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stability in value of money

  • 1 stability in value of money

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > stability in value of money

  • 2 stability in value of money

    English-russian dctionary of diplomacy > stability in value of money

  • 3 stability in the value of money

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > stability in the value of money

  • 4 stability in the value of money

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > stability in the value of money

  • 5 stability

    English-russian dctionary of diplomacy > stability

  • 6 stability

    computational stability вчт. устойчивость результатов вычислений efforts towards stability стремление к стабилизации exchange stability устойчивость валютного курса price stability стабильность цен stability мор. остойчивость stability постоянство, твердость (характера); непоколебимость (решения) stability прочность stability стабильность, устойчивость stability стабильность stability устойчивость, стабильность; прочность stability устойчивость stability вчт. устойчивость stability in the value of money стабильность стоимости денег stability of prices стабильность цен stability of value стабильность стоимости stochastic stability стохастическая устойчивость

    English-Russian short dictionary > stability

  • 7 stability

    stəˈbɪlɪtɪ сущ.
    1) а) устойчивость, стабильность;
    прочность( физического положения чего-л.) Syn: steadiness, firmness б) перен. постоянство, твердость( характера) ;
    непоколебимость( решения)
    2) мор. остойчивость
    3) уединенная келья в монастыре устойчивость, стабильность;
    состояние равновесия - domestic * внутренняя устойчивость - family * постоянство состава семьи (демография) ;
    прочность семейных отношений - to secure the * of peace обеспечить прочный мир постоянство, непоколебимость, твердость (характера, убеждений, решения) - man of * надежный человек - man of no * человек, на которого нельзя положиться( техническое) прочность, крепость;
    жесткость (авиация) (морское) остойчивость, устойчивость computational ~ вчт. устойчивость результатов вычислений efforts towards ~ стремление к стабилизации exchange ~ устойчивость валютного курса price ~ стабильность цен stability мор. остойчивость ~ постоянство, твердость (характера) ;
    непоколебимость (решения) ~ прочность ~ стабильность, устойчивость ~ стабильность ~ устойчивость, стабильность;
    прочность ~ устойчивость ~ вчт. устойчивость ~ in the value of money стабильность стоимости денег ~ of prices стабильность цен ~ of value стабильность стоимости stochastic ~ стохастическая устойчивость

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > stability

  • 8 near cash

    гос. фин. The resource budget contains a separate control total for “near cash” expenditure, that is expenditure such as pay and current grants which impacts directly on the measure of the golden rule.
    This paper provides background information on the framework for the planning and control of public expenditure in the UK which has been operated since the 1998 Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR). It sets out the different classifications of spending for budgeting purposes and why these distinctions have been adopted. It discusses how the public expenditure framework is designed to ensure both sound public finances and an outcome-focused approach to public expenditure.
    The UK's public spending framework is based on several key principles:
    consistency with a long-term, prudent and transparent regime for managing the public finances as a whole;
    " "
    the judgement of success by policy outcomes rather than resource inputs;
    " "
    strong incentives for departments and their partners in service delivery to plan over several years and plan together where appropriate so as to deliver better public services with greater cost effectiveness; and
    the proper costing and management of capital assets to provide the right incentives for public investment.
    The Government sets policy to meet two firm fiscal rules:
    the Golden Rule states that over the economic cycle, the Government will borrow only to invest and not to fund current spending; and
    the Sustainable Investment Rule states that net public debt as a proportion of GDP will be held over the economic cycle at a stable and prudent level. Other things being equal, net debt will be maintained below 40 per cent of GDP over the economic cycle.
    Achievement of the fiscal rules is assessed by reference to the national accounts, which are produced by the Office for National Statistics, acting as an independent agency. The Government sets its spending envelope to comply with these fiscal rules.
    Departmental Expenditure Limits ( DEL) and Annually Managed Expenditure (AME)
    Departmental Expenditure Limit ( DEL) spending, which is planned and controlled on a three year basis in Spending Reviews; and
    Annually Managed Expenditure ( AME), which is expenditure which cannot reasonably be subject to firm, multi-year limits in the same way as DEL. AME includes social security benefits, local authority self-financed expenditure, debt interest, and payments to EU institutions.
    More information about DEL and AME is set out below.
    In Spending Reviews, firm DEL plans are set for departments for three years. To ensure consistency with the Government's fiscal rules departments are set separate resource (current) and capital budgets. The resource budget contains a separate control total for “near cash” expenditure, that is expenditure such as pay and current grants which impacts directly on the measure of the golden rule.
    To encourage departments to plan over the medium term departments may carry forward unspent DEL provision from one year into the next and, subject to the normal tests for tautness and realism of plans, may be drawn down in future years. This end-year flexibility also removes any incentive for departments to use up their provision as the year end approaches with less regard to value for money. For the full benefits of this flexibility and of three year plans to feed through into improved public service delivery, end-year flexibility and three year budgets should be cascaded from departments to executive agencies and other budget holders.
    Three year budgets and end-year flexibility give those managing public services the stability to plan their operations on a sensible time scale. Further, the system means that departments cannot seek to bid up funds each year (before 1997, three year plans were set and reviewed in annual Public Expenditure Surveys). So the credibility of medium-term plans has been enhanced at both central and departmental level.
    Departments have certainty over the budgetary allocation over the medium term and these multi-year DEL plans are strictly enforced. Departments are expected to prioritise competing pressures and fund these within their overall annual limits, as set in Spending Reviews. So the DEL system provides a strong incentive to control costs and maximise value for money.
    There is a small centrally held DEL Reserve. Support from the Reserve is available only for genuinely unforeseeable contingencies which departments cannot be expected to manage within their DEL.
    AME typically consists of programmes which are large, volatile and demand-led, and which therefore cannot reasonably be subject to firm multi-year limits. The biggest single element is social security spending. Other items include tax credits, Local Authority Self Financed Expenditure, Scottish Executive spending financed by non-domestic rates, and spending financed from the proceeds of the National Lottery.
    AME is reviewed twice a year as part of the Budget and Pre-Budget Report process reflecting the close integration of the tax and benefit system, which was enhanced by the introduction of tax credits.
    AME is not subject to the same three year expenditure limits as DEL, but is still part of the overall envelope for public expenditure. Affordability is taken into account when policy decisions affecting AME are made. The Government has committed itself not to take policy measures which are likely to have the effect of increasing social security or other elements of AME without taking steps to ensure that the effects of those decisions can be accommodated prudently within the Government's fiscal rules.
    Given an overall envelope for public spending, forecasts of AME affect the level of resources available for DEL spending. Cautious estimates and the AME margin are built in to these AME forecasts and reduce the risk of overspending on AME.
    Together, DEL plus AME sum to Total Managed Expenditure (TME). TME is a measure drawn from national accounts. It represents the current and capital spending of the public sector. The public sector is made up of central government, local government and public corporations.
    Resource and Capital Budgets are set in terms of accruals information. Accruals information measures resources as they are consumed rather than when the cash is paid. So for example the Resource Budget includes a charge for depreciation, a measure of the consumption or wearing out of capital assets.
    Non cash charges in budgets do not impact directly on the fiscal framework. That may be because the national accounts use a different way of measuring the same thing, for example in the case of the depreciation of departmental assets. Or it may be that the national accounts measure something different: for example, resource budgets include a cost of capital charge reflecting the opportunity cost of holding capital; the national accounts include debt interest.
    Within the Resource Budget DEL, departments have separate controls on:
    Near cash spending, the sub set of Resource Budgets which impacts directly on the Golden Rule; and
    The amount of their Resource Budget DEL that departments may spend on running themselves (e.g. paying most civil servants’ salaries) is limited by Administration Budgets, which are set in Spending Reviews. Administration Budgets are used to ensure that as much money as practicable is available for front line services and programmes. These budgets also help to drive efficiency improvements in departments’ own activities. Administration Budgets exclude the costs of frontline services delivered directly by departments.
    The Budget preceding a Spending Review sets an overall envelope for public spending that is consistent with the fiscal rules for the period covered by the Spending Review. In the Spending Review, the Budget AME forecast for year one of the Spending Review period is updated, and AME forecasts are made for the later years of the Spending Review period.
    The 1998 Comprehensive Spending Review ( CSR), which was published in July 1998, was a comprehensive review of departmental aims and objectives alongside a zero-based analysis of each spending programme to determine the best way of delivering the Government's objectives. The 1998 CSR allocated substantial additional resources to the Government's key priorities, particularly education and health, for the three year period from 1999-2000 to 2001-02.
    Delivering better public services does not just depend on how much money the Government spends, but also on how well it spends it. Therefore the 1998 CSR introduced Public Service Agreements (PSAs). Each major government department was given its own PSA setting out clear targets for achievements in terms of public service improvements.
    The 1998 CSR also introduced the DEL/ AME framework for the control of public spending, and made other framework changes. Building on the investment and reforms delivered by the 1998 CSR, successive spending reviews in 2000, 2002 and 2004 have:
    provided significant increase in resources for the Government’s priorities, in particular health and education, and cross-cutting themes such as raising productivity; extending opportunity; and building strong and secure communities;
    " "
    enabled the Government significantly to increase investment in public assets and address the legacy of under investment from past decades. Departmental Investment Strategies were introduced in SR2000. As a result there has been a steady increase in public sector net investment from less than ¾ of a per cent of GDP in 1997-98 to 2¼ per cent of GDP in 2005-06, providing better infrastructure across public services;
    " "
    introduced further refinements to the performance management framework. PSA targets have been reduced in number over successive spending reviews from around 300 to 110 to give greater focus to the Government’s highest priorities. The targets have become increasingly outcome-focused to deliver further improvements in key areas of public service delivery across Government. They have also been refined in line with the conclusions of the Devolving Decision Making Review to provide a framework which encourages greater devolution and local flexibility. Technical Notes were introduced in SR2000 explaining how performance against each PSA target will be measured; and
    not only allocated near cash spending to departments, but also – since SR2002 - set Resource DEL plans for non cash spending.
    To identify what further investments and reforms are needed to equip the UK for the global challenges of the decade ahead, on 19 July 2005 the Chief Secretary to the Treasury announced that the Government intends to launch a second Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR) reporting in 2007.
    A decade on from the first CSR, the 2007 CSR will represent a long-term and fundamental review of government expenditure. It will cover departmental allocations for 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010 11. Allocations for 2007-08 will be held to the agreed figures already announced by the 2004 Spending Review. To provide a rigorous analytical framework for these departmental allocations, the Government will be taking forward a programme of preparatory work over 2006 involving:
    an assessment of what the sustained increases in spending and reforms to public service delivery have achieved since the first CSR. The assessment will inform the setting of new objectives for the decade ahead;
    " "
    an examination of the key long-term trends and challenges that will shape the next decade – including demographic and socio-economic change, globalisation, climate and environmental change, global insecurity and technological change – together with an assessment of how public services will need to respond;
    " "
    to release the resources needed to address these challenges, and to continue to secure maximum value for money from public spending over the CSR period, a set of zero-based reviews of departments’ baseline expenditure to assess its effectiveness in delivering the Government’s long-term objectives; together with
    further development of the efficiency programme, building on the cross cutting areas identified in the Gershon Review, to embed and extend ongoing efficiency savings into departmental expenditure planning.
    The 2007 CSR also offers the opportunity to continue to refine the PSA framework so that it drives effective delivery and the attainment of ambitious national standards.
    Public Service Agreements (PSAs) were introduced in the 1998 CSR. They set out agreed targets detailing the outputs and outcomes departments are expected to deliver with the resources allocated to them. The new spending regime places a strong emphasis on outcome targets, for example in providing for better health and higher educational standards or service standards. The introduction in SR2004 of PSA ‘standards’ will ensure that high standards in priority areas are maintained.
    The Government monitors progress against PSA targets, and departments report in detail twice a year in their annual Departmental Reports (published in spring) and in their autumn performance reports. These reports provide Parliament and the public with regular updates on departments’ performance against their targets.
    Technical Notes explain how performance against each PSA target will be measured.
    To make the most of both new investment and existing assets, there needs to be a coherent long term strategy against which investment decisions are taken. Departmental Investment Strategies (DIS) set out each department's plans to deliver the scale and quality of capital stock needed to underpin its objectives. The DIS includes information about the department's existing capital stock and future plans for that stock, as well as plans for new investment. It also sets out the systems that the department has in place to ensure that it delivers its capital programmes effectively.
    This document was updated on 19 December 2005.
    Near-cash resource expenditure that has a related cash implication, even though the timing of the cash payment may be slightly different. For example, expenditure on gas or electricity supply is incurred as the fuel is used, though the cash payment might be made in arrears on aquarterly basis. Other examples of near-cash expenditure are: pay, rental.Net cash requirement the upper limit agreed by Parliament on the cash which a department may draw from theConsolidated Fund to finance the expenditure within the ambit of its Request forResources. It is equal to the agreed amount of net resources and net capital less non-cashitems and working capital.Non-cash cost costs where there is no cash transaction but which are included in a body’s accounts (or taken into account in charging for a service) to establish the true cost of all the resourcesused.Non-departmental a body which has a role in the processes of government, but is not a government public body, NDPBdepartment or part of one. NDPBs accordingly operate at arm’s length from governmentMinisters.Notional cost of a cost which is taken into account in setting fees and charges to improve comparability with insuranceprivate sector service providers.The charge takes account of the fact that public bodies donot generally pay an insurance premium to a commercial insurer.the independent body responsible for collecting and publishing official statistics about theUK’s society and economy. (At the time of going to print legislation was progressing tochange this body to the Statistics Board).Office of Government an office of the Treasury, with a status similar to that of an agency, which aims to maximise Commerce, OGCthe government’s purchasing power for routine items and combine professional expertiseto bear on capital projects.Office of the the government department responsible for discharging the Paymaster General’s statutoryPaymaster General,responsibilities to hold accounts and make payments for government departments and OPGother public bodies.Orange bookthe informal title for Management of Risks: Principles and Concepts, which is published by theTreasury for the guidance of public sector bodies.Office for NationalStatistics, ONS60Managing Public Money
    GLOSSARYOverdraftan account with a negative balance.Parliament’s formal agreement to authorise an activity or expenditure.Prerogative powerspowers exercisable under the Royal Prerogative, ie powers which are unique to the Crown,as contrasted with common-law powers which may be available to the Crown on the samebasis as to natural persons.Primary legislationActs which have been passed by the Westminster Parliament and, where they haveappropriate powers, the Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly. Begin asBills until they have received Royal Assent.arrangements under which a public sector organisation contracts with a private sectorentity to construct a facility and provide associated services of a specified quality over asustained period. See annex 7.5.Proprietythe principle that patterns of resource consumption should respect Parliament’s intentions,conventions and control procedures, including any laid down by the PAC. See box 2.4.Public Accountssee Committee of Public Accounts.CommitteePublic corporationa trading body controlled by central government, local authority or other publiccorporation that has substantial day to day operating independence. See section 7.8.Public Dividend finance provided by government to public sector bodies as an equity stake; an alternative to Capital, PDCloan finance.Public Service sets out what the public can expect the government to deliver with its resources. EveryAgreement, PSAlarge government department has PSA(s) which specify deliverables as targets or aimsrelated to objectives.a structured arrangement between a public sector and a private sector organisation tosecure an outcome delivering good value for money for the public sector. It is classified tothe public or private sector according to which has more control.Rate of returnthe financial remuneration delivered by a particular project or enterprise, expressed as apercentage of the net assets employed.Regularitythe principle that resource consumption should accord with the relevant legislation, therelevant delegated authority and this document. See box 2.4.Request for the functional level into which departmental Estimates may be split. RfRs contain a number Resources, RfRof functions being carried out by the department in pursuit of one or more of thatdepartment’s objectives.Resource accountan accruals account produced in line with the Financial Reporting Manual (FReM).Resource accountingthe system under which budgets, Estimates and accounts are constructed in a similar wayto commercial audited accounts, so that both plans and records of expenditure allow in fullfor the goods and services which are to be, or have been, consumed – ie not just the cashexpended.Resource budgetthe means by which the government plans and controls the expenditure of resources tomeet its objectives.Restitutiona legal concept which allows money and property to be returned to its rightful owner. Ittypically operates where another person can be said to have been unjustly enriched byreceiving such monies.Return on capital the ratio of profit to capital employed of an accounting entity during an identified period.employed, ROCEVarious measures of profit and of capital employed may be used in calculating the ratio.Public Privatepartnership, PPPPrivate Finance Initiative, PFIParliamentaryauthority61Managing Public Money
    GLOSSARYRoyal charterthe document setting out the powers and constitution of a corporation established underprerogative power of the monarch acting on Privy Council advice.Second readingthe second formal time that a House of Parliament may debate a bill, although in practicethe first substantive debate on its content. If successful, it is deemed to denoteParliamentary approval of the principle of the proposed legislation.Secondary legislationlaws, including orders and regulations, which are made using powers in primary legislation.Normally used to set out technical and administrative provision in greater detail thanprimary legislation, they are subject to a less intense level of scrutiny in Parliament.European legislation is,however,often implemented in secondary legislation using powers inthe European Communities Act 1972.Service-level agreement between parties, setting out in detail the level of service to be performed.agreementWhere agreements are between central government bodies, they are not legally a contractbut have a similar function.Shareholder Executive a body created to improve the government’s performance as a shareholder in businesses.Spending reviewsets out the key improvements in public services that the public can expect over a givenperiod. It includes a thorough review of departmental aims and objectives to find the bestway of delivering the government’s objectives, and sets out the spending plans for the givenperiod.State aidstate support for a domestic body or company which could distort EU competition and sois not usually allowed. See annex 4.9.Statement of Excessa formal statement detailing departments’ overspends prepared by the Comptroller andAuditor General as a result of undertaking annual audits.Statement on Internal an annual statement that Accounting Officers are required to make as part of the accounts Control, SICon a range of risk and control issues.Subheadindividual elements of departmental expenditure identifiable in Estimates as single cells, forexample cell A1 being administration costs within a particular line of departmental spending.Supplyresources voted by Parliament in response to Estimates, for expenditure by governmentdepartments.Supply Estimatesa statement of the resources the government needs in the coming financial year, and forwhat purpose(s), by which Parliamentary authority is sought for the planned level ofexpenditure and income.Target rate of returnthe rate of return required of a project or enterprise over a given period, usually at least a year.Third sectorprivate sector bodies which do not act commercially,including charities,social and voluntaryorganisations and other not-for-profit collectives. See annex 7.7.Total Managed a Treasury budgeting term which covers all current and capital spending carried out by the Expenditure,TMEpublic sector (ie not just by central departments).Trading fundan organisation (either within a government department or forming one) which is largely orwholly financed from commercial revenue generated by its activities. Its Estimate shows itsnet impact, allowing its income from receipts to be devoted entirely to its business.Treasury Minutea formal administrative document drawn up by the Treasury, which may serve a wide varietyof purposes including seeking Parliamentary approval for the use of receipts asappropriations in aid, a remission of some or all of the principal of voted loans, andresponding on behalf of the government to reports by the Public Accounts Committee(PAC).62Managing Public Money
    GLOSSARY63Managing Public MoneyValue for moneythe process under which organisation’s procurement, projects and processes aresystematically evaluated and assessed to provide confidence about suitability, effectiveness,prudence,quality,value and avoidance of error and other waste,judged for the public sectoras a whole.Virementthe process through which funds are moved between subheads such that additionalexpenditure on one is met by savings on one or more others.Votethe process by which Parliament approves funds in response to supply Estimates.Voted expenditureprovision for expenditure that has been authorised by Parliament. Parliament ‘votes’authority for public expenditure through the Supply Estimates process. Most expenditureby central government departments is authorised in this way.Wider market activity activities undertaken by central government organisations outside their statutory duties,using spare capacity and aimed at generating a commercial profit. See annex 7.6.Windfallmonies received by a department which were not anticipated in the spending review.

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > near cash

  • 9 share

    1. сущ.
    а) эк. доля, часть (напр., рынка, имущества, доходов и т. п.); квота

    proportional share, pro rata share — пропорциональная доля

    in equal shares — равными долями, в равных долях

    Tenancy in common is the holding of property by two or more persons, either in equal shares or unequal shares. — Нераздельно совладение представляет собой форму собственности, при которой имуществом владеют двое или более лиц, в равных или в неравных долях.

    Rather, they have a very simple Will or no Will at all, either of which means that the estate will be divided among the children "in equal shares". — Скорее, они составляют очень простой вариант завещания или не составляют вообще никакого завещания, в обоих этих случаях имущество будет разделено среди детей в равных долях.

    б) общ. доля, удел, участь

    I couldn't even dream that such prize would fall to my share. — Я даже не мог мечтать о том, чтобы такая удача выпала на мою долю.

    2) общ. участие; роль

    to bear share in smth., to take share in smth. — принимать участие в чем-л.

    We will further our interests through partnership with those who, like us, are willing to bear a share in promoting peace and stability. — Мы будем продолжать наше дело совместно с теми, кто, подобно нам, желает принять участие в работе на благо укрепления мира и стабильности.

    а) фин. акция; пай (участие в капитале компании, т. е. доля собственности в компании, напр., доля в капитале взаимного инвестиционного фонда, кооператива и т. п.)
    б) фин. акция (ценная бумага, свидетельствующая о внесении определенной суммы в собственный капитал компании и подтверждающая право своего владельца на определенную часть прибыли данной компании и остатка активов при ликвидации, а обычно также и право на участие в управлении компании путем голосования на собраниях акционеров)

    to acquire shares — скупать [приобретать\] акции

    to hold shares in a company — иметь акции какой-л. компании, владеть акциями какой-л. компании

    to issue shares — выпускать [эмитировать\] акции

    block [line\] of shares — пакет акций

    shares are rising — акции поднимаются (в цене); курс акций растет [поднимается\]

    shares are down — акции падают (в цене); курс акций снижается [падает\]

    H-P will buy 1,2 million Convex shares at $14.875 a share, representing a 1,25-a-share premium over the price of Convex stock. — "H-P" купит 1,2 млн акций компании "Конвекс" по цене 14,875 долл. за штуку, что означает уплату премии в размере 1,25 долл. на акцию сверх цены акций "Конвекса".

    share market — фондовый рынок, рынок ценных бумаг

    stock 1. 5) б)
    share broker, share market, A ordinary share, A share, accumulation share, active share, allotted shares, American Depositary Share, annuity income shares, authorized shares, Bancshares, bearer share, bogus share, bonus share, callable share, capital growth shares, capital shares, class A share, class B share, classified shares, closely held shares, common share, conversion shares, convertible preference share, convertible preferred share, cross-held shares, cumulative preference share, defensive shares, deferred ordinary share, deferred share, diluted shares, equity share, excess shares, first preferred share, flow-through shares, forfeited share, founders' shares, fractional share, fully paid shares, geared ordinary income shares, geared ordinary shares, gold shares, golden share, growth share, high-priced share, identified shares, inactive share, incentive shares, income shares, industrial shares, inscribed share, investment shares, investment trust share, irredeemable preference share, irredeemable share, issued and outstanding shares, issued share, low-priced share, management share, monthly income preferred share, multiple voting share, mutual fund share, new share, nil paid shares, no par value share, nominal share, non-convertible preference share, non-convertible preferred share, noncumulative preference share, non-equity share, non-par value share, non-participating share, non-par-value share, non-voting ordinary share, non-voting share, no-par share, no-par-value share, ordinary income shares, ordinary share, outstanding shares, overvalued share, paid-up share, paired shares, par value share, partially paid shares, participating preference share, participating preferred share, participating share, partly paid shares, par-value share, penny share, performance shares, permanent interest-bearing shares, perpetual preference share, perpetual preferred share, preference share, preferred ordinary share, preferred share, publicly held shares, quality share, quarterly income preferred share, redeemable preference share, redeemable share, registered share, senior preferred share, stepped preference share, stock share, subordinate voting share, subscription shares, term share, traditional income shares, treasure share, treasury share, unallotted shares, under valued share, underlying share, undervalued share, under-valued share, unissued shares, unquoted share, voting right share, voting share, zero dividend preference share, zero dividend share, zero-dividend preference share, American Depositary Share, share warrant, shareholder, shareholding, share capital, equity security, dividend, dividend coupon, and interest, book value per share, cash flow per share, dividends per share, earnings per share, net asset value per share, sales per share, employee share ownership plan, profit sharing share scheme
    в) фин., юр., брит. акция (согласно доктрине британского права, под акцией понимается интерес ее владельца, измеряемый определенной суммой денег и включающий в себя различные права, установленные договором; акции должны быть именными; могут выпускаться как в документарной форме, согласно закону "О компаниях" от 1985 г., так и в электронной форме, согласно Положению о бездокументарных ценных бумагах от 1995 г.; передача прав на акции через средства электронной техники регламентируется законом 1982 г. "О передаче акций"; законом 1963 г. с аналогичным названием была утверждена форма передаточного распоряжения, которая должна заполняться при совершении сделок с акциями)
    а) с.-х. (плужный/плужной) лемех, (плужный/плужной) сошник, лемеш, плужник (часть плуга, сабана или косули, подрезающая пласт земли снизу)
    plow share, plowshare, ploughshare
    б) с.-х. сошник (рабочий орган сеялки для образования в почве бороздки, направления в нее семян и заделки их почвой)
    в) с.-х. (культиваторная) лапа (рабочий орган культиватора, предназначенный для подрезания поверхностного слоя почвы при рыхлении, образования в почве борозд для семян или подкормки и т. д.)
    2. гл.
    а) общ. делить, разделять, распределять (что-л. между несколькими лицами, направлениями использования и т. п.; также to share out); делить (что-л. с кем-л.), делиться (чем-л. с кем-л.)

    to share equally — делить на равные части, делить поровну

    We agreed to share out money. — Мы договорились разделить деньги.

    You don't need to share money. — Вам не нужно делиться деньгами.

    I would like to share with you some exciting news. — Я бы хотел поделиться с вами увлекательными новостями.

    б) общ. разделять, использовать совместно (что-л. с кем-л.)

    We have a very large house, but I insist that they share a room. — У нас очень большой дом, но я настаивают на том, чтобы они жили в одной комнате.

    Bill and I shared an office for years. — Мы с Биллом работали в одном офисе много лет.

    When two people share an umbrella, the taller person should carry it for greater visibility and safety. — когда двое идут под одним зонтом, для лучшего обзора и большей безопасности зонт должен нести более высокий человек.

    а) общ. участвовать (в какой-л. деятельности, проекте и т. п.)

    You can share in the project by being part of our support team, by praying for us or by contributing to our financial support. — Вы можете участвовать в проекте присоединившись к команде поддержки, молясь за нас или оказав нам финансовую помощь.

    б) эк. быть пайщиком; быть акционером (участвовать в собственном капитале компании, кооператива, взаимного инвестиционного фонда и т. п.)

    to share in a firm — быть акционером фирмы, участвовать в собственном капитале фирмы

    3) общ. разделять (мнения, вкусы и т. п.)

    to share smb's opinion/views — разделять чье-л. мнение/взгляды

    I fully share his opinion. — Я полностью разделяю его мнение.

    He likes people who share his likes. — Ему нравятся люди, которые разделяют его пристрастия.

    They all share common features. — Они все обладают общими чертами.

    * * *
    доля, часть (целого): 1) акция, участие в капитале компании: ценная бумага, дающая право на долю в акционерном капитале компании и на пропорциональную часть прибыли и остатка активов при ликвидации (также обычно право голоса на общих собраниях акционеров при выборах директоров и утверждении результатов деятельности компании); право собственности представлено сертификатом акции; 2) пай (акция) во взаимном фонде, кооперативе, кредитном союзе, строительном обществе; 3) участие в товариществе (общем или с ограниченной ответственностью); 4) доля рынка; = market share; 5) = Nielsen rating.
    * * *
    1) /vt/ разделять; 2) /vi/ принимать участие
    1) доля; 2) акция
    * * *
    акция; доля; пай
    . . Словарь экономических терминов .
    * * *
    1. ценная бумага, являющаяся титулом собственности на часть имущества компании; лицо, инвестирующее средства в компанию, может ограничить свою ответственность суммой стоимости акций
    2. долевое участие доля собственных ресурсов заемщика и кредита банка в формировании затрат или в инвестициях
    применяется в практике перестрахования, когда первоначальный страховщик удерживает на своей ответственности часть риска, а оставшуюся передает в перестрахование
    Ценные бумаги/Биржевая деятельность
    ценная бумага, удостоверяющая участие ее вла-дельца в капитале акционерного общества <5>stock

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > share

  • 10 premium

    1. сущ.
    сокр. prem
    1) общ. награда, вознаграждение, премия (что-л. предоставляемое в качестве стимула в каком-л. проекте, какой-л. системе и пр.)

    consumer premium — подарок [премия\] потребителю*

    The program will award points to consumers for each brewery visit during the week, allowing them to earn premiums such as beer mugs and logo shirts.

    Mortgage brokers, who match borrowers with lenders, can earn premiums by steering borrowers to higher-rate loans.

    They claim that lenders on the higher-than-market rate loans will pay a premium to the mortgage broker and that those payments will be used to pay the fees associated with the low-interest loans.

    2) страх. = insurance premium

    ATTRIBUTES: adjustable, assumed 3) а), base 3. 3) а), direct 1. 3) а), earned 1. 1) а), fixed 1. 4) а), flexible 1. 2) б), gross 1. 3) а), а initial 1. 2) б), level 2. 3) б), lump sum, net 3. 3) а), n1а outstanding 1. 3) а), periodic 1. 1) а), regular 1. 2) б), n2 subject 1. 2) б), n2 underlying 1. 2) б), n2 variable 1. 2) б), n2 written 1. 4) а), б

    annual [yearly\] premium — ежегодная премия

    monthly [biweekly, weekly\] premium — ежемесячная [двухнедельная, еженедельная\] премия

    annual [monthly, weekly\] premium insurance — страхование с ежегодной [ежемесячной, еженедельной\] уплатой премий [премии\]

    annual premium policy — полис с ежегодной уплатой премий [премии\]


    paid premium — уплаченная [выплаченная\] премия

    The refund of paid premium is based on the insured's age at death and is decreased by any benefits paid under the plan.

    Company-paid premiums are deductible by the employer as an ordinary and necessary business expense. — Уплаченные компанией премии подлежат вычету работодателем как обычные и необходимые деловые расходы.

    For federal tax purposes the employer-paid premiums are taxed as additional earned income for the employee. — Для целей федерального налогообложения, уплаченные работодателем премии облагаются налогом как дополнительный заработанный доход работника.

    Employee-paid premiums for health insurance vary by salary. — Размер уплачиваемых работником премий по страхованию здоровья меняется в зависимости от размера оклада.

    We can recover overpaid premiums for the last three policy years.

    unpaid premium — неуплаченная [невыплаченная\] премия

    The late charge formula is the unpaid premium amount multiplied by four percent.


    life insurance premiums, life premiums — премии по страхованию жизни

    non-life insurance premiums, non-life premiums — премии по страхованию иному, чем страхование жизни; премии по страхованию "не жизни"

    health insurance premiums, health premiums — премии по страхованию здоровья

    liability insurance premiums, liability premiums — премии по страхованию ответственности

    disability insurance premiums, disability premiums — премии по страхованию от [на случай\] нетрудоспособности

    property insurance premiums, property premiums — премии по страхованию имущества

    premium payment — уплата [выплата\] премии; премиальный платеж

    Mortgage insurance premium payments are made once per year. — Выплаты премий по ипотечному страхованию осуществляются раз в год.

    premium of $1000, $1000 premium — премия [надбавка\] в размере 1000 долл.

    Our commercial premium finance program allows you to finance premiums from $0 to $200000 or more.

    The policies in question have a waiver of premium benefit, whereby the insurer would waive premiums during any period in which the policyholder is disabled.

    We cede premiums and losses to reinsurers under quota share reinsurance agreements. — Мы передаем премии и убытки перестраховщиками на основании договоров квотного перестрахования.

    Also, under our quota share assumed reinsurance contracts, we will continue to assume premiums through the third quarter of 2006. — Также, на основании принятых договоров квотного перестрахования, мы будем продолжать принимать премии на протяжении третьего квартала 2006 г.

    to write premiumsподписывать премии*; страховать*, принимать на страхование*, осуществлять страхование*

    In general, for insurers to write premiums in California, they must be admitted by the Insurance Commissioner. — В общем, для того, чтобы страховщики смогли осуществлять страховую деятельность в Калифорнии, они должны получить разрешение уполномоченного по страхованию.

    The company is licensed to write insurance business in all 50 states, has specialty lines in risk insurance for architects and lawyers and is expected to write premiums of $75 million this year. — Компания имеет лицензию на осуществление страховой деятельности во все 50 штатах, предлагает специальные разновидности страхования рисков для архитекторов и юристов и, как ожидается, подпишет в этом году премий на сумму 75 млн долл.

    Moreover, an insurance company that earns premiums between $300,000 and $1,000,000 is taxed at a reduced rate.

    If you want to pay premiums for a limited time, the limited payment whole life policy gives you lifetime protection but requires only a limited number of premium payments.

    to raise [to increase\] premiums — увеличивать премии

    to reduce [to decrease, to cut\] premiums — уменьшать премии

    premiums go down — премии снижаются [уменьшаются\]

    adjustable premium, advance premium, annual premium, annuity premium, base premium, beneficiary premium, deposit premium, direct premiums, earned premium, financed insurance premium, financed premium, fixed premium, flexible premium, graded premium, gross premium, in-force premiums, initial premium, level premium, lump sum premium, modified premium, mortgage insurance premium, net premium, net retained premiums, new business premiums, outstanding premiums, periodic premium, premium earned, premiums in force, premium written, regular premium, reinsurance premium, renewal premium, retained premiums, retrospective premium, return premium, single premium, subject premium, surplus line premium, surplus lines premium, underlying premium, unearned premium, valuation premium, vanishing premium, variable premium, written premium, yearly premium, overall premium limit, premium audit, premium auditor, premium base, premium bordereau, premium conversion, premium discount, premium financing, premium holiday, premium income б), premium loan, premium notice, premium rate 1) б), premium receipt, premium refund, premium subsidy, premium tax, premium trust fund, return of premium, waiver of premium, continuous-premium whole life, premium only plan, premium-to-surplus ratio

    to fetch a premium [a premium price\] — продаваться с надбавкой [с премией\]

    Premium products generally fetch a premium price. — Премиальные товары обычно продаются с надбавкой [с премией\].

    to command a premium [a premium price\] — продаваться с надбавкой [с премией\], продаваться по премиальной цене

    Some products command a premium price in the marketplace simply because they are considered to be higher in quality. — Некоторые товары продаются на рынке по премиальной цене просто из-за того, что они считаются товарами более высокого качества.

    to command a premium — содержать надбавку [премию\]* (о ценах, ставках)

    As long as there is a threat of war in the Middle Eastern oil fields, oil prices will command a premium. — До тех пор, пока существует угроза войны на территории средневосточных нефтяных месторождений, цены на нефть будут содержать надбавку.

    to attract a premium/a premium price/a premium rate — продаваться с премией [надбавкой\], стоить дороже; оплачиваться с надбавкой [с премией\]*

    Because of their locations these houses attract a premium. — Благодаря своему расположению эти дома стоят дороже.

    Therefore, when we buy your diamond, we can pay a premium over the current market price.

    For which services are customers willing to pay a premium when flying with a low-fare airline?

    б) фин. премия (сумма, на которую цена размещения или текущая рыночная цена ценной бумаги больше ее номинала)

    ATTRIBUTES: amortizable б)


    $20-a-share premium — премия в размере $20 на (одну) акцию

    H-P will buy 1,2 million Convex shares at $14.875 a share, representing a 1,25-a-share premium over the price of Convex stock. — "H-P" купит 1,2 млн акций компании "Конвекс" по цене 14,875 долл. за штуку, что означает уплату премии в размере 1,25 долл. на акцию сверх цены акций "Конвекса".


    premium over [to\] market price — премия к рыночной цене, премия сверх рыночной цены

    premium over [to\] issue price — премия к эмиссионной цене, премия сверх эмиссионной цены

    premium payment — уплата [выплата\] премии; премиальный платеж

    Mortgage insurance premium payments are made once per year. — Выплаты премий по ипотечному страхованию осуществляются раз в год.

    premium of $1000, $1000 premium — премия [надбавка\] в размере 1000 долл.

    10% premium, premium of 10% — премия [надбавка\] в размере 10%

    The shares jumped to a 70 per cent premium on the first day.

    Of all the common bond-tax errors, the most surprising to me is neglecting to amortize premiums paid on taxable bonds.

    For premium securities, we project the excess coupon. payments using our prepayment assumption.

    в) фин. премия (при оценке стоимости предприятия или крупных пакетов акций: разница, на которую фактически согласованная цена предприятия/пакета акций больше базовой рыночной цены)
    г) эк. премия; надбавка (сумма, на которую цена товара, услуги или ценной бумаги превышает цену сходного товара, услуги или ценной бумаги)

    Currently, US small caps are trading at a 15.7 per cent premium to large caps. — В настоящее время, акции американских компаний с маленькой капитализацией по сравнению с акциями компаний с большой капитализацией торгуются с премией в размере 15,7%.

    Platinum usually trades at a premium to gold. — Платина обычно продается по более высокой цене, чем золото.

    д) фин. ажио (превышение стоимости золотых или серебряных денег по сравнению с бумажными деньгами)
    agio в)
    е) эк. премия; надбавка (в самом общем смысле: дополнительная сумма, на которую увеличена базовая стоимость или другая базовая величина)

    перен. to put [place\] a premium on (smth.) — считать (что-л.) исключительно важным [ценным\], придавать (чему-л.) большое значение

    He put a premium on peace and stability. — Он считает исключительно важным поддержание мира и стабильности.

    Employers today put a premium on reasoning skills and willingness to learn. — В наше время работодатели придают большое значение умению рассуждать и готовности учиться.

    4) эк. тр. премия, (премиальная) надбавка (дополнительное вознаграждение, выплачиваемое в дополнение к заработной плате в качестве поощрения за хорошую работу, работу в сверхурочные и т. п.)


    premium payment — уплата [выплата\] премии; премиальный платеж

    premium of $1000, $1000 premium — премия [надбавка\] в размере 1000 долл.

    to attract a premium/a premium rate — оплачиваться с надбавкой [с премией\]*

    In many industries work on Saturday or Sunday will attract a premium on the ordinary hourly rate. — Во многих отраслях работа в субботу или воскресенье предусматривает выплату надбавки сверх обычной часовой ставки.

    Neither federal law nor state law requires local government employers to give employees paid holidays or to pay a premium when employees must work on what would otherwise be a holiday.

    bonus 3)
    5) фин. = option premium

    Investors willing to buy stock at certain prices might consider selling puts to earn premiums, while those willing to sell shares at certain prices might think about selling calls.

    When you purchase an option, you pay a premium. — Покупая опцион, вы уплачиваете премию.

    2. прил.
    1) общ. первосортный, высшего качества [сорта\], исключительный, премиальный

    premium product — премиальный товар, товар высшего сорта

    premium card — первоклассная [приоритетная, премиальная\] карта [карточка\]*

    premium space — привилегированное [премиальное\] место*

    premium advertising — премиальная [первосортная, элитная\] реклама*

    premium customer — премиальный клиент [покупатель\]*

    premium quality — премиальное [высшее\] качество; премиальный [высший\] сорт

    premium grade — премиальный [высший\] сорт

    2) эк. премиальный, с премией, с надбавкой (о ценах, ставках выше обычного уровня)

    premium price — цена с надбавкой, цена с премией, премиальная цена


    * * *
    premium; PM; Prem премия, маржа: 1) премия (надбавка) к цене, курсу: разница между более высокой текущей (рыночной) и номинальной ценами финансового актива (напр., облигации); см. discount; 2) разница между более высоким срочным (форвардным) и наличным валютными курсами, т. е. валюта на срок продается с премией; 3) ажио: более высокая стоимость золотых или бумажных денег по отношению к бумажным деньгам; 4) цена опциона: сумма, уплачиваемая за получение права продать или купить финансовый инструмент; 5) = insurance premium; 6) платеж по рентному контракту; 7) = call premium; 8) льгота, призванная привлечь вкладчиков или заемщиков, а также покупателей товаров и услуг (напр., повышенная процентная ставка, скидки с цен и др.); 9) надбавка к рыночной цене, которую иногда приходится уплачивать при заимствованиях ценных бумаг для их поставки по "короткой" продаже; 10) разница в цене между данной ценной бумагой и сходными бумагами или индексом (напр., говорят: "бумага продается с премией к аналогичным бумагам"); 11) новая ценная бумага, продающаяся с премией; 12) надбавка к рыночной цене ценных бумаг в случае тендерного предложения; см. premium raid;
    * * *
    отклонение в сторону превышения рыночного курса денежных знаков и ценных бумаг от их нарицательной стоимости
    разница между рыночной ценой и ценой эмиссии акции или ценной бумаги; при начале операции с акциями нового выпуска говорится, что рыночная цена включает премию по отношению к цене эмиссии
    сумма, выплачиваемая держателем полиса для получения страховой суммы в нужный момент
    Банки/Банковские операции
    премия, вознаграждение, надбавка

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > premium

См. также в других словарях:

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