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  • 1 Angola

    (and Enclave of Cabinda)
       From 1575 to 1975, Angola was a colony of Portugal. Located in west-central Africa, this colony has been one of the largest, most strategically located, and richest in mineral and agricultural resources in the continent. At first, Portugal's colonial impact was largely coastal, but after 1700 it became more active in the interior. By international treaties signed between 1885 and 1906, Angola's frontiers with what are now Zaire and Zambia were established. The colony's area was 1,246,700 square kilometers (481,000 square miles), Portugal's largest colonial territory after the independence of Brazil. In Portugal's third empire, Angola was the colony with the greatest potential.
       The Atlantic slave trade had a massive impact on the history, society, economy, and demography of Angola. For centuries, Angola's population played a subordinate role in the economy of Portugal's Brazil-centered empire. Angola's population losses to the slave trade were among the highest in Africa, and its economy became, to a large extent, hostage to the Brazilian plantation-based economic system. Even after Brazil's independence in 1822, Brazilian economic interests and capitalists were influential in Angola; it was only after Brazil banned the slave trade in 1850 that the heavy slave traffic to former Portuguese America began to wind down. Although slavery in Angola was abolished, in theory, in the 1870s, it continued in various forms, and it was not until the early 1960s that its offspring, forced labor, was finally ended.
       Portugal's economic exploitation of Angola went through different stages. During the era of the Atlantic slave trade (ca. 1575-1850), when many of Angola's slaves were shipped to Brazil, Angola's economy was subordinated to Brazil's and to Portugal's. Ambitious Lisbon-inspired projects followed when Portugal attempted to replace the illegal slave trade, long the principal income source for the government of Angola, with legitimate trade, mining, and agriculture. The main exports were dyes, copper, rubber, coffee, cotton, and sisal. In the 1940s and 1950s, petroleum emerged as an export with real potential. Due to the demand of the World War II belligerents for Angola's raw materials, the economy experienced an impetus, and soon other articles such as diamonds, iron ore, and manganese found new customers. Angola's economy, on an unprecedented scale, showed significant development, which was encouraged by Lisbon. Portugal's colonization schemes, sending white settlers to farm in Angola, began in earnest after 1945, although such plans had been nearly a century in the making. Angola's white population grew from about 40,000 in 1940 to nearly 330,000 settlers in 1974, when the military coup occurred in Portugal.
       In the early months of 1961, a war of African insurgency broke out in northern Angola. Portugal dispatched armed forces to suppress resistance, and the African insurgents were confined to areas on the borders of northern and eastern Angola at least until the 1966-67 period. The 13-year colonial war had a telling impact on both Angola and Portugal. When the Armed Forces Movement overthrew the Estado Novo on 25 April 1974, the war in Angola had reached a stalemate and the major African nationalist parties (MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA) had made only modest inroads in the northern fringes and in central and eastern Angola, while there was no armed activity in the main cities and towns.
       After a truce was called between Portugal and the three African parties, negotiations began to organize the decolonizat ion process. Despite difficult maneuvering among the parties, Portugal, the MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA signed the Alvor Agreement of January 1975, whereby Portugal would oversee a transition government, create an all-Angola army, and supervise national elections to be held in November 1975. With the outbreak of a bloody civil war among the three African parties and their armies, the Alvor Agreement could not be put into effect. Fighting raged between March and November 1975. Unable to prevent the civil war or to insist that free elections be held, Portugal's officials and armed forces withdrew on 11 November 1975. Rather than handing over power to one party, they transmitted sovereignty to the people of Angola. Angola's civil war continued into the 21st century.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Angola

  • 2 Angola

    Plain or twill fabric, woven from a cotton warp and an angola yarn weft. Principally used as shirting cloths for the home trade and often termed "Unions". One quality is made 33-in., 36 X 38 per inch, 14's cotton warp, 16's angola weft. The term is also applied to a cotton cloth in 2 X 2 twill weave, dyed red, viz. - 34-in., 42 X 40 per inch, 16/16, raised on the back.

    Dictionary of the English textile terms > Angola

См. также в других словарях:

  • Angola — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda República de Angola República de Angola …   Wikipedia Español

  • Angola — (Hond.) f. *Leche agria. * * * Angola es un país del suroeste de Africa que tiene fronteras con Namibia, la República Democrática del Congo, Zambia, y el Océano Atlántico. La provincia exclave de Cabinda tiene fronteras con la …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Angola —    Angola is a large, predominantly Roman Catholic country in southern Africa. Protestant and African Initiated Churches have won many members in the 20th century.    For nearly 500 years after its discovery by Europeans in the 15th century… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Angola — (république d ) état du S. O. de l Afrique, limité au N. par les deux Congo, à l E. par la Zambie, au S. par la Namibie et à l O. par l océan Atlantique; 1 246 700 km²; 11 558 000 hab. (Angolais), selon l estimation de 1995; croissance… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Angola — Angola, NY U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 2266 Housing Units (2000): 903 Land area (2000): 1.425623 sq. miles (3.692346 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.425623 sq. miles (3.692346… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Angōla [1] — Angōla, Baumwollenstoff mit 24 Ketten und 23 Schußfäden auf 1 cm. Garne: Kette Nr. 12 englisch, Schuß Nr. 22 englisch, Bindung Köper 2/2 gebrochen. Angola Gewebe …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Angola, IN — U.S. city in Indiana Population (2000): 7344 Housing Units (2000): 3012 Land area (2000): 4.229491 sq. miles (10.954332 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.015500 sq. miles (0.040145 sq. km) Total area (2000): 4.244991 sq. miles (10.994477 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Angola, NY — U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 2266 Housing Units (2000): 903 Land area (2000): 1.425623 sq. miles (3.692346 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.425623 sq. miles (3.692346 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • angola — |ó| adj. 2 g. s. 2 g. 1. O mesmo que angolano. • s. 2 g. 2. Indivíduo pertencente aos angolas, povo indígena africano que deu o seu nome ao território de Angola. • adj. 2 g. 3. Relativo aos angolas. • s. f. 4.  [Brasil] O mesmo que capim de… …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Angòla — Angola ? l Angola m. [ cf. ital. esp. et port. Angola] …   Diccionari Personau e Evolutiu

  • Angola — An*go la, n. [A corruption of Angora.] A fabric made from the wool of the Angora goat. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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