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zero-order approximation

См. также в других словарях:

  • Zero-based numbering — is numbering in which the initial element of a sequence is assigned the index 0, rather than the index 1 as is typical in everyday circumstances. Under zero based numbering, the initial element is sometimes termed the zeroth element, rather than… …   Wikipedia

  • Order of magnitude — An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. In its most common usage, the amount being scaled is 10 and the scale is the (base 10) exponent… …   Wikipedia

  • Order-disorder — In quantum field theory and statistical mechanics in the thermodynamic limit, a system with a global symmetry can have more than one phase. For parameters where the symmetry is spontaneously broken, the system is said to be ordered. When the… …   Wikipedia

  • Order statistic — Probability distributions for the n = 5 order statistics of an exponential distribution with θ = 3 In statistics, the kth order statistic of a statistical sample is equal to its kth smallest value. Together with rank statistics, order statistics… …   Wikipedia

  • Orders of approximation — In science, engineering, and other quantitative disciplines, orders of approximation refer to formal or informal terms for how precise an approximation is, and to indicate progressively more refined approximations: in increasing order of… …   Wikipedia

  • Small-angle approximation — is a useful simplification of the laws of trigonometry which is only approximately true for finite angles, but correct in the limit as the angle approaches zero. It involves linearization of the trigonometric functions (truncation of their Taylor …   Wikipedia

  • First-order hold — The first order hold (FOH) is a mathematical model of the practical reconstruction of sampled signals that could be done by a conventional digital to analog converter (DAC) and an analog circuit called an integrator. For the FOH, the signal is… …   Wikipedia

  • Boussinesq approximation (water waves) — In fluid dynamics, the Boussinesq approximation for water waves is an approximation valid for weakly non linear and fairly long waves. The approximation is named after Joseph Boussinesq, who first derived them in response to the observation by… …   Wikipedia

  • Born-Oppenheimer approximation — In quantum chemistry, the computation of the energy and wavefunction of an average size molecule is a formidable task that is alleviated by the Born Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. For instance the benzene molecule consists of 12 nuclei and 42… …   Wikipedia

  • Stochastic approximation — methods are a family of iterative stochastic optimization algorithms that attempt to find zeroes or extrema of functions which cannot be computed directly, but only estimated via noisy observations. The first, and prototypical, algorithms of this …   Wikipedia

  • Absolute zero — For other uses, see Absolute Zero (disambiguation). Absolute zero is the theoretical temperature at which entropy reaches its minimum value. The laws of thermodynamics state that absolute zero cannot be reached using only thermodynamic means. A… …   Wikipedia


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