miserias, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 26, 63 (Trag. Rel. v. 291 Vahl.):

    edepol te desiderium Athenarum arbitror cepisse saepe,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 14:

    numquam commerui merito ut caperet odium illam mei,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 4:

    sicubi eum satietas Hominum aut negoti odium ceperat,

    id. Eun. 3, 1, 14:

    nos post reges exactos servitutis oblivio ceperat,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 4, 9:

    te cepisse odium regni videbatur,

    id. ib. 2, 36, 91:

    Romulum Remumque cupido cepit urbis condendae,

    Liv. 1, 6, 3:

    cupido eum ceperat in verticem montis ascendendi,

    id. 40, 21, 2:

    etiam victores sanguinis caedisque ceperat satietas,

    id. 27, 49, 8; Mel. 3, 5, 2:

    qui pavor hic, qui terror, quae repente oblivio animos cepit?

    Liv. 27, 13, 2:

    oblivio deorum capiat pectora vestra,

    id. 38, 46, 12:

    tantane te cepere oblivia nostri?

    Ov. Tr. 1, 8, 11:

    ut animum ejus cura sacrorum cepit,

    Liv. 27, 8, 6:

    hostis primum admiratio cepit, quidnam, etc.,

    id. 44, 12, 1:

    tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis,

    Verg. G. 4, 332; cf. Anthol. Lat. I. p. 178;

    I. p. 196 Burm.: ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos Sternimus,

    Verg. A. 2, 384:

    infelix, quae tanta animum dementia cepit!

    id. ib. 5, 465; id. E. 6, 47:

    cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,

    id. G. 4, 488; cf. Anthol. Lat. I. p. 170, 15;

    I. p. 168, 14 Burm.: Tarquinium mala libido Lucretiae stuprandae cepit,

    Liv. 1, 57, 10:

    ingens quidem et luctus et pavor civitatem cepit,

    id. 25, 22, 1:

    tantus repente maeror pavorque senatum eorum cepit,

    id. 23, 20, 7:

    senatum metus cepit,

    id. 23, 14, 8: si me... misericordia capsit. Att. ap. Non. p. 483, 11 (Trag. Rel. v. 454 Rib.): nec tuendi capere satietas potest, Pac. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 14, 24 (Trag. Rel. v. 410 ib.):

    quantus timor socios populi Romani cepisset,

    Liv. 43, 11, 9.—
    11.
    Of injury, damage, loss, etc., to suffer, take, be subjected to:

    calamitatem,

    Cic. Div. 1, 16, 29:

    detrimenti aliquid in aliqua re,

    Col. 1, 8, 2.—Esp., in the legal formula, by which dictatorial powers were conferred by the senate upon the consuls or the entire magistracy in times of extreme danger to the state;

    videant ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat: decrevit quondam senatus, ut L. Opimius consul videret ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 4:

    Hernici tantum terrorem incussere patribus, ut, quae forma senatus consulti ultimae semper necessitatis habita est, Postumio, alteri consulum, negotium daretur, videret, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 3, 4, 9; cf. id. 6, 19, 2 sqq.:

    quod plerumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus decrevit, darent operam consules, ne quid, etc.... Ea potestas per senatum more Romano magistratui maxuma permittitur, exercitum parare, bellum gerere, coercere omnibus modis socios atque civis, domi militiaeque inperium atque judicium summum habere,

    Sall. C. 29, 2 sq.
    II.
    To take in, receive, hold, contain, be large enough for.
    A.
    Lit.
    1.
    In gen.: Ph. Sitit haec anus. Pa. Quantillum sitit? Ph. Modica'st, capit quadrantal, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 8:

    parte quod ex una spatium vacat et capit in se (ferrum),

    Lucr. 6, 1030:

    jam mare litus habet, plenos capit alveus amnes,

    Ov. M. 1, 344; cf.:

    terra feras cepit, volucres agitabilis aer,

    id. ib. 1, 75:

    dum tenues capiat suus alveus undas,

    id. ib. 8, 558:

    cunctosque (deos) dedisse Terga fugae, donec fessos Aegyptia tellus Ceperit,

    id. ib. 5, 324.—
    2.
    Esp., with negatives, not to hold, to be too small for, etc.; cf.:

    di boni, quid turba est! Aedes nostrae vix capient, scio,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 13:

    qui cum una domo jam capi non possunt, in alias domos exeunt,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 54: nec jam se capit [p. 286] unda;

    volat vapor ater ad auras,

    Verg. A. 7, 466:

    non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 46:

    non capit se mare,

    Sen. Agam. 487:

    neque enim capiebant funera portae,

    Ov. M. 7, 607:

    officium populi vix capiente domo,

    id. P. 4, 4, 42:

    si di habitum corporis tui aviditati animi parem esse voluissent, orbis te non caperet,

    Curt. 7, 8, 12:

    ut non immerito proditum sit... Graeciam omnem vix capere exercitum ejus (Xerxis) potuisse,

    Just. 2, 10, 19.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    To swallow up, ingulf, take in (rare):

    tot domus locupletissimas istius domus una capiet?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 7.—
    2. a.
    Affirmatively (rare):

    quidquid mortalitas capere poterat, implevimus,

    Curt. 9, 3, 7:

    si puer omni cura et summo, quantum illa aetas capit, labore, scripserit,

    Quint. 2, 4, 17:

    dummodo ejus aetatis sit, ut dolum capiat,

    Dig. 40, 12, 15.—
    b.
    With negatives:

    non capiunt angustiae pectoris tui (tantam personam),

    Cic. Pis. 11, 24:

    leones, qui... nec capere irarum fluctus in pectore possunt,

    Lucr. 3, 298:

    nec capiunt inclusas pectora flammas,

    Ov. M. 6, 466:

    vix spes ipse suas animo capit,

    id. ib. 11, 118:

    ardet et iram Non capit ipsa suam Progne,

    id. ib. 6, 610; cf.:

    sic quoque concupiscis quae non capis,

    Curt. 7, 8, 13:

    majora quam capit spirat,

    id. 6, 9, 11:

    ad ultimum magnitudinem ejus (fortunae) non capit,

    id. 3, 12, 20:

    infirma aetas majora non capiet,

    Quint. 1, 11, 13.—
    3.
    Transf., of things, to admit of, be capable of, undergo (post-Aug. and rare):

    rimam fissuramque non capit sponte cedrus,

    Plin. 16, 40, 78, § 212:

    molluscum... si magnitudinem mensarum caperet,

    id. 16, 16, 27, § 68:

    res non capit restitutionem, cum statum mutat,

    Dig. 4, 4, 19.—
    4.
    With inf., to be susceptible of, to be of a nature to, etc., = endechetai (late Lat.):

    nec capit humanis angoribus excruciari (Deus),

    Prud. Apoth. 154:

    crimina, quae non capiunt indulgeri,

    Tert. Pud. 1 fin.; id. Apol. 17; id. adv. Haer. 44 fin.; Paul. Nol. Carm. 9, 22.—
    5.
    Of the mind, to take, receive into the mind, comprehend, grasp, embrace (cf. intellego, to penetrate mentally, have insight into):

    sitque nonnumquam summittenda et contrahenda oratio, ne judex eam vel intellegere vel capere non possit,

    Quint. 11, 1, 45:

    nullam esse gratiam tantam, quam non vel capere animus meus in accipiendo... posset,

    id. 2, 6, 2:

    quae quidem ego nisi tam magna esse fatear, ut ea vix cujusquam mens aut cogitatio capere possit,

    Cic. Marcell. 2, 6; id. N. D. 1, 19, 49:

    senatus ille, quem qui ex regibus constare dixit, unus veram speciem Romani senatus cepit,

    Liv. 9, 17, 14:

    somnium laetius, quam quod mentes eorum capere possent,

    id. 9, 9, 14.—P. a. as subst.: Capta, ae, f., a surname of Minerva, as worshipped on the Coelian Mount, but for what reason is not known, Ov. F. 3, 837 sq.
    2.
    căpĭo, ōnis, f. [1. capio]; in the Lat. of the jurists,
    I.
    A taking:

    dominii,

    Dig. 39, 2, 18; Gell. 6 (7), 10, 3.—
    II.
    = usu capio or usucapio, the right of property acquired by prescription, Dig. 41, 1, 48, § 1; 41, 3, 21; 41, 5, 4; v. 1. usucapio.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > capio

  • 15 Capta

    1.
    căpĭo, cepi, captum (old fut. perf. capso, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 61: capsit, Enn. ap. Non. p. 66, 27, or Ann. v. 324 Vahl.; Plaut. Ps. 4, 3, 6; Att. ap. Non. p. 483, 12, or Trag. Rel. v. 454 Rib.; Paul. ex. Fest. p. 57 Mull.:

    capsimus,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 1, 15: capsis, acc. to Cic. Or. 45, 154, = cape si vis, but this is an error; cf. Quint. 1, 5, 66; old perf. cepet, Col. Rostr. 5; v. Wordsworth, Fragm. and Spec. p. 170), 3, v. a. [cf. kôpê, handle; Lat. capulum; Engl. haft; Germ. Heft; Sanscr. root hri-, take; cf. Gr. cheir, Engl. and Germ. hand, and Goth. hinthan, seize].
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., to take in hand, take hold of, lay hold of, take, seize, grasp (cf.:

    sumo, prehendo): si hodie hercule fustem cepero aut stimulum in manum,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 9:

    cape hoc flabellum,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 47:

    cepit manibus tympanum,

    Cat. 6, 3, 8:

    tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque Penatis,

    Verg. A. 2, 717:

    cape saxa manu, cape robora, pastor,

    id. G. 3, 420:

    flammeum,

    Cat. 61, 8:

    acria pocula,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 69:

    lora,

    Prop. 3 (4), 9, 57:

    baculum,

    Ov. M. 2, 789:

    colum cum calathis,

    id. ib. 12, 475:

    florem ternis digitis,

    Plin. 24, 10, 48, § 81:

    pignera,

    Liv. 3, 38, 12; Dig. 48, 13, 9, § 6; Gai Inst. 4, 29:

    ut is in cavea pignus capiatur togae,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 68: rem manu, Gai Inst. 1, 121:

    rem pignori,

    Dig. 42, 1, 15, § 7; cf. ib. 42, 1, 15, § 4:

    scutum laeva,

    Plin. 33, 1, 4, § 13:

    capias tu illius vestem,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 79: cape vorsoriam, seize the sheet, i. e. take a tack, turn about, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 19.—Very freq. of arms (cf. sumo); so in gen.: arma, to take up arms, i. e. engage in war or battle, Cic. Rab. Perd. 7, 20 sq.; 9, 27; 11, 31; id. Planc. 36, 88; id. Phil. 4, 3, 7; Caes. B.G. 5, 26; 7, 4; Sall. C. 27, 4; 30, 1; 33, 2; 52, 27; id. J. 38, 5; 102, 12; Ov. M. 3, 115 sq.; 12, 91; 13, 221;

    and of particular weapons: ensem,

    Ov. M. 13, 435:

    tela,

    id. ib. 3, 307; 5, 366 et saep.—Of food, to take, partake of:

    quicum una cibum Capere soleo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 61; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 77; Sall. J. 91, 2:

    lauti cibum capiunt,

    Tac. G. 22.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Of living objects.
    a. (α).
    Of persons:

    oppidum expugnavimus, et legiones Teleboarum vi pugnando cepimus,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 258: summus ibi capitur meddix, occiditur alter, Enn. ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 123 Mull. (Ann. v. 296 Vahl.):

    quoniam belli nefarios duces captos jam et comprehensos tenetis,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 7, 16:

    ibi Orgetorigis filia atque unus e filiis captus est,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26:

    reges capiuntur,

    Lucr. 4, 1013; Tac. A. 4, 33:

    capta eo proelio tria milia peditum dicuntur,

    Liv. 22, 49, 18:

    quos Byzantii ceperat,

    Nep. Paus. 2, 3; id. Alcib. 9, 2; id. Dat. 2, 5; Quint. 6, 3, 61:

    captos ostendere civibus hostes,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 33:

    captus Tarento Livius,

    Cic. Brut. 18, 72:

    servus ex hoste captus,

    Quint. 5, 10, 67.—Hence, P. a. as subst.: captus, i, m., = captivus, a prisoner, captive:

    in captos clementia uti,

    Nep. Alcib. 5, 7:

    inludere capto,

    Verg. A. 2, 64:

    quae sit fiducia capto,

    id. ib. 2, 75:

    ex captorum numero,

    Liv. 28, 39, 10; Tac. A. 6, 1; 12, 37; 15, 1.—Also, capta, ae, f., a female captive:

    dicam hanc esse captam ex Caria, Ditem ac nobilem,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 47.—
    (β).
    Of animals, birds, fish, etc., to catch, hunt down, take: quid hic venatu non cepit? Varr. ap. Non. p. 253, 31:

    si ab avibus capiundis auceps dicatur, debuisse ajunt ex piscibus capiundis, ut aucupem, sic piscicupem dici,

    id. L. L. 8, § 61 Mull.:

    hic jaculo pisces, illa capiuntur ab hamis,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 763:

    neque quicquam captum'st piscium,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 1, 12; cf.:

    nisi quid concharum capsimus,

    id. ib. v. 18; Cic. Off. 3, 14, 58; Plin. 33, 1, 6, § 27: acipenserem, Cic. ap. Macr. S. 2, 12:

    cervum,

    Phaedr. 1, 5, 5; cf.:

    hic (Nereus) tibi prius vinclis capiendus,

    Verg. G. 4, 396.—
    b.
    To win, captivate, charm, allure, enchain, enslave, fascinate; mostly with abl. of means: Ph. Amore ardeo. Pa. Quid agas? nisi ut te redimas captum quam queas Minumo, Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 29:

    quod insit in iis aliquid probi, quod capiat ignaros,

    Cic. Off. 3, 3, 15: [p. 284] animum adulescentis... pellexit eis omnibus rebus, quibus illa aetas capi ac deleniri potest, id. Clu. 5, 13:

    quamvis voluptate capiatur,

    id. Off. 1, 30, 105; Quint. 5, 11, 19:

    quem quidem adeo sua cepit humanitate,

    Nep. Alcib. 9, 3:

    secum habuit Pomponium, captus adulescentis et humanitate et doctrina,

    id. Att. 4, 1:

    nec bene promeritis capitur (deus), nec tangitur ira,

    Lucr. 2, 651: ut pictura poesis;

    erit quae si propius stes Te capiat magis, et quaedam si longius abstes,

    Hor. A. P. 362:

    hunc capit argenti splendor,

    id. S. 1, 4, 28:

    te conjux aliena capit,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 46:

    Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis,

    Prop. 1, 1, 1:

    carmine formosae, pretio capiuntur avarae,

    Tib. 3, 1, 7:

    munditiis capimur,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 133; id. M. 4, 170; 6, 465; 7, 802; 8, 124; 8, 435; 9, 511; 10, 529;

    14, 373: amore captivae victor captus,

    Liv. 30, 12, 18:

    dulcedine vocis,

    Ov. M. 1, 709; 11, 170:

    voce nova,

    id. ib. 1, 678:

    temperie aquarum,

    id. ib. 4, 344:

    (bos) herba captus viridi,

    Verg. E. 6, 59:

    amoenitate loci,

    Tac. A. 18, 52:

    auro,

    Hor. C. 2, 18, 36:

    neque honoris neque pecuniae dulcedine sum captus,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    splendore hominis,

    id. Fin. 1, 13, 42: ne oculis quidem captis in hanc fraudem decidisti;

    nam id concupisti quod numquam videras,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 45, § 102.—
    c.
    To cheat, seduce, deceive, mislead, betray, delude, catch:

    sapientis hanc vim esse maximam, cavere ne capiatur, ne fallatur videre,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 66:

    injurium autem'st ulcisci advorsarios? Aut qua via te captent eadem ipsos capi?

    Ter. Hec. 1, 1, 16: uti ne propter te fidemque tuam captus fraudatusque sim, form. ap. Cic. Off. 3, 17, 70:

    eodem captus errore quo nos,

    involved in the same error, Cic. Phil. 12, 2, 6; id. ap. Non. p. 253, 25; cf.:

    ne quo errore milites caperentur,

    Liv. 8, 6, 16:

    capere ante dolis Reginam,

    Verg. A. 1, 673:

    captique dolis lacrimisque coactis (Sinonis),

    id. ib. 2, 196:

    ubi me eisdem dolis non quit capere,

    Sall. J. 14, 11:

    adulescentium animi molles et aetate fluxi dolis haud difficulter capiebantur,

    id. C. 14, 5:

    capi alicujus dolo,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 1:

    dolum ad capiendos eos conparant,

    Liv. 23, 35, 2:

    quas callida Colchis (i.e. Medea) amicitiae mendacis imagine cepit,

    Ov. M. 7, 301.—
    d.
    To defeat, convict, overcome in a suit or dispute (rare):

    tu si me impudicitiae captas, non potes capere,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 189:

    tu caves ne tui consultores, ille ne urbes aut castra capiantur (cf. B. 2. b. infra),

    Cic. Mur. 9, 22:

    callidus et in capiendo adversario versutus (orator),

    id. Brut. 48, 178.—
    e. (α).
    Of the physical powers, to lame, mutilate, maim, impair or weaken in the limbs, senses, etc. (only pass. capi, and esp. in part. perf. captus):

    mancus et membris omnibus captus ac debilis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 7, 21:

    ipse Hannibal... altero oculo capitur,

    loses an eye, Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    captus omnibus membris,

    id. 2, 36, 8:

    capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere,

    id. 21, 58, 5:

    oculis membrisque captus,

    Plin. 33, 4, 24, § 83:

    congerantur in unum omnia, ut idem oculis et auribus captus sit,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 40, 117:

    si captus oculis sit, ut Tiresias fuit,

    id. Div. 2, 3, 9; Verg. G. 1, 183:

    habuit filium captum altero oculo,

    Suet. Vit. 6:

    censorem Appium deum ira post aliquot annos luminibus captum,

    Liv. 9, 29, 11; Val. Max. 1, 1, 17:

    lumine,

    Ov. F. 6, 204:

    princeps pedibus captus,

    Liv. 43, 7, 5; cf.:

    captum leto posuit caput,

    Verg. A. 11, 830;

    and of the mole: aut oculis capti fodere cubilia talpae,

    id. G. 1, 183.—
    (β).
    Of the mental powers, to deprive of sense or intellect; only in part. perf. captus, usu. agreeing with pers. subj., and with abl. mente, silly, insane, crazy, crazed, lunatic, mad:

    labi, decipi tam dedecet quam delirare et mente esse captum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    vino aut somno oppressi aut mente capti,

    id. Ac. 2, 17, 53; Quint. 8, 3, 4;

    rarely mentibu' capti,

    Lucr. 4, 1022; so,

    animo,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 107; very rarely with gen.:

    captus animi,

    Tac. H. 3, 73.— Absol.:

    virgines captae furore,

    Liv. 24, 26, 12.—Less freq. agreeing with mens or animus:

    viros velut mente capta cum jactatione fanatica corporis vaticinari,

    Liv. 39, 13, 12:

    captis magis mentibus, quam consceleratis similis visa,

    id. 8, 18, 11; cf.:

    capti et stupentes animi,

    id. 6, 36, 8.—
    f.
    To choose, select, elect, take, pick out, adopt, accept a person for a particular purpose or to sustain a particular office or relation:

    de istac sum judex captus,

    Plaut. Merc. 4, 3, 33:

    Aricini atque Ardeates de ambiguo agro... judicem populum Romanum cepere,

    Liv. 3, 71, 2:

    me cepere arbitrum,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 91:

    te mihi patronam capio, Thais,

    id. Eun. 5, 2, 48:

    quom illum generum cepimus,

    id. Hec. 4, 1, 22; cf.:

    non, si capiundos mihi sciam esse inimicos omnis homines,

    make them enemies thereby, id. And. 4, 2, 12:

    si quis magistrum cepit ad eam rem inprobum,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 21.—So the formula of the Pontifex Maximus, in the consecration of a vestal virgin: sacerdotem Vestalem, quae sacra faciat... ita te, Amata, capio, Fab. Pict. ap. Gell. 1, 12, 14; cf.:

    plerique autem capi virginem solam debere dici putant, sed flamines quoque Diales, item pontifices et augures capi dicebantur,

    Gell. 1, 12, 15:

    jam ne ea causa pontifex capiar?... ecquis me augurem capiat? Cat. ib. § 17: Amata inter capiendum a pontifice maximo appellatur, quoniam, quae prima capta est, hoc fuisse nomen traditum est, Gell. ib. § 19: rettulit Caesar capiendam virginem in locum Occiae,

    Tac. A. 2, 86; 4, 16; 15, 22:

    religio, quae in annos singulos Jovis sacerdotem sortito capi jubeat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 51, § 127:

    C. Flaccus flamen captus a P. Licinio pontifice maximo erat,

    Liv. 27, 8, 5 Weissenb. ad loc.—
    2.
    Of places.
    a.
    To occupy, choose, select, take possession of, enter into; mostly milit. t. t., to take up a position, select a place for a camp, etc.:

    loca capere, castra munire,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 23:

    castris locum capere,

    Liv. 9, 17, 15; Suet. Aug. 94 fin.:

    locum capere castris,

    Quint. 12, 2, 5:

    ut non fugiendi hostis, sed capiendi loci causa cessisse videar,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 294:

    ad Thebanos transfugere velle, et locum extra urbem editum capere,

    Nep. Ages. 6, 2:

    nocte media profectus, ut locum quem vellet, priusquam hostes sentirent, caperet,

    Liv. 34, 14, 1:

    neminem elegantius loca cepisse, praesidia disposuisse,

    id. 35, 14, 9:

    erat autem Philopoemen praecipuae in ducendo agmine locisque capiendis solertiae atque usus,

    id. 35, 28, 1:

    locum cepere paulo quam alii editiorem,

    Sall. J. 58, 3:

    duces, ut quisque locum ceperat, cedere singulos,

    Dict. Cret. 2, 46; so,

    of position on the battle-field: quod mons suberat, eo se recipere coeperunt. Capto monte, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 25:

    tenuit non solum ales captam semelsedem, sed, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 26, 5:

    quem quis in pugnando ceperat locum, eum amissa anima corpore tegebat,

    Flor. 4, 1; Sall. C. 61, 2; rarely with dat. of pers.:

    tumulum suis cepit,

    Liv. 31, 41, 9, for a tomb: LOCVM SIBI MONVMENTO CEPIT. Inscr. Grut. 346, 6;

    for taking the auspices' se (Gracchum) cum legeret libros, recordatum esse, vitio sibi tabernaculum captum fuisse,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11; cf.:

    Palatium Romulus, Remus Aventinum ad inaugurandum templa capiunt,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4;

    for refuge: omnes Samnitium copiae montes proximos fuga capiunt,

    id. 9, 43, 20:

    Anchises natum Conventus trahit in medios... Et tumulum capit,

    Verg. A. 6, 753; 12, 562:

    ante locum capies oculis ( = eliges),

    Verg. G. 2, 230 Serv. ad loc.: nunc terras ordine longo Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur (cycni), to select places on which to light, or to be just settling down on places already selected, id. A. 1, 396 Forbig. ad loc.—
    b.
    To take by force, capture, storm, reduce, conquer, seize:

    invadam extemplo in oppidum antiquom: Si id capso, etc.,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 61: oppidum vi, Cat. ap. Charis. 2, p. 191 P.:

    MACELLAM OPPVGNANDO,

    Col. Rostr. Inscr. Orell. 549:

    CORSICAM,

    Inscr. Orell. 551: oppida, Enn. ap. Prisc. 9, p. 868 P. (Ann. v. 487 Vahl.):

    ad alia oppida pergit, pauca repugnantibus Numidis capit,

    Sall. J. 92, 3; Prop. 3, 4 (4, 3), 16:

    Troja capta,

    Liv. 1, 1, 1; Hor. S. 2, 3, 191: Coriolos. Liv. 3, 71, 7:

    urbem opulentissimam,

    id. 5, 20, 1:

    ante oppidum Nolam fortissuma Samnitium castra cepit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 33, 72:

    castra hostium,

    Nep. Dat. 6, 7:

    concursu oppidanorum facto scalis vacua defensoribus moenia capi possent,

    Liv. 42, 63, 6:

    plurimas hostium vestrorum in Hispania urbes,

    id. 28, 39, 10:

    sedem belli,

    Vell. 2, 74, 3; cf. Cic. Mur. 9, 22 (B. 1. d. supra).— Trop.:

    oppressa captaque re publica,

    Cic. Dom. 10, 26: qui, bello averso ab hostibus, patriam suam cepissent, Liv. 3, 50, 15.—
    c.
    To reach, attain, arrive at, betake one ' s self to (mostly by ships, etc.):

    insulam capere non potuerant,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 26 fin.:

    onerariae duae eosdem quos reliqui portus capere non potuerunt,

    id. ib. 4, 36:

    accidit uti, ex iis (navibus) perpaucae locum caperent,

    id. ib. 5, 23:

    nostrae naves, cum ignorarent, quem locum reliquae cepissent,

    id. B. C. 3, 28: praemiis magnis propositis, qui primus insulam cepisset, Auct. B. Alex. 17.— Trop.:

    qui... tenere cursum possint et capere otii illum portum et dignitatis,

    Cic. Sest. 46, 99.—
    3.
    Of things of value, property, money, etc.
    a.
    In gen., to take, seize, wrest, receive, obtain, acquire, get, etc.:

    AVRVM, ARGENTVM,

    Col. Rostr. Inscr. Orell. 549:

    de praedonibus praedam capere,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 14:

    agros de hostibus,

    Cic. Dom. 49, 128:

    ut ager ex hostibus captus viritim divideretur,

    Liv. 4, 48, 2:

    quinqueremem una cum defensoribus remigibusque, Auct. B. Alex. 16, 7: naves,

    Nep. Con. 4, 4:

    classem,

    id. Cim. 2, 2:

    magnas praedas,

    id. Dat. 10, 2:

    ex hostibus pecuniam,

    Liv. 5, 20, 5; cf.:

    e nostris spolia cepit laudibus, Cic. poet. Tusc. 2, 9, 22: signum ex Macedonia,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 58, § 149:

    signum pulcherrimum Carthagine captum,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 38, §

    82: sed eccam ipsa egreditur, nostri fundi calamitas: nam quod nos capere oportet, haec intercipit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 35:

    cape cedo,

    id. Phorm. 5, 8, 57:

    ut reliqui fures, earum rerum quas ceperunt, signa commutant,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 25, 74:

    majores nostri non solum id, quod de Campanis (agri) ceperant, non imminuerunt, etc.,

    id. Agr. 2, 29, 81:

    te duce ut insigni capiam cum laude coronam,

    Lucr. 6, 95.—With abstr. objects:

    paupertatem adeo facile perpessus est, ut de republica nihil praeter gloriam ceperit,

    Nep. Epam. 3, 4:

    ut ceteri, qui per eum aut honores aut divitias ceperant,

    id. Att. 7, 2:

    quoniam formam hujus cepi in me et statum,

    assumed, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 110:

    quare non committeret, ut is locus ex calamitate populi Romani nomen caperet,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    regnum Tiberinus ab illis Cepit,

    succeeded to, Ov. M. 14, 615.—
    b.
    In particular connections.
    (α).
    With pecuniam (freq. joined with concilio; v. infra), to take illegally, exact, extort, accept a bribe. take blackmail, etc., esp. of magistrates who were accused de pecuniis repetundis:

    his ego judicibus non probabo C. Verrem contra leges pecuniam cepisse?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10:

    HS. quadringentiens cepisse te arguo contra leges,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 10, § 26; cf.:

    quicquid ab horum quopiam captum est,

    id. ib. §

    27: tamen hae pecuniae per vim atque injuriam tuam captae et conciliatae tibi fraudi et damnationi esse deberent,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 40, §

    91: utrum (potestis), cum judices sitis de pecunia capta conciliata, tantam pecuniam captam neglegere?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 94, §

    218: quid est aliud capere conciliare pecunias. si hoc non est vi atque imperio cogere invitos lucrum dare alteri?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 30, §

    71: sequitur de captis pecuniis et de ambitu,

    id. Leg. 3, 20, 46:

    ita aperte cepit pecunias ob rem judicandam, ut, etc.,

    id. Fin. 2, 16, 54:

    quos censores furti et captarum pecuniarum nomine notaverunt,

    id. Clu. 42, 120:

    nondum commemoro rapinas, non exactas pecunias, non captas, non imperatas,

    id. Pis. 16, 38:

    si quis ob rem judicandam pecuniam cepisset... neque solum hoc genus pecuniae capiendae turpe, sed etiam nefarium esse arbitrabantur,

    id. Rab. Post. 7, 16; id. N. D. 3, 30, 70; Sall. J. 32, 1:

    ab regibus Illyriorum,

    Liv. 42, 45, 8:

    saevitiae captarumque pecuniarum teneri reum,

    Tac. A. 3, 67; 4, 31.—
    (β).
    Of inheritance and bequest, to take, inherit, obtain, acquire, get, accept:

    si ex hereditate nihil ceperit,

    Cic. Off, 3, 24, 93:

    qui morte testamentove ejus tantundem capiat quantum omnes heredes,

    id. Leg. 2, 19, 48:

    abdicatus ne quid de bonis patris capiat,

    Quint. 3, 6, 96:

    aut non justum testamentum est, aut capere non potes,

    id. 5, 14, 16:

    si capiendi Jus nullum uxori,

    Juv. 1, 55:

    qui testamentum faciebat, ei, qui usque ad certum modum capere potuerat, legavit, etc.,

    Dig. 22, 3, 27: quod ille plus capere non poterat, ib. fin.:

    qui ex bonis testatoris solidum capere non possit,

    ib. 28, 6, 6; 39, 6, 30.—
    (γ).
    Of regular income, revenue, etc., rents, tolls, profits, etc., to collect, receive, obtain: nam ex [p. 285] eis praediis talenta argenti bina Capiebat statim, Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 7:

    capit ille ex suis praediis sexcenta sestertia, ego centena ex meis,

    Cic. Par. 6, 3, 49:

    stipendium jure belli,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 28:

    quinquagena talenta vectigalis ex castro,

    Nep. Alcib. 9, 4:

    vectigal ex agro eorum capimus,

    Liv. 28, 39, 13:

    quadragena annua ex schola,

    Suet. Gram. 23:

    si recte habitaveris... fundus melior erit... fructus plus capies,

    Cato, R. R. 4, 2.—
    C.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of profit, benefit, advantage, to take, seize, obtain, get, enjoy, reap (mostly in phrase fructum capere):

    metuit semper, quem ipsa nunc capit Fructum, nequando iratus tu alio conferas,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 59:

    honeste acta superior aetas fructus capit auctoritatis extremos,

    Cic. Sen. 18, 62:

    ex iis etiam fructum capio laboris mei,

    id. Div. 2, 5:

    ex quibus (litteris) cepi fructum duplicem,

    id. Fam. 10, 5, 1:

    multo majorem fructum ex populi existimatione illo damnato cepimus, quam ex ipsius, si absolutus esset, gratia cepissemus,

    id. Att. 1, 4, 2:

    fructum immortalem vestri in me et amoris et judicii,

    id. Pis. 14, 31:

    aliquem fructum dulcedinis almae,

    Lucr. 2, 971; 5, 1410; Luc. 7, 32.—In other connections:

    quid ex ea re tandem ut caperes commodi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 25:

    utilitates ex amicitia maximas,

    Cic. Lael. 9, 32:

    usuram alicujus corporis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 108.—
    2.
    Of external characteristics, form, figure, appearance, etc., to take, assume, acquire, put on:

    gestum atque voltum novom,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 6, 50 ' faciem aliquam cepere morando, Ov. M. 1, 421; 13, 605:

    figuras Datque capitque novas,

    id. ib. 15, 309:

    formam capit quam lilia,

    id. ib. 10, 212; cf.:

    duritiam ab aere,

    id. ib. 4, 751.— Transf., of plants, etc.:

    radicem capere,

    to take root, Cato, R. R. 51:

    cum pali defixi radices cepissent,

    Plin. 17, 17, 27, § 123:

    siliculam capere,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 23, 3:

    maturitatem capere,

    Col. 4, 23, 1:

    radix libere capit viris,

    Plin. 17, 21, 35, § 161:

    vires cepisse nocendi,

    Ov. M. 7, 417:

    (telinum) rursus refrigeratum odorem suum capit,

    Plin. 13, 1, 2, § 13.—
    3.
    Of mental characteristics, habits, etc., to take, assume, adopt, cultivate, cherish, possess:

    cape sis virtutem animo et corde expelle desidiam tuo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 24:

    qua re si Glabrionis patris vim et acrimoniam ceperis ad resistendum hominibus audacissimis, si avi prudentiam ad prospiciendas insidias, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 17, 52:

    aliquando, patres conscripti, patrium animum virtutemque capiamus,

    id. Phil. 3, 11, 29:

    consuetudinem exercitationemque,

    id. Off. 1, 18, 59:

    misericordiam,

    id. Quint. 31, 97:

    quam (adsuetudinem) tu dum capias, taedia nulla fuge,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 346:

    disciplinam principum,

    Plin. Pan. 46. —With dat.:

    quorum animis avidis... neque lex neque tutor capere est qui possit modum,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 14 Wagn. ad loc.—
    4.
    Of offices, employments, duties, etc., = suscipio, to undertake, assume, enter upon, accept, take upon one ' s self, etc.:

    nam olim populi prius honorem capiebat suffragio, Quam magistro desinebat esse dicto oboediens,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 34:

    o Geta, provinciam Cepisti duram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 23:

    in te cepi Capuam, non quo munus illud defugerem,

    took command at Capua, Cic. Att. 8. 3, 4:

    consulatum,

    id. Pis. 2, 3; Sall. J. 63, 2:

    honores,

    Nep. Att. 7, 2; Suet. Aug. 26:

    imperium,

    id. Claud. 10:

    magistratum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 21, 62; Liv. 2, 33, 1; Suet. Aug. 2:

    magistratus,

    Sall. H. 1, 41, 21 Dietsch; Nep. Phoc. 1, 1; Suet. Caes. 75:

    capiatque aliquis moderamina (navis),

    Ov. M. 3, 644:

    rerum moderamen,

    id. ib. 6, 677:

    pontificatum maximum,

    Suet. Vit. 11:

    rem publicam,

    Sall. C. 5, 6:

    neve cui patrum capere eum magistratum liceret,

    Liv. 2, 33, 1:

    ut ceperat haud tumultuose magistratum majore gaudio plebis, etc.,

    id. 5, 13, 2.—Rarely with dat. of pers., to obtain for, secure for:

    patres praeturam Sp. Furio Camillo gratia campestri ceperunt,

    Liv. 7, 1, 2.—
    5.
    In gen., of any occupation, work, or undertaking, to begin, enter upon, take, undertake, etc.:

    augurium ex arce,

    Liv. 10, 7, 10:

    augurium capienti duodecim se vultures ostenderunt,

    Suet. Aug. 95; id. Vesp. 11:

    omen,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104:

    in castris Romanis cum frustra multi conatus ad erumpendum capti essent,

    Liv. 9, 4, 1:

    rursus impetu capto enituntur,

    id. 2, 65, 5; Quint. 6, 1, 28; Suet. Aug. 42; id. Calig. 43: cursum, id. Oth. 6:

    a quibus temporibus scribendi capiatur exordium,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 3, 8:

    experimentum eorum inversa manu capitur,

    Plin. 13, 2, 3, § 19 ( poet.):

    nec vestra capit discordia finem,

    Verg. A. 10, 106:

    fugam,

    to take to flight, flee, Caes. B. G. 7, 26; so, capere impetum, to take a start, gather momentum:

    ad impetum capiundum modicum erat spatium,

    Liv. 10, 5, 6; cf.:

    expeditionis Germanicae impetum cepit,

    suddenly resolved to make, Suet. Calig. 43: capere initium, to begin:

    ea pars artis, ex qua capere initium solent,

    Quint. 2, 11, 1.— Transf., of place:

    eorum (finium) una pars, quam Gallos optinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    a dis inmortalibus sunt nobis agendi capienda primordia,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 3, 7.—
    6.
    Of an opportunity or occasion, to seize, embrace, take:

    si occassionem capsit,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 3, 6:

    si lubitum fuerit, causam ceperit,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 8:

    quod tempus conveniundi patris me capere suadeat,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 4, 9:

    si satis commode tempus ad te cepit adeundi,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 16, 1.—
    7.
    Of operations of the mind, resolutions, purposes, plans, thoughts, etc., to form, conceive, entertain, come to, reach:

    quantum ex ipsa re conjecturam cepimus,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 25 MSS. (Fleck. al. ex conj. fecimus); Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 32:

    cum jam ex diei tempore conjecturam ceperat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 35:

    hujusce rei conjecturam de tuo ipsius studio, Servi, facillime ceperis,

    Cic. Mur. 4, 9.— Absol.:

    conjecturam capere,

    Cic. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    nec quid corde nunc consili capere possim, Scio,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 12:

    capti consili memorem mones,

    id. Stich 4, 1, 72:

    quo pacto porro possim Potiri consilium volo capere una tecum,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 66; 5, 2, 28:

    temerarium consilium,

    Liv. 25, 34, 7:

    tale capit consilium,

    Nep. Eum. 9, 3.— With inf.:

    confitendum... eadem te hora consilium cepisse hominis propinqui fortunas funditus evertere,

    Cic. Quint. 16, 53; Caes. B. G. 7, 71 init. —With ut:

    subito consilium cepi, ut exirem,

    Cic. Att. 7, 10 init. —With gen. gerund. (freq.):

    legionis opprimendae consilium capere,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 2:

    obprimundae reipublicae consilium cepit,

    Sall. C. 16, 4.—With sibi:

    si id non fecisset, sibi consilium facturos,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 20:

    ut ego rationem oculis capio,

    Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 2:

    cepi rationem ut, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 11.—
    8.
    Of examples, instances, proofs, etc., to take, derive, draw, obtain:

    ex quo documentum nos capere fortuna voluit quid esset victis extimescendum,

    Cic. Phil. 11, 2, 5:

    quid istuc tam mirum'st, de te si exemplum capit? Ter And. 4, 1, 26: exemplum ex aliqua re,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    praesagia a sole,

    Plin. 18, 35, 78, § 341:

    illud num dubitas quin specimen naturae capi debeat ex optima quaque natura?

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 14, 32.—
    9.
    Of impressions, feelings, etc., to take, entertain, conceive, receive, be subjected to, suffer, experience, etc.:

    tantum laborem capere ob talem filium?

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 29:

    omnes mihi labores fuere quos cepi leves,

    id. Heaut. 2, 4, 19:

    laborem inanem ipsus capit,

    id. Hec. 3, 2, 9:

    ex eo nunc misera quem capit Laborem!

    id. And. 4, 3, 4: miseriam omnem ego capio;

    hic potitur gaudia,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 22:

    satietatem dum capiet pater Illius quam amat,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 10:

    plus aegri ex abitu viri quam ex adventu voluptatis cepi,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 9:

    cum illa quacum volt voluptatem capit,

    id. ib. prol. 114:

    angor iste, qui pro amico saepe capiendus est,

    Cic. Lael. 13, 48:

    quae (benevolentia) quidem capitur beneficiis maxime,

    id. Off. 2, 9, 32:

    laetitiam quam capiebam memoria rationum inventorumque nostrorum,

    id. Fin. 2, 30, 96:

    lenire desiderium quod capiebat e filio,

    id. Sen. 15, 54:

    opinione omnium majorem animo cepi dolorem,

    id. Brut. 1, 1:

    itaque cepi voluptatem, tam ornatum virum fuisse in re publica,

    id. ib. 40, 147:

    ex civibus victis gaudium meritum capiam,

    Liv. 27, 40, 9:

    ne quam... invidiam apud patres ex prodiga largitione caperet,

    id. 5, 20, 2:

    ad summam laetitiam meam, quam ex tuo reditu capio, magnus illius adventu cumulus accedet,

    id. Att. 4, 19, 2 (4, 18, 3):

    laetitia, quam oculis cepi justo interitu tyranni,

    id. ib. 14, 14, 4:

    ex praealto tecto lapsus matris et adfinium cepit oblivionem,

    lost his memory, Plin. 7, 24, 24, § 90: virtutis opinionem, Auct. B. G. 8, 8: somnum, Cic. Tusc. 4, 19, 44: taedium vitae, Nep. ap. Gell. 6 (7), 18, 11:

    maria aspera juro Non ullum pro me tantum (me) cepisse timorem, Quam, etc.,

    Verg. A. 6, 352 Forbig. ad loc.:

    et in futurum etiam metum ceperunt,

    Liv. 33, 27, 10:

    voluptatem animi,

    Cic. Planc. 1, 1:

    malis alienis voluptatem capere laetitiae (cum sit),

    id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66:

    quaeque mihi sola capitur nunc mente voluptas,

    Ov. P. 4, 9, 37.—
    10.
    Transf., with the feelings, experience, etc., as subj., to seize, overcome, possess, occupy, affect, take possession of, move, etc. (cf. lambanô, in this sense and like 9. supra): nutrix: Cupido cepit miseram nunc me, proloqui Caelo atque terrae Medeai miserias, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 26, 63 (Trag. Rel. v. 291 Vahl.):

    edepol te desiderium Athenarum arbitror cepisse saepe,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 14:

    numquam commerui merito ut caperet odium illam mei,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 4:

    sicubi eum satietas Hominum aut negoti odium ceperat,

    id. Eun. 3, 1, 14:

    nos post reges exactos servitutis oblivio ceperat,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 4, 9:

    te cepisse odium regni videbatur,

    id. ib. 2, 36, 91:

    Romulum Remumque cupido cepit urbis condendae,

    Liv. 1, 6, 3:

    cupido eum ceperat in verticem montis ascendendi,

    id. 40, 21, 2:

    etiam victores sanguinis caedisque ceperat satietas,

    id. 27, 49, 8; Mel. 3, 5, 2:

    qui pavor hic, qui terror, quae repente oblivio animos cepit?

    Liv. 27, 13, 2:

    oblivio deorum capiat pectora vestra,

    id. 38, 46, 12:

    tantane te cepere oblivia nostri?

    Ov. Tr. 1, 8, 11:

    ut animum ejus cura sacrorum cepit,

    Liv. 27, 8, 6:

    hostis primum admiratio cepit, quidnam, etc.,

    id. 44, 12, 1:

    tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis,

    Verg. G. 4, 332; cf. Anthol. Lat. I. p. 178;

    I. p. 196 Burm.: ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos Sternimus,

    Verg. A. 2, 384:

    infelix, quae tanta animum dementia cepit!

    id. ib. 5, 465; id. E. 6, 47:

    cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,

    id. G. 4, 488; cf. Anthol. Lat. I. p. 170, 15;

    I. p. 168, 14 Burm.: Tarquinium mala libido Lucretiae stuprandae cepit,

    Liv. 1, 57, 10:

    ingens quidem et luctus et pavor civitatem cepit,

    id. 25, 22, 1:

    tantus repente maeror pavorque senatum eorum cepit,

    id. 23, 20, 7:

    senatum metus cepit,

    id. 23, 14, 8: si me... misericordia capsit. Att. ap. Non. p. 483, 11 (Trag. Rel. v. 454 Rib.): nec tuendi capere satietas potest, Pac. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 14, 24 (Trag. Rel. v. 410 ib.):

    quantus timor socios populi Romani cepisset,

    Liv. 43, 11, 9.—
    11.
    Of injury, damage, loss, etc., to suffer, take, be subjected to:

    calamitatem,

    Cic. Div. 1, 16, 29:

    detrimenti aliquid in aliqua re,

    Col. 1, 8, 2.—Esp., in the legal formula, by which dictatorial powers were conferred by the senate upon the consuls or the entire magistracy in times of extreme danger to the state;

    videant ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat: decrevit quondam senatus, ut L. Opimius consul videret ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 4:

    Hernici tantum terrorem incussere patribus, ut, quae forma senatus consulti ultimae semper necessitatis habita est, Postumio, alteri consulum, negotium daretur, videret, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 3, 4, 9; cf. id. 6, 19, 2 sqq.:

    quod plerumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus decrevit, darent operam consules, ne quid, etc.... Ea potestas per senatum more Romano magistratui maxuma permittitur, exercitum parare, bellum gerere, coercere omnibus modis socios atque civis, domi militiaeque inperium atque judicium summum habere,

    Sall. C. 29, 2 sq.
    II.
    To take in, receive, hold, contain, be large enough for.
    A.
    Lit.
    1.
    In gen.: Ph. Sitit haec anus. Pa. Quantillum sitit? Ph. Modica'st, capit quadrantal, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 8:

    parte quod ex una spatium vacat et capit in se (ferrum),

    Lucr. 6, 1030:

    jam mare litus habet, plenos capit alveus amnes,

    Ov. M. 1, 344; cf.:

    terra feras cepit, volucres agitabilis aer,

    id. ib. 1, 75:

    dum tenues capiat suus alveus undas,

    id. ib. 8, 558:

    cunctosque (deos) dedisse Terga fugae, donec fessos Aegyptia tellus Ceperit,

    id. ib. 5, 324.—
    2.
    Esp., with negatives, not to hold, to be too small for, etc.; cf.:

    di boni, quid turba est! Aedes nostrae vix capient, scio,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 13:

    qui cum una domo jam capi non possunt, in alias domos exeunt,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 54: nec jam se capit [p. 286] unda;

    volat vapor ater ad auras,

    Verg. A. 7, 466:

    non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 46:

    non capit se mare,

    Sen. Agam. 487:

    neque enim capiebant funera portae,

    Ov. M. 7, 607:

    officium populi vix capiente domo,

    id. P. 4, 4, 42:

    si di habitum corporis tui aviditati animi parem esse voluissent, orbis te non caperet,

    Curt. 7, 8, 12:

    ut non immerito proditum sit... Graeciam omnem vix capere exercitum ejus (Xerxis) potuisse,

    Just. 2, 10, 19.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    To swallow up, ingulf, take in (rare):

    tot domus locupletissimas istius domus una capiet?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 7.—
    2. a.
    Affirmatively (rare):

    quidquid mortalitas capere poterat, implevimus,

    Curt. 9, 3, 7:

    si puer omni cura et summo, quantum illa aetas capit, labore, scripserit,

    Quint. 2, 4, 17:

    dummodo ejus aetatis sit, ut dolum capiat,

    Dig. 40, 12, 15.—
    b.
    With negatives:

    non capiunt angustiae pectoris tui (tantam personam),

    Cic. Pis. 11, 24:

    leones, qui... nec capere irarum fluctus in pectore possunt,

    Lucr. 3, 298:

    nec capiunt inclusas pectora flammas,

    Ov. M. 6, 466:

    vix spes ipse suas animo capit,

    id. ib. 11, 118:

    ardet et iram Non capit ipsa suam Progne,

    id. ib. 6, 610; cf.:

    sic quoque concupiscis quae non capis,

    Curt. 7, 8, 13:

    majora quam capit spirat,

    id. 6, 9, 11:

    ad ultimum magnitudinem ejus (fortunae) non capit,

    id. 3, 12, 20:

    infirma aetas majora non capiet,

    Quint. 1, 11, 13.—
    3.
    Transf., of things, to admit of, be capable of, undergo (post-Aug. and rare):

    rimam fissuramque non capit sponte cedrus,

    Plin. 16, 40, 78, § 212:

    molluscum... si magnitudinem mensarum caperet,

    id. 16, 16, 27, § 68:

    res non capit restitutionem, cum statum mutat,

    Dig. 4, 4, 19.—
    4.
    With inf., to be susceptible of, to be of a nature to, etc., = endechetai (late Lat.):

    nec capit humanis angoribus excruciari (Deus),

    Prud. Apoth. 154:

    crimina, quae non capiunt indulgeri,

    Tert. Pud. 1 fin.; id. Apol. 17; id. adv. Haer. 44 fin.; Paul. Nol. Carm. 9, 22.—
    5.
    Of the mind, to take, receive into the mind, comprehend, grasp, embrace (cf. intellego, to penetrate mentally, have insight into):

    sitque nonnumquam summittenda et contrahenda oratio, ne judex eam vel intellegere vel capere non possit,

    Quint. 11, 1, 45:

    nullam esse gratiam tantam, quam non vel capere animus meus in accipiendo... posset,

    id. 2, 6, 2:

    quae quidem ego nisi tam magna esse fatear, ut ea vix cujusquam mens aut cogitatio capere possit,

    Cic. Marcell. 2, 6; id. N. D. 1, 19, 49:

    senatus ille, quem qui ex regibus constare dixit, unus veram speciem Romani senatus cepit,

    Liv. 9, 17, 14:

    somnium laetius, quam quod mentes eorum capere possent,

    id. 9, 9, 14.—P. a. as subst.: Capta, ae, f., a surname of Minerva, as worshipped on the Coelian Mount, but for what reason is not known, Ov. F. 3, 837 sq.
    2.
    căpĭo, ōnis, f. [1. capio]; in the Lat. of the jurists,
    I.
    A taking:

    dominii,

    Dig. 39, 2, 18; Gell. 6 (7), 10, 3.—
    II.
    = usu capio or usucapio, the right of property acquired by prescription, Dig. 41, 1, 48, § 1; 41, 3, 21; 41, 5, 4; v. 1. usucapio.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Capta

  • 16 cohibeo

    cŏ-hĭbĕo, ui ( perf. subj. cohibessit, Lucr. 3, 444 Lachm.), ĭtum, 2, v. a. [habeo].
    I.
    To hold together, to hold, contain, confine, embrace, comprise (class.;

    syn. contineo): omnes naturas ipsa (universa natura) cohibet et continet,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 13, 35; Lucr. 3, 441 sq.; 1, 517; 1, 536:

    (nubes) ut fumus constare nequirent, Nec cohibere nives gelidas et grandinis imbres,

    id. 6, 107:

    aliquid in se,

    id. 2, 1031; cf. Cic. Fat. 9, 19:

    at Scyllam caecis cohibet spelunca latebris,

    Verg. A. 3, 424:

    semen occaecatum,

    Cic. de Sen. 15, 51:

    nodo crinem,

    Hor. C. 3, 14, 22:

    namque marem cohibent callosa (ova) vitellum,

    id. S. 2, 4, 14:

    auro lacertos,

    to encircle, Ov. H. 9, 59:

    bracchium togā,

    Cic. Cael. 5, 11:

    deos parietibus,

    Tac. G. 9.—
    B.
    Trop. (very rare): sed interest inter causas fortuito antegressas, et inter causas cohibentis in se efficientiam naturalem, Cic. Fat. 9, 19.—
    II.
    With the access. idea of hindering free motion, to hold, keep, keep back, hinder, stay, restrain, stop, etc. (in a lit. sense in prose rare, but trop. very freq.).
    A.
    Prop.:

    cohibete intra limen etiam vos parumper,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 1:

    nec muris cohibet patriis media Ardea Turnum,

    Verg. A. 9, 738:

    carcere ventos,

    Ov. M. 14, 224:

    ventos in antris,

    id. ib. 15, 346: cervos arcu, to stop, poet. for to kill, Hor. C. 4, 6, 34:

    nec Stygiā cohibebor undā,

    id. ib. 2, 20, 8:

    tempestatibus in portibus cohiberi, Auct. B. Afr. 98: cohiberi in vinculis,

    Curt. 6, 2, 11:

    Pirithoum cohibent catenae,

    Hor. C. 3, 4, 80:

    claustra cohibentia Janum,

    id. Ep. 2, 1, 255:

    ab aliquā re,

    Liv. 22, 3, 9; Tac. A. 1, 56:

    sanguis spongiā in aceto tinctā cohibendus est,

    Cels. 8, 4; cf. Plin. 27, 11, 69, § 93:

    alvum,

    id. 29, 3, 11, § 49:

    milites intra castra,

    Curt. 10, 3, 6:

    aquilones jugis montium,

    id. 8, 9, 12.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Cohibere aliquid or cohibere se, to stop something (or one ' s self), to hold in check, to restrain, limit, confine, keep back, repress, tame, subdue (syn.:

    contineo, refreno, arceo, coerceo): motus animi perturbatos,

    Cic. Off. 2, 5, 18:

    furentis impetus crudelissimosque conatus,

    id. Phil. 3, 2, 5; cf.:

    furorem alicujus,

    id. ib. 5, 13, 37:

    temeritatem,

    id. Ac. 1, 12, 45:

    gaudia clausa in sinu tacito,

    Prop. 2 (3), 25, 30:

    iras,

    Verg. A. 12, 314:

    pravas aliorum spes,

    Tac. A. 3, 56:

    ac premeret sensus suos,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    bellum,

    Liv. 9, 29, 5:

    malum,

    Tac. A. 6, 16:

    sumptus,

    Arn. 2, p. 91:

    violentias effrenati doloris,

    Gell. 12, 5, 3:

    altitudinem aedificiorum,

    Tac. A. 15, 43:

    (provinciae) quae procuratoribus cohibentur,

    i. e. are ruled, id. H. 1, 11: non tu te cohibes? be moderate in grief, * Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 46; so Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4; Gell. 4, 9, 3.—
    (β).
    With quominus:

    vix cohibuere amici, quominus eodem mari oppeteret,

    Tac. A. 2, 24.— Pass.:

    ne flumine quidem interjecto, cohiberi quominus, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 10.—
    (γ).
    With inf., Calp. Ecl. 4, 20 (but in Cic. Tusc. 3, 25, 60; id. Caecin. 23, 66; Auct. B. G. 8, 23, prohibere is the true reading).—
    2.
    Aliquid ab aliquā re or aliquo, to keep something from something (or somebody), to ward off:

    manus ab alieno,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 12:

    manus, oculos, animum ab auro gazāque regiā,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 23, 66:

    effrenatas suas libidines a liberis et a conjugibus vestris,

    id. Mil. 28, 76:

    adsensionem a rebus incertis,

    id. N. D. 1, 1, 1.—Hence, cŏhĭbĭtus, a, um, P. a., confined, limited, moderate:

    dicendi genus,

    Gell. 7, 14, 7.— Comp.:

    habitudo cohibitior,

    Aus. Grat. Act. 27, 2.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cohibeo

  • 17 confero

    confĕro, contŭli, collātum (conl-), conferre, v. a.
    I.
    To bring, bear, or carry together, to collect, gather (freq. and class.).
    A.
    In gen.:

    ligna circa casam,

    Nep. Alcib. 10, 4:

    arma,

    Vell. 2, 114, 4:

    cibos ore suo (aves),

    Quint. 2, 6, 7:

    undique collatis membris,

    Hor. A. P. 3 al.:

    sarcinas in unum locum,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 24; cf. id. ib. 2, 25:

    collatis militaribus signis,

    id. ib. 7, 2:

    ut premerer sacrā Lauroque collatāque myrto,

    Hor. C. 3, 4, 19:

    quo (sc. in proximum horreum) omne rusticum instrumentum,

    Col. 1, 6, 7:

    illuc (sc. in castella) parentes et conjuges,

    Tac. A. 4, 46 fin.:

    dentes in corpore (canes),

    Ov. M. 3, 236:

    materiam omnem, antequam dicere ordiamur,

    Quint. 3, 9, 8:

    summas (scriptorum) in commentarium et capita,

    id. 10, 7, 32:

    plura opera in unam tabulam,

    id. 8, 5, 26:

    quae in proximos quinque libros conlata sunt,

    id. 8, prooem. 1: res Romanas Graeco peregrinoque sermone in historiam, Just. pr. 1; cf. Suet. Caes. 44; cf. I. B. 5. infra.; Quint. 4, 1, 23:

    rogus inimicis collatus manibus,

    Petr. 115 fin.
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    To collect money, treasures, etc., for any object, to bring offerings, contribute:

    dona mihi,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 20:

    contulit aes populus,

    Ov. F. 4, 351;

    so freq. on monuments: AERE CONLATO,

    Inscr. Orell. 3648; 74; Suet. Aug. 59:

    EX AERE CONLATO,

    Inscr. Orell. 3991:

    aurum argentumque in publicum,

    Liv. 28, 36, 3:

    munera ei,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 3:

    tributa quotannis ex censu,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 131:

    conferre eo minus tributi,

    Liv. 5, 20, 5:

    in commune,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 59, § 145; id. Quint. 3, 12:

    quadringena talenta quotannis Delum,

    Nep. Arist. 3, 1:

    (pecunia) ad ejus honores conlata,

    Cic. Fl. 25, 59:

    ad honorem tuum pecunias maximas contulisse,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 65, § 157:

    sextantes in capita,

    Liv. 2, 33, 11:

    pecunias,

    Suet. Caes. 19; id. Aug. 57; 30; Just. 3, 6:

    vinum alius, alius mel,

    Dig. 41, 1, 7; 47, 7, 3 pr.:

    sua bona in medium,

    ib. 37, 6, 1 pr.:

    magnam partem patrimonii alicui rei,

    ib. 50, 4, 5:

    cum et Socrati collatum sit ad victum,

    Quint. 12, 7, 9.— Absol.:

    nos dabimus, nos conferemus, nostro sumptu, non tuo,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 39.—Hence,
    b.
    Trop., like the Gr. sumpherô (v. Lidd. and Scott in h. v. 5.), to be useful, profitable, to profit, serve, be of use to ( = prosum; cf. also conduco, II.; post-Aug., and only in the third person; most freq. in Quint.); constr. with ad, in, the dat., inf., or absol.
    (α).
    With ad:

    naturane plus ad eloquentiam conferat an doctrina,

    Quint. 2, 19, 1; so id. 1, 8, 7; 2, 5, 1; 3, 6, 7 al.; Cels. 6, 6, 1; Col. 12, prooem. § 6; Suet. Tib. 4.—
    * (β).
    With in:

    rursus in alia plus prior (exercitatio) confert,

    Quint. 10, 7, 26.—
    (γ).
    With dat.:

    Gracchorum eloquentiae multum contulisse matrem,

    Quint. 1, 1, 6; so id. prooem. § 6; 2, 9, 2; 3, 7, 12 al.; Plin. 20, 6, 23, § 54; 20, 23, 98, § 261; 29, 1, 6, § 13; Suet. Vesp. 6.—
    (δ).
    With subj. inf.:

    incipiente incremento confert alterna folia circum obruere,

    Plin. 19, 5, 26, § 83.—
    (ε).
    Absol.:

    multum veteres etiam Latini conferunt, imprimis copiam verborum,

    Quint. 1, 8, 8; 2, 5, 16; 4, 2, 123 al.; cf. Sillig ad Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 67.—
    2.
    To bring into connection, to unite, join, connect:

    membris collatis, of an embrace,

    Lucr. 4, 1101; cf.

    ora,

    App. M. 5, p. 161, 17:

    fontes e quibus collatae aquae flumen emittunt,

    Curt. 7, 11, 3: capita, to lay heads together (in conferring, deliberating, etc.), Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 31; Liv. 2, 45, 7: pedem, to go or come with one, Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 41; so,

    gradum ( = congredi),

    id. Men. 3, 3, 30; id. Ps. 2, 4, 17; Verg. A. 6, 488.—Of chemical union:

    dissimiles et dispares res in unam potestatem,

    Vitr. 2, 6, 4.—
    b.
    Trop.:

    collatis viribus,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 17; cf.:

    conferre vires in unum,

    Liv. 33, 19, 7:

    collata omnium vota in unius salutem,

    Plin. Pan. 23, 5:

    e singulis frustis collata oratio,

    Quint. 8, 5, 27; cf. id. 2, 9, 3:

    velut studia inter nos conferebamus,

    id. 4, prooem. § 1.— So esp. of conferences, consultations, etc., to consult together, confer, consider or talk over together:

    si quid res feret, coram inter nos conferemus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 20, 1:

    sollicitudines nostras inter nos,

    id. Fam. 6, 21, 2:

    rationes,

    id. Att 5, 21, 12: familiares sermones cum aliquo, to unite in familiar conversation with, id. Off. 2, 11, 39:

    cum hoc in viā sermonem contulit,

    id. Inv. 2, 4, 14; cf.:

    cum aliquo aut sermones aut consilia,

    id. Phil. 2, 15, 38:

    consilia ad adulescentes,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 64; cf.:

    consilia dispersim antea habita,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    injurias,

    to deliberate together concerning, Tac. Agr. 15; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 15, 2.— Absol.:

    omnes sapientes decet conferre et fabulari,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 8.—With a rel.clause:

    fusi contulerimus inter nos... quid finis,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 2, 4:

    ibi conferentibus, quid animorum Hispanis esset,

    Liv. 27, 20, 4.—
    3.
    To bring or join together in a hostile manner, to set together (most freq. in milit. lang.):

    (Galli) cum Fontejo ferrum ac manus contulerunt,

    Cic. Font. 5, 12 (1, 2):

    signa cum Alexandrinis,

    id. Pis. 21, 49; cf.:

    collatis signis depugnare,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 44; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 23, 66:

    arma cum aliquo,

    Nep. Eum. 11, 5; 3, 6; cf.:

    arma inter se,

    Liv. 21, 1, 2:

    castra cum hoste,

    id. 26, 12, 14; cf.:

    castra castris,

    id. 23, 28, 9; 8, 23, 9; Cic. Div. 2, 55, 114; Caes. B. C. 3, 79:

    pedem cum pede,

    to fight foot to foot, Liv. 28, 2, 6; cf.:

    pede conlato,

    id. 6, 12, 10; 10, 29, 6; 26, 39, 12 al.:

    gradum cum aliquo,

    id. 7, 33, 11:

    pectora luctantia nexu pectoribus,

    Ov. M. 6, 242:

    stat conferre manum Aeneae,

    Verg. A. 12, 678:

    prima movet Cacus collatā proelia dextrā,

    Ov. F. 1, 569:

    collatis cursibus hastas conicere,

    Val. Fl. 6, 270:

    seque viro vir contulit,

    Verg. A. 10, 735.— Poet.:

    inter sese duri certamina belli,

    Verg. A. 10, 147:

    contra conferre manu certamina pugnae,

    Lucr. 4, 843:

    collato Marte,

    Ov. M. 12, 379.— Absol.:

    mecum confer, ait,

    fight with me, Ov. M. 10, 603.—
    b.
    Transf. from milit. affairs to lawsuits: pedem, to encounter, come in contact with one, to attack:

    non possum magis pedem conferre, ut aiunt, aut propius accedere?

    Cic. Planc. 19, 48:

    pedem cum singulis,

    Quint. 5, 13, 11; cf. id. 8, 6, 51; cf.:

    qui illi concedi putem utilius esse quod postulat quam signa conferri,

    Cic. Att. 7, 5, 5.— Poet.:

    lites,

    to contend, quarrel, Hor. S. 1, 5, 54.—
    4.
    To bring together for comparison, to compare; constr. with cum, inter se, ad, the dat., or acc. only.
    (α).
    With cum:

    quem cum eo (sc. Democrito) conferre possumus non modo ingenii magnitudine sed etiam animi?

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 73; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 52, § 115:

    ut non conferam vitam neque existimationem tuam cum illius,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 20, § 45; id. Sull. 26, 72:

    cum maximis minima,

    id. Opt. Gen. Or. 6, 17; Quint. 5, 13, 12; 8, 4, 2 al.:

    nostras leges cum illorum Lycurgo et Dracone et Solone,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 44, 197; cf.:

    illa cum Graeciā,

    id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2; v. also d. —
    (β).
    With inter se (rare):

    vitam inter se utriusque conferte,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7, 20.—
    * (γ).
    With ad:

    bos ad bovem collatus,

    Varr. L. L. 9, § 28 Müll.—
    (δ).
    With dat.:

    tempora praesentia praeteritis,

    Lucr. 2, 1166:

    parva magnis,

    Cic. Or. 4, 14:

    alicui illud,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 151:

    lanam tinctam Tyriae lacernae,

    Quint. 12, 10, 75:

    ingenia ingeniis,

    Sen. Contr. 5, 33:

    illam puellis,

    Prop. 1, 5, 7; 1, 4, 9:

    nil jucundo amico,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 44:

    (Pausanias et Lysander) ne minimā quidem ex parte Lycurgi legibus et disciplinae conferendi sunt,

    Cic. Off. 1, 22, 76; cf. supra, a.—
    (ε).
    With acc. only:

    tesseram hospitalem,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 88:

    conferte Verrem: non ut hominem cum homine comparetis, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 54, § 121:

    exemplum,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 85; Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 14; Ov. M. 7, 696:

    nec cum quaereretur gener Tarquinio, quisquam Romanae juventutis ullā arte conferri potuit,

    Liv. 1, 39, 4; Suet. Caes. 47:

    census,

    Plin. 7, 48, 49, § 159.—Of documents:

    haec omnia summā curā et diligentiā recognita et conlata sunt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 77, § 190.—
    5.
    With the idea of shortening by bringing together (cf. colligo), to compress, abridge, condense, make or be brief:

    quam potero in verba conferam paucissima,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 6; cf.:

    in pauca, ut occupatus nunc sum, confer, quid velis,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 44:

    rem in pauca,

    id. Poen. 5, 4, 68; and:

    in pauca verba,

    id. As. 1, 1, 75; id: Pers. 4, 4, 109:

    totam Academiam... ex duobus libris contuli in quattuor,

    Cic. Att. 13, 13, 1:

    ut in pauca conferam,

    id. Caecin. 6, 17:

    sua verba in duos versus,

    Ov. F. 1, 162:

    ex immensā diffusāque legum copiā optima quaeque et necessaria in paucissimos libros,

    Suet. Caes. 44.— [p. 412] *
    6.
    To join in bringing forward, to propose unitedly (as a law; cf.

    fero, II. B. 8. b.): cur enim non confertis, ne sit conubium divitibus et pauperibus,

    Liv. 4, 4, 9 Weissenb. ad loc.
    II.
    (Con intens.) To bear, carry, convey, direct a thing somewhere (in haste, for protection, etc.); and conferre se, to betake or turn one's self anywhere, to go (very freq. and class.).
    A.
    Prop.
    1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    With the designation of the goal: quo me miser conferam? Gracch. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 214:

    qui cum se suaque omnia in oppidum Bratuspantium contulissent,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    se suaque eo,

    id. ib. 3, 28:

    se suaque in naves,

    Nep. Them. 2, 7 al.:

    iter Brundisium versus,

    Cic. Att. 3, 4 med.; cf.: iter eo, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 13, 4:

    suas rationes et copias in illam provinciam,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 7, 17: legiones in mediam aciem, Auct. B. Alex. 39;

    Auct. B. Afr. 60: quos eodem audita Cannensis clades contulerat,

    Liv. 23, 17, 8:

    parentes illuc,

    Tac. A. 4, 46:

    se Rhodum conferre,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213: se Laodiceam, Lent. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 14, 4:

    se Colonas,

    Nep. Paus. 3, 3:

    quo se fusa acies,

    Liv. 9, 16, 1 al.:

    se ad Tissaphernem,

    Nep. Alcib. 5, 2; so,

    se ad Pharnabazum,

    id. Con. 2, 1:

    se in fugam,

    Cic. Caecin. 8, 22: sese in pedes, Enn. ap. Non. p. 518, 20; Plaut. Bacch. 3, 1, 7 (cf.:

    conicere se in pedes,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 13).—Of things:

    pituita eo se umorve confert,

    Cels. 2, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    pulcre haec confertur ratis,

    is borne away, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 6, 27.—
    2.
    Esp., in Ov. M. (cf. abeo, II.): aliquem in aliquid, to change into, transform to something:

    aliquem in saxum,

    Ov. M. 4, 278: versos vultus ( poet. circumlocution for se) in hanc, id. ib. 9, 348:

    corpus in albam volucrem,

    id. ib. 12, 145.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    In gen., to bring, turn, direct something to; and conferre se, to turn, apply, devote one's self to, etc.:

    quo mortuo me ad pontificem Scaevolam contuli,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    (Crassus) cum initio aetatis ad amicitiam se meam contulisset,

    id. Brut. 81, 281; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2:

    qui se ad senatūs auctoritatem, ad libertatem vestram contulerunt,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; id. Ac. 1, 9, 34:

    se ad studium scribendi,

    id. Arch. 3, 4:

    se ad studia litterarum,

    id. ib. 7, 16; cf. Suet. Gram. 24:

    meus pater eam seditionem in tranquillum conferet (the figure taken from the sea when in commotion),

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 16: verba ad rem, to bring words to actions, i. e. to pass from words to deeds, Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 4; id. Hec. 3, 1, 17:

    suspitionem in Capitonem,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 35, 100:

    ut spes votaque sua non prius ad deos quam ad principum aures conferret,

    Tac. A. 4, 39:

    lamentationes suas etiam in testamentum,

    id. ib. 15, 68.—More freq., in partic.,
    2.
    With the access. idea of application or communication, to devote or apply something to a certain purpose, to employ, direct, confer, bestow upon, give, lend, grant, to transfer to (a favorite word with Cic.).
    (α).
    With dat.:

    dona quid cessant mihi Conferre?

    Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 20:

    tibi munera,

    Prop. 2, 3, 25; Nep. Ages. 7, 3:

    victoribus praemia,

    Suet. Calig. 20:

    puellae quinquaginta milia nummūm,

    Plin. Ep. 6, 32, 2:

    fructum alio,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 60; Dig. 37, 6, 1, § 24.—
    (β).
    With ad and acc.:

    hostiles exuvias ornatum ad urbis et posterum gloriam,

    Tac. A. 3, 72:

    Mithridates omne reliquum tempus non ad oblivionem veteris belli, sed ad comparationem novi contulit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 9:

    omne studium atque omne ingenium ad populi Romani gloriam laudemque celebrandam,

    id. Arch. 9, 19; id. Fam. 10, 1, 3:

    omnem meam curam atque operam ad philosophiam,

    id. ib. 4, 3, 4:

    omnem tuum amorem omnemque tuam prudentiam... confer ad eam curam,

    id. Att. 7, 1, 2:

    animum ad fodiendos puteos, Auct. B. Alex. 9: ad naturae suae non vitiosae genus consilium vivendi omne,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 120:

    orationem omnem ad misericordiam,

    id. Lig. 1, 1.—
    (γ).
    With in:

    omnes curas cogitationesque in rem publicam,

    Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2:

    diligentiam in valetudinem tuam,

    id. Fam. 16, 4, 4:

    praedas ac manubias suas non in monumenta deorum immortalium, neque in urbis ornamenta conferre, sed, etc.,

    id. Agr. 2, 23, 60:

    in eos, quos speramus nobis profuturos, non dubitamus officia conferre,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 48; so,

    plurimum benignitatis in eum,

    id. ib. 1, 16, 50; id. Lael. 19, 70: curam restituendi Capitolii in L. Vestinum confert, i. e. assigns to, charges with, Tac. H. 4, 53:

    in unius salutem collata omnium vota,

    Plin. Pan. 23, 5.—
    (δ).
    With erga:

    commemoratio benevolentiae ejus, quam erga me a pueritiā contulisses,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 5, 1.—
    3.
    With aliquid ad or in aliquem or aliquid, to refer or ascribe something to a person or thing as its possessor, author (in a good, and freq. in a bad sense), to attribute, impute, assign, ascribe to one, to lay to the charge of:

    species istas hominum in deos,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 27, 77:

    res ad imperium deorum,

    Lucr. 6, 54:

    permulta in Plancium, quae ab eo numquam dicta sunt, conferuntur... Stomachor vero, cum aliorum non me digna in me conferuntur,

    Cic. Planc. 14, 35; id. Fam. 5, 5, 2:

    mortis illius invidiam in L. Flaccum,

    id. Fl. 17, 41:

    suum timorem in rei frumentariae simulationem angustiasque itinerum,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    sua vitia et suam culpam in senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 5, 14:

    hanc ego de re publicā disputationem in Africani personam et Phili contuli,

    id. Att. 4, 16, 2.—So esp.:

    culpam in aliquem,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 156; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 97; Cic. Att. 9, 2, a, 1:

    causam in aliquem,

    id. ib. 12, 31, 1; Liv. 5, 11, 6; cf.:

    causam in tempus,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 61, 228.—
    4.
    To transfer to a fixed point of time, fix, assign, refer, appoint, put off, defer, postpone (cf. differo):

    Carthaginis expugnationem in hunc annum,

    Liv. 27, 7, 5: in posterum diem iter suum contulit, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 13, 3:

    omnia in mensem Martium,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 24:

    aliquid in ambulationis tempus,

    id. Q. Fr. 3, 3, 1:

    eam pecuniam in rei publicae magnum aliquod tempus,

    id. Off. 3, 24, 93:

    quod in longiorem diem conlaturus fuisset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40 fin.:

    alicujus consulatum in annum aliquem,

    Plin. Pan. 61.—Rarely of place:

    idoneum locum in agris nactus... ibi adventum expectare Pompei eoque omnem belli rationem conferre constituit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 81 fin.
    5.
    To bring on, cause, occasion, induce:

    pestem alicui,

    Col. 1, 5, 4:

    candorem mollitiamque,

    Plin. 35, 15, 50, § 175.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > confero

  • 18 Cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum

  • 19 cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cum

  • 20 Cum2

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum2

См. также в других словарях:

  • List of Latin words with English derivatives — This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages). Ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article both… …   Wikipedia


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