1 Holabird, William[br]b. 11 September 1854 American Union, New York, USAd. 19 July 1923 Evanston, Illinois, USA[br]American architect who contributed to the development of steel framing, a type of structure that rendered possible the erection of the skyscraper.[br]The American skyscraper was, in the 1870s and 1880s, very much the creation of what came to be known as the Chicago school of architecture. It was the most important American contribution to the urban architectural scene. At this time conditions were ripe for this type of office development, and in the big cities, notably Chicago and New York, steeply rising land values provided the incentive to build high; the structural means to do so had been triggered by the then low costs of making quality iron and steel. The skyscraper appeared after the invention of the passenger lift by Otis and the pioneer steel-frame work of Jenney. In 1875 Holabird was working in Jenney's office in Chicago. By 1883 he had set up in private practice, joined by another young architect, Martin Roche (1855–1927), and together they were responsible for the Tacoma Building (1887–9) in Chicago. In this structure the two front façades were entirely non-load-bearing and were carried by an internal steel skeleton; only the rear walls were load-bearing. The design of the building was not revolutionary (this had to wait for L.H. Sullivan) but was traditional in form. It was the possibility of being able to avoid load-bearing outer walls that enabled a building to rise above some nine storeys, and the thirteen-storeyed Tacoma Building pointed the way to the future development of the skyscraper. The firm of Holabird \& Roche continued in the following decades in Chicago to design and construct further high-quality, although lower, commercial buildings such as those in South Michigan Avenue and the McClurg Building. However, they are best remembered for their contribution in engineering to the development of high-rise construction.[br]Further ReadingF.Mujica, 1929, History of the Skyscraper, Paris: Archaeology and Architecture Press. C.W.Condit, 1964, The Chicago School of Architecture: A History of Commercial andPublic Building in the Chicago Area 1875–1925, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. J.W.Rudd (compiler), 1966, Holabird and Roche: Chicago Architects, American Association of Architectural Bibliographers.DY
2 Holabird, William(1854-1923) Холаберд, УильямАрхитектор. Ввел в практику использование металлического каркаса при строительстве небоскребов [ skyscraper]. Архитектор ряда высотных зданий конца XIX - начала XX века в Чикаго
3 put smb.'s nose out(put smb.'s nose out (of joint))расстроить чьи-л. планы; вытеснить кого-л. (из чьего-л. сердца); ≈ утереть или наставить нос кому-л.; подставить ножку кому-л.; см. тж. one's nose is out of joint
Begad, but it would put Steer's nose out of joint properly, if that girl got in front of his precious niece. (J. Galsworthy, ‘Caravan’, ‘A Feud’) — Ей-богу, вот было бы здорово таким манером утереть нос Стиру: предпочесть эту служанку его бесценной племяннице.
There ensued a whirlwind courtship. He followed her everywhere and never left her side if he could help it... Lanny Budd's nose was put completely out of joint. (U. Sinclair, ‘Between Two Words’, ch. 33) — Это было не ухаживание, а какой-то вихрь. Герцог следовал за Ирмой Барнс повсюду, где только было возможно, ни на минуту не отходил от нее... Лэнни Бадд получил полную отставку.
... I shall be delighted to be of aid, and I am quite sure the same obtains with Dr. Holabird here, though he really ought to be jealous, because... I believe you are only thirty-three, and you quite put the poor fellow's nose out! (S. Lewis, ‘Arrowsmith’, ch. XXVI) —...Я с радостью окажу вам помощь, и я не сомневаюсь, что вам так же охотно окажет ее и доктор Холаберд, хотя, откровенно говоря, он мог бы вам завидовать, ибо... вам, кажется, только тридцать три года, так что вы его, бедняжку, легко заткнете за пояс.
Usually it is the arrival of a baby in the family nowadays that puts the nose of a slightly older brother or sister, hitherto greatly favored, out of joint. (Ch. E. Funk, ‘Heavens to Betsy!’) — В наше время, когда в семье появляется новый ребенок, он обычно вытесняет из сердца родителей старшего брата или сестру, бывших до этого кумиром.
4 Architecture and buildingSee also: INDEX BY SUBJECT AREA[br]Jeanneret, Charles-EdouardLi Jie
5 Civil engineeringSee also: INDEX BY SUBJECT AREA[br]Du YuGuo ShoujingShi LuTürr, Istvan
6 Jenney, William Le Baron[br]b. 25 September 1832 Fairhaven, Massachusetts, USAd. 15 June 1907 Los Angeles, California, USA[br]American architect and engineer who pioneered a method of steel-framed construction that made the skyscraper possible.[br]Jenney's Home Insurance Building in Chicago was completed in 1885 but demolished in 1931. It was the first building to rise above ten to twelve storeys and was possible because it did not require immensely thick walls on the lower storeys to carry the weight above. Using square-sectioned cast-iron wall piers, hollow cylindrical cast-iron columns on the interior and, across these, steel and cast-iron beams and girders, Jenney produced a load-bearing metal framework independent of the curtain walling. Beams and girders were united by ties as well as being bolted to the vertical members, so providing a strong framework to take the building load. Jenney went on to build in Chicago the Second Leiter Building (1889–91) and, in 1891, the Manhattan Building. He played a considerable part in the planning of the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. Jenney is accepted as having been the founder of the Chicago school of architecture, and he trained many of the later noted architects and builders of the city, such as William Holabird, Martin Roche and Louis Sullivan.[br]Further ReadingA.Woltersdorf, 1924, "The father of the skeleton frame building", Western Architecture 33.F.A.Randall, 1949, History of the Development of Building Construction in Chicago, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.C.Condit, 1964, The Chicago School of Architecture: A History of Commercial and Public Building in the Chicago Area 1875–1925, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.DY
7 Sullivan, Louis HenrySUBJECT AREA: Architecture and building[br]b. 3 September 1856 Boston, Massachusetts, USAd. 14 April 1924 Chicago, Illinois, USA[br]American architect whose work came to be known as the "Chicago School of Architecture" and who created a new style of architecture suited specifically to steel-frame, high-rise structures.[br]Sullivan, a Bostonian, studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Soon he joined his parents, who had moved to Chicago, and worked for a while in the office of William Le Baron Jenney, the pioneer of steel-frame construction. After spending some time studying at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, in 1875 Sullivan returned to Chicago, where he later met and worked for the Danish architect Dankmar Adler, who was practising there. In 1881 the two architects became partners, and during the succeeding fifteen years they produced their finest work and the buildings for which Sullivan is especially known.During the early 1880s in Chicago, load-bearing, metal-framework structures that made lofty skyscrapers possible had been developed (see Jenney and Holabird). Louis H.Sullivan initiated building design to stress and complement the metal structure rather than hide it. Moving onwards from H.H.Richardson's treatment of his Marshall Field Wholesale Store in Chicago, Sullivan took the concept several stages further. His first outstanding work, built with Adler in 1886–9, was the Auditorium Building in Chicago. The exterior, in particular, was derived largely from Richardson's Field Store, and the building—now restored—is of bold but simple design, massively built in granite and stone, its form stressing the structure beneath. The architects' reputation was established with this building.The firm of Sullivan \& Adler established itself during the early 1890s, when they built their most famous skyscrapers. Adler was largely responsible for the structure, the acoustics and function, while Sullivan was responsible for the architectural design, concerning himself particularly with the limitation and careful handling of ornament. In 1892 he published his ideas in Ornament in Architecture, where he preached restraint in its quality and disposition. He established himself as a master of design in the building itself, producing a rhythmic simplicity of form, closely related to the structural shape beneath. The two great examples of this successful approach were the Wainwright Building in St Louis, Missouri (1890–1) and the Guaranty Building in Buffalo, New York (1894–5). The Wainwright Building was a ten-storeyed structure built in stone and brick and decorated with terracotta. The vertical line was stressed throughout but especially at the corners, where pilasters were wider. These rose unbroken to an Art Nouveau type of decorative frieze and a deeply projecting cornice above. The thirteen-storeyed Guaranty Building is Sullivan's masterpiece, a simple, bold, finely proportioned and essentially modern structure. The pilaster verticals are even more boldly stressed and decoration is at a minimum. In the twentieth century the almost free-standing supporting pillars on the ground floor have come to be called pilotis. As late as the 1920s, particularly in New York, the architectural style and decoration of skyscrapers remained traditionally eclectic, based chiefly upon Gothic or classical forms; in view of this, Sullivan's Guaranty Building was far ahead of its time.[br]BibliographyArticle by Louis H.Sullivan. Address delivered to architectural students June 1899, published in Canadian Architecture Vol. 18(7):52–3.Further ReadingHugh Morrison, 1962, Louis Sullivan: Prophet of Modern Architecture.Willard Connely, 1961, Louis Sullivan as He Lived, New York: Horizon Press.DY
См. также в других словарях:
Holabird — is the name of various people and places, including: *Holabird, South Dakota, USA *Camp Holabird (alias Fort Holabird), Maryland, USA *William Holabird, the famous Chicago architect *John Augur Holabird, his son and also a famous Chicago… … Wikipedia
Holabird — [ hɔləbəːd], William, amerikanischer Architekt, * Amenia Union (N. Y.) 11. 9. 1854, ✝ Evanston (Illinois) 19. 7. 1923; ging nach seiner Ausbildung in Westpoint (N. Y.) nach Chicago (Illinois), wo er zunächst im Büro von W. Le Baron Jenney und… … Universal-Lexikon
Holabird & Roche — Holabird and Root Holabird and Root (ou Holabird and Roche) est un cabinet d architectes américain fondé en 1880 à Chicago. Le cabinet, initialement fondé par William Holabird et Ossian Simonds en 1880, se nomme d abord « Holabird and… … Wikipédia en Français
Holabird & Root — Holabird and Root Holabird and Root (ou Holabird and Roche) est un cabinet d architectes américain fondé en 1880 à Chicago. Le cabinet, initialement fondé par William Holabird et Ossian Simonds en 1880, se nomme d abord « Holabird and… … Wikipédia en Français
Holabird And Root — (ou Holabird and Roche) est un cabinet d architectes américain fondé en 1880 à Chicago. Le cabinet, initialement fondé par William Holabird et Ossian Simonds en 1880, se nomme d abord « Holabird and Simonds » avant de prendre le nom de… … Wikipédia en Français
Holabird and Roche — Holabird and Root Holabird and Root (ou Holabird and Roche) est un cabinet d architectes américain fondé en 1880 à Chicago. Le cabinet, initialement fondé par William Holabird et Ossian Simonds en 1880, se nomme d abord « Holabird and… … Wikipédia en Français
Holabird and root — (ou Holabird and Roche) est un cabinet d architectes américain fondé en 1880 à Chicago. Le cabinet, initialement fondé par William Holabird et Ossian Simonds en 1880, se nomme d abord « Holabird and Simonds » avant de prendre le nom de… … Wikipédia en Français
Holabird and Root — (ou Holabird and Roche) est un cabinet d architectes américain fondé en 1880 à Chicago aux États Unis. Le cabinet, initialement fondé par William Holabird et Ossian Simonds en 1880, se nomme d abord « Holabird and Simonds » avant de… … Wikipédia en Français
Holabird, South Dakota — Holabird is an unincorporated community in Hyde County, South Dakota, United States. Although not tracked by the Census Bureau, Holabird has been assigned the ZIP code of 57540.External links … Wikipedia
Holabird & Roche — Soldier Field La firma de arquitectura Holabird Root fue fundada en Chicago en 1880. A través de los años, la firma ha cambiado en diversas ocasiones de estilo desde el estilo conocido como escuela de Chicago pasando por el Art deco, la… … Wikipedia Español
Holabird & Roche — The architectural firm of Holabird Roche was founded in Chicago in 1880. The firm rose to prominence under the leadership of William Holabird and Martin Roche. Both men had worked in the office of William LeBaron Jenney before striking out on… … Wikipedia
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- Letter of the Secretary of War, communicating in compliance with the resolution of the Senate of June 13, 1870, a copy of the report of Lieutenant Colonel... by him in the Department of Dakota, in 1869, Holabird Samuel Beckley. Книга представляет собой репринтное издание. Несмотря на то, что была проведена серьезная работа по восстановлению первоначального качества издания, на некоторых страницах могут обнаружиться… Подробнее Купить за 412 руб
- Angelina and the New Baby, Кэтрин Холаберд. Angelina and the New Baby - a wonderful story by Katharine Holabird and Helen Craig. This classic Angelina story is a brilliant introduction to the arrival of a new baby. Angelina is so… Подробнее Купить за 211 грн (только Украина)