Перевод: с исландского на английский

с английского на исландский


  • 1 LYKILL

    * * *
    (pl. luklar and lyklar), m. key.
    * * *
    m., pl. luklar, mod. lyklar, dat. sing. lykli; [from loka; Dan. nögle; Swed. nyckel, changing l into n]:—a key, Grág. ii. 193, Gþl. 532, Odd. 16, Skálda 172, Fbr. 46 new Ed., N. G. L. i. 131, 383; kistu-lykill, Nj. 94; konungs-lykill, see konungr, Fbr. l. c., Fms. vi. 188: the lady of a house used to wear a bundle of keys at her girdle, hence the phrase in Þkv. 16, 19:—as a musical term, lyklar í symphonu, Skálda. lykla-vald, n. the keeping of the keys.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > LYKILL

  • 2 lykill aî lausn

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > lykill aî lausn

  • 3 lykill, hnappur

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > lykill, hnappur

  • 4 búr-lykill

    m. a pantry-key, Sturl. iii. 7.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > búr-lykill

  • 5 hafnar-lykill

    m. ‘haven-key,’ a nickname, Landn.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > hafnar-lykill

  • 6 hátta-lykill

    m. a key to metres, the name of an old poem on metres, Orkn. 304 (printed at the end of the Skálda, Reykjavík 1849).

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > hátta-lykill

  • 7 konungs-lykill

    m. a Norse law term, the king’s key = an axe, which opens all doors and chests; munu þeir bera konungslykil at húsinu, they will break it by force, Fms. vi. 188; ek hefi at varðveita konungslykil þann er at öllum kistum gengr ok lásum … Vegglagr sér at hann mun upp höggva kistuna ef hón væri eigi upp lokin, Fbr. 46 new Ed.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > konungs-lykill

  • 8 krók-lykill

    m. a hook-shaped key, Sd. 139, see Worsaae, No. 465.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > krók-lykill

  • 9 (útidyra)lykill

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > (útidyra)lykill

  • 10 talnaröî/-lykill/-lás

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > talnaröî/-lykill/-lás

  • 11 AT

    I) prep.
    A. with dative.
    I. Of motion;
    1) towards, against;
    Otkell laut at Skamkatli, bowed down to S.;
    hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge against A.;
    Brynjólfr gengr alit at honum, quite up to him;
    þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters with him;
    3) to, at;
    koma at landi, to come to land;
    ganga at dómi, to go into court;
    4) along (= eptir);
    ganga at stræti, to walk along the street;
    dreki er niðr fór at ánni (went down the river) fyrir strauminum;
    refr dró hörpu at ísi, on the ice;
    5) denoting hostility;
    renna (sœkja) at e-m, to rush at, assault;
    gerði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog;
    6) around;
    vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a veil round one’s head;
    bera grjót at e-m, to heap stones upon the body;
    7) denoting business, engagement;
    ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after horses, watching sheep;
    fara at landskuldum, to go collecting rents.
    II. Of position, &c.;
    1) denoting presence at, near, by, upon;
    at kirkju, at church;
    at dómi, in court;
    at lögbergi, at the hill of laws;
    2) denoting participation in;
    vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, wedding;
    3) ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at;
    kvalararnir, er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him;
    var þar at kona nökkur at binda (was there busy dressing) sár manna;
    4) with proper names of places (farms);
    konungr at Danmörku ok Noregi, king of;
    biskup at Hólum, bishop of Holar;
    at Helgafelli, at Bergþórshváli;
    5) used ellipt. with a genitive, at (a person’s) house;
    at hans (at his house) gisti fjölmenni mikit;
    at Marðar, at Mara’s home;
    at hins beilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church;
    at Ránar, at Ran’s (abode).
    III. Of time;
    1) at, in;
    at upphafi, at first, in the beginning;
    at skilnaði, at parting, when they parted;
    at páskum, at Easter;
    at kveldi, at eventide;
    at fjöru, at the ebb;
    at flœðum, at the floodtide;
    2) adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr’;
    at ári komanda, next year;
    at vári, er kemr, next spring;
    generally with ‘komanda’ understood;
    at sumri, hausti, vetri, vári, next summer, &c.;
    3) used with an absolute dative and present or past part.;
    at sér lifanda, duing his lifetime;
    at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all;
    at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the hearing of the chief;
    at upprennandi sólu, at sunrise;
    at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks are past;
    at honum önduðum, after his death;
    4) denoting uninterrupted succession, after;
    hverr at öðrum, annarr at öðrum, one after another;
    skildu menn at þessu, thereupon, after this;
    at því (thereafter) kómu aðrar meyjar.
    IV. fig. and in various uses;
    1) to, into, with the notion of destruction or change;
    brenna (borgina) at ösku, to burn to ashes;
    verða at ormi, to become a snake;
    2) for, as;
    gefa e-t at gjöf, as a present;
    eiga e-n at vin, to have one as friend;
    3) by;
    taka sverð at hjöltum, by the hilt;
    draga út björninn at hlustunum, by the ears;
    kjósa at afli, álitum, by strength, appearrance;
    auðigr at fé, wealthy in goods;
    vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face;
    5) as a law term, on the grounds of, by reason of;
    ryðja ( to challenge) dóm at mægðum, kvið at frændsemi;
    6) as a paraphrase of a genitive;
    faðir, móðir at barni (= barns, of a child);
    aðili at sök = aðili sakar;
    7) with adjectives denoting colour, size, age, of;
    hvítr, svartr, rauðr at lit, while, black, red of colour;
    mikill, lítill at stœrð, vexti, tall, small of stature;
    tvítugr at aldri, twenty years of age;
    kýr at fyrsta, öðrum kálfi, a cow that has calved once, twice;
    8) determining the source from which anything comes, of, from;
    Ari nam ok marga frœði at Þuríði (from her);
    þiggja, kaupa, geta, leigja e-t at e-m, to receive, buy, obtain, borrow a thing from one;
    hafa veg (virðing) styrk at e-m, to derive honour, power, from one;
    9) according, to, after (heygðr at fornum sið);
    at ráði allra vitrustu manna, by the advice of;
    at landslögum, by the law of the land;
    at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave;
    10) in adverbial phrases;
    gróa (vera grœddr) at heilu, to be quite healed;
    bíta af allt gras at snøggu, quite bare;
    at fullu, fully;
    at vísu, surely;
    at frjálsu, freely;
    at eilífu, for ever and ever;
    at röngu, at réttu, wrongly, rightly;
    at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same;
    at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent.
    B. with acc., after, upon (= eptir);
    sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, to take the inheritance after his father;
    at þat (= eptir þat), after that, thereafter;
    connected with a past part. or a., at Gamla fallinn, after the fall of Gamli;
    at Hrungni dauðan, upon the death of Hrungnir.
    1) as the simple mark of the infinitive, to;
    at ganga, at ríða, at hlaupa, to walk, to ride, to run;
    2) in an objective sense;
    hann bauð þeim at fara, sitja, he bade (ordered) them to go, sit;
    gefa e-m at eta, at drekka, to give one to eat, to drink;
    3) denoting design or purpose, in order to (hann gekk í borg at kaupa silfr).
    1) demonstrative particle before a comparative, the, all the, so much the;
    hón grét at meir, she wept the more;
    þykkir oss at líkara, all the more likely;
    þú ert maðr at verri (so much the worse), er þú hefir þetta mælt;
    2) rel. pron., who, which, that (= er);
    þeir allir, at þau tíðindi heyrðu, all those who heard;
    sem þeim er títt, at ( as is the custom of those who) kaupferðir reka.
    conj., that;
    1) introducing a subjective or objective clause;
    þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, it happened once that H.;
    vilda ek, at þú réðist austr í fjörðu, I should like you to go;
    2) relative to svá, denoting proportion, degree;
    svá mikill lagamaðr, at, so great a lawyer, that;
    3) with subj., denoting end or purpose, in order that (skáru þeir fyrir þá (viz. hestana) melinn, at þeir dœi eigi af sulti);
    4) since, because, as (= því at);
    5) connected with þó, því, svá;
    þó at (with subj.), though, although;
    því at, because, for;
    svá at, so that;
    6) temp., þá at (= þá er), when;
    þegar at (= þegar er), as soon as;
    þar til at (= þar til er), until, till;
    áðr at (= á. en), before;
    7) used superfluously after an int. pron. or adv.;
    Ólafr spurði, hvern styrk at hann mundi fá honum, what help he was likely to give him;
    in a relative sense; með fullkomnum ávexti, hverr at (which) þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða.
    negative verbal suffix, = ata; var-at, was not.
    odda at, Yggs at, battle.
    * * *
    and að, prep., often used ellipt. dropping the case and even merely as an adverb, [Lat. ad; Ulf. at = πρός and παρά, A. S. ät; Engl. at; Hel. ad = apud; O. H. G. az; lost in mod. Germ., and rare in Swed. and Dan.; in more freq. use in Engl. than any other kindred language, Icel. only excepted]:—the mod. pronunciation and spelling is (); this form is very old, and is found in Icel. vellum MSS. of the 12th century, e. g. aþ, 623. 60; yet in earlier times it was sounded with a tenuis, as we may infer from rhymes, e. g. jöfurr hyggi at | hve ek yrkja fat, Egill: Sighvat also makes it rhyme with a t. The verse by Thorodd—þar vastu at er fjáðr klæðið þvat (Skálda 162)—is hardly intelligible unless we accept the spelling with an aspirate (), and say that þvað is = þvá = þváði, lavabat; it may be that by the time of Thorodd and Ari the pure old pronunciation was lost, or is ‘þvat’ simply the A. S. þvât, secuit? The Icelanders still, however, keep the tenuis in compounds before a vowel, or before h, v, or the liquids l, r, thus—atyrða, atorka, athöfn, athugi, athvarf, athlægi; atvinna, atvik; atlaga, atlíðanði ( slope), atriði, atreið, atróðr: but aðdjúpr, aðfinsla (critic), aðferð, aðkoma, aðsókn, aðsúgr (crowding), aðgæzla. In some words the pronunciation is irregular, e. g. atkvæði not aðkv-; atburðr, but aðbúnaðr; aðhjúkran not athjúkran; atgörvi not aðgörfi. At, to, towards; into; against; along, by; in regard to; after.
    Mostly with dat.; rarely with acc.; and sometimes ellipt.—by dropping the words ‘home,’ ‘house,’ or the like—with gen.
    A. LOC.
    I. WITH MOTION; gener. the motion to the borders, limits of an object, and thus opp. to frá:
    1. towards, against, with or without the notion of arrival, esp. connected with verbs denoting motion (verba movendi et eundi), e. g. fara, ganga, koma, lúta, snúa, rétta at…; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, O. louted (i. e. bowed down) towards S., Nj. 77, Fms. xi. 102; sendimaðrinn sneri ( turned) hjöltum sverðsins at konungi, towards the king, i. 15; hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge towards A., Nj. 220; rétta e-t at e-m, to reach, hand over, Ld. 132; ganga at, to step towards, Ísl. ii. 259.
    2. denoting proximity, close up to, up to; Brynjólfr gengr … allt at honum, B. goes quite up to him, Nj. 58; Gunnarr kom þangat at þeim örunum, G. reached them even there with his arrows, 115; þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters, id.; reið maðr at þeim (up to them), 274; þeir höfðu rakit sporin allt at ( right up to) gammanum, Fms. i. 9; komu þeir at sjó fram, came down to the sea, Bárð. 180.
    3. without reference to the space traversed, to or at; koma at landi, to land, Ld. 38, Fms. viii. 358; ríða at dyrum, Boll. 344; hlaupa at e-m, to run up to, run at, Fms. vii. 218, viii. 358; af sjáfarganginum er hann gekk at landinu, of the surf dashing against the shore, xi. 6; vísa ólmum hundi at manni, to set a fierce hound at a man, Grág. ii. 118; leggja e-n at velli, to lay low, Eg. 426, Nj. 117; hníga at jörðu, at grasi, at moldu, to bite the dust, to die, Njarð. 378; ganga at dómi, a law term, to go into court, of a plaintiff, defendant, or bystander, Nj. 87 (freq.)
    4. denoting a motion along, into, upon; ganga at stræti, to walk along the street, Korm. 228, Fms. vii. 39; at ísi, on the ice, Skálda 198, Fms. vii. 19, 246, viii. 168, Eb. 112 new Ed. (á is perh. wrong); máttu menn ganga bar yfir at skipum einum, of ships alone used as a bridge, Fas. i. 378; at höfðum, at nám, to trample on the slain on the battle-field, Lex. Poët.; at ám, along the rivers; at merkiósum, at the river’s mouth, Grág. ii. 355; at endilöngu baki, all along its back, Sks. 100.
    5. denoting hostility, to rush at, assault; renna at, hlaupa at, ganga, fara, ríða, sækja, at e-m, (v. those words), whence the nouns atrenna, athlaup, atgangr, atför, atreið, atsókn, etc.
    β. metaph., kom at þeim svefnhöfgi, deep sleep fell on them, Nj. 104. Esp. of weather, in the impers. phrase, hríð, veðr, vind, storm görir at e-m, to be overtaken by a snow storm, gale, or the like; görði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog, Bárð. 171.
    6. denoting around, of clothing or the like; bregða skikkju at höfði sér, to wrap his cloak over his head, Ld. 62; vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a snood round her head, 188; sauma at, to stick, cling close, as though sewn on; sauma at höndum sér, of tight gloves, Bs. i. 453; kyrtill svá þröngr sem saumaðr væri at honum, as though it were stitched to him, Nj. 214; vafit at vándum dreglum, tight laced with sorry tags, id.; hosa strengd fast at beini, of tight hose, Eg. 602; hann sveipar at sér iðrunum ok skyrtunni, he gathers up the entrails close to him and the skirt too, Gísl. 71; laz at síðu, a lace on the side, to keep the clothes tight, Eg. 602.
    β. of burying; bera grjót at einum, to heap stones upon the body, Eg. 719; var gör at þeim dys or grjóti, Ld. 152; gora kistu at líki, to make a coffin for a body, Eb. 264, Landn. 56, Ld. 142.
    γ. of summoning troops or followers; stefna at sér mönnum, to summon men to him, Nj. 104; stefna at sér liði, Eg. 270; kippa mönnum at sér, to gather men in haste, Ld. 64.
    7. denoting a business, engagement; ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after after horses, watching sheep, Glúm. 362, Nj. 75; fara at fé, to go to seek for sheep, Ld. 240; fara at heyi, to go a-haymaking, Dropl. 10; at veiðum, a-hunting; at fuglum, a-fowling; at dýrum, a-sbooting; at fiski, a-fishing; at veiðiskap, Landn. 154, Orkn. 416 (in a verse), Nj. 25; fara at landskuldum, to go a-collecling rents, Eg. 516; at Finnkaupum, a-marketing with Finns, 41; at féföngum, a-plundering, Fms. vii. 78; ganga at beina, to wait on guests, Nj. 50; starfa at matseld, to serve at table, Eb. 266; hitta e-n at nauðsynjum, on matters of business; at máli, to speak with one, etc., Fms. xi. 101; rekast at e-m, to pursue one, ix. 404; ganga at liði sér, to go suing for help, Grág. ii. 384.
    β. of festivals; snúa, fá at blóti, veizlu, brullaupi, to prepare for a sacrificial banquet, wedding, or the like, hence at-fangadagr, Eb. 6, Ld. 70; koma at hendi, to happen, befall; ganga at sínu, to come by one’s own, to take it, Ld. 208; Egill drakk hvert full er at honum kom, drained every horn that came to him, Eg. 210; komast at keyptu, to purchase dearly, Húv. 46.
    8. denoting imaginary motion, esp. of places, cp. Lat. spectare, vergere ad…, to look or lie towards; horfði botninn at höfðanum, the bight of the bay looked toward the headland, Fms. i. 340, Landn. 35; also, skeiðgata liggr at læknum, leads to the brook, Ísl. ii. 339; á þann arminn er vissi at sjánum, on that wing which looked toward the sea, Fms. viii. 115; sár þau er horft höfðu at Knúti konungi, xi. 309.
    β. even connected with verbs denoting motion; Gilsáreyrr gengr austan at Fljótinu, G. extends, projects to F. from the east, Hrafh. 25; hjá sundi því, er at gengr þingstöðinni, Fms. xi. 85.
    II. WITHOUT MOTION; denoting presence at, near, by, at the side of, in, upon; connected with verbs like sitja, standa, vera…; at kirkju, at church, Fms. vii. 251, K. f). K. 16, Ld. 328, Ísl. ii. 270, Sks. 36; vera at skála, at húsi, to be in, at home, Landn. 154; at landi, Fms. i. 82; at skipi, on shipboard, Grág. i. 209, 215; at oldri, at a banquet, inter pocula; at áti, at dinner, at a feast, inter edendum, ii. 169, 170; at samförum ok samvistum, at public meetings, id.; at dómi, in a court; standa (to take one’s stand) norðan, sunnan, austan, vestan at dómi, freq. in the proceedings at trials in lawsuits, Nj.; at þingi, present at the parliament, Grág. i. 142; at lögbergi, o n the hill of laws, 17, Nj.; at baki e-m, at the back of.
    2. denoting presence, partaking in; sitja at mat, to sit at meat, Fms. i. 241; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, nuptials, Nj. 51, Ld. 70: a law term, vera at vígi, to be an accessory in manslaying, Nj. 89, 100; vera at e-u simply means to be about, be busy in, Fms. iv. 237; standa at máli, to stand by one in a case, Grág. ii. 165, Nj. 214; vera at fóstri, to be fostered, Fms. i. 2; sitja at hégóma, to listen to nonsense, Ld. 322; vera at smíð, to be at one’s work, Þórð. 62: now absol., vera at, to go on with, be busy at.
    3. the law term vinna eið at e-u has a double meaning:
    α. vinna eið at bók, at baugi, to make an oath upon the book by laying the band upon it, Landn. 258, Grág., Nj.; cp. Vkv. 31, Gkv. 3. 3, Hkv. 2. 29, etc.: ‘við’ is now used in this sense.
    β. to confirm a fact (or the like) by an oath, to swear to, Grág. i. 9, 327.
    γ. the law phrase, nefna vátta at e-u, of summoning witnesses to a deed, fact, or the like; nefna vátta at benjum, to produce evidence, witnesses as to the wounds, Nj., Grág.; at görð, Eg. 738; at svörum, Grág. i. 19: this summoning of witnesses served in old lawsuits the same purpose as modern pleadings and depositions; every step in a suit to be lawful must be followed by such a summoning or declaration.
    4. used ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kvalararnir er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him; þar varstu at, you were there present, Skálda 162; at várum þar, Gísl. (in a verse): as a law term ‘vera at’ means to be guilty, Glúm. 388; vartattu at þar, Eg. (in a verse); hence the ambiguity of Glum’s oath, vask at þar, I was there present: var þar at kona nokkur ( was there busy) at binda sár manna, Fms. v. 91; hann var at ok smíðaði skot, Rd. 313; voru Varbelgir at ( about) at taka af, þau lög …, Fms. ix. 512; ek var at ok vafk, I was about weaving, xi. 49; þeir höfðu verit at þrjú sumur, they had been busy at it for three summers, x. 186 (now very freq.); koma at, come in, to arrive unexpectedly; Gunnarr kom at í því, G. came in at that moment; hvaðan komtú nú at, whence did you come? Nj. 68, Fms. iii. 200.
    5. denoting the kingdom or residence of a king or princely person; konungr at Danmörk ok Noregi, king of…, Fms. i. 119, xi. 281; konungr, jarl, at öllum Noregi, king, earl, over all N., íb. 3, 13, Landn. 25; konungr at Dyflinni, king of Dublin, 25; but í or yfir England!, Eg. 263: cp. the phrase, sitja at landi, to reside, of a king when at home, Hkr. i. 34; at Joini, Fms. xi. 74: used of a bishop; biskup at Hólum, bishop of Hólar, Íb. 18, 19; but biskup í Skálaholti, 19: at Rómi, at Rome, Fbr. 198.
    6. in denoting a man’s abode (vide p. 5, col. 1, l. 27), the prep. ‘at’ is used where the local name implies the notion of by the side of, and is therefore esp. applied to words denoting a river, brook, rock, mountain, grove, or the like, and in some other instances, by, at, e. g. at Hofi (a temple), Landn. 198; at Borg ( a castle), 57; at Helgafelli (a mountain), Eb. constantly so; at Mosfelli, Landn. 190; at Hálsi (a hill), Fms. xi. 22; at Bjargi, Grett. 90; Hálsum, Landn. 143; at Á ( river), 296, 268; at Bægisá, 212; Giljá, 332; Myrká, 211; Vatnsá, id.; þverá, Glúm. 323; at Fossi (a ‘force’ or waterfall), Landn. 73; at Lækjamoti (waters-meeting), 332; at Hlíðarenda ( end of the lithe or hill), at Bergþórshváli, Nj.; at Lundi (a grove), at Melum (sandhill), Landn. 70: the prep. ‘á’ is now used in most of these cases, e. g. á Á, á Hofi, Helgafelli, Felli, Hálsi, etc.
    β. particularly, and without any regard to etymology, used of the abode of kings or princes, to reside at; at Uppsölum, at Haugi, Alreksstöðum, at Hlöðum, Landn., Fms.
    γ. konungr lét kalla at stofudyrum, the king made a call at the hall door, Eg. 88; þeir kölluðu at herberginu, they called at the inn, Fms. ix. 475.
    7. used ellipt. with a gen., esp. if connected with such words as gista, to be a guest, lodge, dine, sup (of festivals or the like) at one’s home; at Marðar, Nj. 4; at hans, 74; þingfesti at þess bóanda, Grág. i. 152; at sín, at one’s own home, Eg. 371, K. Þ. K. 62; hafa náttstað at Freyju, at the abode of goddess Freyja, Eg. 603; at Ránar, at Ran’s, i. e. at Ran’s house, of drowned men who belong to the queen of the sea, Ran, Eb. 274; at hins heilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church, Fms. vi. 63: cp. ad Veneris, εις Κίμωνος.
    B. TEMP.
    I. at, denoting a point or period of time; at upphafi, at first, in the beginning, Ld. 104; at lyktum, at síðustu, at lokum, at last; at lesti, at last, Lex. Poët., more freq. á lesti; at skilnaði, at parting, at last, Band. 3; at fornu, in times of yore, formerly, Eg. 267, D. I. i. 635; at sinni, as yet, at present; at nýju, anew, of present time; at eilífu, for ever and ever; at skömmu, soon, shortly, Ísl. ii. 272, v. l.
    II. of the very moment when anything happens, the beginning of a term; denoting the seasons of the year, months, weeks, the hours of the day; at Jólum, at Yule, Nj. 46; at Pálmadegi, on Palm Sunday, 273; at Páskum, at Easter; at Ólafsvöku, on St. Olave’s eve, 29th of July, Fms.; at vetri, at the beginning of the winter, on the day when winter sets in, Grág. 1. 151; at sumarmálum, at vetrnáttum; at Tvímánaði, when the Double month (August) begins, Ld. 256, Grág. i. 152; at kveldi, at eventide, Eg. 3; at því meli, at that time; at eindaga, at the term, 395; at eykð, at 4 o’clock p. m., 198; at öndverðri æfi Abra hams, Ver. II; at sinni, now at once, Fms. vi. 71; at öðruhverju, every now and then.
    β. where the point of time is marked by some event; at þingi, at the meeting of parliament (18th to the 24th of June), Ld. 182; at féránsdómi, at the court of execution, Grág. i. 132, 133; at þinglausnum, at the close of the parliament (beginning of July), 140; at festarmálum, eðr at eiginorði, at betrothal or nuptials, 174; at skilnaði, when they parted, Nj. 106 (above); at öllum minnum, at the general drinking of the toasts, Eg. 253; at fjöru, at the ebb; at flæðum, at flood tide, Fms. viii. 306, Orkn. 428; at hrörum, at an inquest, Grág. i. 50 (cp. ii. 141, 389); at sökum, at prosecutions, 30; at sinni, now, as yet, v. that word.
    III. ellipt., or adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr,’ of the future time:
    1. ellipt., komanda or the like being understood, with reference to the seasons of the year; at sumri, at vetri, at hausti, at vári, next summer, winter…, Ísl. ii. 242; at miðju sumri, at ári, at Midsummer, next year, Fas. i. 516; at miðjum vetri, Fms. iv. 237,
    2. adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr;’ at ári komanda, Bárð. 177; at vári er kemr, Dipl. iii. 6.
    IV. used with an absolute dat. and with a pres. part.:
    1. with pres. part.; at morni komanda, on the coming morrow, Fms. i. 263; at sér lifanda, in vivo, in his life time, Grág. ii. 202; at þeim sofundum, illis dormientibus, Hkr. i. 234; at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all, Fms. x. 329; at úvitanda konungi, illo nesciente, without his knowledge, 227; at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the chief’s bearing, 235.
    2. of past time with a past part. (Lat. abl. absol.); at hræjum fundnum, on the bodies being found, Grág. ii. 87; at háðum dómum ok föstu þingi, during the session, the courts being set, i. 484; at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks past, Band. 13; at svá búnu, so goru, svá komnu, svá mæltu (Lat. quibus rebus gestis, dictis, quo facto, dicto, etc.), v. those words; at úreyndu, without trial, without put ting one to the test, Ld. 76; at honum önduðum, illo mortuo.
    3. ellipt. without ‘at;’ en þessum hlutum fram komnum, when all this has been done, Eb. 132.
    V. in some phrases with a slight temp, notion; at görðum gildum, the fences being strong, Gþl. 387; at vörmu spori, at once, whilst the trail is warm; at úvörum, unawares, suddenly, Nj. 95, Ld. 132; at þessu, at this cost, on that condition, Eb. 38, Nj. 55; at illum leiki, to have a narrow escape, now við illan leik, Fms. ix. 473; at því, that granted, Grág. ii. 33: at því, at pessu, thereafter, thereupon, Nj. 76.
    2. denoting succession, without interruption, one after another; hverr at öðrum, annarr maðr at öðrum, aðrir at öðrum; eina konu at annarri, Eg. 91, Fms. ii. 236, vi. 25, Bs. i. 22, 625. 80, H. E. i. 522.
    C. METAPH. and in various cases:
    I. denoting a transformation or change into, to, with the notion of destruction; brenna at ösku, at köldum kolum, to burn to ashes, to be quite destroyed, Fms. i. 105, Edda 3, Sturl. ii. 51: with the notion of transformation or transfiguration, in such phrases as, verða at e-u, göra e-t at e-u, to turn it into:
    α. by a spell; verða at ormi, to become a snake, Fms. xi. 158; at flugdrekum, Gullþ. 7; urðu þau bönd at járni, Edda 40.
    β. by a natural process it can often be translated by an acc. or by as; göra e-n at urðarmanni, to make him an outlaw, Eg. 728; græða e-n at orkumlamanni, to heal him so as to maim him for life, of bad treatment by a leech, Eb. 244: in the law terms, sár görist at ben, a wound turning into a ben, proving to be mortal, Grág., Nj.; verða at ljúgvætti, to prove to be a false evidence, Grág. i. 44; verða at sætt, to turn into reconciliation, Fms. i. 13; göra e-t at reiði málum, to take offence at, Fs. 20; at nýjum tíðindum, to tell as news, Nj. 14; verða fátt at orðum, to be sparing of words, 18; kveðr (svá) at orði, to speak, utter, 10; verða at þrifnaði, to geton well, Fms. vii. 196: at liði, at skaða, to be a help or hurt to one; at bana, to cause one’s death, Nj. 223, Eg. 21, Grág. ii. 29: at undrum, at hlátri, to become a wonder, a laughing-stock, 623. 35, Eg. 553.
    II. denoting capacity, where it may be translated merely by as or for; gefa at Jólagjöf, to give for a Christmas-box, Eg. 516; at gjöf, for a present; at erfð, at láni, launum, as an inheritance, a loan; at kaupum ok sökum, for buying and selling, Ísl. ii. 223, Grág. i. 423; at solum, ii. 204; at herfangi, as spoil or plunder; at sakbótum, at niðgjöldum, as a compensation, weregeld, i. 339, ii. 171, Hkr. ii. 168; taka at gíslingu, to take as an hostage, Edda 15; eiga e-n at vin, at óvin, to have one as friend or foe, illt er at eiga þræl at eingavin, ‘tis ill to have a thrall for one’s bosom friend (a proverb), Nj. 77; fæða, eiga, at sonum (syni), to beget a son, Edda 8, Bs. i. 60 (but eiga at dóttur cannot be said); hafa möttul at yfirhöfn, Fms. vii. 201; verða nökkut at manni (mönnum), to turn out to be a worthy man; verða ekki at manni, to turn out a worthless person, xi. 79, 268.
    2. in such phrases as, verða at orðum, to come towards, Nj. 26; var þat at erindum, Eg. 148; hafa at veizlum, to draw veizlur ( dues) from, Fms. iv. 275, Eg. 647; gora e-t at álitum, to take it into consideration, Nj. 3.
    III. denoting belonging to, fitting, of parts of the whole or the like; vóru at honum (viz. the sword) hjölt gullbúin, the sword was ornamented with a hilt of gold, Ld. 330; umgörð at ( belonging to) sverði, Fs. 97 (Hs.) in a verse; en ef mór er eigi at landinu, if there be no turf moor belonging to the land, Grág. ii. 338; svá at eigi brotnaði nokkuð at Orminum, so that no harm happened to the ship Worm, Fms. x. 356; hvatki er meiðir at skipinu eðr at reiðinu eðr at viðum, damage done t o …, Grág. ii. 403; lesta ( to injure) hús at lásum, við eðr torfi, 110; ef land hefir batnað at húsum, if the land has been bettered as to its buildings, 210; cp. the phrase, göra at e-u, to repair: hamlaðr at höndum eðr fótum, maimed as to hands or feet, Eg. 14; heill at höndum en hrumr at fótum, sound in band, palsied in foot, Fms. vii. 12; lykill at skrá, a key belonging, fitting, to the latch; hurð at húsi; a key ‘gengr at’ ( fits) skrá; and many other phrases. 2. denoting the part by which a thing is held or to which it belongs, by; fá, taka at…, to grasp by …; þú tókt við sverði hans at hjöltunum, you took it by the bill, Fms. i. 15; draga út björninn at hlustum, to pull out the bear by the ears, Fas. ii. 237; at fótum, by the feet, Fms. viii. 363; mæla ( to measure) at hrygg ok at jaðri, by the edge or middle of the stuff, Grág. i. 498; kasta e-m at höfði, head foremost, Nj. 84; kjósa e-n at fótum, by the feet alone, Edda 46; hefja frændsemi at bræðrum, eða at systkynum, to reckon kinship by the brother’s or the sister’s side, Grág. i. 28; kjósa at afli, at álitum, by strength, sight, Gs. 8, belongs rather to the following.
    IV. in respect of, as regards, in regard to, as to; auðigr at fé, wealthy of goods, Nj. 16, 30, 51; beztir hestar at reið, the best racehorses, 186; spekingr at viti, a man of great intellect, Ld. 124; vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face, Nj. 30, Bs. i. 61; kvenna vænst at ásjónu ok vits munum, of surpassing beauty and intellect, Ld. 122; fullkominn at hyggju, 18; um fram aðra menn at vinsældum ok harðfengi, of surpassing popularity and hardihood, Eb. 30.
    2. a law term, of challenging jurors, judges, or the like, on account of, by reason of; ryðja ( to challenge) at mægðum, guðsifjum, frændsemi, hrörum …; at leiðarlengd, on account of distance, Grág. i. 30, 50, Nj. (freq.)
    3. in arithm. denoting proportion; at helmingi, þriðjungi, fjórðungi, tíunda hluta, cp. Lat. ex asse, quadrante, for the half, third… part; máttr skal at magni (a proverb), might and main go together, Hkr. ii. 236; þú munt vera at því mikill fræðimaðr á kvæði, in the same proportion, as great, Fms. vi. 391, iii. 41; at e-s hluta, at… leiti, for one’s part, in turn, as far as one is con cerned, Grág. i. 322, Eg. 309, Fms. iii. 26 (freq.): at öðrum kosti, in the other case, otherwise (freq.) More gener., at öllu, öngu, in all (no) respects; at sumu, einhverju, nokkru, partly; at flestu, mestu, chiefly.
    4. as a paraphrase of a genitive; faðir, móðir at barni (= barns); aðili at sök (= sakar a.); morðingi at barni (= barns), faðerni at barni (barns); illvirki at fé manna (cp. Lat. felo de se), niðrfall at sökum (saka), land gangr at fiskum (fiska), Fms. iv. 274, Grág. i. 277, 416, N. G. L. i. 340, K. Þ. K. 112, Nj. 21.
    5. the phrase ‘at sér,’ of himself or in himself, either ellipt. or by adding the participle görr, and with the adverbs vel, ilia, or the like; denoting breeding, bearing, endowments, character …; væn kona, kurteis ok vel at sér, an accomplished, well-bred, gifted lady, Nj. I; vitr maðr ok vel at sér, a wise man and thoroughly good in feeling and bearing, 5; þú ert maðr vaskr ok vel at þér, 49; gerr at sér, accomplished, 51; bezt at sér görr, the finest, best bred man, 39, Ld. 124; en þó er hann svá vel at sér, so generous, Nj. 77; þeir höfðingjar er svá vóru vel at sér, so noble-minded, 198, Fms. i. 160: the phrase ‘at sér’ is now only used of knowledge, thus maðr vel að sér means clever, a man of great knowledge; illa að sér, a blockhead.
    6. denoting relations to colour, size, value, age, and the like; hvitr, svartr, grár, rauðr … at lit, white, swarthy, gray, red … of colour, Bjarn. 55, 28, Ísl. ii. 213, etc.; mikill, lítill, at stærð, vexti, tall, small of size, etc.; ungr, gamall, barn, at aldri, young, old, a child of age; tvítugr, þrítugr … at aldri, twenty, thirty … years of age (freq.): of animals; kyr at fyrsta, öðrum … kálfi, a cow having calved once, twice…, Jb. 346: value, amount, currency of money, kaupa e-t at mörk, at a mark, N. G. L. 1. 352; ok er eyririnn at mörk, amounts to a mark, of the value of money, Grág. i. 392; verðr þá at hálfri murk vaðmála eyrir, amounts to a half a mark, 500.
    β. metaph. of value, connected with verbs denoting to esteem, hold; meta, hafa, halda at miklu, litlu, vettugi, engu, or the like, to hold in high or low esteem, to care or not to care for (freq.): geta e-s at góðu, illu, öngu, to mention one favourably, unfavourably, indifferently … (freq.), prop. in connection with. In many cases it may be translated by in; ekki er mark at draumum, there is no meaning in dreams, no heed is to be paid to dreams, Sturl. ii. 217; bragð er at þá barnið finnr, it goes too far, when even a child takes offence (a proverb): hvat er at því, what does it mean? Nj. 11; hvert þat skip er vöxtr er at, any ship of mark, i. e. however small, Fms. xi. 20.
    V. denoting the source of a thing:
    1. source of infor mation, to learn, perceive, get information from; Ari nam ok marga fræði at Þuríði, learnt as her pupil, at her hands, as St. Paul at the feet of Gamaliel, (just as the Scotch say to speer or ask at a person); Ari nam at Þorgeiri afraðskoll, Hkr. (pref.); nema kunnáttu at e-m, used of a pupil, Fms. i. 8; nema fræði at e-m, xi. 396.
    2. of receiving, acquiring, buying, from; þiggja e-t at e-m, to receive a thing at his hands, Nj. 51; líf, to be pardoned, Fms. x. 173; kaupa land at e-m, to buy it from, Landn. 72, Íb. II, (now af is more freq. in this sense); geta e-t at e-m, to obtain, procure at one’s hands, impetrare; þeirra manna er þeir megu þat geta at, who are willing to do that, Grág. i. I; heimta e-t at e-m (now af), to call in, demand (a debt, money), 279; fala e-t at e-m (now af), to chaffer for or cheapen anything, Nj. 73; sækja e-t at e-m, to ask, seek for; sækja heilræði ok traust at e-m, 98; leiga e-t at e-m (now af), to borrow, Grág. ii. 334; eiga e-t (fé, skuld) at e-m, to be owed money by any one, i. 399: metaph. to deserve of one, Nj. 113; eiga mikit at e-m, to have much to do with, 138; hafa veg, virðing, styrk, at, to derive honour, power from, Fms. vi. 71, Eg. 44, Bárð. 174; gagn, to be of use, Ld. 216; mein, tálma, mischief, disadvantage, 158, 216, cp. Eg. 546; ótta, awe, Nj. 68.
    VI. denoting conformity, according to, Lat. secundum, ex, after; at fornum sið, Fms. i. 112; at sögn Ara prests, as Ari relates, on his authority, 55; at ráði allra vitrustu manna, at the advice of, Ísl. ii. 259, Ld. 62; at lögum, at landslögum, by the law of the land, Grág., Nj.; at líkindum, in all likelihood, Ld. 272; at sköpum, in due course (poet.); at hinum sama hætti, in the very same manner, Grág. i. 90; at vánum, as was to be expected, Nj. 255; at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave, Eg. 35; úlofi, Grág. ii. 215; at ósk, vilja e-s, as one likes…; at mun, id. (poet.); at sólu, happily (following the course of the sun), Bs. i. 70, 137; at því sem …, as to infer from …, Nj. 124: ‘fara, láta, ganga at’ denotes to yield, agree to, to comply with, give in, Ld. 168, Eg. 18, Fms. x. 368.
    VII. in phrases nearly or quite adverbial; gróa, vera græddr, at heilu, to be quite healed, Bárð. 167, Eb. 148; bíta at snöggu, to bite it bare, Fms. xi. 6; at þurru, till it becomes dry, Eb. 276; at endilöngu, all along, Fas. ii; vinnast at litlu, to avail little, 655 x. 14; at fullu, fully, Nj. 257, Hkr. i. 171; at vísu, of a surety, surely, Ld. 40; at frjálsu, freely, 308; at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same, Hom. 80, Nj. 267; at röngu, wrongly, 686 B. 2; at hófi, temperately, Lex. Poët.; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent; at hringum, utterly, all round, (rare), Fms. x. 389; at einu, yet, Orkn. 358; svá at einu, því at einu, allt at einu, yet, however, nevertheless.
    VIII. connected with comparatives of adverbs and adjectives, and strengthening the sense, as in Engl. ‘the,’ so much the more, all the more; ‘at’ heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita yðr öllum, where it may be translated by so much the more to two, as I would willingly grant it to all of you; hon grét at meir, she grat (wept) the more, Eg. 483; þykir oss at líkara, all the more likely, Fms. viii. 6; þess at harðari, all the harder, Sturl. iii. 202 C; svá at hinn sé bana at nær, Grág. ii. 117; at auðnara, at hólpnara, the more happy, Al. 19, Grett. 116 B; þess at meiri, Fms. v. 64; auvirðismaðr at meiri, Sturl. ii. 139; maðr at vaskari, id.; at feigri, any the more fey, Km. 22; maðr at verri, all the worse, Nj. 168; ok er ‘at’ firr…, at ek vil miklu heldr, cp. Lat. tantum abest… ut, Eg. 60.
    β. following after a negation; eigi at síðr, no less, Nj. 160, Ld. 146; eigi… at meiri maðr, any better, Eg. 425, 489; erat héra at borgnara, any the better off for that, Fms. vii. 116; eigi at minni, no less for that, Edda (pref.) 146; eigi at minna, Ld. 216, Fms. ix. 50; ekki at verri drengr, not a bit worse for that, Ld. 42; er mér ekki son minn at bættari, þótt…, 216; at eigi vissi at nær, any more, Fas. iii. 74.
    IX. following many words:
    1. verbs, esp. those denoting, a. to ask, enquire, attend, seek, e. g. spyrja at, to speer (ask) for; leita at, to seek for; gæta, geyma at, to pay attention to; huga, hyggja at; hence atspurn, to enquire, aðgæzla, athugi, attention, etc.
    β. verbs denoting laughter, play, joy, game, cp. the Engl. to play at …, to laugh at …; hlæja, brosa at e-u, to laugh, smile at it; leika (sér) at e-u, to play at; þykja gaman at, to enjoy; hæða, göra gys at …, to make sport at …
    γ. verbs denoting assistance, help; standa, veita, vinna, hjálpa at; hence atstoð, atvinna, atverk:—mode, proceeding; fara at, to proceed, hence atför and atferli:—compliance; láta, fara at e-u, v. above:— fault; e-t er at e-u, there is some fault in it, Fms. x. 418; skorta at e-u, to fall short of, xi. 98:—care, attendance; hjúkra at, hlýja at, v. these words:—gathering, collecting; draga, reiða, flytja, fá at, congerere:—engagement, arrival, etc.; sækja at, to attack; ganga at, vera at, to be about; koma at, ellipt. to arrive: göra at, to repair: lesta at, to impair (v. above); finna at, to criticise (mod.); telja at, id.: bera at, to happen; kveða at e-m, to address one, 625. 15, (kveða at (ellipt.) now means to pronounce, and of a child to utter (read) whole syllables); falla at, of the flood-tide (ellipt.): metaph. of pains or straits surrounding one; þreyngja, herða at, to press hard: of frost and cold, with regard to the seasons; frjósa at, kólna at, to get really cold (SI. 44), as it were from the cold stiffening all things: also of the seasons themselves; hausta, vetra að, when the season really sets in; esp. the cold seasons, ‘sumra at’ cannot be used, yet we may say ‘vára að’ when the spring sets in, and the air gets mild.
    δ. in numberless other cases which may partly be seen below.
    2. connected ellipt. with adverbs denoting motion from a place; norðan, austan, sunnan, vestan at, those from the north, east…; utan at, innan at, from the outside or inside.
    3. with adjectives (but rarely), e. g. kærr, elskr, virkr (affectionate), vandr (zealous), at e-m; v. these words.
    TEMP.: Lat. post, after, upon, esp. freq. in poetry, but rare in prose writers, who use eptir; nema reisi niðr at nið (= maðr eptir mann), in succession, of erecting a monument, Hm. 71; in prose, at þat. posthac, deinde, Fms. x. 323, cp. Rm., where it occurs several times, 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 24, 28, 30, 35; sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, has to take the inheritance after his father, Grág. i. 170 new Ed.; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, Grág. i. 89; at Gamla fallinn, after the death of G., Fms. x. 382; in Edda (Gl.) 113 ought to be restored, grét ok at Oð, gulli Freyja, she grat (wept) tears of gold for her lost husband Od. It is doubtful if it is ever used in a purely loc. sense; at land, Grág. (Sb.)ii. 211, is probably corrupt; at hönd = á hönd, Grág. (Sb.) i. 135; at mót = at móti, v. this word.
    ☞ In compounds (v. below) at- or að- answers in turn to Lat. ad- or in- or con-; atdráttr e. g. denotes collecting; atkoma is adventus: it may also answer to Lat. ob-, in atburðr = accidence, but might also be compared with Lat. occurrere.
    and að, the mark of the infinitive [cp. Goth. du; A. S. and Engl. to; Germ. zu]. Except in the case of a few verbs ‘at’ is always placed immediately before the infinitive, so as to be almost an inseparable part of the verb.
    I. it is used either,
    1. as, a simple mark of the infinitive, only denoting an action and independent of the subject, e. g. at ganga, at hlaupa, at vita, to go, to run, to know; or,
    2. in an objective sense when following such verbs as bjóða segja…, to invite, command …; hann bauð þeim at ganga, at sitja, be bade, ordered them to go, sit, or the like; or as gefa and fá; gefa e-m at drekka, at eta, to give one to drink or to eat, etc. etc.
    β. with the additional notion of intention, esp. when following verba cogitandi; hann ætlaði, hafði í hyggju at fara, he had it in his mind to go (where ‘to go’ is the real object to ætlaði and hafði í hyggju).
    3. answering to the Gr. ινα, denoting intention, design, in order to; hann gékk í borg at kaupa silfr, in order to buy, Nj. 280; hann sendi riddara sína með þeim at varðveita þær, 623. 45: in order to make the phrase more plain, ‘svá’ and ‘til’ are frequently added, esp. in mod. writers, ‘svá at’ and contr. ‘svát’ (the last however is rare), ‘til at’ and ‘til þess at,’ etc.
    II. in the earlier times the infin., as in Greek and Lat., had no such mark; and some verbs remain that cannot be followed by ‘at;’ these verbs are almost the same in Icel. as in Engl.:
    α. the auxiliary verbs vil, mun ( μέλλω), skal; as in Engl. to is never used after the auxiliaries shall, will, must; ek vil ganga, I will go; ek mun fara, (as in North. E.) I mun go; ek skal göra þat, I shall do that, etc.
    β. the verbs kunna, mega, as in Engl. I can or may do, I dare say; svá hygginn at hann kunni fyrir sökum ráða, Grág. ii. 75; í öllu er prýða má góðan höfðingja, Nj. 90; vera má, it may be; vera kann þat, id.: kunnu, however, takes ‘at’ whenever it means to know, and esp. in common language in phrases such as, það kann að vera, but vera kann þat, v. above.
    γ. lata, biðja, as in Engl. to let, to bid; hann lét (bað) þá fara, he let (bade) them go.
    δ. þykkja, þykjast, to seem; hann þykir vera, he is thought to be: reflex., hann þykist vera, sibi videtur: impers., mér þykir vera, mibi videtur, in all cases without ‘at.’ So also freq. the verbs hugsa, hyggja, ætla, halda, to think, when denoting merely the act of thinking; but if there be any notion of intention or purpose, they assume the ‘at;’ thus hann ætlaði, hugði, þá vera góða menn, he thought them to be, acc. c. inf.; but ætlaði at fara, meant to go, etc.
    ε. the verbs denoting to see, bear; sjá, líta, horfa á … ( videre); heyra, audire, as in Engl. I saw them come, I heard him tell, ek sá þá koma, ek heyrði hann tala.
    ζ. sometimes after the verbs eiga and ganga; hann gékk steikja, be went to roast, Vkv. 9; eiga, esp. when a mere periphrasis instead of skal, móður sína á maðr fyrst fram færa (better at færa), Grág. i. 232; á þann kvið einskis meta, 59; but at meta, id. l. 24; ráða, nema, göra …, freq. in poetry, when they are used as simple auxiliary verbs, e. g. nam hann sér Högna hvetja at rúnum, Skv. 3. 43.
    η. hljóta and verða, when used in the sense of must (as in Engl. he must go), and when placed after the infin.of another verb; hér muntu vera hljóta, Nj. 129; but hljóta at vera: fara hlýtr þú, Fms. 1. 159; but þú hlýtr at fara: verða vita, ii. 146; but verða at vita: hann man verða sækja, þó verðr (= skal) maðr eptir mann lifa, Fms. viii. 19, Fas. ii. 552, are exceptional cases.
    θ. in poetry, verbs with the verbal neg. suffix ‘-at,’ freq. for the case of euphony, take no mark of the infinitive, where it would be indispensable with the simple verb, vide Lex. Poët. Exceptional cases; hvárt sem hann vill ‘at’ verja þá sök, eða, whatever he chooses, either, Grág. i. 64; fyrr viljum vér enga kórónu at bera, en nokkut ófrelsi á oss at taka, we would rather bear no crown than …, Fms. x. 12; the context is peculiar, and the ‘at’ purposely added. It may be left out ellipt.; e. g. þá er guð gefr oss finnast (= at finnast), Dipl. ii. 14; gef honum drekka (= at drekka), Pr. 470; but mostly in unclassical writers, in deeds, or the like, written nastily and in an abrupt style.
    and að, conj. [Goth. þatei = οτι; A. S. þät; Engl. that; Germ, dass; the Ormul. and Scot. at, see the quotations sub voce in Jamieson; in all South-Teutonic idioms with an initial dental: the Scandinavian idioms form an exception, having all dropped this consonant; Swed. åt, Dan. at]. In Icel. the Bible translation (of the 16th century) was chiefly based upon that of Luther; the hymns and the great bulk of theol. translations of that time were also derived from Germany; therefore the germanised form það frequently appears in the Bible, and was often employed by theol. authors in sermons since the time of the Reformation. Jón Vidalin, the greatest modern Icel. preacher, who died in 1720, in spite of his thoroughly classical style, abounds in the use of this form; but it never took root in the language, and has never passed into the spoken dialect. After a relative or demonstr. pronoun, it freq. in mod. writers assumes the form eð, hver eð, hverir eð, hvað eð, þar eð. Before the prep. þú (tu), þ changes into t, and is spelt in a single word attú, which is freq. in some MS.;—now, however, pronounced aððú, aððeir, aððið …, = að þú…, with the soft Engl. th sound. It gener. answers to Lat. ut, or to the relat. pron. qui.
    I. that, relative to svá, to denote proportion, degree, so…, that, Lat. tam, tantus, tot…, ut; svá mikill lagamaðr, at…, so great a lawyer, that…, Nj. 1; hárið svá mikit, at þat…, 2; svá kom um síðir því máli, at Sigvaldi, it came so far, that…, Fms. xi. 95, Edda 33. Rarely and unclass., ellipt. without svá; Bæringr var til seinn eptir honum, at hann … (= svá at), Bær. 15; hlífði honum, at hann sakaði ekki, Fas. iii. 441.
    II. it is used,
    1. with indic, in a narrative sense, answering partly to Gr. οτι, Lat. quod, ut, in such phrases as, it came to pass, happened that …; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, Nj. 2; þat var á palmdrottinsdag, at Ólafr konungr gékk út um stræti, Fms. ii. 244.
    2. with subj. answering to Lat. acc. with infin., to mark the relation of an object to the chief verb, e. g. vilda ek at þú réðist, I wished that you would, Nj. 57.
    β. or in an oblique sentence, answering to ita ut…; ef svá kann verða at þeir láti…, if it may be so that they might…, Fms. xi. 94.
    γ. with a subj. denoting design, answering to ϊνα or Lat. ut with subj., in order that; at öll veraldar bygðin viti, ut sciat totus orbis, Stj.; þeir skáru fyrir þá melinn, at þeir dæi eigi af sulti, ut ne fame perirent, Nj. 265; fyrsti hlutr bókarinnar er Kristindómsbálkr, at menn skili, in order that men may understand, Gþl. p. viii.
    III. used in connection with conjunctions,
    1. esp. þó, því, svá; þó at freq. contr. þótt; svát is rare and obsolete.
    α. þóat, þótt (North. E. ‘thof’), followed by a subjunctive, though, although, Lat. etsi, quamquam (very freq.); þóat nokkurum mönnum sýnist þetta með freku sett… þá viljum vér, Fms. vi. 21: phrases as, gef þú mér þó at úverðugri, etsi indignae (dat.), Stj. MS. col. 315, are unclass., and influenced by the Latin: sometimes ellipt. without ‘þó,’ eigi mundi hón þá meir hvata göngu sinni, at (= þóat) hon hraeddist bana sinn, Edda 7, Nj. 64: ‘þó’ and ‘at’ separated, svarar hann þó rétt, at hann svari svá, Grág. i. 23; þó er rétt at nýta, at hann sé fyrr skorinn, answering to Engl. yetthough, Lat. attamenetsi, K. Þ. K.
    β. því at, because, Lat. nam, quia, with indic.; því at allir vóru gerfiligir synir hans, Ld. 68; því at af íþróttum verðr maðr fróðr, Sks. 16: separated, því þegi ek, at ek undrumst, Fms. iii. 201; því er þessa getið, at þat þótti, it i s mentioned because …, Ld. 68.
    γ. svá at, so that, Lat. ut, ita ut; grátrinn kom upp, svá at eingi mátti öðrum segja, Edda 37: separated, so … that, svá úsvúst at …, so bad weather, that, Bs. i. 339, etc.
    2. it is freq. used superfluously, esp. after relatives; hver at = hverr, quis; því at = því, igitur; hverr at þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða, Fms. v. 159; hvern stvrk at hann mundi fá, 44; ek undrumst hvé mikil ógnarraust at liggr í þér, iii. 201; því at ek mátti eigi þar vera elligar, því at þar var kristni vel haldin, Fas. i. 340.
    IV. as a relat. conj.:
    1. temp, when, Lat. quum; jafnan er ( est) mér þá verra er ( quum) ek fer á braut þaðan, en þá at ( quum) ek kem, Grett. 150 A; þar til at vér vitum, till we know, Fms. v. 52; þá at ek lýsta (= þá er), when, Nj. 233.
    2. since, because; ek færi yðr (hann), at þér eruð í einum hrepp allir, because of your being all of the same Rape, Grág. i. 260; eigi er kynlegt at ( though) Skarphéðinn sé hraustr, at þat er mælt at…, because (since) it is a saying that…, Nj. 64.
    V. in mod. writers it is also freq. superfluously joined to the conjunctions, ef að = ef, si, (Lv. 45 is from a paper MS.), meðan að = meðan, dum; nema að, nisi; fyrst að = fyrst, quoniam; eptir að, síðan að, postquam; hvárt að = hvárt, Lat. an. In the law we find passages such as, þá er um er dæmt eina sök, at þá eigu þeir aptr at ganga í dóminn, Grág. i. 79; ef þing ber á hina helgu viku, at þat á eigi fyrir þeim málum at standa, 106; þat er ok, at þeir skulu reifa mál manna, 64; at þeir skulu með váttorð þá sök sækja, 65: in all these cases ‘at’ is either superfluous or, which is more likely, of an ellipt. nature, ‘the law decrees’ or ‘it is decreed’ being understood. The passages Sks. 551, 552, 568, 718 B, at lokit (= at ek hefi lokit), at hugleitt (= at ek hefi h.), at sent (= at ek hefi sent) are quite exceptional.
    and að, an indecl. relat. pronoun [Ulf. þatei = ος, ος αν, οστις, οσπερ, οιος, etc.; Engl. that, Ormul. at], with the initial letter dropped, as in the conj. at, (cp. also the Old Engl. at, which is both a conj. and a pronoun, e. g. Barbour vi. 24 in Jamieson: ‘I drede that his gret wassalage, | And his travail may bring till end, | That at men quhilc full litil wend.’ | ‘His mestyr speryt quhat tithings a t he saw.’—Wyntoun v. 3. 89.) In Icel. ‘er’ (the relat. pronoun) and ‘at’ are used indifferently, so that where one MS. reads ‘er,’ another reads ‘at,’ and vice versâ; this may easily be seen by looking at the MSS.; yet as a rule ‘er’ is much more freq. used. In mod. writers ‘at’ is freq. turned into ‘eð,’ esp. as a superfluous particle after the relative pron. hverr (hver eð, hvað eð, hverir eð, etc.), or the demonstr. sá (sá eð, þeir eð, hinir eð, etc.):—who, which, that, enn bezta grip at ( which) hafði til Íslands komið, Ld. 202; en engi mun sá at ( cui) minnisamara mun vera, 242; sem blótnaut at ( quae) stærst verða, Fms. iii. 214; þau tiðendi, at mér þætti verri, Nj. 64, etc. etc.
    n. collision (poët.); odda at, crossing of spears, crash of spears, Höfuðl. 8.
    β. a fight or bait of wild animals, esp. of horses, v. hesta-at and etja.
    the negative verbal suffix, v. -a.

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  • 12 GRAFA

    * * *
    (gref; gróf, grófum; grafinn), v.
    1) to dig (grafa gröf);
    grafa torf, to dig peat;
    fig. to seek out the sense of (grafa vísu);
    2) to earth, bury (grafa lík);
    3) to carve, engrave (døkkr steinn í ok grafit á innsigli);
    fagr á liti, sem þá er fílsbein er grafit í eik, as when ivory is set in oak;
    5) impers. to suppurate (lærit tók at grafa bæði uppi ok niðri);
    6) with preps.:
    grafa at e-u, eptir e-u, to inquire into, try to flnd out;
    also refl., grafast eptir e-u;
    grafa niðr, to dig down;
    svá kyrr sem hann væri grafinn niðr, as if he had been rooted in the ground;
    grafa til e-s, to dig for (grafa til vatns);
    grafa um e-t = grafa eptir e-u;
    gróf hann svá undir þeim, at, he sounded them so that;
    grafa e-t upp, to find out.
    * * *
    pret. gróf; pres. gref; part. grafinn, with neg. suffix gróf-at, Fas. i. 436 (in a verse): [Ulf. graban = σκάπτειν; A. S. grafan; North. E. to grave; Germ. graben; Swed. grafva; Dan. grave]:—to dig; grafa engi sitt, to drain one’s field, Grág. ii. 181; jörðin var grafin í hám fjallatindum, Edda 144; en er vatnit gróf tvá vega þá féllu bakkarnir, Ó. H. 18; grafa til vatns, id.; grafa út ósinn, Bs. i. 331; þá er þeir höfðu út grafit fitna (dug through it), Ó. H. 18; g. gröf, to dig a grave, 623. 28, Eg. 300; grafa niðr, to dig down, Grág. ii. 351; hann (the horse) var svá kyrr, sem hann væri grafinn niðr, as if he had been rooted in the ground, Hrafn. 7; g. torf, to dig peat, Njarð. 370, Rm. 12; g. upp, to dig up; þeir grófu upp líkamina, Nj. 86; g. upp bein, K. Þ. K. 40, N. G. L. i. 44; grafa alone, Fms. iv. 110: reflex, to bury (hide) oneself, hanu grófsk í brúkit, he hid himself in the seaweed, Njarð. 380; var grafinn lykill ( the key was hid) í dyra-gætti, Störnu-Odd. 20.
    2. to earth, bury (Old Engl. en-grave); vóru þá allir ríkis-menn í hauga lagðir en öll alþýða grafin í jörð, Ó. H. (pref.); var hann grafinn ( buried) hjá leiði Kols biskups, Bs. i. 64, passim; grafa lík, g. niðr, etc., Bjarn. 19, Eb. 338, K. Þ. K. passim.
    3. to carve, engrave; grafa innsigli, Mar., Sturl. ii. 222; krismu-ker grafit með tönn, Vm. 117; g. fílsbein í eik, Edda 151 (pref.); Margret gróf ok tönn til ágæta-vel, Bs. i. 143; grafa, steinsetja ok amalera, Fms. xi. 427.
    II. metaph. to enquire, dive deep into, Hom. 84: to unearth, find out the sense, kveða má svá, at vísan sé fegri þá grafin er, Grett. 94 A; nú festir maðr sér konu, ok grefsk upp skylda með þeim, and relationship is found out afterwards, N. G. L. i. 350; þá grófsk Þórir eptir (Th. enquired) en Úlfr segir at lyktum, Gullþ. 5; gróf hann vandlega eptir ( he made a close enquiry) þess manns atferð, Fms. viii. 15; gróf hann svá undir þeim (he sounded them so), at hann varð margra hluta víss, 16; hann gróf at vandlega, ok bað hana segja sér, Dropl. 4; g. um e-t, id., Hom. 43; en grafa eigi um þat er vér megum eigi skilja, Greg. 75: g. upp, to unearth, make out; gátu menn þá upp grafit, at …, Grett. 162; grafask upp, to come to the light, Orkn. (in a verse).
    III. medic. to suppurate; impers., lærit (acc.) tók at grafa bæði uppi ok niðri, … var lærit allt grafit upp at smá-þörmum, Grett. 153, 154.

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  • 13 hátta-tal

    n. a number of metres, the name of a poem on metres, = Hátta-lykill, Edda 192; also in the title of Edda (Ub.) ii. 250.

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  • 14 KIRKJA

    * * *
    (gen. pl. kirkna), f. church.
    * * *
    u, f., gen. pl. kirkna; [Scot. kirk; Dan. kirke; Germ. kirche; but Engl. church]
    I. a kirk, church; timbr-k., a timber church; stein-k., a stone church; the earliest Scandin. churches were all built of timber, the doors and pillars being ornamented with fine carved work, see Worsaae, Nos. 505–508; in the 12th and following centuries the old timber churches were one by one replaced by stone buildings. In Denmark the last timber church was demolished at the beginning of the 17th century, but in Norway some old churches (called stav-kyrkior) have remained up to the present time, see an interesting essay in Nord. Aarb. 1869, p. 185 sqq. Many passages in the Sagas refer to the building of churches, especially in records of the years following after 1000, see esp. Ld. ch. 74 sqq.; a curious legend, for the purpose of encouraging men to build churches, is told in Eb. ch. 49,—that a man could grant as many souls a seat in heaven as the church which he built held persons; ok þegar er þingi var lokit (the summer of A. D. 1000) lét Snorri goði göra kirkju at Helgafelli, en aðra Styrr mágr hans undir Hrauni, ok hvatti pat mjök til kirkju-görðar, at þat var fyrirheit kennimanna, at maðr skyldi jafnmörgum eiga heimolt rúm í himinríki, sem standa mætti í kirkju þeirri er hann lét göra, Eb. l. c. For the removal of a church, when all the graves were to be dug up and the bones ‘translated’ to the new church, see Eb. (fine), Bjarn. 19. For references see the Sagas passim; kirkju atgörð, atbót, uppgörð, church reparation, Vm. 12, 118, N. G. L. i. 345; kirkju brjóst, gólf, dyrr, horn, hurð, láss, lykill, ráf, stigi, stoð, stöpull, sylla, veggr, a church front, floor, door-way, corner, door, lock, key, roof, stair, pillar, steeple, sill, wall, K. Þ. K. 168, 170, 186, Fms. vii. 211, 225, viii. 285, 428, ix. 47, 470, 524, Landn. 50, Pm. 5, Vm. 46, Sturl. i. 169, iii. 221, 228, K. Á. 28, N. G. L. i. 312; kirkju sár, a church font, Jm. 2, 35, Ám. 6; kirkju kápa, ketill, kola, kross, mundlaug, Sturl. i. 191, Vm. 1, 6, 34, 99, 149, Dipl. v. 18; kirkju mark (on sheep), H. E. i. 494, Bs. i. 725: áttungs-k., fjórðungs-k., fylkis-k., héraðs-k., höfuð-k., hægindis-k. (q. v.), þriðjungs-k., veizlu-k., heima-k., etc.: in tales even used in a profane sense, trolla-k., álfa-k., a trolls’ and elves’ church, place where they worship.
    2. eccl. the Church = Ecclesia, very rarely, for Kristni and siðr are the usual words; kirkjan eðr Kristnin, Stj. 44.
    II. in local names, Kirkju-bær, Kirkju-ból, Kirkju-fjörðr, Kirkju-fell, Landn. and maps of Icel. passim, cp. Kirkby or Kirby in the north of England.
    COMPDS: kirkjubann, kirkjubók, kirkjuból, kirkjubólstaðr, kirkjubóndi, kirkjubúningr, kirkjubær, kirkjudagr, kirkjudagshald, kirkjudróttinn, kirkjueign, kirkjuembætti, kirkjufé, kirkjufólk, kirkjufrelsi, kirkjufriðr, kirkjufundr, kirkjuganga, kirkjugarðr, kirkjugarðshlið, kirkjugengt, kirkjugjöf, kirkjugóz, kirkjugrið, kirkjugræfr, kirkjugörð, kirkjuhelgi, kirkjuhluti, kirkjuland, kirkjuligr, kirkjulægr, kirkjulög, kirkjulögbók, kirkjumál, kirkjumaldagi, kirkjumenn, kirkjumannafundr, kirkjumessa, kirkjunáðir, kirkjuprestr, kirkjurán, kirkjureikningr, kirkjureki, kirkjuréttr, kirkjuskot, kirkjuskraut, kirkjuskrúð, kirkjuskyld, kirkjusmíð, kirkjusókn, kirkjusóknarmaðr, kirkjusóknarþing, kirkjustétt, kirkjustóll, kirkjustuldr, kirkjusöngr, kirkjutíund, kirkjutjöld, kirkjuvarðveizla, kirkjuvegr, kirkjuviðr, kirkjuvist, kirkjuvígsla, kirkjuvörðr, kirkjuþjófr.
    III. in plur. kirkna-friðr, -góz, -görð, -mál, -sókn, etc. = kirkju-, Fms. ix. 236, 478, K. Á. 216, Bs. i. 689, Ísl. ii. 380.

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  • 15 KISTA

    * * *
    (gen. pl. kistna), f.
    1) chest;
    * * *
    u, f., gen. pl. kistna, Nj. 20; [A. S. kist; North. E. and Scot. kist; Engl. chest; Dan. kiste; from Lat. cista]:—a chest, Eg. 310; í kerum eða kistum, N. G. L. i. 383; kómu til kistu kröfðu lukla, Vkv.; kistur ok hirzlur, 656 B. 1, passim; kistu lok, botn, lykill, the cover, bottom, key of a chest, Nj. 94; kistu-fjöl, a chest board, Hom. 155; kistu-hringr, a ring in a chest, Fms. x. 258; kistu-þrum, the old shell of a chest, Pm. 64, 73: a coffin (usually lík-kista), Eg. 126, 127, Grág. i. 207, Bs. i. 337, Fs. 132; kemba ok þerra áðr í kistu fari, Sdm. 34; knörr mun ek kaupa ok kistu steinda, Ám. 101, see Worsaae, No. 504: the seat in the poop of a ship (cp. hásætis-k.), Orkn. 400, Fms. vii. 201: the word, although foreign, is old, as it occurs in old poems such as Vkv., Sdm., Am. kistna-smiðr, n. a joiner, Rétt. 2. 10, N. G. L. ii. 246. kistu-leggja, lagði, to lay in a coffin.

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  • 16 LÁSS

    (pl. lásar), m. lock;
    hurðin var í lási, the door was locked.
    * * *
    m. [Dan.-Swed. lås; Engl. latch, borrowed from the Scandin.(?)], a latch, lock; lukla at lúka lásum upp, Grág. ii. 195; sýngr í lási, … var þá skemman í lási (locked), Fms. iii. 67; vera láss ok lykill fyrir e-u, viii. 235; í lásum eða lokum, N. G. L. i. 84; hann flökti þá um alla lása, Fb. i. 276; borg vár hefir langan tíma verit svá sem láss fyrir yðru ríki, Fms. i. 156; þar vóru á úti-dyrr, ok sterkr láss fyrir, Grett. 44 new Ed.; reka lás fyrir kistu, 198 new Ed.; stökkr þá láss af limum, Gg. 10; hve hón er í lás um lokin, Gm. 22.

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  • 17 SYKN

    1) free from guilt, innocent (s. af manndrápi);
    2) declared innocent, acquitted; gera e-n syknan, to acquit one.
    f. the state of being sykn; fœra (bera) fram syknu e-s, to declare one’s innocence, = gera e-n syknan.
    * * *
    adj.; not sýkn; the short vowel is borne out by rhymes, lykill, syknu, … as also by etymology, for vi changes into y, not into ý(sykn = svikn): [Ulf. swikns = ἁγνός, ὄσιος, ἀθωος; Prof. Bugge suggests that this word may be a compd, from an intens. particle sve-, and an adjective, ikn or akn, Gr. ἁγν-ός]:—‘sackless,’ free from guilt, innocent; hlutlauss eða sykn af manndrápi, Fms. ii. 225; hafit ok hirðit syknar hendr yðrar, Stj. 193: with gen., sykn saka, N. G. L. passim.
    II. esp. as a law term, free; sé nú, seggir, sykn em ek orðin, blameless, declared free, by performance of ordeal, Gkv. 3. 9; vér dæmum M.N. mann syknau, give sentence for him, declare him innocent, Grág. i. 71.
    2. esp. of a person who has been outlawed, but who is now declared a free man, one who is released, reprieved, having formerly been sekr; vágum ór skógi þann vildum syknan, Am. 97; görði jarl Þorkel syknan á alsherjar-þingi, Fms. ii. 106; far þú átan með mér ok mun ek göra þik syknan, Bs. i. 17; leysa sekt mína … ek skal gefa þér heilla-ráð at verða sykn, Fms. ii. 208; síðan fór hverr til sinna heimkynna, er allir vóru syknir, Ísl. ii. 392; syknir menn ok þeir menn er landvært eigu út hér, Grág. i. 209; þótti nú at vísu ganga, at hann mundi sykn vera á öðru sumri, Grett. 174 new Ed.; ok verði Grettir sykn … at Grettir yrði sykn, 116, 117 new Ed.; taldi hann vera syknan, Rb. 292.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > SYKN

  • 18 tygill

    (gen. pl. tugla), m. strap, band (á tuglunum taflpungsins).
    * * *
    m., pl. tuglar (like lykill, pl. luklar), a dimin.; [akin to tog; cp. Germ. zügel]:—a string, strap, thong, esp. of the strap with which a cloak was fastened round the neck; möttull á tuglum, Fms. vii. 201; tygill er menit var fest með, Ó. H. 135; á tuglunum taflpungsins var gullbaugr, Gullþ. 20; in Lv. 41 read, ok gullbaugr (for gullband) á tyglinum.
    COMPDS: tugla-möttull, -feldr, m. a cloak with a strap, Fær. 263, Fms. v. 292, Sturl. ii. 154, (Bs. i. 556 spelt tugla-.) tygil-knífr, m. a knife or dirk hanging from the belt on a tygill, Fms. vi. 165, x. 149, Ísl. ii. 277.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > tygill

  • 19 lukli

    from lykill, key.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > lukli

См. также в других словарях:

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