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  • 21 suspectus

        suspectus ūs, m    [1 suspicio], a looking up, gazing upwards: Quantus ad aetherium caeli suspectus Olympum, i. e. height, V.: Turris vasto suspectu, V.—Fig., high regard, esteem, respect: honorum, O.
    * * *
    suspecta -um, suspectior -or -us, suspectissimus -a -um ADJ
    suspected/mistrusted; of doubtful character; believed without proof; suspicious

    Latin-English dictionary > suspectus

  • 22 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 23 absum

    ab-sum, āfui (better than abfui), āfŭtārus (aforem, afore), v. n., in its most general signif., to be away from, be absent.
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    Absol. without designating the distance (opp. adsum):

    num ab domo absum?

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 16:

    me absente atque insciente,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 130:

    domini ubi absunt,

    are not at home, not present, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 53: facile aerumnam ferre possum, si inde abest injuria, Caecil. ap. Non. 430, 18.—
    B.
    With reference to the distance in space or time; which is expressed either by a definite number, or, in gen., by the advs. multum, paulum (not parum, v. below) longe, etc.:

    edixit, ut ab urbe abesset milia pass. ducenta,

    Cic. Sest. 12, 29:

    castra, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    haud longe abesse oportet,

    he ought not to be far hence, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 166:

    legiones magnum spatium aberant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 17:

    menses tres abest,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 66:

    haud permultum a me aberit infortunium,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 2, 1; Cic. Fam. 2, 7.—With the simple abl. for ab:

    paulumque cum ejus villa abessemus,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1 Görenz; but, ab ejus villa, B. and K.; cf.:

    nuptā abesse tuā,

    Ov. R. Am. 774.— With inter:

    nec longis inter se passibus absunt,

    Verg. A. 11, 907.—With prope, propius, proxime, to denote a short distance:

    nunc nobis prope abest exitium,

    is not far from, Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 8;

    so with est: prope est a te Deus, tecum est,

    Sen. Ep. 41:

    loca, quae a Brundisio propius absunt, quam tu, biduum,

    Cic. Att. 8, 14:

    quoniam abes propius,

    since you are nearer, id. ib. 1, 1:

    existat aliquid, quod... absit longissime a vero,

    id. Ac. 2, 11, 36; so id. Deiot. 13; Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16 al.—Hence the phrase: tantum abest, ut—ut, so far from that, etc. (Zumpt, §

    779), the origin of which is evident from the following examples from Cic. (the first two of which have been unjustly assailed): id tantum abest ab officio, ut nihil magis officio possit esse contrarium, Off. 1, 14 (with which comp. the person. expression: equidem tantum absum ab ista sententia, ut non modo non arbitrer... sed, etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 60, 255):

    tantum abest ab eo, ut malum mors sit, ut verear, ne, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76: ego vero istos tantum abest ut ornem, ut effici non possit, quin eos oderim, so far am I from that, id. Phil. 11, 14; sometimes etiam or quoque is added to the second clause, Lentul. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 15, 2; Suet. Tib. 50; more rarely contra, Liv. 6, 31, 4. Sometimes the second ut is left out:

    tantum afuit, ut inflammares nostros animos: somnum isto loco vix tenebamus,

    Cic. Brut. 80, 278; on the contrary, once in Cic. with a third ut: tantum abest ut nostra miremur, ut usque eo difficiles ac morosi simus, ut nobis non satisfaciat ipse Demosthenes, Or. 29, 104.
    II.
    Hence,
    A.
    To be away from any thing unpleasant, to be freed or free from:

    a multis et magnis molestiis abes,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3:

    a culpa,

    id. Rosc. Am. 20: a reprehensione temeritatis, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23.
    B.
    To be removed from a thing by will, inclination, etc.; to be disinclined to (syn. abhorreo)' a consilio fugiendi, Cic. Att. 7, 24:

    ab istis studiis,

    id. Planc. 25:

    ceteri a periculis aberant,

    kept aloof from, avoided, Sall. C. 6, 3. toto aberant bello, Caes. B. G. 7, 63.
    C.
    To be removed from a thing in regard to condition or quality, i. e. to be different from, to differ = abhorrere abest a tua virtute et fide, Brut. et Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 2: istae kolakeiai non longe absunt a scelere, id. Att. 13, 30:

    haec non absunt a consuetudine somniorum,

    id. Divin. 1, 21, [p. 13] 42.—Since improvement, as well as deterioration, may constitute the ground of difference, so absum may, according to its connection, designate the one or the other:

    nullā re longius absumus a naturā ferarum,

    in nothing are we more elevated above the nature of the brute, Cic. Off. 1, 16, 50;

    so also the much-contested passage,

    Cic. Planc. 7, 17: longissime Plancius a te afuit, i. e. valde, plurimis suffragiis, te vicit, was far from you in the number of votes, i. e. had the majority; v. Wunder ad Planc. proleg. p. 83 sq.; on the other hand, to be less, inferior: longe te a pulchris abesse sensisti, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 339, 23:

    multum ab eis aberat L. Fufius,

    id. Brut. 62, 222; so Hor. A. P. 370.
    D.
    Not to be suitable, proper, or fit for a thing:

    quae absunt ab forensi contentione,

    Cic. Or. 11, 37:

    ab principis personā,

    Nep. Ep. 1, 2.
    E.
    To be wanting, = desum, Pac. ap. Cic. Fin. 5, 11, 31 (Trag. Rel. p. 122 Rib.):

    unum a praeturā tuā abest,

    one thing is wanting to your praetorship, Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 25: quaeris id quod habes;

    quod abest non quaeris,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 16; cf. Lucr. 3, 970 and 1095.—After Cicero, constr. in this signif. with dat.:

    quid huic abesse poterit de maximarum rerum scientiā?

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 48:

    abest enim historia litteris nostris,

    history is yet wanting to our literature, id. Leg. 2, 5.—So esp. in the poets:

    donec virenti canities abest morosa,

    Hor. C. 1, 9, 17; 3, 24, 64; Ov. M. 14, 371.—Hence the phrase non multum (neque multum), paulum, non (haud) procul, minimum, nihil abest, quin. not much, little, nothing is wanting that (Zumpt, Gr. § 540); but not parum, since parum in good classical authors does not correspond in meaning with non multum, but with non satis (v. parum):

    neque multum abesse ab eo, quin, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 2, 2; and absol.:

    neque multum afuit quin,

    id. B. C. 2, 35, 4:

    paulumque afuit quin, ib. § 2: legatos nostros haud procul afuit quin violarent,

    Liv. 5, 4 fin.:

    minimum afuit quin periret,

    was within a little of, Suet. Aug. 14:

    nihil afore credunt quin,

    Verg. A. 8, 147 al.
    F.
    Abesse alicui or ab aliquo, to be wanting to any one, to be of no assistance or service to (opp. adsum):

    ut mirari Torquatus desinat, me, qui Antonio afuerim, Sullam defendere,

    Cic. Sull. 5: facile etiam absentibus nobis ( without our aid) veritas se ipsa defendet, id. Ac. 2, 11, 36:

    longe iis fraternum nomen populi Romani afuturum,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 36. So also Cic. Planc. 5, 13: et quo plus intererat, eo plus aberas a me, the more I needed your assistance, the more you neglected me, v. Wunder ad h. l.; cf. also Sall. C. 20 fin.
    G.
    Cicero uses abesse to designate his banishment from Rome (which he would never acknowledge as such):

    qui nullā lege abessem,

    Cic. Sest. 34, 37; cf.: discessus. —Hence, absens, entis ( gen. plur. regul. absentium;

    absentum,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 5), P. a., absent (opp. praesens).
    A.
    In gen.:

    vos et praesentem me curā levatis et absenti magna solatia dedistis,

    Cic. Brut. 3, 11; so id. Off. 3, 33, 121; id. Verr. 2, 2, 17:

    quocirca (amici) et absentes adsunt et egentes abundant,

    id. Lael. 7, 23:

    ut loquerer tecum absens, cum coram id non licet,

    id. Att. 7, 15:

    me absente,

    id. Dom. 3; id. Cael. 50:

    illo absente,

    id. Tull. 17; id. Verr. 2, 60:

    absente accusatore,

    id. ib. 2, 99 al.— Sup.:

    mente absentissimus,

    Aug. Conf. 4, 4.—Of things (not thus in Cic.):

    Romae rus optas, absentem rusticus urbem tollis ad astra,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 28; so,

    Rhodus,

    id. Ep. 1, 11, 21:

    rogus,

    Mart. 9, 77, 8:

    venti,

    Stat. Th. 5, 87:

    imagines rerum absentium,

    Quint. 6, 2, 29:

    versus,

    Gell. 20, 10.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    In conversat. lang.
    (α).
    Praesens absens, in one's presence or absence:

    postulo ut mihi tua domus te praesente absente pateat,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 29.—
    (β).
    Absente nobis turbatumst, in our absence (so also:

    praesente nobis, v. praesens),

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7; Afran. ap. Non. 76, 19 (Com. Rel. p. 165 Rib.).—
    2.
    In polit. lang., not appearing in public canvassings as a competitor:

    deligere (Scipio) iterum consul absens,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 11; so Liv. 4, 42, 1; 10, 22, 9.—
    3.
    = mortuus, deceased, Plaut. Cas. prol. 20; Vitr. 7, praef. § 8.—
    4.
    Ellipt.: absens in Lucanis, absent in Lucania, i. e. absent and in Lucania, Nep. Hann. 5, 3; so id. Att. 8, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > absum

  • 24 ad

    ad, prep. with acc. (from the fourth century after Christ written also at; Etrusc. suf. -a; Osc. az; Umbr. and Old Lat. ar, as [p. 27] in Eug. Tab., in S. C. de Bacch., as arveho for adveho; arfuerunt, arfuisse, for adfuerunt, etc.; arbiter for adbiter; so, ar me advenias, Plant. Truc. 2, 2, 17; cf. Prisc. 559 P.; Vel. Long. 2232 P.; Fabretti, Glos. Ital. col. 5) [cf. Sanscr. adhi; Goth. and Eng. at; Celt. pref. ar, as armor, i.e. ad mare; Rom. a].
    I.
    As antith. to ab (as in to ex), in a progressive order of relation, ad denotes, first, the direction toward an object; then the reaching of or attaining to it; and finally, the being at or near it.
    A.
    In space.
    1.
    Direction toward, to, toward, and first,
    a.
    Horizontally:

    fugere ad puppim colles campique videntur,

    the hills and fields appear to fly toward the ship, Lucr. 4, 390: meridie umbrae cadunt ad septentrionem, ortu vero ad occasum, to or toward the north and west, Plin. 2, 13, and so often of the geog. position of a place in reference to the points of compass, with the verbs jacere, vergere, spectare, etc.:

    Asia jacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad septentriones et aquiionem,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Mull.;

    and in Plin. very freq.: Creta ad austrum... ad septentrionem versa, 4, 20: ad Atticam vergente, 4, 21 al.—Also trop.: animus alius ad alia vitia propensior,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 81.—
    b.
    In a direction upwards (esp. in the poets, very freq.): manusque sursum ad caelum sustulit, Naev. ap. Non. 116, 30 (B. Pun. p. 13, ed. Vahl.): manus ad caeli templa tendebam lacrimans, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 50 ed. Vahl.); cf.:

    duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,

    Verg. A. 1, 93: molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum vomit, Att. ap. Prisc. 1325 P.: clamor ad caelum volvendus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 104 Mull. (Ann. v. 520 ed. Vahl.) (cf. with this: tollitur in caelum clamor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, or Ann. v. 422):

    ad caelumque ferat flammai fulgura rursum, of Aetna,

    Lucr. 1, 725; cf. id. 2, 191; 2, 325: sidera sola micant;

    ad quae sua bracchia tendens, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 188:

    altitudo pertingit ad caelum,

    Vulg. Dan. 4, 17.—
    c.
    Also in the direction downwards (for the usu. in):

    tardiore semper ad terras omnium quae geruntur in caelo effectu cadente quam visu,

    Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216.
    2.
    The point or goal at which any thing arrives.
    a.
    Without reference to the space traversed in passing, to, toward (the most common use of this prep.): cum stupro redire ad suos popularis, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 317 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 14 ed. Vahl.):

    ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videatur potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12: ad terras decidat aether, Lucan. 2, 58. —Hence,
    (α).
    With verbs which designate going, coming, moving, bearing, bringing near, adapting, taking, receiving, calling, exciting, admonishing, etc., when the verb is compounded with ad the prep. is not always repeated, but the constr. with the dat. or acc. employed; cf. Rudd. II. pp. 154, 175 n. (In the ante-class. per., and even in Cic., ad is generally repeated with most verbs, as, ad eos accedit, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 8:

    ad Sullam adire,

    id. ib. 25:

    ad se adferre,

    id. Verr. 4, 50:

    reticulum ad naris sibi admovebat,

    id. ib. 5, 27:

    ad laborem adhortantur,

    id. de Sen. 14:

    T. Vectium ad se arcessit,

    id. Verr. 5, 114; but the poets of the Aug. per., and the historians, esp. Tac., prefer the dative; also, when the compound verb contains merely the idea of approach, the constr. with ad and the acc. is employed; but when it designates increase, that with the dat. is more usual: accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; but, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province.)—
    (β).
    Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.):

    oratus sum venire ad te huc,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 1, 12: spectatores plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum, id. Stich. fin.:

    eamus ad me,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64:

    ancillas traduce huc ad vos,

    id. Heaut. 4, 4, 22:

    transeundumst tibi ad Menedemum,

    id. 4, 4, 17: intro nos vocat ad sese, tenet intus apud se, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 86 P.:

    te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias,

    Cic. Att. 3, 3; 16, 10 al.—
    (γ).
    Ad, with the name of a deity in the gen., is elliptical for ad templum or aedem (cf.:

    Thespiadas, quae ad aedem Felicitatis sunt,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 4; id. Phil. 2, 35:

    in aedem Veneris,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 120;

    in aedem Concordiae,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 9, 21;

    2, 6, 12): ad Dianae,

    to the temple of, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43:

    ad Opis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 14:

    ad Castoris,

    id. Quint. 17:

    ad Juturnae,

    id. Clu. 101:

    ad Vestae,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 35 al.: cf. Rudd. II. p. 41, n. 4, and p. 334.—
    (δ).
    With verbs which denote a giving, sending, informing, submitting, etc., it is used for the simple dat. (Rudd. II. p. 175): litteras dare ad aliquem, to send or write one a letter; and: litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one; hence Cic. never says, like Caesar and Sall., alicui scribere, which strictly means, to write for one (as a receipt, etc.), but always mittere, scribere, perscribere ad aliquem:

    postea ad pistores dabo,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 119:

    praecipe quae ad patrem vis nuntiari,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 109:

    in servitutem pauperem ad divitem dare,

    Ter. Ph. 4, 3, 48:

    nam ad me Publ. Valerius scripsit,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 2 med.:

    de meis rebus ad Lollium perscripsi,

    id. ib. 5, 3:

    velim domum ad te scribas, ut mihi tui libri pateant,

    id. Att. 4, 14; cf. id. ib. 4, 16:

    ad primam (sc. epistulam) tibi hoc scribo,

    in answer to your first, id. ib. 3, 15, 2:

    ad Q. Fulvium Cons. Hirpini et Lucani dediderunt sese,

    Liv. 27, 15, 1; cf. id. 28, 22, 5.—Hence the phrase: mittere or scribere librum ad aliquem, to dedicate a book to one (Greek, prosphônein):

    has res ad te scriptas, Luci, misimus, Aeli,

    Lucil. Sat. 1, ap. Auct. Her. 4, 12:

    quae institueram, ad te mittam,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5: ego interea admonitu tuo perfeci sane argutulos libros ad Varronem;

    and soon after: mihi explices velim, maneasne in sententia, ut mittam ad eum quae scripsi,

    Cic. Att. 13, 18; cf. ib. 16; Plin. 1, 19.—So in titles of books: M. Tullii Ciceronis ad Marcum Brutum Orator; M. T. Cic. ad Q. Fratrem Dialogi tres de Oratore, etc.—In the titles of odes and epigrams ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.
    (ε).
    With names of towns after verbs of motion, ad is used in answer to the question Whither? instead of the simple acc.; but commonly with this difference, that ad denotes to the vicinity of, the neighborhood of:

    miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post ad Tarentum,

    Cic. de Sen. 4, 10; id. Fam. 3, 81:

    ad Veios,

    Liv. 5, 19; 14, 18; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 7; id. B. C. 3, 40 al.—Ad is regularly used when the proper name has an appellative in apposition to it:

    ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt,

    Sall. J. 81, 2; so Curt. 3, 1, 22; 4, 9, 9;

    or when it is joined with usque,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 87; id. Deiot, 7, 19.— (When an adjective is added, the simple acc. is used poet., as well as with ad:

    magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas,

    Prop. 3, 21, 1; the simple acc., Ov. H. 2, 83: doctas jam nunc eat, inquit, Athenas).—
    (ζ).
    With verbs which imply a hostile movement toward, or protection in respect to any thing, against = adversus:

    nonne ad senem aliquam fabricam fingit?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 34:

    Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras,

    Prop. 3, 19, 9: neque quo pacto fallam, nec quem dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, old poet in Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73:

    Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5; 7, 70:

    ipse ad hostem vehitur,

    Nep. Dat. 4, 5; id. Dion. 5, 4: Romulus ad regem impetus facit (a phrase in which in is commonly found), Liv. 1, 5, 7, and 44, 3, 10:

    aliquem ad hostem ducere,

    Tac. A. 2, 52:

    clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt,

    Verg. A. 2, 443:

    munio me ad haec tempora,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 18:

    ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65; 7, 41;

    so with nouns: medicamentum ad aquam intercutem,

    Cic. Off. 3, 24:

    remedium ad tertianam,

    Petr. Sat. 18:

    munimen ad imbris,

    Verg. G. 2, 352:

    farina cum melle ad tussim siccam efficasissima est,

    Plin. 20, 22, 89, § 243:

    ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces,

    Liv. 1, 9; 1, 19 (in these two passages ad may have the force of apud, Hand).—
    (η).
    The repetition of ad to denote the direction to a place and to a person present in it is rare:

    nunc tu abi ad forum ad herum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 100; cf.:

    vocatis classico ad concilium militibus ad tribunos,

    Liv. 5 47.—(The distinction between ad and in is given by Diom. 409 P., thus: in forum ire est in ipsum forum intrare; ad forum autem ire, in locum foro proximum; ut in tribunal et ad tribunal venire non unum est; quia ad tribunal venit litigator, in tribunal vero praetor aut judex; cf. also Sen. Ep. 73, 14, deus ad homines venit, immo, quod propius est, in homines venit.)—
    b.
    The terminus, with ref. to the space traversed, to, even to, with or without usque, Quint. 10, 7, 16: ingurgitavit usque ad imum gutturem, Naev. ap. Non. 207, 20 (Rib. Com. Rel. p. 30): dictator pervehitur usque ad oppidum, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 16 ed. Vahl.):

    via pejor ad usque Baii moenia,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 96; 1, 1, 97:

    rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa,

    Lucr. 1, 355; 1, 969:

    cum sudor ad imos Manaret talos,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 10:

    ut quantum posset, agmen ad mare extenderet,

    Curt. 3, 9, 10:

    laeva pars ad pectus est nuda,

    id. 6, 5, 27 al. —Hence the Plinian expression, petere aliquid (usque) ad aliquem, to seek something everywhere, even with one:

    ut ad Aethiopas usque peteretur,

    Plin. 36, 6, 9, § 51 (where Jan now reads ab Aethiopia); so,

    vestis ad Seras peti,

    id. 12, 1, 1.— Trop.:

    si quid poscam, usque ad ravim poscam,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 5, 10:

    deverberasse usque ad necem,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 13;

    without usque: hic ad incitas redactus,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 136; 4, 2, 52; id. Poen. 4, 2, 85; illud ad incitas cum redit atque internecionem, Lucil. ap. Non. 123, 20:

    virgis ad necem caedi,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; so Hor. S. 1, 2, 42; Liv. 24, 38, 9; Tac. A. 11, 37; Suet. Ner. 26; id. Dom. 8 al.
    3.
    Nearness or proximity in gen. = apud, near to, by, at, close by (in anteclass. per. very freq.; not rare later, esp. in the historians): pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pedum, trains are suspended at each foot, Enn. ap. Non. 149, 33 (Ann. v. 363 ed. Vahl.):

    ut in servitute hic ad suum maneat patrem,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 98;

    3, 5, 41: sol quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium,

    stands like a creditor continually at the door, id. Most. 3, 2, 81 (cf. with same force, Att. ap. Non. 522, 25;

    apud ipsum astas): ad foris adsistere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 66; id. Arch. 24:

    astiterunt ad januam,

    Vulg. Act. 10, 17:

    non adest ad exercitum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 6; cf. ib. prol. 133:

    aderant ad spectaculum istud,

    Vulg. Luc. 23, 48: has (testas) e fenestris in caput Deiciunt, qui prope ad ostium adspiraverunt, Lucil. ap. Non. 288, 31:

    et nec opinanti Mors ad caput adstitit,

    Lucr. 3, 959:

    quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset,

    at hand, Liv. 9, 19, 6:

    haec arma habere ad manum,

    Quint. 12, 5, 1:

    dominum esse ad villam,

    Cic. Sull. 20; so id. Verr. 2, 21:

    errantem ad flumina,

    Verg. E. 6, 64; Tib. 1, 10, 38; Plin. 7, 2, § 12; Vitr. 7, 14; 7, 12; and ellipt. (cf. supra, 2. g):

    pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret!

    Cic. Phil. 1, 17.—Even of persons:

    qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat (for apud),

    Caes. B. G. 6, 38; so id. ib. 1, 31; 3, 9; 5, 53; 7, 5; id. B. C. 3, 60:

    ad inferos poenas parricidii luent,

    among, Cic. Phil. 14, 13:

    neque segnius ad hostes bellum apparatur,

    Liv. 7, 7, 4: pugna ad Trebiam, ad Trasimenum, ad Cannas, etc., for which Liv. also uses the gen.:

    si Trasimeni quam Trebiae, si Cannarum quam Trasimeni pugna nobilior esset, 23, 43, 4.—Sometimes used to form the name of a place, although written separately, e. g. ad Murcim,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 154:

    villa ad Gallinas, a villa on the Flaminian Way,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 37: ad urbem esse (of generals), to remain outside the city (Rome) until permission was given for a triumph:

    “Esse ad urbem dicebantur, qui cum potestate provinciali aut nuper e provincia revertissent, aut nondum in provinciam profecti essent... solebant autem, qui ob res in provincia gestas triumphum peterent, extra urbem exspectare, donec, lege lata, triumphantes urbem introire possent,”

    Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 8.—So sometimes with names of towns and verbs of rest:

    pons, qui erat ad Genavam,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    ad Tibur mortem patri minatus est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 4, 10:

    conchas ad Caietam legunt,

    id. Or. 2, 6:

    ad forum esse,

    to be at the market, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 136; id. Most. 3, 2, 158; cf. Ter. Ph. 4, 2, 8; id. And. 1, 5, 19.—Hence, adverb., ad dextram (sc. manum, partem), ad laevam, ad sinistram, to the right, to the left, or on the right, on the left:

    ad dextram,

    Att. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 225; Plaut. Poen. 3, 4, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44; Cic. Univ. 13; Caes. B. C. 1, 69:

    ad laevam,

    Enn. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 51; Att. ib. p. 217: ad sinistram, Ter. [p. 28] Ad. 4, 2, 43 al.:

    ad dextram... ad laevam,

    Liv. 40, 6;

    and with an ordinal number: cum plebes ad tertium milliarium consedisset,

    at the third milestone, Cic. Brut. 14, 54, esp. freq. with lapis:

    sepultus ad quintum lapidem,

    Nep. Att. 22, 4; so Liv. 3, 69 al.; Tac. H. 3, 18; 4, 60 (with apud, Ann. 1, 45; 3, 45; 15, 60) al.; cf. Rudd. II. p. 287.
    B.
    In time, analogous to the relations given in A.
    1.
    Direction toward, i. e. approach to a definite point of time, about, toward:

    domum reductus ad vesperum,

    toward evening, Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    cum ad hiemem me ex Cilicia recepissem,

    toward winter, id. Fam. 3, 7.—
    2.
    The limit or boundary to which a space of time extends, with and without usque, till, until, to, even to, up to:

    ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 53:

    philosophia jacuit usque ad hanc aetatem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. de Sen. 14:

    quid si hic manebo potius ad meridiem,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 55; so id. Men. 5, 7, 33; id. Ps. 1, 5, 116; id. As. 2, 1, 5:

    ad multam noctem,

    Cic. de Sen. 14:

    Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fecit,

    id. ib. 2; cf. id. Rep. 1, 1:

    Alexandream se proficisci velle dixit (Aratus) remque integram ad reditum suum jussit esse,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82:

    bestiae ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus,

    id. Lael. 8; so id. de Sen. 6; id. Somn. Sc. 1 al. —And with ab or ab-usque, to desig. the whole period of time passed away:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8:

    usque ab aurora ad hoc diei,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 8.—
    3.
    Coincidence with a point of time, at, on, in, by:

    praesto fuit ad horam destinatam,

    at the appointed hour, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22:

    admonuit ut pecuniam ad diem solverent,

    on the day of payment, id. Att. 16, 16 A:

    nostra ad diem dictam fient,

    id. Fam. 16, 10, 4; cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 5: ad lucem denique arte et graviter dormitare coepisse, at (not toward) daybreak, id. Div. 1, 28, 59; so id. Att. 1, 3, 2; 1, 4, 3; id. Fin. 2, 31, 103; id. Brut. 97, 313:

    ad id tempus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 24; Sall. J. 70, 5; Tac. A. 15, 60; Suet. Aug. 87; Domit. 17, 21 al.
    C.
    The relations of number.
    1.
    An approximation to a sum designated, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. Gr. epi, pros with acc. and the Fr. pres de, a peu pres, presque) = circiter (Hand, Turs. I. p. 102):

    ad quadraginta eam posse emi minas,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 111:

    nummorum Philippum ad tria milia,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 115; sometimes with quasi added:

    quasi ad quadraginta minas,

    as it were about, id. Most. 3, 1, 95; so Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 93:

    sane frequentes fuimus omnino ad ducentos,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1:

    cum annos ad quadraginta natus esset,

    id. Clu. 40, 110:

    ad hominum milia decem,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 4:

    oppida numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos,

    id. ib. 1, 5.—In the histt. and post-Aug. authors ad is added adverbially in this sense (contrary to Gr. usage, by which amphi, peri, and eis with numerals retain their power as prepositions): ad binum milium numero utrinque sauciis factis, Sisenn. ap. Non. 80, 4:

    occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 33:

    ad duorum milium numero ceciderunt,

    id. B. C. 3, 53:

    ad duo milia et trecenti occisi,

    Liv. 10, 17, 8; so id. 27, 12, 16; Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Rudd. II. p. 334.—
    2.
    The terminus, the limit, to, unto, even to, a designated number (rare):

    ranam luridam conicere in aquam usque quo ad tertiam partem decoxeris,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26; cf. App. Herb. 41:

    aedem Junonis ad partem dimidiam detegit,

    even to the half, Liv. 42, 3, 2:

    miles (viaticum) ad assem perdiderat,

    to a farthing, to the last farthing, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 27; Plin. Ep. 1, 15:

    quid ad denarium solveretur,

    Cic. Quint. 4.—The phrase omnes ad unum or ad unum omnes, or simply ad unum, means lit. all to one, i. e. all together, all without exception; Gr. hoi kath hena pantes (therefore the gender of unum is changed according to that of omnes): praetor omnes extra castra, ut stercus, foras ejecit ad unum, Lucil. ap. Non. 394, 22:

    de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt,

    Cic. Lael. 23:

    ad unum omnes cum ipso duce occisi sunt,

    Curt. 4, 1, 22 al.:

    naves Rhodias afflixit ita, ut ad unam omnes constratae eliderentur,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 27; onerariae omnes ad unam a nobis sunt exceptae, Cic. Fam. 12, 14 (cf. in Gr. hoi kath hena; in Hebr., Exod. 14, 28).— Ad unum without omnes:

    ego eam sententiam dixi, cui sunt assensi ad unum,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 16:

    Juppiter omnipotens si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos,

    Verg. A. 5, 687.
    D.
    In the manifold relations of one object to another.
    1.
    That in respect of or in regard to which a thing avails, happens, or is true or important, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in.
    a.
    With verbs:

    ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,

    in respect to all other things we grow wiser by age, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 45:

    numquam ita quisquam bene ad vitam fuat,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 1:

    nil ibi libatum de toto corpore (mortui) cernas ad speciem, nil ad pondus,

    that nothing is lost in form or weight, Lucr. 3, 214; cf. id. 5, 570; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 58; id. Mur. 13, 29: illi regi Cyro subest, ad immutandi animi licentiam, crudelissimus ille Phalaris, in that Cyrus, in regard to the liberty of changing his disposition (i. e. not in reality, but inasmuch as he is at liberty to lay aside his good character, and assume that of a tyrant), there is concealed another cruel Phalaris, Cic. Rep. 1, 28:

    nil est ad nos,

    is nothing to us, concerns us not, Lucr. 3, 830; 3, 845:

    nil ad me attinet,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 54:

    nihil ad rem pertinet,

    Cic. Caecin. 58;

    and in the same sense elliptically: nihil ad Epicurum,

    id. Fin. 1, 2, 5; id. Pis. 68:

    Quid ad praetorem?

    id. Verr. 1, 116 (this usage is not to be confounded with that under 4.).—
    b.
    With adjectives:

    ad has res perspicax,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    virum ad cetera egregium,

    Liv. 37, 7, 15:

    auxiliaribus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 25:

    ejus frater aliquantum ad rem est avidior,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51; cf. id. And. 1, 2, 21; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    ut sit potior, qui prior ad dandum est,

    id. Phorm. 3, 2, 48:

    difficilis (res) ad credendum,

    Lucr. 2, 1027:

    ad rationem sollertiamque praestantior,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 62; so id. Leg. 2, 13, 33; id. Fin. 2, 20, 63; id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; id. Font. 15; id. Cat. 1, 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 25, 113; 1, 32, 146; 2, 49, 200; id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; Liv. 9, 16, 13; Tac. A. 12, 54 al.—
    c.
    With nouns:

    prius quam tuum, ut sese habeat, animum ad nuptias perspexerit,

    before he knew your feeling in regard to the marriage, Ter. And. 2, 3, 4 (cf. Gr. hopôs echei tis pros ti):

    mentis ad omnia caecitas,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11:

    magna vis est fortunae in utramque partem vel ad secundas res vel ad adversas,

    id. Off. 2, 6; so id. Par. 1:

    ad cetera paene gemelli,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 3.—So with acc. of gerund instead of the gen. from the same vb.:

    facultas ad scribendum, instead of scribendi,

    Cic. Font. 6;

    facultas ad agendum,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 1, 2: cf. Rudd. II. p. 245.—
    d.
    In gramm.: nomina ad aliquid dicta, nouns used in relation to something, i. e. which derive their significance from their relation to another object: quae non possunt intellegi sola, ut pater, mater;

    jungunt enim sibi et illa propter quae intelleguntur,

    Charis. 129 P.; cf. Prisc. 580 ib.—
    2.
    With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., both prop. and fig., according to, agreeably to, after (Gr. kata, pros):

    columnas ad perpendiculum exigere,

    Cic. Mur. 77:

    taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 12: facta sunt ad certam formam. Lucr. 2, 379:

    ad amussim non est numerus,

    Varr. 2, 1, 26:

    ad imaginem facere,

    Vulg. Gen. 1, 26:

    ad cursus lunae describit annum,

    Liv. 1, 19:

    omnia ad diem facta sunt,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5:

    Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant,

    id. B. C. 3, 48; Vulg. Gen. 1, 26; id. Jac. 3, 9:

    ad aequos flexus,

    at equal angles, Lucr. 4, 323: quasi ad tornum levantur, to or by the lathe, id. 4, 361:

    turres ad altitudiem valli,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 42; Liv. 39, 6:

    ad eandem crassitudinem structi,

    id. 44, 11:

    ad speciem cancellorum scenicorum,

    with the appearance of, like, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 8:

    stagnum maris instar, circumseptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem,

    Suet. Ner. 31:

    lascivum pecus ludens ad cantum,

    Liv. Andron. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 1:

    canere ad tibiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 2: canere ad tibicinem, id. ib. 1, 2 (cf.:

    in numerum ludere,

    Verg. E. 6, 28; id. G. 4, 175):

    quod ad Aristophanis lucernam lucubravi,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 9 Mull.: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (v. unguis), Hor. A. P. 294:

    ad unguem factus homo,

    a perfect gentleman, id. S. 1, 5, 32 (cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 86):

    ad istorum normam sapientes,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 18; id. Mur. 3:

    Cyrus non ad historiae fidem scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    exercemur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: so,

    ad simulacrum,

    Liv. 40, 6:

    ad Punica ingenia,

    id. 21, 22:

    ad L. Crassi eloquentiam,

    Cic. Var. Fragm. 8:

    omnia fient ad verum,

    Juv. 6, 324:

    quid aut ad naturam aut contra sit,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 9, 30:

    ad hunc modum institutus est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 31; 3, 13:

    ad eundem istunc modum,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 70:

    quem ad modum, q. v.: ad istam faciem est morbus, qui me macerat,

    of that kind, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 73; id. Merc. 2, 3, 90; cf.

    91: cujus ad arbitrium copia materiai cogitur,

    Lucr. 2, 281:

    ad eorum arbitrium et nutum totos se fingunt,

    to their will and pleasure, Cic. Or. 8, 24; id. Quint. 71:

    ad P. Lentuli auctoritatem Roma contendit,

    id. Rab. Post. 21:

    aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 51:

    rebus ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26:

    rem ad illorum libidinem judicarunt,

    id. Font. 36:

    ad vulgi opinionem,

    id. Off. 3, 21.—So in later Lat. with instar:

    ad instar castrorum,

    Just. 36, 3, 2:

    scoparum,

    App. M. 9, p. 232:

    speculi,

    id. ib. 2, p. 118: ad hoc instar mundi, id. de Mundo, p. 72.—Sometimes, but very rarely, ad is used absol. in this sense (so also very rarely kata with acc., Xen. Hell. 2, 3; Luc. Dial. Deor. 8): convertier ad nos, as we (are turned), Lucr. 4, 317:

    ad navis feratur,

    like ships, id. 4, 897 Munro. —With noun:

    ad specus angustiac vallium,

    like caves, Caes. B. C. 3, 49.—Hence,
    3.
    With an object which is the cause or reason, in conformity to which, from which, or for which, any thing is or is done.
    a.
    The moving cause, according to, at, on, in consequence of:

    cetera pars animae paret et ad numen mentis momenque movetur,

    Lucr. 3, 144:

    ad horum preces in Boeotiam duxit,

    on their entreaty, Liv. 42, 67, 12: ad ea Caesar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit, in consequence of or upon this, he, etc., Tac. Ann. 12, 37.—
    b.
    The final cause, or the object, end, or aim, for the attainment of which any thing,
    (α).
    is done,
    (β).
    is designed, or,
    (γ).
    is fitted or adapted (very freq.), to, for, in order to.
    (α).
    Seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. p. 175 P. (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 80):

    venimus coctum ad nuptias,

    in order to cook for the wedding, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 15:

    omnis ad perniciem instructa domus,

    id. Bacch. 3, 1, 6; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 41; Liv. 1, 54:

    cum fingis falsas causas ad discordiam,

    in order to produce dissension, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71:

    quantam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 72:

    utrum ille, qui postulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos socios diripiendasque provincias, quos voluerunt, legatos eduxerint,

    Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 57:

    ego vitam quoad putabo tua interesse, aut ad spem servandam esse, retinebo,

    for hope, id. Q. Fr. 1, 4; id. Fam. 5, 17:

    haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant,

    Sall. C. 13, 4:

    ad speciem atque ad usurpationem vetustatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 12, 31; Suet. Caes. 67:

    paucis ad speciem tabernaculis relictis,

    for appearance, Caes. B. C. 2, 35; so id. ib. 2, 41; id. B. G. 1, 51.—
    (β).
    Aut equos alere aut canes ad venandum. Ter. And. 1, 1, 30:

    ingenio egregie ad miseriam natus sum,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 11;

    (in the same sense: in rem,

    Hor. C. 1, 27, 1, and the dat., Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 6):

    ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 40:

    ad frena leones,

    Verg. A. 10, 253:

    delecto ad naves milite,

    marines, Liv. 22, 19 Weissenb.:

    servos ad remum,

    rowers, id. 34, 6; and:

    servos ad militiam emendos,

    id. 22, 61, 2:

    comparasti ad lecticam homines,

    Cat. 10, 16:

    Lygdamus ad cyathos,

    Prop. 4, 8, 37; cf.:

    puer ad cyathum statuetur,

    Hor. C. 1, 29, 8.—
    (γ).
    Quae oportet Signa esse [p. 29] ad salutem, omnia huic osse video, everything indicative of prosperity I see in him, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2:

    haec sunt ad virtutem omnia,

    id. Heaut. 1, 2, 33:

    causa ad objurgandum,

    id. And. 1, 1, 123:

    argumentum ad scribendum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 7 (in both examples instead of the gen. of gerund., cf. Rudd. II. p. 245):

    vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,

    Cato R. R. 125:

    nulla res tantum ad dicendum proficit, quantum scriptio,

    Cic. Brut. 24:

    reliquis rebus, quae sunt ad incendia,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101 al. —So with the adjectives idoneus, utilis, aptus, instead of the dat.:

    homines ad hanc rem idoneos,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 6:

    calcei habiles et apti ad pedem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231:

    orator aptus tamen ad dicendum,

    id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5:

    sus est ad vescendum hominibus apta,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 160:

    homo ad nullam rem utilis,

    id. Off. 3, 6:

    ad segetes ingeniosus ager,

    Ov. F. 4, 684.—(Upon the connection of ad with the gerund. v. Zumpt, § 666; Rudd. II. p. 261.)—
    4.
    Comparison (since that with which a thing is compared is considered as an object to which the thing compared is brought near for the sake of comparison), to, compared to or with, in comparison with:

    ad sapientiam hujus ille (Thales) nimius nugator fuit,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 25; id. Trin. 3, 2, 100:

    ne comparandus hic quidem ad illum'st,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14; 2, 3, 69:

    terra ad universi caeli complexum,

    compared with the whole extent of the heavens, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40:

    homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido,

    Liv. 22, 22, 15:

    at nihil ad nostram hanc,

    nothing in comparison with, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 70; so Cic. Deiot. 8, 24; and id. de Or. 2, 6, 25.
    E.
    Adverbial phrases with ad.
    1.
    Ad omnia, withal, to crown all:

    ingentem vim peditum equitumque venire: ex India elephantos: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 32, 4.—
    2.
    Ad hoc and ad haec (in the historians, esp. from the time of Livy, and in authors after the Aug. per.), = praeterea, insuper, moreover, besides, in addition, epi toutois:

    nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, etc.: praeterea omnes undique parricidae, etc.: ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat: postremo omnes, quos, etc.,

    Sall. C. 14, 2 and 3:

    his opinionibus inflato animo, ad hoc vitio quoque ingenii vehemens,

    Liv. 6, 11, 6; 42, 1, 1; Tac. H. 1, 6; Suet. Aug. 22 al.—
    3.
    Ad id quod, beside that (very rare):

    ad id quod sua sponte satis conlectum animorum erat, indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur,

    Liv. 3, 62, 1; so 44, 37, 12.—
    4.
    Ad tempus.
    a.
    At a definite, fixed time, Cic. Att. 13, 45; Liv. 38, 25, 3.—
    b.
    At a fit, appropriate time, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 141; Liv. 1, 7, 13.—
    c.
    For some time, for a short time, Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; id. Lael. 15, 53; Liv. 21, 25, 14.—
    d.
    According to circumstances, Cic. Planc. 30, 74; id. Cael. 6, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9.—
    5.
    Ad praesens (for the most part only in post-Aug. writers).
    a.
    For the moment, for a short time, Cic. Fam. 12, 8; Plin. 8, 22, 34; Tac. A. 4, 21.—
    b.
    At present, now, Tac. A. 16, 5; id. H. 1, 44.—So, ad praesentiam, Tac. A. 11, 8.—
    6.
    Ad locum, on the spot:

    ut ad locum miles esset paratus,

    Liv. 27, 27, 2.—
    7.
    Ad verbum, word for word, literally, Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; id. de Or. 1, 34, 157; id. Ac. 2, 44, 135 al.—
    8.
    Ad summam.
    a.
    On the whole, generally, in general, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3; id. Att. 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71.—
    b.
    In a word, in short, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106. —
    9.
    Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum.
    a.
    At the end, finally, at last.
    (α).
    Of place, at the extremity, extreme point, top, etc.:

    missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, unde ferrum exstabat,

    Liv. 21, 8, 10.—
    (β).
    Of time = telos de, at last, finally:

    ibi ad postremum cedit miles,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 52; so id. Poen. 4, 2, 22; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 7, 53; Liv. 30, 15, 4 al.— Hence,
    (γ).
    of order, finally, lastly, = denique: inventa componere; tum ornare oratione; post memoria sepire;

    ad extremum agere cum dignitate,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142.—
    b.
    In Liv., to the last degree, quite: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, 23, 2, 3; cf.:

    consilii scelerati, sed non ad ultimum dementis,

    id. 28, 28, 8.—
    10.
    Quem ad finem? To what limit? How far? Cic. Cat. 1, 1; id. Verr. 5, 75.—
    11.
    Quem ad modum, v. sub h. v.
    a.
    Ad (v. ab, ex, in, etc.) is not repeated like some other prepositions with interrog. and relative pronouns, after nouns or demonstrative pronouns:

    traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. Quas? corporis credo,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37 (ubi v. Kuhner).—
    b.
    Ad is sometimes placed after its substantive:

    quam ad,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 39:

    senatus, quos ad soleret, referendum censuit,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4:

    ripam ad Araxis,

    Tac. Ann. 12, 51;

    or between subst. and adj.: augendam ad invidiam,

    id. ib. 12, 8.—
    c.
    The compound adque for et ad (like exque, eque, and, poet., aque) is denied by Moser, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, p. 248, and he reads instead of ad humanitatem adque mansuetudinem of the MSS., hum. atque mans. But adque, in acc. with later usage, is restored by Hand in App. M. 10, p. 247, adque haec omnia oboediebam for atque; and in Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 9, utroque vorsum rectum'st ingenium meum, ad se adque illum, is now read, ad te atque ad illum (Fleck., Brix).
    II.
    In composition.
    A.
    Form. According to the usual orthography, the d of the ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before b, d, h, m, v: adbibo, adduco, adhibeo, admoveo, advenio; it is assimilated to c, f, g, l, n, p, r, s, t: accipio, affigo, aggero, allabor, annumero, appello, arripio, assumo, attineo; before g and s it sometimes disappears: agnosco, aspicio, asto: and before qu it passes into c: acquiro, acquiesco.—But later philologists, supported by old inscriptions and good MSS., have mostly adopted the following forms: ad before j, h, b, d, f, m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes, but less well, before q; ag and also ad before g; a before gn, sp, sc, st; ad and also al before l; ad rather than an before n; ap and sometimes ad before p; ad and also ar before r; ad and also as before s; at and sometimes ad before t. In this work the old orthography has commonly been retained for the sake of convenient reference, but the better form in any case is indicated.—
    B.
    Signif. In English up often denotes approach, and in many instances will give the force of ad as a prefix both in its local and in its figurative sense.
    1.
    Local.
    a.
    To, toward: affero, accurro, accipio ( to one's self).—
    b.
    At, by: astare, adesse.—
    c.
    On, upon, against: accumbo, attero.—
    d.
    Up (cf. de- = down, as in deicio, decido): attollo, ascendo, adsurgo.—
    2.
    Fig.
    a.
    To: adjudico, adsentior.—
    b.
    At or on: admiror, adludo.—
    c.
    Denoting conformity to, or comparison with: affiguro, adaequo.—
    d.
    Denoting addition, increase (cf. ab, de, and ex as prefixes to denote privation): addoceo, adposco.—
    e.
    Hence, denoting intensity: adamo, adimpleo, aduro, and perhaps agnosco.—
    f.
    Denoting the coming to an act or state, and hence commencement: addubito, addormio, adquiesco, adlubesco, advesperascit. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 74-134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ad

  • 25 adeo

    1.
    ăd-ĕo, ĭī, and rarely īvi, ĭtum (arch. adirier for adiri, Enn. Rib. Trag. p. 59), 4, v. n. and a. (acc. to Paul. ex Fest. should be accented a/deo; v. Fest. s. v. adeo, p. 19 Müll.; cf. the foll. word), to go to or approach a person or thing (syn.: accedo, aggredior, advenio, appeto).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., constr.
    (α).
    With ad (very freq.): sed tibi cautim est adeundum ad virum, Att. ap. Non. 512, 10:

    neque eum ad me adire neque me magni pendere visu'st,

    Plaut. Cur. 2, 2, 12:

    adeamne ad eam?

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; id. Eun. 3, 5, 30: aut ad consules aut ad te aut ad Brutum adissent, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 208, 5:

    ad M. Bibulum adierunt, id. Fragm. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: ad aedis nostras nusquam adiit,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 24:

    adibam ad istum fundum,

    Cic. Caec. 29 —
    (β).
    With in: priusquam Romam atque in horum conventum adiretis, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11, § 26 ed. Halm.—Esp.: adire in jus, to go to law:

    cum ad praetorem in jus adissemus,

    Cic. Verr. 4, § 147; id. Att. 11, 24; Caes. B. C. 1, 87, and in the Plebiscit. de Thermens. lin. 42: QVO DE EA RE IN IOVS ADITVM ERIT, cf. Dirks., Versuche S. p. 193.—
    (γ).
    Absol.:

    adeunt, consistunt, copulantur dexteras,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 38:

    eccum video: adibo,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 5.—
    (δ).
    With acc.:

    ne Stygeos adeam non libera manes,

    Ov. M. 13, 465:

    voces aetherias adiere domos,

    Sil. 6, 253:

    castrorum vias,

    Tac. A. 2, 13:

    municipia,

    id. ib. 39:

    provinciam,

    Suet. Aug. 47:

    non poterant adire eum,

    Vulg. Luc. 8, 19:

    Graios sales carmine patrio,

    to attain to, Verg. Cat. 11, 62; so with latter supine:

    planioribus aditu locis,

    places easier to approach, Liv. 1, 33.—With local adv.:

    quoquam,

    Sall. J. 14:

    huc,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 60.—
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To approach one for the purpose of addressing, asking aid, consulting, and the like, to address, apply to, consult (diff. from aggredior, q. v.). —Constr. with ad or oftener with acc.; hence also pass.:

    quanto satius est, adire blandis verbis atque exquaerere, sintne illa, etc.,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 35:

    aliquot me adierunt,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 2:

    adii te heri de filia,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 9: cum pacem peto, cum placo, cum adeo, et cum appello meam, Lucil. ap. Non. 237, 28:

    ad me adire quosdam memini, qui dicerent,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10:

    coram adire et alloqui,

    Tac. H. 4, 65.— Pass.:

    aditus consul idem illud responsum retulit,

    when applied to, Liv. 37, 6 fin.:

    neque praetores adiri possent,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5.—Hence: adire aliquem per epistulam, to address one in writing, by a letter:

    per epistulam, aut per nuntium, quasi regem, adiri eum aiunt,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 9 and 10; cf. Tac. A. 4, 39; id. H. 1, 9.—So also: adire deos, aras, deorum sedes, etc., to approach the gods, their altars, etc., as a suppliant (cf.:

    acced. ad aras,

    Lucr. 5, 1199): quoi me ostendam? quod templum adeam? Att. ap. Non. 281, 6:

    ut essent simulacra, quae venerantes deos ipsos se adire crederent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 27:

    adii Dominum et deprecatus sum,

    Vulg. Sap. 8, 21:

    aras,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 1:

    sedes deorum,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39:

    libros Sibyllinos,

    to consult the Sibylline Books, Liv. 34, 55; cf. Tac. A. 1, 76:

    oracula,

    Verg. A. 7, 82.—
    2.
    To go to a thing in order to examine it, to visit:

    oppida castellaque munita,

    Sall. J. 94:

    hiberna,

    Tac. H. 1, 52.—
    3.
    To come up to one in a hostile manner, to assail, attack:

    aliquem: nunc prior adito tu, ego in insidiis hic ero,

    Ter. Ph. 1, 4, 52:

    nec quisquam ex agmine tanto audet adire virum,

    Verg. A. 5, 379:

    Servilius obvia adire arma jubetur,

    Sil. 9, 272.
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    To go to the performance of any act, to enter upon, to undertake, set about, undergo, submit to (cf.: accedo, aggredior, and adorior).—With ad or the acc. (class.):

    nunc eam rem vult, scio, mecum adire ad pactionem,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 25:

    tum primum nos ad causas et privatas et publicas adire coepimus,

    Cic. Brut. 90:

    adii causas oratorum, id. Fragm. Scaur. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: adire ad rem publicam,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 24, 70:

    ad extremum periculum,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7.—With acc.:

    periculum capitis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38:

    laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis,

    id. Off. 1, 19:

    in adeundis periculis,

    id. ib. 24; cf.:

    adeundae inimicitiae, subeundae saepe pro re publica tempestates,

    id. Sest. 66, 139: ut vitae periculum aditurus videretur, Auct. B. G. 8, 48: maximos labores et summa pericula. Nep. Timol. 5:

    omnem fortunam,

    Liv. 25, 10:

    dedecus,

    Tac. A. 1, 39:

    servitutem voluntariam,

    id. G. 24:

    invidiam,

    id. A. 4, 70:

    gaudia,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39.—Hence of an inheritance, t. t., to enter on:

    cum ipse hereditatem patris non adisses,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 16; so id. Arch. 5; Suet. Aug. 8 and Dig.;

    hence also: adire nomen,

    to assume the name bequeathed by will, Vell. 2, 60.—
    B.
    Adire manum alicui, prov., to deceive one, to make sport of (the origin of this phrase is unc.; Acidalius conjectures that it arose from some artifice practised in wrestling, Wagner ad Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 8):

    eo pacto avarae Veneri pulcre adii manum,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 11; so id. Aul. 2, 8, 8; id. Cas. 5, 2, 54; id. Pers. 5, 2, 18.
    2.
    ăd-ĕō̆, adv. [cf. quoad and adhuc] (acc. to Festus, it should be accented adéo, v. the preced. word; but this distinction is merely a later invention of the grammarians; [p. 33] cf. Gell. 7, 7).
    I.
    In the ante-class. per.,
    A.
    To designate the limit of space or time, with reference to the distance passed through; hence often accompanied by usque (cf. ad), to this, thus far, so far, as far.
    1.
    Of space:

    surculum artito usque adeo, quo praeacueris,

    fit in the scion as far as you have sharpened it, Cato, R. R. 40, 3.— Hence: res adeo rediit, the affair has gone so far (viz., in deterioration, “cum aliquid pejus exspectatione contigit,” Don. ad Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 5):

    postremo adeo res rediit: adulescentulus saepe eadem et graviter audiendo victus est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 61; cf. id. Ph. 1, 2, 5.—
    2.
    Of time, so long ( as), so long ( till), strengthened by usque, and with dum, donec, following, and in Cic. with quoad:

    merces vectatum undique adeo dum, quae tum haberet, peperisset bona,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 76; 3, 4, 72; id. Am. 1, 2, 10 al.:

    nusquam destitit instare, suadere, orare, usque adeo donec perpulit,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 36; Cato, R. R. 67; id. ib. 76:

    atque hoc scitis omnes usque adeo hominem in periculo fuisse, quoad scitum sit Sestium vivere,

    Cic. Sest. 38, 82.—
    B.
    For the purpose of equalizing two things in comparison, followed by ut: in the same degree or measure or proportion... in which; or so very, so much, so, to such a degree... as (only in comic poets), Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 38:

    adeon hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum?

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 10.—Also followed by quasi, when the comparison relates to similarity:

    gaudere adeo coepit, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias,

    in the same manner as those rejoice who desire marriage, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 12.—
    C.
    (Only in the comic poets) = ad haec, praeterea, moreover, besides, too: ibi tibi adeo lectus dabitur, ubi tu haud somnum capias ( beside the other annoyances), a bed, too, shall be given you there, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 80.—Hence also with etiam:

    adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio,

    besides too, id. Most. 3, 1, 101.—
    D.
    (Only in the comic poets.) Adeo ut, for this purpose that, to the end that:

    id ego continuo huic dabo, adeo me ut hic emittat manu,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 32:

    id adeo te oratum advenio, ut, etc.,

    id. Aul. 4, 10, 9:

    adeo ut tu meam sententiam jam jam poscere possis, faciam, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 26 (where Wagner now reads at ut):

    atque adeo ut scire possis, factum ego tecum hoc divido,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 15. (These passages are so interpreted by Hand, I. p. 138; others regard adeo here = quin immo.)—
    E.
    In narration, in order to put one person in strong contrast with another. It may be denoted by a stronger emphasis upon the word to be made conspicuous, or by yet, on the contrary, etc.:

    jam ille illuc ad erum cum advenerit, narrabit, etc.: ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 4 sq.; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 8 al.
    II.
    To the Latin of every period belongs the use of this word,
    A.
    To give emphasis to an idea in comparison, so, so much, so very, with verbs, adjectives, and substantives:

    adeo ut spectare postea omnīs oderit,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 65:

    neminem quidem adeo infatuare potuit, ut ei nummum ullum crederet,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 32, 3 Weiss.:

    et voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil supra,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 92:

    nemo adeo ferus est, ut, etc.,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 39.—With usque:

    adeo ego illum cogam usque, ut mendicet meus pater,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 10:

    usque adeo turbatur,

    even so much, so continually, Verg. E. 1, 12; Curt. 10, 1, 42; Luc. 1, 366.—In questions:

    adeone me fuisse fungum, ut qui illi crederem?

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49:

    adeone hospes hujus urbis, adeone ignarus es disciplinae consuetudinisque nostrae, ut haec nescias?

    Cic. Rab. 10, 28; so id. Phil. 2, 7, 15; id. Fam. 9, 10; Liv. 2, 7, 10; 5, 6, 4.—With a negative in both clauses, also with quin in the last:

    non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona exempla prodiderit,

    Tac. H. 1, 3; so Suet. Oth. 9:

    verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui, quin, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 13.—

    Sometimes the concluding clause is to be supplied from the first: quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem?... non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, viz.,

    that we know not the Trojans and their history, Verg. A. 1, 565:

    adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars?

    Juv. 6, 59.—Hence (post-Cic.): adeo non ut... adeo nihil ut... so little that, so far from that... (in reference to which, it should be noticed that in Latin the negative is blended with the verb in one idea, which is qualified by adeo) = tantum abest ut: haec dicta adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint, these words left them all so unmoved that, etc., or had so little effect, etc., Liv. 3, 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret, who restrained his anger so little that, etc. (for, qui non—tenuit iram adeo, ut), id. 8, 7, 5; so 5, 45, 4; Vell. 2, 66, 4: Curt. 3, 12, 22.—Also with contra in the concluding clause:

    apud hostes Afri et Carthaginienses adeo non sustinebant, ut contra etiam pedem referrent,

    Liv. 30, 34, 5. —
    B.
    Adeo is placed enclitically after its word, like quidem, certe, and the Gr. ge, even, indeed, just, precisely. So,
    1.
    Most freq. with pronouns, in order to render prominent something before said, or foll., or otherwise known (cf. in Gr. egôge, suge, autos ge, etc., Viger. ed. Herm. 489, vi. and Zeun.): argentariis male credi qui aiunt, nugas praedicant: nam et bene et male credi dico; id adeo hodie ego expertus sum, just this (touto ge), Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 1; so id. Aul. 2, 4, 10; 4, 2, 15; id. Am. 1, 1, 98; 1, 2, 6; id. Ep. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 31; 5, 2, 40; id. Poen. 1, 2, 57: plerique homines, quos, cum nihil refert, pudet;

    ubi pudendum'st ibi eos deserit pudor, is adeo tu es,

    you are just such a one, id. Ep. 2, 1, 2:

    cui tu obsecutus, facis huic adeo injuriam,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 68: tute adeo jam ejus verba audies, you yourself shall hear what he has to say (suge akousêi), Ter. And. 3, 3, 27: Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse jucundius: hanc adeo habebo gratiam illi, i. e. hanc, quae maxima est, gratiam (tautên ge tên charin), Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16:

    haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt,

    even this, Verg. A. 11, 275.—It is often to be translated by the intensive and, and just, etc. (so esp. in Cic. and the histt.): id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that (touto ge skopeite), Cic. Caec. 30, 87:

    id adeo ex ipso senatus consulto cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, 143; cf. id. Clu. 30, 80:

    ad hoc quicumque aliarum atque senatus partium erant, conturbari remp., quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat,

    And just this evil, Sall. C. 37, 11; so 37, 2; id. J. 68, 3; Liv. 2, 29, 9; 4, 2, 2: id adeo manifestum erit, si cognoverimus, etc., and this, precisely this, will be evident, if, etc., Quint. 2, 16, 18 Spald.—It is rarely used with ille:

    ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 6.—Sometimes with the rel. pron.: quas adeo haud quisquam liber umquam tetigit, Plaut: Poen. 1, 2, 57; Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37. —With interrog. pron.:

    Quis adeo tam Latinae linguae ignarus est, quin, etc.,

    Gell. 7, 17.—Adeo is joined with the pers. pron. when the discourse passes from one person to another, and attention is to be particularly directed to the latter: Juppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes inspicis, and thou especially, and chiefly thou, Enn. ap. Prob.:

    teque adeo decus hoc aevi inibit,

    Verg. E. 4, 11; id. G. 1, 24: teque, Neptune, invoco, vosque adeo venti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73;

    and without the copulative: vos adeo... item ego vos virgis circumvinciam,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 25.— Ego adeo often stands for ego quidem, equidem (egôge):

    tum libertatem Chrysalo largibere: ego adeo numquam accipiam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 30; so id. Mil. 4, 4, 55; id. Truc. 4, 3, 73:

    ego adeo hanc primus inveni viam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 16:

    nec me adeo fallit,

    Verg. A. 4, 96.—Ipse adeo (autos ge), for the sake of emphasis:

    atque hercle ipsum adeo contuor,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 24:

    ipsum adeo praesto video cum Davo,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 4:

    ipse adeo senis ductor Rhoeteus ibat pulsibus,

    Sil. 14, 487.—
    2.
    With the conditional conjj. si, nisi, etc. (Gr. ei ge), if indeed, if truly:

    nihili est autem suum qui officium facere immemor est, nisi adeo monitus,

    unless, indeed, he is reminded of it, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 2: Si. Num illi molestae quippiam hae sunt nuptiae? Da. Nihil Hercle: aut si adeo, bidui est aut tridui haec sollicitudo, and if, indeed, etc. (not if also, for also is implied in aut), Ter. And. 2, 6, 7.—
    3.
    With adverbs: nunc adeo (nun ge), Plaut. As. 3, 1, 29; id. Mil. 2, 2, 4; id. Merc. 2, 2, 57; id. Men. 1, 2, 11; id. Ps. 1, 2, 52; id. Rud. 3, 4, 23; Ter. And. 4, 5, 26; Verg. A. 9, 156: jam adeo (dê ge), id. ib. 5, 268; Sil. 1, 20; 12, 534; Val. Fl. 3, 70. umquam adeo, Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 23:

    inde adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1:

    hinc adeo,

    Verg. E. 9, 59: sic adeo (houtôs ge), id. A. 4, 533; Sil. 12, 646:

    vix adeo,

    Verg. A. 6, 498:

    non adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 57; Verg. A. 11, 436. —
    4.
    With adjectives = vel, indeed, even, very, fully:

    quot adeo cenae, quas deflevi, mortuae!

    how very many suppers, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 59: quotque adeo fuerint, qui temnere superbum... Lucil. ap. Non. 180, 2: nullumne malorum finem adeo poenaeque dabis (adeo separated from nullum by poet. license)? wilt thou make no end at all to calamity and punishment? Val. Fl. 4, 63:

    trīs adeo incertos caeca caligine soles erramus,

    three whole days we wander about, Verg. A. 3, 203; 7, 629.—And with comp. or the adv. magis, multo, etc.:

    quae futura et quae facta, eloquar: multo adeo melius quam illi, cum sim Juppiter,

    very much better, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 3; so id. Truc. 2, 1, 5:

    magis adeo id facilitate quam aliā ullā culpā meā, contigit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15.—
    5.
    With the conjj. sive, aut, vel, in order to annex a more important thought, or to make a correction, or indeed, or rather, or even only:

    sive qui ipsi ambīssent, seu per internuntium, sive adeo aediles perfidiose quoi duint,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 71:

    si hercle scivissem, sive adeo joculo dixisset mihi, se illam amare,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 33; so id. Truc. 4, 3, 1; id. Men. 5, 2, 74; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 9: nam si te tegeret pudor, sive adeo cor sapientia imbutum foret, Pacuv. ap. Non. 521, 10:

    mihi adeunda est ratio, quā ad Apronii quaestum, sive adeo, quā ad istius ingentem immanemque praedam possim pervenire,

    or rather, Cic. Verr 2, 3, 46, 110; Verg. A. 11, 369; so, atque adeo:

    ego princeps in adjutoribus atque adeo secundus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 9.—
    6.
    With the imperative, for emphasis, like tandem, modo, dum, the Germ. so, and the Gr. ge (cf. L. and S.), now, I pray:

    propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab janua,

    Ter. And. 4, 4, 20 (cf. xullabete g auton, Soph. Phil. 1003).—
    C.
    Like admodum or nimis, to give emphasis to an idea (for the most part only in comic poets, and never except with the positive of the adj.; cf. Consent. 2023 P.), indeed, truly, so very, so entirely:

    nam me ejus spero fratrem propemodum jam repperisse adulescentem adeo nobilem,

    so very noble, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123:

    nec sum adeo informis,

    nor am I so very ugly, Verg. E. 2, 25:

    nam Caii Luciique casu non adeo fractus,

    Suet. Aug. 65:

    et merito adeo,

    and with perfect right, Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 42:

    etiam num credis te ignorarier aut tua facta adeo,

    do you, then, think that they are ignorant of you or your conduct entirely? id. Ph. 5, 8, 38.—
    D.
    To denote what exceeds expectation, even: quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse optimam dijudicat, quamque adeo cives Thebani rumificant probam, and whom even the Thebans (who are always ready to speak evil of others) declare to be an honest woman, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 44.— Hence also it denotes something added to the rest of the sentence, besides, too, over and above, usually in the connection: -que adeo (rare, and never in prose; cf.

    adhuc, I.): quin te Di omnes perdant qui me hodie oculis vidisti tuis, meque adeo scelestum,

    and me too, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 122; cf. id. 4, 2, 32:

    haec adeo tibi me, ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia jussit,

    Verg. A. 7, 427.
    III.
    After Caesar and Cicero (the only instance of this use adduced from Cicero's works, Off. 1, 11, 36, being found in a passage rejected by the best critics, as B. and K.).
    A.
    For adding an important and satisfactory reason to an assertion, and then it always stands at the beginning of the clause, indeed, for:

    cum Hanno perorāsset, nemini omnium cum eo certare necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat: the idea is,

    Hanno's speech, though so powerful, was ineffectual, and did not need a reply; for all the senators belonged to the party of Hannibal, Liv. 21, 11, 1; so id. 2, 27, 3; 2, 28, 2; 8, 37, 2; Tac. Ann. 1, 50, 81; Juv. 3, 274; 14, 233.—Also for introducing a parenthesis: sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita [p. 34] ingenia esse) ni subinde auro... principum animi concilientur, Liv. 21, 20, 8; so id. 9, 26, 17; 3, 4, 2; Tac. A. 2, 28.—
    B.
    When to a specific fact a general consideration is added as a reason for it, so, thus (in Livy very often):

    haud dubius, facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore: adeo non fortuna modo, sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat,

    thus not only fortune, but sagacity, was on the side of the barbarians, Liv. 5, 38, 4:

    adeo ex parvis saepe magnarum momenta rerum pendent,

    id. 27, 9, 1; so id. 4, 31, 5; 21, 33, 6; 28, 19; Quint. 1, 12, 7; Curt. 10, 2, 11; Tac. Agr. 1:

    adeo in teneris consuescere multum est,

    Verg. G. 2, 272.—
    C.
    In advancing from one thought to another more important = immo, rather, indeed, nay: nulla umquam res publica ubi tantus paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit: adeo, quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, Liv. praef. 11; so Gell. 11, 7; Symm. Ep. 1, 30, 37.—
    D.
    With a negative after ne—quidem or quoque, so much the more or less, much less than, still less (post-Aug.):

    hujus totius temporis fortunam ne deflere quidem satis quisquam digne potuit: adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest,

    still less can one describe: it by words, Vell. 2, 67, 1:

    ne tecta quidem urbis, adeo publicum consilium numquam adiit,

    still less, Tac. A. 6, 15; so id. H. 3, 64; Curt. 7, 5, 35:

    favore militum anxius et superbia viri aequalium quoque, adeo superiorum intolerantis,

    who could not endure his equals even, much less his superiors, Tac. H. 4, 80.—So in gen., after any negative: quaelibet enim ex iis artibus in paucos libros contrahi solet: adeo infinito spatio ac traditione opus non est, so much the less is there need, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 16; Plin. 17, 12, 35, § 179; Tac. H. 3, 39.—(The assumption of a causal signif. of adeo = ideo, propterea, rests upon false readings. For in Cael. Cic. Fam. 8, 15 we should read ideo, B. and K., and in Liv. 24, 32, 6, ad ea, Weiss.).—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 135-155.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adeo

  • 26 adoro

    ăd-ōro, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a.
    I.
    In the earliest per., to speak to or accost one, to address; hence, also, to treat of or negotiate a matter with one:

    adorare veteribus est alloqui,

    Serv. ad Verg. A. 10, 677:

    immo cum gemitu populum sic adorat,

    App. Met. 2, p. 127; 3, p. 130: adorare apud antiquos significabat agere: unde et legati oratores dicuntur, quia mandata populi agunt, Paul. ex Fest. p. 19 Müll.; cf. oro and orator.— Hence, also, in judicial lang., to bring an accusation, to accuse; so in the Fragm. of the XII. Tab. lex viii.: SEI (Si) ADORAT FVRTO QVOD NEC MANIFESTVM ERIT, Fest. S. V. NEC, p. 162 Müll.—
    II.
    In the class. per., to speak to one in order to obtain something of him; to ask or entreat one, esp. a deity, to pray earnestly, to beseech, supplicate, implore; constr. with acc., ut, or the simple subj.:

    quos adorent, ad quos precentur et supplicent,

    Liv. 38, 43:

    affaturque deos et sanctum sidus adorat,

    Verg. A. 2, 700:

    in rupes, in saxa (volens vos Turnus adoro) Ferte ratem,

    id. ib. 10, 677:

    Junonis prece numen,

    id. ib. 3, 437:

    prece superos,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 41:

    non te per meritum adoro,

    id. H. 10, 141.—With the thing asked for in the acc. (like rogo, peto, postulo):

    cum hostiā caesā pacem deūm adorāsset,

    Liv. 6, 12 Drak.—With ut:

    adoravi deos, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 40; Juv. 3, 300:

    adorati di, ut bene ac feliciter eveniret,

    Liv. 21, 17:

    Hanc ego, non ut me defendere temptet, adoro,

    Ov. P. 2, 2, 55.—With the subj. without ut, poet.:

    maneat sic semper adoro,

    I pray, Prop. 1, 4, 27.—
    III.
    Hence,
    A.
    Dropping the idea of asking, entreating, to reverence, honor, adore, worship the gods or objects of nature regarded as gods; more emphatic than venerari, and denoting the highest degree of reverence (Gr. proskunein); the habitus adorantium was to put the right hand to the mouth and turn about the entire body to the right (dextratio, q. v.); cf. Plin. 28, 2, 5, § 25; Liv. 5, 21; App. M. 4, 28. —Constr. with acc., dat., with prepp. or absol.
    (α).
    With acc.:

    Auctoremque viae Phoebum taciturnus adorat,

    Ov. M. 3, 18:

    Janus adorandus,

    id. F. 3, 881:

    in delubra non nisi adoraturus intras,

    Plin. Pan. 52:

    large deos adorare,

    Plin. 12, 14, 32, § 62:

    nil praeter nubes et caeli numen adorat,

    Juv. 14, 97:

    adorare crocodilon,

    id. 15, 2.—

    In eccl. Lat. of the worship of the true God: adoravit Israel Deum,

    Vulg. Gen. 47, 31:

    Dominum Deum tuum adorabis,

    ib. Matt. 4, 10:

    Deum adora,

    ib. Apoc. 22, 9;

    so of Christ: videntes eum adoraverunt,

    ib. Matt. 28, 17;

    adorent eum omnes angeli Dei,

    ib. Heb. 1, 6.—
    (β).
    With dat. (eccl.): adorato ( imperat.) Domino Deo tuo, Vulg. Deut. 26, 10:

    nec adorabis deo alieno,

    id. Ital. Ps. 80, 10 Mai (deum alienum, Vulg.):

    qui adorant sculptibus,

    ib. ib. 96, 7 Mai (sculptilia, Vulg.).—
    (γ).
    With prepp. (eccl.):

    si adoraveris coram me,

    Vulg. Luc. 4, 7:

    adorabunt in conspectu tuo,

    ib. Apoc. 15, 4:

    adorent ante pedes tuos,

    ib. ib. 3, 9; 22, 8.—
    (δ).
    Absol. (eccl.):

    Patres nostri in hoc monte adoraverunt,

    Vulg. Joan. 4, 20 bis.; ib. Act. 24, 11.—And,
    B.
    The notion of religious regard being dropped, to reverence, admire, esteem highly:

    adorare priscorum in inveniendo curam,

    Plin. 27, 1, 1, § 1:

    Ennium sicut sacros vetustate lucos adoremus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 88:

    veteris qui tollunt grandia templi pocula adorandae rubiginis,

    Juv. 13, 148:

    nec tu divinam Aeneida tenta, Sed longe sequere et vestigia semper adora,

    Stat. Th. 12, 816.—
    C.
    Under the emperors the Oriental custom being introduced of worshipping the Cæsars with divine ceremony, to worship, to reverence:

    C. Caesarem adorari ut deum constituit, cum reversus ex Syria, non aliter adire ausus esset quam capite velato circumvertensque se, deinde procumbens,

    Suet. Vit. 2; App. M. 4, 28; Min. Fel. 2, 5:

    non salutari, sed adorari se jubet (Alexander),

    Just. 12, 7:

    adorare Caesarum imagines,

    Suet. Calig. 14: coronam a judicibus ad se delatam adoravit, did obeisance before, id. Ner. 12:

    adorare purpuram principis,

    i. e. touched his purple robe and brought it to the mouth in reverence, Amm. 21, 9.—Of adulation to the rabble, to pay court to:

    nec deerat Otho protendens manus, adorare volgum,

    Tac. H. 1, 36.
    This word does not occur in Cic.
    ; for in Arch. 11, 28, where adoravi was given by Mai in Fragm. p. 124, Halm reads adhortatus sum, and B. and K. adornavi.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adoro

  • 27 adsequor

    as-sĕquor ( ads-, Fleck., B. and K., Halm), sĕcūtus (or sĕquutus; v. sequor), 3, v. dep., to follow one in order to come up to him, to pursue.
    I.
    A.. In gen. (only ante-class. in the two foll. exs.): ne sequere, adsequere, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Müll.:

    Adsequere, retine,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 89.—Far more freq.,
    B.
    Esp., to reach one by pursuing him:

    sequendo pervenire ad aliquem: nec quicquam sequi, quod adsequi non queas,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—Hence, to overtake, come up with a person or thing (with the idea of active exertion; while consequi designates merely a coming up with, a meeting with a desired object, the attainment of a wish; cf. Doed. Syn. III. p. 147 sq. According to gen. usage, adsequor is found only in prose;

    but consequor is freq. found in the poets): si es Romae jam me adsequi non potes, sin es in viā, cum eris me adsecutus, coram agemus,

    Cic. Att. 3, 5; [p. 178] poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 39, 94:

    Pisonem nuntius adsequitur,

    Tac. A. 2, 75.—In the histt. also absol.:

    ut si viā rectā vestigia sequentes īssent, haud dubie adsecuturi fuerint,

    Liv. 28, 16:

    in Bruttios raptim, ne Gracchus adsequeretur, concessit,

    id. 24, 20:

    nondum adsecutā parte suorum,

    arrived, id. 33, 8; Tac. H. 3, 60.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To gain, obtain, procure:

    eosdem honorum gradus adsecuti,

    Cic. Planc. 25, 60:

    immortalitatem,

    id. ib. 37, 90:

    omnes magistratus sine repulsā,

    id. Pis. 1, 2; so Sall. J. 4, 4:

    regnum,

    Curt. 4, 6 al.:

    nihil quicquam egregium,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 30, 134; id. Verr. 2, 1, 57:

    quā in re nihil aliud adsequeris, nisi ut, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 34, 96:

    adsecutas virtute, ne, etc.,

    Just. 2, 4.—
    B.
    To attain to one in any quality, i. e. to come up to, to equal, match; more freq. in regard to the quality itself, to attain to:

    Sisenna Clitarchum velle imitari videtur: quem si adsequi posset, aliquantum ab optimo tamen abesset,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 2 fin.:

    benevolentiam tuam erga me imitabor, merita non adsequar,

    id. Fam. 6, 4 fin.; so id. ib. 1, 4 fin.:

    qui illorum prudentiam, non dicam adsequi, sed quanta fuerit perspicere possint,

    id. Har. Resp. 9, 18:

    ingenium alicujus aliquā ex parte,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 8, 5: ut longitudo aut plenitudo harum multitudinem alterius adsequatur et exaequet, Auct. ad Her. 4, 20.—
    III.
    Transf. to mental objects, to attain to by an effort of the under standing, to comprehend, understand:

    ut essent, qui cogitationem adsequi possent et voluntatem interpretari,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 47, 139:

    quibus (ratione et intellegentiā) utimur ad eam rem, ut apertis obscura adsequamur,

    id. N. D. 3, 15, 38:

    ut scribas ad me, quid ipse conjecturā adsequare,

    id. Att. 7, 13 A fin.:

    Quis tot ludibria fortunae... aut animo adsequi queat aut oratione complecti?

    Curt. 4, 16, 10; Sex. Caecil. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 5:

    quid istuc sit, videor ferme adsequi,

    Gell. 3, 1, 3:

    visum est et mihi adsecuto omnia a principio diligenter ex ordine tibi scribere,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 3:

    adsecutus es meam doctrinam,

    ib. 2 Tim. 3, 10; ib. 1 Tim. 4, 6.
    Pass. acc. to Prisc. p. 791 P., but without an example; in Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 73 fin., instead of the earlier reading, it is better to read, ut haec diligentia nihil eorum investigare, nihil adsequi potuerit; cf. Zumpt ad h. l., and Gronov. Observ. 1, 12, 107; so also B. and K.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adsequor

  • 28 adversa

    ad-verto (archaic advor-), ti, sum, 3, v. a., to turn a thing to or toward a place (in this signif., without animus; mostly poet.; syn.: observare, animadvertere, videre, cognoscere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., with in or dat.:

    illa sese huc advorterat in hanc nostram plateam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    in quamcunque domus lumina partem,

    Ov. M. 6, 180; cf. id. ib. 8, 482:

    malis numen,

    Verg. A. 4, 611:

    huc aures, huc, quaeso, advertite sensus,

    Sil. 16, 213; cf. id. 6, 105.—
    B.
    Esp., a naut. t. t., to turn, direct, steer a ship to a place:

    classem in portum,

    Liv. 37, 9 Drak.:

    terrae proras,

    Verg. A. 7, 35; id. G. 4, 117 al.:

    Colchos puppim,

    Ov. H. 12, 23.— Absol.:

    profugi advertere coloni,

    landed, Sil. 1, 288;

    hence also transf. to other things: aequore cursum,

    Verg. A. 7, 196:

    pedem ripae,

    id. ib. 6, 386:

    urbi agmen,

    id. ib. 12, 555: adverti with acc. poet. for verti ad:

    Scythicas advertitur oras,

    Ov. M. 5, 649 (cf. adducor litora remis, id. ib. 3, 598, and Rudd. II. p. 327).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Animum (in the poets and Livy also animos, rarely mentem) advertere; absol., or with adv. or ad aliquid, or alicui rei, to direct the mind, thoughts, or attention to a thing, to advert to, give attention to, attend to, to heed, observe, remark:

    si voles advortere animum, Enn. ap. Var. L. L. 7, § 89 Müll. (Trag. v. 386 Vahl.): facete advortis animum tuum ad animum meum,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 39:

    nunc huc animum advortite ambo,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 169:

    advertunt animos ad religionem,

    Lucr. 3, 54:

    monitis animos advertite nostris,

    Ov. M. 15, 140:

    animum etiam levissimis rebus adverterent,

    Tac. A. 13, 49.—With ne, when the object of attention is expressed:

    ut animum advertant, ne quos offendant,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68:

    adverterent animos, ne quid novi tumultūs oriretur,

    Liv. 4, 45.—
    B.
    Animum advertere, to observe a thing by directing the mind to it, to observe, to notice, to remark, to perceive (in the class. period contracted to animadvertere, q. v.).—Constr. with two accusatives, animum advertere aliquid (where aliquid may be regarded as depending on the prep. in comp., Roby, § 1118, or on animum advertere, considered as one idea, to observe), with acc. and inf., or rel. clause (the first mode of construction, most frequent with the pronouns id, hoc, illud, etc., is for the most part ante-class., and appears in Caes., Cic., and Sall. as an archaism):

    et hoc animum advorte,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 43:

    hanc edictionem,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 10:

    haec animum te advertere par est,

    Lucr. 2, 125:

    animum adverti columellam e dumis eminentem,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 65; id. Inv. 2, 51, 153:

    Postquam id animum advertit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 24; 4, 12:

    quidam Ligus animum advortit inter saxa repentīs cocleas,

    Sall. J. 93, 2. In Vitruv. once with hinc:

    ut etiam possumus hinc animum advertere,

    as we can hence perceive, Vitr. 10, 22, 262.—With the acc. and inf.:

    postquam tantopere id vos velle animum advorteram,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 16:

    animum advertit magnas esse copiashostium instructas,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18: cum animum adverteret locum relictum esse, Auct. B. Alex. 31; ib. 46.—With the rel. clause: nunc quam rem vitio dent, quaeso, animum advortite, Ter. And. prol. 8: quid ille sperare possit, animum adverte, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9:

    quam multarum rerum ipse ignarus esset... animum advertit,

    Liv. 24, 48. Sometimes advertere alone = animum advertere; so once in Cicero's letters: nam advertebatur Pompeii familiares assentiri Volcatio, Fam. 1, 1 (although here, as well as almost everywhere, the readings fluctuate between advertere and animadvertere; cf. Orell. ad h. l.; animadvertebatur, B. and K.). So Verg. in the imp.:

    qua ratione quod instat, Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo,

    attend! Verg. A. 4, 115.—In the histt., esp. Tac. and Pliny, more frequently:

    donec advertit Tiberius,

    Tac. A. 4, 54:

    Zenobiam advertere pastores,

    id. ib. 12, 51:

    advertere quosdam cultu externo in sedibus senatorum,

    id. ib. 13, 54:

    quotiens novum aliquid adverterat,

    id. ib. 15, 30 al.:

    hirudo quam sanguisugam appellari adverto,

    Plin. 8, 10, 10, § 29:

    ut multos adverto credidisse,

    id. 2, 67, 67, § 168. Still more rarely, advertere animo:

    animis advertite vestris,

    Verg. A. 2, 712:

    hanc scientiam ad nostros pervenisse animo adverto,

    Plin. 25, 2, 3, § 5; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 4, 27, 8.—
    C.
    To draw or turn something, esp. the attention of another, to or upon one's self (in the histt.):

    gemitus ac planctus militum aures oraque advertere,

    Tac. A. 1, 41:

    octo aquilae imperatorem advertere,

    id. ib. 2, 17: recentia veteraque odia advertit, drew them on himself, id. ib. 4, 21 al.—
    D.
    To call the attention of one to a definite act, i. e. to admonish of it, to urge to it (cf. II. A.):

    non docet admonitio, sed advertit,

    i. e. directs attention, Sen. Ep. 94:

    advertit ea res Vespasiani animum, ut, etc.,

    Tac. H. 3, 48.—
    E.
    Advertere in aliquem, for the more usual animadvertere in aliquem, to attend to one, i. e. to punish one (only in Tac.):

    in P. Marcium consules more prisco advertere,

    Tac. A. 2, 32:

    ut in reliquos Sejani liberos adverteretur,

    id. ib. 5, 9 (cf. id. Germ. 7, 3: animadvertere).—Hence,
    1.
    adversus (archaic advor-), a, um, P. a., turned to or toward a thing, with the face or front toward, standing over against, opposite, before, in front of (opp. aversus).
    A.
    In gen.:

    solem adversum intueri,

    Cic. Somn. Scip. 5:

    Iris... Mille trahens varios adverso sole colores,

    Verg. A. 4, 701; id. G. 1, 218:

    antipodes adversis vestigiis stant contra nostra vestigia,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39: dentes adversi acuti ( the sharp front teeth) morsu dividunt escas, Cic. N. D. 2, 54:

    quod is collis, tantum adversus in latitudinem patebat, quantum etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8 Herz. So, hostes adversi, who make front against one advancing or retreating, id. ib. 2, 24:

    L. Cotta legatus in adversum os fundā vulneratur,

    in front, Caes. B. G. 5, 35; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 1; Liv. 21, 7 fin. al.; hence, vulnus adversum, a wound in front (on the contr., vulnus aversum, a wound in the back), Cic. Har. Resp. 19:

    adversis vulneribus,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 35, 4:

    judicibus cicatrices adversas ostendere,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28:

    cicatrices populus Romanus aspiceret adverso corpore exceptas,

    id. Verr. 5, 3:

    impetus hostium adversos, Auct. B. Alex. 8: Romani advorso colle evadunt,

    ascend the hill in front, Sall. J. 52:

    adversa signa,

    Liv. 30, 8:

    legiones quas Visellius et C. Silius adversis itineribus objecerant,

    i. e. marches in which they went to meet the enemy, Tac. A. 3, 42: sed adverso fulgure ( by a flash of lightning falling directly before him) pavefactus est Nero, Suet. Ner. 48:

    armenta egit Hannibal in adversos montes,

    Quint. 2, 17, 19; cf. Lucr. 3, 1013; so Hor. S. 1, 1, 103; 2, 3, 205:

    qui timet his adversa,

    the opposite of this, id. Ep. 1, 6, 9 al. —Hence, of rivers: flumine adverso, up the stream, against the stream:

    in adversum flumen contendere,

    Lucr. 4, 423:

    adverso feruntur flumine,

    id. 6, 720; so Verg. G. 1, 201:

    adverso amne,

    Plin. 18, 6, 7, § 33;

    adverso Tiberi subvehi,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 22, 3 (opp. to secundā aquā, down stream, with the stream:

    rate in secundam aquam labente,

    Liv. 21, 47, 3); and of winds, opposed to a vessel's course, head winds, contrary winds, consequently unfavorable, adverse:

    navigationes adversis ventis praecluduntur, Auct. B. Alex. 8: adversissimi navigantibus venti,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 107.— Subst.: adversum, i, the opposite: hic ventus a septentrionibus oriens adversum tenet Athenis proficiscentibus, [p. 50] holds the opposite to those sailing from Athens, i. e. blows against them, Nep. Milt. 1 (so Nipperdey; but v. Hand, Turs. I. p. 183). — Adv.: ex adverso, also written exadverso and exadversum, opposite to, over against, ek tou enantiou:

    portus ex adverso urbi positus,

    Liv. 45, 10.—With gen.:

    Patrae ex adverso Aetoliae et fluminis Eveni,

    Plin. 4, 4, 5, § 11.—Without case:

    cum ex adverso starent classes,

    Just. 2, 14; so Suet. Caes. 39; Tib. 33.—In adversum, to the opposite side, against:

    et duo in adversum immissi per moenia currus,

    against each other, Prop. 3, 9, 23; so Gell. 2, 30; cf. Verg. A. 8, 237;

    in adversum Romani subiere,

    Liv. 1, 12; 7, 23.—
    B.
    In hostile opposition to, adverse to, unfavorable, unpropitious (opp. secundus; frequent and class.): conqueri fortunam adversam, Pac. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 50:

    hic dies pervorsus atque advorsus mihi obtigit,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 1:

    advorsus nemini,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 37:

    mentes improborum mihi infensae et adversae,

    Cic. Sull. 10:

    acclamatio,

    id. de Or. 2, 83: adversā avi aliquid facere, vet. poët. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 16:

    adversis auspiciis,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 64, 6:

    adversum omen,

    Suet. Vit. 8:

    adversissima auspicia,

    id. Oth. 8: adversae res, misfortune, calamity, adverse fortune:

    ut adversas res, sic secundas immoderate ferre levitatis est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26; cf.:

    adversi casus,

    Nep. Dat. 5:

    adversae rerum undae,

    a sea of troubles, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 22: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 9 (the sup. is found also in Cæs. B. C. 3, 107):

    quae magistratus ille dicet, secundis auribus, quae ab nostrum quo dicentur, adversis accipietis?

    Liv. 6, 40:

    adversus annus frugibus,

    id. 4, 12:

    valetudo adversa,

    i. e. sickness, id. 10, 32:

    adversum proelium,

    an unsuccessful engagement, id. 7, 29; cf.

    8, 31: adverso rumore esse,

    to be in bad repute, to have a bad reputation, Tac. Ann. 14, 11:

    adversa subsellia,

    on which the opposition sit, Quint. 6, 1, 39.—Sometimes met. of feeling, contrary to, hated, hateful, odious:

    quīs omnia regna advorsa sint,

    Sall. J. 83; cf. Luc. 2, 229 Bentl.— Comp.:

    neque est aliud adversius,

    Plin. 32, 4, 14, § 35.—
    * Adv.: adver-sē, self-contradictorily, Gell. 3, 16.— ad-versum, i, subst., esp. in the plur. adversa, misfortune, calamity, disaster, adversity, evil, mischief:

    advorsa ejus per te tecta sient,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 28:

    nihil adversi,

    Cic. Brut. 1, 4:

    si quid adversi accidisset,

    Nep. Alc. 8; cf. Liv. 22, 40; 35, 13:

    secunda felices, adversa magnos probant,

    Plin. Pan. 31;

    esp. freq. in Tac.: prospera et adversa pop. Rom., Ann. 1, 1: adversa tempestatum et fluctuum,

    id. Agr. 25; so id. A. 3, 24; 45; 2, 69; 4, 13 al.— Subst.: adversus, i, m., an opponent, adversary (rare):

    multosque mortalīs ea causa advorsos habeo,

    Sall. C. 52, 7.—In Quint. also once ad-versa, ae, f., subst., a female opponent or adversary: natura noverca fuerit, si facultatem dicendi sociam scelerum, adversam innocentiae, invenit, 12, 1, 2.—
    C.
    In rhet., opposed to another of the same genus, e. g. sapientia and stultitia: “Haec quae ex eodem genere contraria sunt, appellantur adversa,” Cic. Top. 11.
    3.
    adversus or adversum (archaic advor-) (like rursus and rursum, prorsus and prorsum, quorsus and quorsum), adv. and prep., denoting direction to or toward an object (syn.: contra, in with acc., ad, erga).
    A.
    Adv.: opposite to, against, to, or toward a thing, in a friendly or hostile sense:

    ibo advorsum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 29:

    facito, ut venias advorsum mihi,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 82:

    obsecro te, matri ne quid tuae advorsus fuas, Liv. And. ap. Non. s. v. fuam, 111, 12 (Trag. Rel. p. 3 Rib.): quis hic est, qui advorsus it mihi?

    Plaut. Men. 3, 2, 22:

    adversus resistere,

    Nep. Pelop. 1, 3:

    nemo adversus ibat,

    Liv. 37, 13, 8 al. In Plaut. and Ter. advorsum ire, or venire, to go to meet; also of a slave, to go to meet his master and bring him from a place (hence adversitor, q. v.):

    solus nunc eo advorsum hero ex plurimis servis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 23:

    ei advorsum venimus,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 32; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 2 Ruhnk.—
    B.
    Prep. with acc., toward or against, in a friendly or a hostile sense.
    1.
    In a friendly sense.
    (α).
    Of place, turned to or toward, opposite to, before, facing, over against: qui cotidie unguentatus adversum speculum ornetur, before the mirror, Scipio ap. Gell. 7, 12:

    adversus advocatos,

    Liv. 45, 7, 5:

    medicus debet residere illustri loco adversus aegrum,

    opposite to the patient, Cels. 3, 6:

    adversus Scyllam vergens in Italiam,

    Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 87:

    Lerina, adversum Antipolim,

    id. 3, 5, 11, § 79.—
    (β).
    In the presence of any one, before:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar, mater mea?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9: idque gratum fuisse advorsum te habeo gratiam, I am thankful that this is acceptable before ( to) thee, Ter. And. 1, 1, 15: paululum adversus praesentem fortitudinem mollitus, somewhat softened at such firmness (of his wife), Tac. A. 15, 63.—Hence very often with verbs of speaking, answering, complaining, etc., to declare or express one's self to any one, to excuse one's self or apologize, and the like: te oportet hoc proloqui advorsum illam mihi, Enn. ap. Non. 232, 24 (Trag. v. 385 Vahl.):

    immo si audias, quae dicta dixit me advorsum tibi,

    what he told me of you, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 47: de vita ac morte domini fabulavere advorsum fratrem illius, Afran. ap. Non. 232, 25:

    mulier, credo, advorsum illum res suas conqueritur,

    Titin. ib. 232, 21:

    utendum est excusatione etiam adversus eos, quos invitus offendas,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68; Tac. A. 3, 71.— With that to which a reply is made, to (= ad):

    adversus ea consul... respondit,

    Liv. 4, 10, 12; 22, 40, 1; cf. Drak. ad 3, 57, 1.—
    (γ).
    In comparison, as if one thing were held toward, set against, or before another (v. ad, I. D. 4.); against, in comparison with, compared to:

    repente lectus adversus veterem imperatorem comparabitur,

    will be compared with, Liv. 24, 8, 8:

    quid autem esse duo prospera bella Samnitium adversus tot decora populi Rom.,

    id. 7, 32, 8.—
    (δ).
    Of demeanor toward one, to, toward:

    quonam modo me gererem adversus Caesarem,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 11:

    te adversus me omnia audere gratum est,

    i. e. on my account, on my behalf, for my advantage, id. ib. 9, 22, 15:

    lentae adversum imperia aures,

    Tac. A. 1, 65.—Esp. often of friendly feeling, love, esteem, respect toward or for one (cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 9, 22; Heusing. ad Cic. Off. 1, 11, 1;

    Hab. Syn. 49): est enim pietas justitia adversus deos,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 41, 116; id. Off. 3, 6, 28:

    adhibenda est igitur quaedam reverentia adversus homines,

    id. ib. 1, 28, 99 Beier:

    sunt quaedam officia adversus eos servanda, a quibus injuriam acceperis,

    id. ib. 1, 11, 33:

    adversus merita ingratissimus,

    Vell. 2, 69, 5:

    summa adversus alios aequitas erat,

    Liv. 3, 33, 8:

    ob egregiam fidem adversus Romanos,

    id. 29, 8, 2; so id. 45, 8, 4 al.:

    beneficentiā adversus supplices utendum,

    Tac. A. 11, 17.— More rarely
    (ε).
    of the general relation of an object or act to a person or thing (v. ad, I. D. 1.), in relation, in respect, or in regard to a thing:

    epistula, ut adversus magistrum morum, modestior,

    as addressed to a censor of manners, Cic. Fam. 3, 13, 8:

    quasi adversus eos acquieverit sententiae,

    in regard to the same, Dig. 49, 1; 3, 1.—
    2.
    In a hostile sense, against (the most usual class. signif. of this word): “Contra et adversus ita differunt, quod contra, ad locum, ut: contra basilicam; adversus, ad animi motum, ut: adversus illum facio; interdum autem promiscue accipitur,” Charis. p. 207 P.; cf. Cort. ad Sall. J. 101, 8:

    advorsum legem accepisti a plurimis pecuniam,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 48:

    advorsum te fabulare illud,

    against thy interest, to thy disadvantage, id. Stich. 4, 2, 11:

    stultus est advorsus aetatem et capitis canitudinem, id. ap. Fest. s. v. canitudinem, p. 47: advorsum animi tui libidinem,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 19:

    adversum leges, adversum rem publicam,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 195:

    respondebat, SI PARET, ADVERSUM EDICTUM FECISSE,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 28, §

    69: me adversus populum Romanum possem defendere,

    id. Phil. 1, 13 al. —In the histt., of a hostile attack, approach, etc.:

    gladiis districtis impetum adversus montem in cohortes faciunt,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 46:

    adversus se non esse missos exercitus,

    Liv. 3, 66:

    bellum adversum Xerxem moret,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 3:

    copiis quibus usi adversus Romanum bellum,

    Liv. 8, 2, 5:

    adversus vim atque injuriam pugnantes,

    id. 26, 25, 10 al.:

    T. Quintius adversus Gallos missus est,

    Eutr. 2, 2: Athenienses adversus tantam tempestatem belli duos duces deligunt, Just. 3, 6, 12 al.—Among physicians, of preventives against sickness, against (v. ad, I. A. 2.):

    adversus profusionem in his auxilium est,

    Cels. 5, 26; 6, 27 al.:

    frigidus jam artus et cluso corpore adversum vim veneni,

    Tac. A. 15, 64.— Trop.:

    egregium adversus tempestates receptaculum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 4; so id. ib. 2, 15, 36.—Hence: firmus, invictus, fortis adversus aliquid (like contra), protected against a thing, firm, fixed, secure:

    advorsum divitias animum invictum gerebat,

    Sall. J. 43, 5:

    invictus adversum gratiam animus,

    Tac. A. 15, 21:

    adversus convicia malosque rumores firmus ac patiens,

    Suet. Tib. 28:

    Adversus omnes fortis feras canis,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 1; and in opp. sense: infirmus, inferior adversus aliquid, powerless against, unequal to:

    fama, infirmissimum adversus vivos fortes telum,

    Curt. 4, 14:

    infirmus adversum pecuniam,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 6:

    inferior adversus laborem,

    id. Epit. 40, 20.
    a.
    Adversus is rarely put after the word which it governs:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9:

    hunc adversus,

    Nep. Con. 2, 2; id. Tim. 4, 3:

    quos advorsum ierat,

    Sall. J. 101, 8.—
    b.
    It sometimes suffers tmesis:

    Labienum ad Oceanum versus proficisci jubet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 33:

    animadvortit fugam ad se vorsum fieri,

    Sall. J. 58:

    animum advortere ad se vorsum exercitum pergere,

    id. ib. 69: ad Cordubam versus iter facere coepit, Auct. B. Hisp. 10 and 11; cf. in-versus:

    in Galliam vorsus castra movere,

    Sall. C. 56; Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12; Traj. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 78; the Eng. to-ward: to us ward, Psa. 40, 5; and the Gr. eis-de: eis halade, Hom. Od. 10, 351.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adversa

  • 29 adverto

    ad-verto (archaic advor-), ti, sum, 3, v. a., to turn a thing to or toward a place (in this signif., without animus; mostly poet.; syn.: observare, animadvertere, videre, cognoscere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., with in or dat.:

    illa sese huc advorterat in hanc nostram plateam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    in quamcunque domus lumina partem,

    Ov. M. 6, 180; cf. id. ib. 8, 482:

    malis numen,

    Verg. A. 4, 611:

    huc aures, huc, quaeso, advertite sensus,

    Sil. 16, 213; cf. id. 6, 105.—
    B.
    Esp., a naut. t. t., to turn, direct, steer a ship to a place:

    classem in portum,

    Liv. 37, 9 Drak.:

    terrae proras,

    Verg. A. 7, 35; id. G. 4, 117 al.:

    Colchos puppim,

    Ov. H. 12, 23.— Absol.:

    profugi advertere coloni,

    landed, Sil. 1, 288;

    hence also transf. to other things: aequore cursum,

    Verg. A. 7, 196:

    pedem ripae,

    id. ib. 6, 386:

    urbi agmen,

    id. ib. 12, 555: adverti with acc. poet. for verti ad:

    Scythicas advertitur oras,

    Ov. M. 5, 649 (cf. adducor litora remis, id. ib. 3, 598, and Rudd. II. p. 327).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Animum (in the poets and Livy also animos, rarely mentem) advertere; absol., or with adv. or ad aliquid, or alicui rei, to direct the mind, thoughts, or attention to a thing, to advert to, give attention to, attend to, to heed, observe, remark:

    si voles advortere animum, Enn. ap. Var. L. L. 7, § 89 Müll. (Trag. v. 386 Vahl.): facete advortis animum tuum ad animum meum,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 39:

    nunc huc animum advortite ambo,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 169:

    advertunt animos ad religionem,

    Lucr. 3, 54:

    monitis animos advertite nostris,

    Ov. M. 15, 140:

    animum etiam levissimis rebus adverterent,

    Tac. A. 13, 49.—With ne, when the object of attention is expressed:

    ut animum advertant, ne quos offendant,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68:

    adverterent animos, ne quid novi tumultūs oriretur,

    Liv. 4, 45.—
    B.
    Animum advertere, to observe a thing by directing the mind to it, to observe, to notice, to remark, to perceive (in the class. period contracted to animadvertere, q. v.).—Constr. with two accusatives, animum advertere aliquid (where aliquid may be regarded as depending on the prep. in comp., Roby, § 1118, or on animum advertere, considered as one idea, to observe), with acc. and inf., or rel. clause (the first mode of construction, most frequent with the pronouns id, hoc, illud, etc., is for the most part ante-class., and appears in Caes., Cic., and Sall. as an archaism):

    et hoc animum advorte,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 43:

    hanc edictionem,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 10:

    haec animum te advertere par est,

    Lucr. 2, 125:

    animum adverti columellam e dumis eminentem,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 65; id. Inv. 2, 51, 153:

    Postquam id animum advertit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 24; 4, 12:

    quidam Ligus animum advortit inter saxa repentīs cocleas,

    Sall. J. 93, 2. In Vitruv. once with hinc:

    ut etiam possumus hinc animum advertere,

    as we can hence perceive, Vitr. 10, 22, 262.—With the acc. and inf.:

    postquam tantopere id vos velle animum advorteram,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 16:

    animum advertit magnas esse copiashostium instructas,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18: cum animum adverteret locum relictum esse, Auct. B. Alex. 31; ib. 46.—With the rel. clause: nunc quam rem vitio dent, quaeso, animum advortite, Ter. And. prol. 8: quid ille sperare possit, animum adverte, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9:

    quam multarum rerum ipse ignarus esset... animum advertit,

    Liv. 24, 48. Sometimes advertere alone = animum advertere; so once in Cicero's letters: nam advertebatur Pompeii familiares assentiri Volcatio, Fam. 1, 1 (although here, as well as almost everywhere, the readings fluctuate between advertere and animadvertere; cf. Orell. ad h. l.; animadvertebatur, B. and K.). So Verg. in the imp.:

    qua ratione quod instat, Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo,

    attend! Verg. A. 4, 115.—In the histt., esp. Tac. and Pliny, more frequently:

    donec advertit Tiberius,

    Tac. A. 4, 54:

    Zenobiam advertere pastores,

    id. ib. 12, 51:

    advertere quosdam cultu externo in sedibus senatorum,

    id. ib. 13, 54:

    quotiens novum aliquid adverterat,

    id. ib. 15, 30 al.:

    hirudo quam sanguisugam appellari adverto,

    Plin. 8, 10, 10, § 29:

    ut multos adverto credidisse,

    id. 2, 67, 67, § 168. Still more rarely, advertere animo:

    animis advertite vestris,

    Verg. A. 2, 712:

    hanc scientiam ad nostros pervenisse animo adverto,

    Plin. 25, 2, 3, § 5; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 4, 27, 8.—
    C.
    To draw or turn something, esp. the attention of another, to or upon one's self (in the histt.):

    gemitus ac planctus militum aures oraque advertere,

    Tac. A. 1, 41:

    octo aquilae imperatorem advertere,

    id. ib. 2, 17: recentia veteraque odia advertit, drew them on himself, id. ib. 4, 21 al.—
    D.
    To call the attention of one to a definite act, i. e. to admonish of it, to urge to it (cf. II. A.):

    non docet admonitio, sed advertit,

    i. e. directs attention, Sen. Ep. 94:

    advertit ea res Vespasiani animum, ut, etc.,

    Tac. H. 3, 48.—
    E.
    Advertere in aliquem, for the more usual animadvertere in aliquem, to attend to one, i. e. to punish one (only in Tac.):

    in P. Marcium consules more prisco advertere,

    Tac. A. 2, 32:

    ut in reliquos Sejani liberos adverteretur,

    id. ib. 5, 9 (cf. id. Germ. 7, 3: animadvertere).—Hence,
    1.
    adversus (archaic advor-), a, um, P. a., turned to or toward a thing, with the face or front toward, standing over against, opposite, before, in front of (opp. aversus).
    A.
    In gen.:

    solem adversum intueri,

    Cic. Somn. Scip. 5:

    Iris... Mille trahens varios adverso sole colores,

    Verg. A. 4, 701; id. G. 1, 218:

    antipodes adversis vestigiis stant contra nostra vestigia,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39: dentes adversi acuti ( the sharp front teeth) morsu dividunt escas, Cic. N. D. 2, 54:

    quod is collis, tantum adversus in latitudinem patebat, quantum etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8 Herz. So, hostes adversi, who make front against one advancing or retreating, id. ib. 2, 24:

    L. Cotta legatus in adversum os fundā vulneratur,

    in front, Caes. B. G. 5, 35; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 1; Liv. 21, 7 fin. al.; hence, vulnus adversum, a wound in front (on the contr., vulnus aversum, a wound in the back), Cic. Har. Resp. 19:

    adversis vulneribus,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 35, 4:

    judicibus cicatrices adversas ostendere,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28:

    cicatrices populus Romanus aspiceret adverso corpore exceptas,

    id. Verr. 5, 3:

    impetus hostium adversos, Auct. B. Alex. 8: Romani advorso colle evadunt,

    ascend the hill in front, Sall. J. 52:

    adversa signa,

    Liv. 30, 8:

    legiones quas Visellius et C. Silius adversis itineribus objecerant,

    i. e. marches in which they went to meet the enemy, Tac. A. 3, 42: sed adverso fulgure ( by a flash of lightning falling directly before him) pavefactus est Nero, Suet. Ner. 48:

    armenta egit Hannibal in adversos montes,

    Quint. 2, 17, 19; cf. Lucr. 3, 1013; so Hor. S. 1, 1, 103; 2, 3, 205:

    qui timet his adversa,

    the opposite of this, id. Ep. 1, 6, 9 al. —Hence, of rivers: flumine adverso, up the stream, against the stream:

    in adversum flumen contendere,

    Lucr. 4, 423:

    adverso feruntur flumine,

    id. 6, 720; so Verg. G. 1, 201:

    adverso amne,

    Plin. 18, 6, 7, § 33;

    adverso Tiberi subvehi,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 22, 3 (opp. to secundā aquā, down stream, with the stream:

    rate in secundam aquam labente,

    Liv. 21, 47, 3); and of winds, opposed to a vessel's course, head winds, contrary winds, consequently unfavorable, adverse:

    navigationes adversis ventis praecluduntur, Auct. B. Alex. 8: adversissimi navigantibus venti,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 107.— Subst.: adversum, i, the opposite: hic ventus a septentrionibus oriens adversum tenet Athenis proficiscentibus, [p. 50] holds the opposite to those sailing from Athens, i. e. blows against them, Nep. Milt. 1 (so Nipperdey; but v. Hand, Turs. I. p. 183). — Adv.: ex adverso, also written exadverso and exadversum, opposite to, over against, ek tou enantiou:

    portus ex adverso urbi positus,

    Liv. 45, 10.—With gen.:

    Patrae ex adverso Aetoliae et fluminis Eveni,

    Plin. 4, 4, 5, § 11.—Without case:

    cum ex adverso starent classes,

    Just. 2, 14; so Suet. Caes. 39; Tib. 33.—In adversum, to the opposite side, against:

    et duo in adversum immissi per moenia currus,

    against each other, Prop. 3, 9, 23; so Gell. 2, 30; cf. Verg. A. 8, 237;

    in adversum Romani subiere,

    Liv. 1, 12; 7, 23.—
    B.
    In hostile opposition to, adverse to, unfavorable, unpropitious (opp. secundus; frequent and class.): conqueri fortunam adversam, Pac. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 50:

    hic dies pervorsus atque advorsus mihi obtigit,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 1:

    advorsus nemini,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 37:

    mentes improborum mihi infensae et adversae,

    Cic. Sull. 10:

    acclamatio,

    id. de Or. 2, 83: adversā avi aliquid facere, vet. poët. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 16:

    adversis auspiciis,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 64, 6:

    adversum omen,

    Suet. Vit. 8:

    adversissima auspicia,

    id. Oth. 8: adversae res, misfortune, calamity, adverse fortune:

    ut adversas res, sic secundas immoderate ferre levitatis est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26; cf.:

    adversi casus,

    Nep. Dat. 5:

    adversae rerum undae,

    a sea of troubles, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 22: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 9 (the sup. is found also in Cæs. B. C. 3, 107):

    quae magistratus ille dicet, secundis auribus, quae ab nostrum quo dicentur, adversis accipietis?

    Liv. 6, 40:

    adversus annus frugibus,

    id. 4, 12:

    valetudo adversa,

    i. e. sickness, id. 10, 32:

    adversum proelium,

    an unsuccessful engagement, id. 7, 29; cf.

    8, 31: adverso rumore esse,

    to be in bad repute, to have a bad reputation, Tac. Ann. 14, 11:

    adversa subsellia,

    on which the opposition sit, Quint. 6, 1, 39.—Sometimes met. of feeling, contrary to, hated, hateful, odious:

    quīs omnia regna advorsa sint,

    Sall. J. 83; cf. Luc. 2, 229 Bentl.— Comp.:

    neque est aliud adversius,

    Plin. 32, 4, 14, § 35.—
    * Adv.: adver-sē, self-contradictorily, Gell. 3, 16.— ad-versum, i, subst., esp. in the plur. adversa, misfortune, calamity, disaster, adversity, evil, mischief:

    advorsa ejus per te tecta sient,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 28:

    nihil adversi,

    Cic. Brut. 1, 4:

    si quid adversi accidisset,

    Nep. Alc. 8; cf. Liv. 22, 40; 35, 13:

    secunda felices, adversa magnos probant,

    Plin. Pan. 31;

    esp. freq. in Tac.: prospera et adversa pop. Rom., Ann. 1, 1: adversa tempestatum et fluctuum,

    id. Agr. 25; so id. A. 3, 24; 45; 2, 69; 4, 13 al.— Subst.: adversus, i, m., an opponent, adversary (rare):

    multosque mortalīs ea causa advorsos habeo,

    Sall. C. 52, 7.—In Quint. also once ad-versa, ae, f., subst., a female opponent or adversary: natura noverca fuerit, si facultatem dicendi sociam scelerum, adversam innocentiae, invenit, 12, 1, 2.—
    C.
    In rhet., opposed to another of the same genus, e. g. sapientia and stultitia: “Haec quae ex eodem genere contraria sunt, appellantur adversa,” Cic. Top. 11.
    3.
    adversus or adversum (archaic advor-) (like rursus and rursum, prorsus and prorsum, quorsus and quorsum), adv. and prep., denoting direction to or toward an object (syn.: contra, in with acc., ad, erga).
    A.
    Adv.: opposite to, against, to, or toward a thing, in a friendly or hostile sense:

    ibo advorsum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 29:

    facito, ut venias advorsum mihi,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 82:

    obsecro te, matri ne quid tuae advorsus fuas, Liv. And. ap. Non. s. v. fuam, 111, 12 (Trag. Rel. p. 3 Rib.): quis hic est, qui advorsus it mihi?

    Plaut. Men. 3, 2, 22:

    adversus resistere,

    Nep. Pelop. 1, 3:

    nemo adversus ibat,

    Liv. 37, 13, 8 al. In Plaut. and Ter. advorsum ire, or venire, to go to meet; also of a slave, to go to meet his master and bring him from a place (hence adversitor, q. v.):

    solus nunc eo advorsum hero ex plurimis servis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 23:

    ei advorsum venimus,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 32; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 2 Ruhnk.—
    B.
    Prep. with acc., toward or against, in a friendly or a hostile sense.
    1.
    In a friendly sense.
    (α).
    Of place, turned to or toward, opposite to, before, facing, over against: qui cotidie unguentatus adversum speculum ornetur, before the mirror, Scipio ap. Gell. 7, 12:

    adversus advocatos,

    Liv. 45, 7, 5:

    medicus debet residere illustri loco adversus aegrum,

    opposite to the patient, Cels. 3, 6:

    adversus Scyllam vergens in Italiam,

    Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 87:

    Lerina, adversum Antipolim,

    id. 3, 5, 11, § 79.—
    (β).
    In the presence of any one, before:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar, mater mea?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9: idque gratum fuisse advorsum te habeo gratiam, I am thankful that this is acceptable before ( to) thee, Ter. And. 1, 1, 15: paululum adversus praesentem fortitudinem mollitus, somewhat softened at such firmness (of his wife), Tac. A. 15, 63.—Hence very often with verbs of speaking, answering, complaining, etc., to declare or express one's self to any one, to excuse one's self or apologize, and the like: te oportet hoc proloqui advorsum illam mihi, Enn. ap. Non. 232, 24 (Trag. v. 385 Vahl.):

    immo si audias, quae dicta dixit me advorsum tibi,

    what he told me of you, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 47: de vita ac morte domini fabulavere advorsum fratrem illius, Afran. ap. Non. 232, 25:

    mulier, credo, advorsum illum res suas conqueritur,

    Titin. ib. 232, 21:

    utendum est excusatione etiam adversus eos, quos invitus offendas,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68; Tac. A. 3, 71.— With that to which a reply is made, to (= ad):

    adversus ea consul... respondit,

    Liv. 4, 10, 12; 22, 40, 1; cf. Drak. ad 3, 57, 1.—
    (γ).
    In comparison, as if one thing were held toward, set against, or before another (v. ad, I. D. 4.); against, in comparison with, compared to:

    repente lectus adversus veterem imperatorem comparabitur,

    will be compared with, Liv. 24, 8, 8:

    quid autem esse duo prospera bella Samnitium adversus tot decora populi Rom.,

    id. 7, 32, 8.—
    (δ).
    Of demeanor toward one, to, toward:

    quonam modo me gererem adversus Caesarem,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 11:

    te adversus me omnia audere gratum est,

    i. e. on my account, on my behalf, for my advantage, id. ib. 9, 22, 15:

    lentae adversum imperia aures,

    Tac. A. 1, 65.—Esp. often of friendly feeling, love, esteem, respect toward or for one (cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 9, 22; Heusing. ad Cic. Off. 1, 11, 1;

    Hab. Syn. 49): est enim pietas justitia adversus deos,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 41, 116; id. Off. 3, 6, 28:

    adhibenda est igitur quaedam reverentia adversus homines,

    id. ib. 1, 28, 99 Beier:

    sunt quaedam officia adversus eos servanda, a quibus injuriam acceperis,

    id. ib. 1, 11, 33:

    adversus merita ingratissimus,

    Vell. 2, 69, 5:

    summa adversus alios aequitas erat,

    Liv. 3, 33, 8:

    ob egregiam fidem adversus Romanos,

    id. 29, 8, 2; so id. 45, 8, 4 al.:

    beneficentiā adversus supplices utendum,

    Tac. A. 11, 17.— More rarely
    (ε).
    of the general relation of an object or act to a person or thing (v. ad, I. D. 1.), in relation, in respect, or in regard to a thing:

    epistula, ut adversus magistrum morum, modestior,

    as addressed to a censor of manners, Cic. Fam. 3, 13, 8:

    quasi adversus eos acquieverit sententiae,

    in regard to the same, Dig. 49, 1; 3, 1.—
    2.
    In a hostile sense, against (the most usual class. signif. of this word): “Contra et adversus ita differunt, quod contra, ad locum, ut: contra basilicam; adversus, ad animi motum, ut: adversus illum facio; interdum autem promiscue accipitur,” Charis. p. 207 P.; cf. Cort. ad Sall. J. 101, 8:

    advorsum legem accepisti a plurimis pecuniam,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 48:

    advorsum te fabulare illud,

    against thy interest, to thy disadvantage, id. Stich. 4, 2, 11:

    stultus est advorsus aetatem et capitis canitudinem, id. ap. Fest. s. v. canitudinem, p. 47: advorsum animi tui libidinem,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 19:

    adversum leges, adversum rem publicam,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 195:

    respondebat, SI PARET, ADVERSUM EDICTUM FECISSE,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 28, §

    69: me adversus populum Romanum possem defendere,

    id. Phil. 1, 13 al. —In the histt., of a hostile attack, approach, etc.:

    gladiis districtis impetum adversus montem in cohortes faciunt,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 46:

    adversus se non esse missos exercitus,

    Liv. 3, 66:

    bellum adversum Xerxem moret,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 3:

    copiis quibus usi adversus Romanum bellum,

    Liv. 8, 2, 5:

    adversus vim atque injuriam pugnantes,

    id. 26, 25, 10 al.:

    T. Quintius adversus Gallos missus est,

    Eutr. 2, 2: Athenienses adversus tantam tempestatem belli duos duces deligunt, Just. 3, 6, 12 al.—Among physicians, of preventives against sickness, against (v. ad, I. A. 2.):

    adversus profusionem in his auxilium est,

    Cels. 5, 26; 6, 27 al.:

    frigidus jam artus et cluso corpore adversum vim veneni,

    Tac. A. 15, 64.— Trop.:

    egregium adversus tempestates receptaculum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 4; so id. ib. 2, 15, 36.—Hence: firmus, invictus, fortis adversus aliquid (like contra), protected against a thing, firm, fixed, secure:

    advorsum divitias animum invictum gerebat,

    Sall. J. 43, 5:

    invictus adversum gratiam animus,

    Tac. A. 15, 21:

    adversus convicia malosque rumores firmus ac patiens,

    Suet. Tib. 28:

    Adversus omnes fortis feras canis,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 1; and in opp. sense: infirmus, inferior adversus aliquid, powerless against, unequal to:

    fama, infirmissimum adversus vivos fortes telum,

    Curt. 4, 14:

    infirmus adversum pecuniam,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 6:

    inferior adversus laborem,

    id. Epit. 40, 20.
    a.
    Adversus is rarely put after the word which it governs:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9:

    hunc adversus,

    Nep. Con. 2, 2; id. Tim. 4, 3:

    quos advorsum ierat,

    Sall. J. 101, 8.—
    b.
    It sometimes suffers tmesis:

    Labienum ad Oceanum versus proficisci jubet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 33:

    animadvortit fugam ad se vorsum fieri,

    Sall. J. 58:

    animum advortere ad se vorsum exercitum pergere,

    id. ib. 69: ad Cordubam versus iter facere coepit, Auct. B. Hisp. 10 and 11; cf. in-versus:

    in Galliam vorsus castra movere,

    Sall. C. 56; Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12; Traj. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 78; the Eng. to-ward: to us ward, Psa. 40, 5; and the Gr. eis-de: eis halade, Hom. Od. 10, 351.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adverto

  • 30 advorto

    ad-verto (archaic advor-), ti, sum, 3, v. a., to turn a thing to or toward a place (in this signif., without animus; mostly poet.; syn.: observare, animadvertere, videre, cognoscere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., with in or dat.:

    illa sese huc advorterat in hanc nostram plateam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    in quamcunque domus lumina partem,

    Ov. M. 6, 180; cf. id. ib. 8, 482:

    malis numen,

    Verg. A. 4, 611:

    huc aures, huc, quaeso, advertite sensus,

    Sil. 16, 213; cf. id. 6, 105.—
    B.
    Esp., a naut. t. t., to turn, direct, steer a ship to a place:

    classem in portum,

    Liv. 37, 9 Drak.:

    terrae proras,

    Verg. A. 7, 35; id. G. 4, 117 al.:

    Colchos puppim,

    Ov. H. 12, 23.— Absol.:

    profugi advertere coloni,

    landed, Sil. 1, 288;

    hence also transf. to other things: aequore cursum,

    Verg. A. 7, 196:

    pedem ripae,

    id. ib. 6, 386:

    urbi agmen,

    id. ib. 12, 555: adverti with acc. poet. for verti ad:

    Scythicas advertitur oras,

    Ov. M. 5, 649 (cf. adducor litora remis, id. ib. 3, 598, and Rudd. II. p. 327).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Animum (in the poets and Livy also animos, rarely mentem) advertere; absol., or with adv. or ad aliquid, or alicui rei, to direct the mind, thoughts, or attention to a thing, to advert to, give attention to, attend to, to heed, observe, remark:

    si voles advortere animum, Enn. ap. Var. L. L. 7, § 89 Müll. (Trag. v. 386 Vahl.): facete advortis animum tuum ad animum meum,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 39:

    nunc huc animum advortite ambo,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 169:

    advertunt animos ad religionem,

    Lucr. 3, 54:

    monitis animos advertite nostris,

    Ov. M. 15, 140:

    animum etiam levissimis rebus adverterent,

    Tac. A. 13, 49.—With ne, when the object of attention is expressed:

    ut animum advertant, ne quos offendant,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68:

    adverterent animos, ne quid novi tumultūs oriretur,

    Liv. 4, 45.—
    B.
    Animum advertere, to observe a thing by directing the mind to it, to observe, to notice, to remark, to perceive (in the class. period contracted to animadvertere, q. v.).—Constr. with two accusatives, animum advertere aliquid (where aliquid may be regarded as depending on the prep. in comp., Roby, § 1118, or on animum advertere, considered as one idea, to observe), with acc. and inf., or rel. clause (the first mode of construction, most frequent with the pronouns id, hoc, illud, etc., is for the most part ante-class., and appears in Caes., Cic., and Sall. as an archaism):

    et hoc animum advorte,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 43:

    hanc edictionem,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 10:

    haec animum te advertere par est,

    Lucr. 2, 125:

    animum adverti columellam e dumis eminentem,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 65; id. Inv. 2, 51, 153:

    Postquam id animum advertit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 24; 4, 12:

    quidam Ligus animum advortit inter saxa repentīs cocleas,

    Sall. J. 93, 2. In Vitruv. once with hinc:

    ut etiam possumus hinc animum advertere,

    as we can hence perceive, Vitr. 10, 22, 262.—With the acc. and inf.:

    postquam tantopere id vos velle animum advorteram,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 16:

    animum advertit magnas esse copiashostium instructas,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18: cum animum adverteret locum relictum esse, Auct. B. Alex. 31; ib. 46.—With the rel. clause: nunc quam rem vitio dent, quaeso, animum advortite, Ter. And. prol. 8: quid ille sperare possit, animum adverte, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9:

    quam multarum rerum ipse ignarus esset... animum advertit,

    Liv. 24, 48. Sometimes advertere alone = animum advertere; so once in Cicero's letters: nam advertebatur Pompeii familiares assentiri Volcatio, Fam. 1, 1 (although here, as well as almost everywhere, the readings fluctuate between advertere and animadvertere; cf. Orell. ad h. l.; animadvertebatur, B. and K.). So Verg. in the imp.:

    qua ratione quod instat, Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo,

    attend! Verg. A. 4, 115.—In the histt., esp. Tac. and Pliny, more frequently:

    donec advertit Tiberius,

    Tac. A. 4, 54:

    Zenobiam advertere pastores,

    id. ib. 12, 51:

    advertere quosdam cultu externo in sedibus senatorum,

    id. ib. 13, 54:

    quotiens novum aliquid adverterat,

    id. ib. 15, 30 al.:

    hirudo quam sanguisugam appellari adverto,

    Plin. 8, 10, 10, § 29:

    ut multos adverto credidisse,

    id. 2, 67, 67, § 168. Still more rarely, advertere animo:

    animis advertite vestris,

    Verg. A. 2, 712:

    hanc scientiam ad nostros pervenisse animo adverto,

    Plin. 25, 2, 3, § 5; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 4, 27, 8.—
    C.
    To draw or turn something, esp. the attention of another, to or upon one's self (in the histt.):

    gemitus ac planctus militum aures oraque advertere,

    Tac. A. 1, 41:

    octo aquilae imperatorem advertere,

    id. ib. 2, 17: recentia veteraque odia advertit, drew them on himself, id. ib. 4, 21 al.—
    D.
    To call the attention of one to a definite act, i. e. to admonish of it, to urge to it (cf. II. A.):

    non docet admonitio, sed advertit,

    i. e. directs attention, Sen. Ep. 94:

    advertit ea res Vespasiani animum, ut, etc.,

    Tac. H. 3, 48.—
    E.
    Advertere in aliquem, for the more usual animadvertere in aliquem, to attend to one, i. e. to punish one (only in Tac.):

    in P. Marcium consules more prisco advertere,

    Tac. A. 2, 32:

    ut in reliquos Sejani liberos adverteretur,

    id. ib. 5, 9 (cf. id. Germ. 7, 3: animadvertere).—Hence,
    1.
    adversus (archaic advor-), a, um, P. a., turned to or toward a thing, with the face or front toward, standing over against, opposite, before, in front of (opp. aversus).
    A.
    In gen.:

    solem adversum intueri,

    Cic. Somn. Scip. 5:

    Iris... Mille trahens varios adverso sole colores,

    Verg. A. 4, 701; id. G. 1, 218:

    antipodes adversis vestigiis stant contra nostra vestigia,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39: dentes adversi acuti ( the sharp front teeth) morsu dividunt escas, Cic. N. D. 2, 54:

    quod is collis, tantum adversus in latitudinem patebat, quantum etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8 Herz. So, hostes adversi, who make front against one advancing or retreating, id. ib. 2, 24:

    L. Cotta legatus in adversum os fundā vulneratur,

    in front, Caes. B. G. 5, 35; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 1; Liv. 21, 7 fin. al.; hence, vulnus adversum, a wound in front (on the contr., vulnus aversum, a wound in the back), Cic. Har. Resp. 19:

    adversis vulneribus,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 35, 4:

    judicibus cicatrices adversas ostendere,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28:

    cicatrices populus Romanus aspiceret adverso corpore exceptas,

    id. Verr. 5, 3:

    impetus hostium adversos, Auct. B. Alex. 8: Romani advorso colle evadunt,

    ascend the hill in front, Sall. J. 52:

    adversa signa,

    Liv. 30, 8:

    legiones quas Visellius et C. Silius adversis itineribus objecerant,

    i. e. marches in which they went to meet the enemy, Tac. A. 3, 42: sed adverso fulgure ( by a flash of lightning falling directly before him) pavefactus est Nero, Suet. Ner. 48:

    armenta egit Hannibal in adversos montes,

    Quint. 2, 17, 19; cf. Lucr. 3, 1013; so Hor. S. 1, 1, 103; 2, 3, 205:

    qui timet his adversa,

    the opposite of this, id. Ep. 1, 6, 9 al. —Hence, of rivers: flumine adverso, up the stream, against the stream:

    in adversum flumen contendere,

    Lucr. 4, 423:

    adverso feruntur flumine,

    id. 6, 720; so Verg. G. 1, 201:

    adverso amne,

    Plin. 18, 6, 7, § 33;

    adverso Tiberi subvehi,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 22, 3 (opp. to secundā aquā, down stream, with the stream:

    rate in secundam aquam labente,

    Liv. 21, 47, 3); and of winds, opposed to a vessel's course, head winds, contrary winds, consequently unfavorable, adverse:

    navigationes adversis ventis praecluduntur, Auct. B. Alex. 8: adversissimi navigantibus venti,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 107.— Subst.: adversum, i, the opposite: hic ventus a septentrionibus oriens adversum tenet Athenis proficiscentibus, [p. 50] holds the opposite to those sailing from Athens, i. e. blows against them, Nep. Milt. 1 (so Nipperdey; but v. Hand, Turs. I. p. 183). — Adv.: ex adverso, also written exadverso and exadversum, opposite to, over against, ek tou enantiou:

    portus ex adverso urbi positus,

    Liv. 45, 10.—With gen.:

    Patrae ex adverso Aetoliae et fluminis Eveni,

    Plin. 4, 4, 5, § 11.—Without case:

    cum ex adverso starent classes,

    Just. 2, 14; so Suet. Caes. 39; Tib. 33.—In adversum, to the opposite side, against:

    et duo in adversum immissi per moenia currus,

    against each other, Prop. 3, 9, 23; so Gell. 2, 30; cf. Verg. A. 8, 237;

    in adversum Romani subiere,

    Liv. 1, 12; 7, 23.—
    B.
    In hostile opposition to, adverse to, unfavorable, unpropitious (opp. secundus; frequent and class.): conqueri fortunam adversam, Pac. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 50:

    hic dies pervorsus atque advorsus mihi obtigit,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 1:

    advorsus nemini,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 37:

    mentes improborum mihi infensae et adversae,

    Cic. Sull. 10:

    acclamatio,

    id. de Or. 2, 83: adversā avi aliquid facere, vet. poët. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 16:

    adversis auspiciis,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 64, 6:

    adversum omen,

    Suet. Vit. 8:

    adversissima auspicia,

    id. Oth. 8: adversae res, misfortune, calamity, adverse fortune:

    ut adversas res, sic secundas immoderate ferre levitatis est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26; cf.:

    adversi casus,

    Nep. Dat. 5:

    adversae rerum undae,

    a sea of troubles, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 22: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 9 (the sup. is found also in Cæs. B. C. 3, 107):

    quae magistratus ille dicet, secundis auribus, quae ab nostrum quo dicentur, adversis accipietis?

    Liv. 6, 40:

    adversus annus frugibus,

    id. 4, 12:

    valetudo adversa,

    i. e. sickness, id. 10, 32:

    adversum proelium,

    an unsuccessful engagement, id. 7, 29; cf.

    8, 31: adverso rumore esse,

    to be in bad repute, to have a bad reputation, Tac. Ann. 14, 11:

    adversa subsellia,

    on which the opposition sit, Quint. 6, 1, 39.—Sometimes met. of feeling, contrary to, hated, hateful, odious:

    quīs omnia regna advorsa sint,

    Sall. J. 83; cf. Luc. 2, 229 Bentl.— Comp.:

    neque est aliud adversius,

    Plin. 32, 4, 14, § 35.—
    * Adv.: adver-sē, self-contradictorily, Gell. 3, 16.— ad-versum, i, subst., esp. in the plur. adversa, misfortune, calamity, disaster, adversity, evil, mischief:

    advorsa ejus per te tecta sient,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 28:

    nihil adversi,

    Cic. Brut. 1, 4:

    si quid adversi accidisset,

    Nep. Alc. 8; cf. Liv. 22, 40; 35, 13:

    secunda felices, adversa magnos probant,

    Plin. Pan. 31;

    esp. freq. in Tac.: prospera et adversa pop. Rom., Ann. 1, 1: adversa tempestatum et fluctuum,

    id. Agr. 25; so id. A. 3, 24; 45; 2, 69; 4, 13 al.— Subst.: adversus, i, m., an opponent, adversary (rare):

    multosque mortalīs ea causa advorsos habeo,

    Sall. C. 52, 7.—In Quint. also once ad-versa, ae, f., subst., a female opponent or adversary: natura noverca fuerit, si facultatem dicendi sociam scelerum, adversam innocentiae, invenit, 12, 1, 2.—
    C.
    In rhet., opposed to another of the same genus, e. g. sapientia and stultitia: “Haec quae ex eodem genere contraria sunt, appellantur adversa,” Cic. Top. 11.
    3.
    adversus or adversum (archaic advor-) (like rursus and rursum, prorsus and prorsum, quorsus and quorsum), adv. and prep., denoting direction to or toward an object (syn.: contra, in with acc., ad, erga).
    A.
    Adv.: opposite to, against, to, or toward a thing, in a friendly or hostile sense:

    ibo advorsum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 29:

    facito, ut venias advorsum mihi,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 82:

    obsecro te, matri ne quid tuae advorsus fuas, Liv. And. ap. Non. s. v. fuam, 111, 12 (Trag. Rel. p. 3 Rib.): quis hic est, qui advorsus it mihi?

    Plaut. Men. 3, 2, 22:

    adversus resistere,

    Nep. Pelop. 1, 3:

    nemo adversus ibat,

    Liv. 37, 13, 8 al. In Plaut. and Ter. advorsum ire, or venire, to go to meet; also of a slave, to go to meet his master and bring him from a place (hence adversitor, q. v.):

    solus nunc eo advorsum hero ex plurimis servis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 23:

    ei advorsum venimus,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 32; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 2 Ruhnk.—
    B.
    Prep. with acc., toward or against, in a friendly or a hostile sense.
    1.
    In a friendly sense.
    (α).
    Of place, turned to or toward, opposite to, before, facing, over against: qui cotidie unguentatus adversum speculum ornetur, before the mirror, Scipio ap. Gell. 7, 12:

    adversus advocatos,

    Liv. 45, 7, 5:

    medicus debet residere illustri loco adversus aegrum,

    opposite to the patient, Cels. 3, 6:

    adversus Scyllam vergens in Italiam,

    Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 87:

    Lerina, adversum Antipolim,

    id. 3, 5, 11, § 79.—
    (β).
    In the presence of any one, before:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar, mater mea?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9: idque gratum fuisse advorsum te habeo gratiam, I am thankful that this is acceptable before ( to) thee, Ter. And. 1, 1, 15: paululum adversus praesentem fortitudinem mollitus, somewhat softened at such firmness (of his wife), Tac. A. 15, 63.—Hence very often with verbs of speaking, answering, complaining, etc., to declare or express one's self to any one, to excuse one's self or apologize, and the like: te oportet hoc proloqui advorsum illam mihi, Enn. ap. Non. 232, 24 (Trag. v. 385 Vahl.):

    immo si audias, quae dicta dixit me advorsum tibi,

    what he told me of you, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 47: de vita ac morte domini fabulavere advorsum fratrem illius, Afran. ap. Non. 232, 25:

    mulier, credo, advorsum illum res suas conqueritur,

    Titin. ib. 232, 21:

    utendum est excusatione etiam adversus eos, quos invitus offendas,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68; Tac. A. 3, 71.— With that to which a reply is made, to (= ad):

    adversus ea consul... respondit,

    Liv. 4, 10, 12; 22, 40, 1; cf. Drak. ad 3, 57, 1.—
    (γ).
    In comparison, as if one thing were held toward, set against, or before another (v. ad, I. D. 4.); against, in comparison with, compared to:

    repente lectus adversus veterem imperatorem comparabitur,

    will be compared with, Liv. 24, 8, 8:

    quid autem esse duo prospera bella Samnitium adversus tot decora populi Rom.,

    id. 7, 32, 8.—
    (δ).
    Of demeanor toward one, to, toward:

    quonam modo me gererem adversus Caesarem,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 11:

    te adversus me omnia audere gratum est,

    i. e. on my account, on my behalf, for my advantage, id. ib. 9, 22, 15:

    lentae adversum imperia aures,

    Tac. A. 1, 65.—Esp. often of friendly feeling, love, esteem, respect toward or for one (cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 9, 22; Heusing. ad Cic. Off. 1, 11, 1;

    Hab. Syn. 49): est enim pietas justitia adversus deos,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 41, 116; id. Off. 3, 6, 28:

    adhibenda est igitur quaedam reverentia adversus homines,

    id. ib. 1, 28, 99 Beier:

    sunt quaedam officia adversus eos servanda, a quibus injuriam acceperis,

    id. ib. 1, 11, 33:

    adversus merita ingratissimus,

    Vell. 2, 69, 5:

    summa adversus alios aequitas erat,

    Liv. 3, 33, 8:

    ob egregiam fidem adversus Romanos,

    id. 29, 8, 2; so id. 45, 8, 4 al.:

    beneficentiā adversus supplices utendum,

    Tac. A. 11, 17.— More rarely
    (ε).
    of the general relation of an object or act to a person or thing (v. ad, I. D. 1.), in relation, in respect, or in regard to a thing:

    epistula, ut adversus magistrum morum, modestior,

    as addressed to a censor of manners, Cic. Fam. 3, 13, 8:

    quasi adversus eos acquieverit sententiae,

    in regard to the same, Dig. 49, 1; 3, 1.—
    2.
    In a hostile sense, against (the most usual class. signif. of this word): “Contra et adversus ita differunt, quod contra, ad locum, ut: contra basilicam; adversus, ad animi motum, ut: adversus illum facio; interdum autem promiscue accipitur,” Charis. p. 207 P.; cf. Cort. ad Sall. J. 101, 8:

    advorsum legem accepisti a plurimis pecuniam,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 48:

    advorsum te fabulare illud,

    against thy interest, to thy disadvantage, id. Stich. 4, 2, 11:

    stultus est advorsus aetatem et capitis canitudinem, id. ap. Fest. s. v. canitudinem, p. 47: advorsum animi tui libidinem,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 19:

    adversum leges, adversum rem publicam,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 195:

    respondebat, SI PARET, ADVERSUM EDICTUM FECISSE,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 28, §

    69: me adversus populum Romanum possem defendere,

    id. Phil. 1, 13 al. —In the histt., of a hostile attack, approach, etc.:

    gladiis districtis impetum adversus montem in cohortes faciunt,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 46:

    adversus se non esse missos exercitus,

    Liv. 3, 66:

    bellum adversum Xerxem moret,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 3:

    copiis quibus usi adversus Romanum bellum,

    Liv. 8, 2, 5:

    adversus vim atque injuriam pugnantes,

    id. 26, 25, 10 al.:

    T. Quintius adversus Gallos missus est,

    Eutr. 2, 2: Athenienses adversus tantam tempestatem belli duos duces deligunt, Just. 3, 6, 12 al.—Among physicians, of preventives against sickness, against (v. ad, I. A. 2.):

    adversus profusionem in his auxilium est,

    Cels. 5, 26; 6, 27 al.:

    frigidus jam artus et cluso corpore adversum vim veneni,

    Tac. A. 15, 64.— Trop.:

    egregium adversus tempestates receptaculum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 4; so id. ib. 2, 15, 36.—Hence: firmus, invictus, fortis adversus aliquid (like contra), protected against a thing, firm, fixed, secure:

    advorsum divitias animum invictum gerebat,

    Sall. J. 43, 5:

    invictus adversum gratiam animus,

    Tac. A. 15, 21:

    adversus convicia malosque rumores firmus ac patiens,

    Suet. Tib. 28:

    Adversus omnes fortis feras canis,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 1; and in opp. sense: infirmus, inferior adversus aliquid, powerless against, unequal to:

    fama, infirmissimum adversus vivos fortes telum,

    Curt. 4, 14:

    infirmus adversum pecuniam,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 6:

    inferior adversus laborem,

    id. Epit. 40, 20.
    a.
    Adversus is rarely put after the word which it governs:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9:

    hunc adversus,

    Nep. Con. 2, 2; id. Tim. 4, 3:

    quos advorsum ierat,

    Sall. J. 101, 8.—
    b.
    It sometimes suffers tmesis:

    Labienum ad Oceanum versus proficisci jubet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 33:

    animadvortit fugam ad se vorsum fieri,

    Sall. J. 58:

    animum advortere ad se vorsum exercitum pergere,

    id. ib. 69: ad Cordubam versus iter facere coepit, Auct. B. Hisp. 10 and 11; cf. in-versus:

    in Galliam vorsus castra movere,

    Sall. C. 56; Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12; Traj. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 78; the Eng. to-ward: to us ward, Psa. 40, 5; and the Gr. eis-de: eis halade, Hom. Od. 10, 351.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > advorto

  • 31 aecus

    aequus ( aecus, Pac. 32 Rib.; Lucr. 5, 1023 Lachm. and Munro; AIQVOS, S. C. de Bacch. 1. 26), a, um, adj. [formerly referred to EIKÔ, eoika, but Pott connects it with Sanscr. ēka = one, as if properly, one and uniform; others consider it as akin to aemulor, q. v.].
    I.
    A.. Of place, that extends or lies in a horizontal direction, plain, even, level, flat (esp. freq. in the strategic descriptions of the histt.;

    syn.: planus, aequalis, aequabilis, par, similis, justus): locus ad libellam aequus,

    level, Varr. R. R. 1, 6 fin.:

    aequus et planus locus,

    Cic. Caec. 17 fin.:

    in aequum locum se demittere,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 28: legio, quae paulo aequiore loco constiterat, id. ib. 7, 51:

    in aequum locum deducere,

    Sall. J. 42 (cf. in Gr. eis to isoW katabainein, Xen. Anab. 4, 6, 18).— Trop.:

    sive loquitur ex inferiore loco sive aequo sive ex superiore,

    i. e. before the judges, sitting on raised seats, or in the Senate, or in the assembly of the people from the rostra, Cic. de Or. 3, 6, 23:

    meos multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos cum tuā summā laude,

    from the tribune, and on private matters, id. Fam. 3, 8.—In the histt., sometimes subst.: aequum, i, n., with a gen., level ground, a plain:

    facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore,

    Liv. 5, 38:

    ut primum agmen aequo, ceteri per acclive jugum insurgerent,

    Tac. Agr. 35:

    in aequum digredi,

    id. ib. 18:

    in aequo obstare,

    id. ib. 36; id. H. 4, 23.—Also, an eminence, if it rises without inequalities:

    dum Romanae cohortes in aequum eniterentur,

    up the slope, Tac. A. 2, 80.—As a level place is more favorable for military operations than an uneven one, aequus has the signif.,
    B.
    Favorable, convenient, advantageous (as its opp., iniquus, uneven, has that of unfavorable, etc.).
    1.
    Of place:

    locum se aequum ad dimicandum dedisse,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 73:

    etsi non aequum locum videbat suis,

    Nep. Milt. 5, 4:

    non hic silvas nec paludes, sed aequis locis aequos deos,

    Tac. A. 1, 68. —
    2.
    Of time: judicium aequiore tempore fieri oportere, more propitious, Cic. Corn. Fragm. ap. Ascon. p. 72:

    et tempore et loco aequo,

    Liv. 26, 3:

    tempore aequo,

    Suet. Caes. 35.—
    3.
    In gen., of persons or things (freq. and class.), favorable, kind, friendly, benevolent, etc.; constr. absol. with dat., or in and acc. (in poets in with abl.).
    (α).
    Absol.:

    consequeris, ut eos ipsos, quos contra statuas, aequos placatosque dimittas,

    Cic. Or. 10, 34:

    nobilitate inimica, non aequo senatu,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 3 med.:

    meis aequissimis utuntur auribus,

    id. Fam. 7, 33:

    oculis aspicere aequis,

    Verg. A. 4, 372:

    O dominum aequum et bonum,

    Suet. Aug. 53:

    boni et aequi et faciles domini,

    id. Tib. 29.—
    (β).
    With dat.:

    aequa Venus Teucris, Pallas iniqua fuit,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 6; id. A. A. 2, 310.—
    (γ).
    With in and acc.:

    quis hoc statuit, quod aequum sit in Quintium, id iniquum esse in Maevium,

    Cic. Quint. 14.—
    (δ).
    With in and abl.:

    victor erat quamvis, aequus in hoste fuit,

    Prop. 4, 18, 28.—Hence,
    4.
    aequus, i, m. subst., a friend:

    ego ut me tibi amicissimum esse et aequi et iniqui intellegant, curabo,

    both friends and enemies, Cic. Fam. 3, 6 fin.:

    aequis iniquisque persuasum erat,

    Liv. 5, 45.
    II.
    That is equal to another in any quality, equal, like; and of things divided into two equal parts, a half:

    aequo censu censeri,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 92:

    partīs,

    Lucr. 3, 125; so Aur. Vict. Orig. 19, 1; and Vulg. 1 Reg. 30, 24:

    aequa erit mensura sagorum,

    ib. Exod. 26, 8:

    pondera,

    ib. Lev. 19, 36:

    portio,

    ib. 2 Mach. 8, 30:

    aequa dementia,

    Lucr. 1, 705 al.:

    aequā manu discedere,

    to come off with equal advantage, Sall. C. 39; so,

    aequo Marte pugnare,

    with equal success, Liv. 2, 6; Curt. 4, 15, 29; Flor. 4, 2, 48 al.:

    urbs erat in summo nubibus aequa jugo,

    Ov. P. 4, 7, 24:

    aequum vulnus utrique tulit,

    id. M. 9, 719 (cf. id. ib. 7, 803:

    aequales urebant pectora flammae): sequiturque patrem non passibus aequis,

    Verg. A. 2, 724:

    pars aequa mundi,

    Plin. 2, 19, 17, § 81:

    utinam esset mihi pars aequa amoris tecum, i. e. aeque vicissim amaremus,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 12:

    non tertiam portionem, verum aequam,

    Plin. 3, 1, 1, § 5 al. —Hence the adverbial phrases,
    1.
    Ex aequo, in like manner, in an equal degree, equally ( = ex isou, Hdt., Dem.), Lucr. 1, 854:

    dixit et ex aequo donis formaque probata, etc.,

    Ov. H. 16, 87; 20, 123; id. Am. 1, 10, 33; id. A. A. 2, 682; id. M. 3, 145; 4, 62; Liv. 36, 37:

    adversarum rerum ex aequo socii sunt (Fosi Cheruscis), cum in secundis minores fuissent,

    Tac. G. 36 fin.
    2.
    In aequo esse or stare, to be equal:

    qui cogit mori nolentem, in aequo est, quique properantem impedit,

    Sen. Phoen. 98:

    ut naturam oderint, quod infra deos sumus, quod non in aequo illis stetimus,

    id. Ben. 2, 29: in aequo ponere aliquem alicui, to make equal, to put on an equality, to compare:

    in aequo eum (Philopoemenem) summis imperatoribus posuerunt,

    Liv. 39, 50 fin.
    B.
    Morally.
    1.
    Of persons, fair, equitable, impartial in conduct toward others (diff. from justus, just; v. aequitas, II.); constr. absol., with dat.; more rarely with gen.:

    praetor aequus et sapiens,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65; 2, 5, 59:

    aequissimus aestimator et judex,

    id. Fin. 3, 2:

    praebere se aequum alicui,

    id. Fam. 2, 1:

    absentium aequi, praesentibus mobiles,

    benevolent toward, Tac. A. 6, 36.—
    2.
    Of things, fair, right, equitable, reasonable: ITA. SENATVS. AIQVOM. CENSVIT., S. C. de Bach. 1. 26: et aecum et rectum est, Pac. ap. Non. 261, 13 (Trag. Rel. p. 81 Rib.):

    aequa et honesta postulatio,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2:

    quod justum est et aequum, servis praestate,

    just and fair, Vulg. Col. 4, 1:

    postulo primum id, quod aequissimum est, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 2:

    aequa lex et omnibus utilis,

    id. Balb. 27:

    aequissimis legibus monere,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 5:

    aequae conditiones,

    Vell. 2, 25; see Fischer, Gr. II. 611.—Hence,
    3.
    ae-quum, i, n. subst., what is fair, equitable, or just; fairness, equity, or justice, etc.: jus atque aequum, Enn. ap. Non. p. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    utilitas justi prope mater et aequi,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 98:

    aequi studium,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 6.—Often with comparatives, more than is right, proper, reasonable:

    lamentari amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 966:

    injurias gravius aequo habere,

    to feel too deeply, Sall. C. 50:

    potus largius aequo,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 215.—Hence, aequum est, it is reasonable, proper, right, etc.; constr. with acc. and inf., in good prose also with dat. pers. and ut, Rudd. II. p. 235, n. 21: nos quiescere aequom est, Enn. ap. Diom. p. 382 P. (Trag. v. 199 Vahl.):

    quae liberum scire aequom est adulescentem,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 25:

    significant Imbecillorum esse aecum misererier omnīs,

    Lucr. 5, 1023:

    non est aequum nos derelinquere verbum Dei,

    Vulg. Act. 6, 2:

    aequius est mori quam auctoritatem imperii foedare,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 12, 7:

    ut peritis? Ut piscatorem aequomst (sc. perire), fame sitique speque,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 7; so,

    sicut aequum est homini de potestate deorum timide et pauca dicamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 16, 47.—In Plaut., with abl.:

    plus vidissem quam med atque illo aequom foret,

    would be becoming in me and him, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 84; id. Rud. prol. 47.—
    4.
    Aequum as subst. very freq. with bonum = aequitas, equitable conduct toward others, fairness, equity, etc.:

    neque quidquam queo aequi bonique ab eo impetrare,

    what is right and just, Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 65:

    cum de jure civili, cum de aequo et bono disputaretur,

    Cic. Brut. 38:

    ex aequo et bono, non ex callido versutoque jure rem judicari oportere,

    id. Caecin. 23:

    fit reus magis ex aequo bonoque quam ex jure gentium,

    in accordance with justice and equity, Sall. J. 35.— Also without et:

    illi dolum malum, illi fidem bonam, illi aequum bonum tradiderunt,

    Cic. Top. 17.—So also, aequius melius, according to greater equily, Cic. Off. 3, 15; id. Top. 17.—
    C.
    Of a state of mind, even, unruffled, calm, composed, tranquil, patient, enduring (cf. aequitas, II. B.);

    esp. freq. with animus or mens: animus aequos optumum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71:

    concedo et quod animus aequus est et quia necesse est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50:

    quodadest memento Componere aequus,

    Hor. C. 3, 29, 32:

    tentantem majora, fere praesentibus aequum,

    id. Ep. 1, 17, 24;

    and so, aequam memento rebus in arduis Servare mentem, etc.,

    id. C. 2, 3, 1.—Esp. freq. in the adv. abl.: aequo (aequiore, aequissimo) animo, with even mind, with equanimity, patiently, calmly, quietly, with forbearance: ego, nisi Bibulus adniteretur de triumpho, aequo animo essem, nunc vero aischron siôpan, Cic. Att. 6, 8:

    carere aequo animo aliquā re,

    id. Brut. 6:

    ferre aliquid,

    Nep. Dion. 6, 7; Aur. Vict. Orig. 6, 3:

    accipere,

    Sall. C. 3, 2:

    tolerare,

    id. J. 31:

    quo aequiore animo Germanicus celerem successionem operiretur,

    Suet. Tib. 25:

    testem se in judiciis interrogari aequissimo animo patiebatur,

    id. Aug. 56.—In eccl. Lat. = bono animo:

    aequo animo esto,

    be of good cheer, Vulg. 3 Reg. 21, 7:

    aequo animo (aliquis) est? Psallat,

    ib. Jacob. 5, 13.—Hence: aequi bonique facere aliquid, to regard as fair and reasonable (prop., a gen. of value, Roby, § 1191), to put up with, be content with, submit to, acquiesce in, etc.:

    istuc aequi bonique facio,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40: tranquillissimus animus meus totum istuc aequi boni [p. 59] facit, Cic. Att. 7, 7; Liv. 34, 22 fin.:

    aequi istuc faciam,

    it will be all the same to me, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 189.—So also:

    aequi bonique dicere,

    to propose any thing reasonable, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32.—Hence, aequē, adv., in like manner, equally, just as = ex aequo, pariter, Gr. isôs, omoiôs (indicating the entire equality of two objects compared, while similiter denotes only likeness):

    eā (benevolentiā) non pariter omnes egemus... honore et gloriā fortasse non aeque omnes egent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 8, 30:

    non possum ego non aut proxime atque ille aut etiam aeque laborare,

    id. Fam. 9, 13, 2:

    universa aeque eveniunt justo et impio,

    Vulg. Eccl. 9, 2.
    1.
    In the comic poets with cum or the comp. abl. (cf. adaeque); in Cic. and good class. authors gen. with et, atque, ac, ac si; less class. with quam, ut, quam ut; in Petr. with tamquam.
    (α).
    Aeque—cum:

    animum advorte, ut aeque mecum haec scias,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 66, id. Poen. prol. 47: novi aeque omnia tecum, Ter Phorm. 5, 9, 43. But in Plaut. As. 4, 1, 26, tecum una postea aeque pocla potitet, una belongs with tecum to potitet, and aeque is put absol. (sc. ut tu).—
    (β).
    Aeque with comp. abl.:

    nullus est hoc meticulosus aeque,

    as this person, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 137:

    qui me in terrā aeque fortunatus erit,

    id. Curc. 1, 2, 51.—
    (γ).
    Aeque—et or aeque— que (as in Gr. ison kai, isa kai, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 611;

    Thuc. 3, 14). nisi aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus,

    equally as ourselves, Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 67. versūs aeque prima et media et extrema pars attenditur, id. de Or. 3, 50, 192; id. Rosc. Com. 1, 2; so id. Mur. 13, 28; id. Clu. 69, 195, id. Tusc. 2, 26, 62 al.:

    quod Aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 26.—
    (δ).
    Aeque—atque, —ac, —ac si, as... as; as much as, as: vide ne, quem tu esse hebetem deputes aeque ac pecus, is, etc., Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45: pumex non aeque aridus atque hic est senex, Plaut Aul. 2, 4, 18; Ter. Phorm 1, 2, 43; Varr. R. R. 3, 8, 2:

    nisi haberes, qui illis aeque ac tu ipse gauderet,

    Cic. Lael. 6, 22:

    sed me colit et observat aeque atque patronum suum,

    id. Fam. 13, 69; 2, 2; so id. Brut. 71, 248; id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; Cels. 6, 15; Tac. H. 4, 5; Suet. Caes. 12 al.: aeque ac si. with the subj., just as if. altogether as if:

    Egnatii absentis rem ut tueare, aeque a te peto ac si mea negotia essent,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 43, 3; Auct Her 2, 13, 19: quo factum est, ut jumenta aeque nitida ex castellis educeret ac si in campestribus ea locis habuisset, Nep Eum. 5. 6; Liv. 10, 7, 4; 44, 22, 5 al.—
    (ε).
    Aeque— quam (only in Plaut. and prose writers from the Aug. per.;

    neither in Cic. nor in Cæs.),

    as... as, in the same manner as, as well... as, like, Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 55;

    nullum esse agrum aeque feracem quam hic est,

    id. Epid. 2, 3, 1:

    nihil aeque eos terruit quam robur et color imperatoris,

    Liv. 28, 26, 14, 5, 6, 11; so 5, 3, 4; 31, 1, 3;

    in navibus posita aeque quam in aedificiis,

    Plin. 2, 81, 83, § 196; so 2, 70, 72, § 180; Tac. A. 14, 38; id. H. 2, 10; 4, 52; Suet. Aug. 64, 89; id. Galb. 4 al.—
    (ζ).
    Aeque—ut, a rare combination, and unworthy of imitation (in authors of the class. per. its reception rests, for the most part, upon false readings for aeque et or aeque ac), as much as, like, cui nihil aeque in causis agendis ut brevitas placet, Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 1 Keil. accinctus aeque ut discinctus, Vulg. 3 Reg. 20, 11. Possidebitis eam (terram) singuli aeque ut frater suus, ib. Ezech. 47, 14:

    idemque proficeret aeque ut rosaceum,

    Plin. 23, 4, 45, § 89, where Jan reads proficeret quod rosaceum. —In Plaut. once aeque—quasi for the class. aeque ac. quem videam aeque esse maestum quasi dies si dicta sit, Plaut. As. 5, 1, 11 Fleck.—
    (η).
    Sometimes aeque—aeque, as well as, as much as. aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 25:

    aeque discordiam praepositorum, aeque concordiam subjectis exitiosam,

    Tac. Agr. 15.—
    2.
    The comparison is often to be supplied from the whole sentence or context; hence, aeque stands absol. for aeque ac, etc. (ante-class. freq.; also in Cic. and Liv.), equally, as much as, as: eadem oratio non aeque valet, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4 (from Eurip. Hec. 295: logos... ou tauton sthenei):

    satin habes, si feminarum nullast quam aeque diligam?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 11: Aetna mons non aeque altus, id. Mil. 4, 2, 73; 4, 7, 10; id. Most. 1, 3, 85, etc.; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 32; Cic. Fam. 4, 6, 1; so id. ib. 5, 21; id. Fin. 4, 33, 62:

    aeque sons,

    Liv. 29, 19, 2;

    so 29, 19, 4 al.: aeque non est dubium,

    it is as little doubtful, Plin. 2, 15, 13, § 68.—
    3.
    With omnes, uterque, and definite numerals, to indicate that a thing applies equally to all the objects designated, equally:

    non omnia eadem aeque omnibus suavia esse scito,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 51; Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 2; so Cic. Off. 2, 8, 31; id. Fin. 4, 27, 75 al.:

    etsi utrique nostrum prope aeque gratae erant (litterae),

    id. Fam. 13, 18; so id. Quint. 28, 86; Verg. G. 3, 118; Ov. Tr. 3, 8, 33; id. Fast. 1, 226:

    aeque ambo pares,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 60:

    duae trabes aeque longae,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 10; Suet. Aug. 101. —
    4.
    Sometimes absol., with several substantives, alike, equally:

    Tragici et comici Numquam aeque sunt meditati,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 2, 4. imperium bonus ignavus aeque sibi exoptant, Sall. C. 11.—
    5.
    In Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 42, nec est mihi quisquam, melius aeque cui velim, melius velle is, perhaps, to be taken together as a phrase, and the comp. considered as used in a restricted sense, as in melius est. Others consider the comp. as used for the simple positive; cf. adaeque.—
    B.
    Justly, with equity:

    mihi id aeque factum arbitror,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 22 dub. (Ritschl: jureque id factum arbitror).— Comp.: ferro quam fame aequius perituros, more willingly, Sall. H. Fragm.— Sup.:

    aequissime jus dicere,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 11, 2:

    judicas ut qui aequissime,

    Sid. 15, Ep. 11.
    An old adverb.
    form, aequĭter, also occurs: praeda per participes aequiter partita est, Liv. Andr. ap. Non. 512, 31; so Pac. ib., Att. ib., and Plaut. acc. to Prisc. 1010 P.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aecus

  • 32 aequum

    aequus ( aecus, Pac. 32 Rib.; Lucr. 5, 1023 Lachm. and Munro; AIQVOS, S. C. de Bacch. 1. 26), a, um, adj. [formerly referred to EIKÔ, eoika, but Pott connects it with Sanscr. ēka = one, as if properly, one and uniform; others consider it as akin to aemulor, q. v.].
    I.
    A.. Of place, that extends or lies in a horizontal direction, plain, even, level, flat (esp. freq. in the strategic descriptions of the histt.;

    syn.: planus, aequalis, aequabilis, par, similis, justus): locus ad libellam aequus,

    level, Varr. R. R. 1, 6 fin.:

    aequus et planus locus,

    Cic. Caec. 17 fin.:

    in aequum locum se demittere,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 28: legio, quae paulo aequiore loco constiterat, id. ib. 7, 51:

    in aequum locum deducere,

    Sall. J. 42 (cf. in Gr. eis to isoW katabainein, Xen. Anab. 4, 6, 18).— Trop.:

    sive loquitur ex inferiore loco sive aequo sive ex superiore,

    i. e. before the judges, sitting on raised seats, or in the Senate, or in the assembly of the people from the rostra, Cic. de Or. 3, 6, 23:

    meos multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos cum tuā summā laude,

    from the tribune, and on private matters, id. Fam. 3, 8.—In the histt., sometimes subst.: aequum, i, n., with a gen., level ground, a plain:

    facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore,

    Liv. 5, 38:

    ut primum agmen aequo, ceteri per acclive jugum insurgerent,

    Tac. Agr. 35:

    in aequum digredi,

    id. ib. 18:

    in aequo obstare,

    id. ib. 36; id. H. 4, 23.—Also, an eminence, if it rises without inequalities:

    dum Romanae cohortes in aequum eniterentur,

    up the slope, Tac. A. 2, 80.—As a level place is more favorable for military operations than an uneven one, aequus has the signif.,
    B.
    Favorable, convenient, advantageous (as its opp., iniquus, uneven, has that of unfavorable, etc.).
    1.
    Of place:

    locum se aequum ad dimicandum dedisse,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 73:

    etsi non aequum locum videbat suis,

    Nep. Milt. 5, 4:

    non hic silvas nec paludes, sed aequis locis aequos deos,

    Tac. A. 1, 68. —
    2.
    Of time: judicium aequiore tempore fieri oportere, more propitious, Cic. Corn. Fragm. ap. Ascon. p. 72:

    et tempore et loco aequo,

    Liv. 26, 3:

    tempore aequo,

    Suet. Caes. 35.—
    3.
    In gen., of persons or things (freq. and class.), favorable, kind, friendly, benevolent, etc.; constr. absol. with dat., or in and acc. (in poets in with abl.).
    (α).
    Absol.:

    consequeris, ut eos ipsos, quos contra statuas, aequos placatosque dimittas,

    Cic. Or. 10, 34:

    nobilitate inimica, non aequo senatu,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 3 med.:

    meis aequissimis utuntur auribus,

    id. Fam. 7, 33:

    oculis aspicere aequis,

    Verg. A. 4, 372:

    O dominum aequum et bonum,

    Suet. Aug. 53:

    boni et aequi et faciles domini,

    id. Tib. 29.—
    (β).
    With dat.:

    aequa Venus Teucris, Pallas iniqua fuit,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 6; id. A. A. 2, 310.—
    (γ).
    With in and acc.:

    quis hoc statuit, quod aequum sit in Quintium, id iniquum esse in Maevium,

    Cic. Quint. 14.—
    (δ).
    With in and abl.:

    victor erat quamvis, aequus in hoste fuit,

    Prop. 4, 18, 28.—Hence,
    4.
    aequus, i, m. subst., a friend:

    ego ut me tibi amicissimum esse et aequi et iniqui intellegant, curabo,

    both friends and enemies, Cic. Fam. 3, 6 fin.:

    aequis iniquisque persuasum erat,

    Liv. 5, 45.
    II.
    That is equal to another in any quality, equal, like; and of things divided into two equal parts, a half:

    aequo censu censeri,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 92:

    partīs,

    Lucr. 3, 125; so Aur. Vict. Orig. 19, 1; and Vulg. 1 Reg. 30, 24:

    aequa erit mensura sagorum,

    ib. Exod. 26, 8:

    pondera,

    ib. Lev. 19, 36:

    portio,

    ib. 2 Mach. 8, 30:

    aequa dementia,

    Lucr. 1, 705 al.:

    aequā manu discedere,

    to come off with equal advantage, Sall. C. 39; so,

    aequo Marte pugnare,

    with equal success, Liv. 2, 6; Curt. 4, 15, 29; Flor. 4, 2, 48 al.:

    urbs erat in summo nubibus aequa jugo,

    Ov. P. 4, 7, 24:

    aequum vulnus utrique tulit,

    id. M. 9, 719 (cf. id. ib. 7, 803:

    aequales urebant pectora flammae): sequiturque patrem non passibus aequis,

    Verg. A. 2, 724:

    pars aequa mundi,

    Plin. 2, 19, 17, § 81:

    utinam esset mihi pars aequa amoris tecum, i. e. aeque vicissim amaremus,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 12:

    non tertiam portionem, verum aequam,

    Plin. 3, 1, 1, § 5 al. —Hence the adverbial phrases,
    1.
    Ex aequo, in like manner, in an equal degree, equally ( = ex isou, Hdt., Dem.), Lucr. 1, 854:

    dixit et ex aequo donis formaque probata, etc.,

    Ov. H. 16, 87; 20, 123; id. Am. 1, 10, 33; id. A. A. 2, 682; id. M. 3, 145; 4, 62; Liv. 36, 37:

    adversarum rerum ex aequo socii sunt (Fosi Cheruscis), cum in secundis minores fuissent,

    Tac. G. 36 fin.
    2.
    In aequo esse or stare, to be equal:

    qui cogit mori nolentem, in aequo est, quique properantem impedit,

    Sen. Phoen. 98:

    ut naturam oderint, quod infra deos sumus, quod non in aequo illis stetimus,

    id. Ben. 2, 29: in aequo ponere aliquem alicui, to make equal, to put on an equality, to compare:

    in aequo eum (Philopoemenem) summis imperatoribus posuerunt,

    Liv. 39, 50 fin.
    B.
    Morally.
    1.
    Of persons, fair, equitable, impartial in conduct toward others (diff. from justus, just; v. aequitas, II.); constr. absol., with dat.; more rarely with gen.:

    praetor aequus et sapiens,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65; 2, 5, 59:

    aequissimus aestimator et judex,

    id. Fin. 3, 2:

    praebere se aequum alicui,

    id. Fam. 2, 1:

    absentium aequi, praesentibus mobiles,

    benevolent toward, Tac. A. 6, 36.—
    2.
    Of things, fair, right, equitable, reasonable: ITA. SENATVS. AIQVOM. CENSVIT., S. C. de Bach. 1. 26: et aecum et rectum est, Pac. ap. Non. 261, 13 (Trag. Rel. p. 81 Rib.):

    aequa et honesta postulatio,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2:

    quod justum est et aequum, servis praestate,

    just and fair, Vulg. Col. 4, 1:

    postulo primum id, quod aequissimum est, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 2:

    aequa lex et omnibus utilis,

    id. Balb. 27:

    aequissimis legibus monere,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 5:

    aequae conditiones,

    Vell. 2, 25; see Fischer, Gr. II. 611.—Hence,
    3.
    ae-quum, i, n. subst., what is fair, equitable, or just; fairness, equity, or justice, etc.: jus atque aequum, Enn. ap. Non. p. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    utilitas justi prope mater et aequi,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 98:

    aequi studium,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 6.—Often with comparatives, more than is right, proper, reasonable:

    lamentari amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 966:

    injurias gravius aequo habere,

    to feel too deeply, Sall. C. 50:

    potus largius aequo,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 215.—Hence, aequum est, it is reasonable, proper, right, etc.; constr. with acc. and inf., in good prose also with dat. pers. and ut, Rudd. II. p. 235, n. 21: nos quiescere aequom est, Enn. ap. Diom. p. 382 P. (Trag. v. 199 Vahl.):

    quae liberum scire aequom est adulescentem,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 25:

    significant Imbecillorum esse aecum misererier omnīs,

    Lucr. 5, 1023:

    non est aequum nos derelinquere verbum Dei,

    Vulg. Act. 6, 2:

    aequius est mori quam auctoritatem imperii foedare,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 12, 7:

    ut peritis? Ut piscatorem aequomst (sc. perire), fame sitique speque,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 7; so,

    sicut aequum est homini de potestate deorum timide et pauca dicamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 16, 47.—In Plaut., with abl.:

    plus vidissem quam med atque illo aequom foret,

    would be becoming in me and him, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 84; id. Rud. prol. 47.—
    4.
    Aequum as subst. very freq. with bonum = aequitas, equitable conduct toward others, fairness, equity, etc.:

    neque quidquam queo aequi bonique ab eo impetrare,

    what is right and just, Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 65:

    cum de jure civili, cum de aequo et bono disputaretur,

    Cic. Brut. 38:

    ex aequo et bono, non ex callido versutoque jure rem judicari oportere,

    id. Caecin. 23:

    fit reus magis ex aequo bonoque quam ex jure gentium,

    in accordance with justice and equity, Sall. J. 35.— Also without et:

    illi dolum malum, illi fidem bonam, illi aequum bonum tradiderunt,

    Cic. Top. 17.—So also, aequius melius, according to greater equily, Cic. Off. 3, 15; id. Top. 17.—
    C.
    Of a state of mind, even, unruffled, calm, composed, tranquil, patient, enduring (cf. aequitas, II. B.);

    esp. freq. with animus or mens: animus aequos optumum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71:

    concedo et quod animus aequus est et quia necesse est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50:

    quodadest memento Componere aequus,

    Hor. C. 3, 29, 32:

    tentantem majora, fere praesentibus aequum,

    id. Ep. 1, 17, 24;

    and so, aequam memento rebus in arduis Servare mentem, etc.,

    id. C. 2, 3, 1.—Esp. freq. in the adv. abl.: aequo (aequiore, aequissimo) animo, with even mind, with equanimity, patiently, calmly, quietly, with forbearance: ego, nisi Bibulus adniteretur de triumpho, aequo animo essem, nunc vero aischron siôpan, Cic. Att. 6, 8:

    carere aequo animo aliquā re,

    id. Brut. 6:

    ferre aliquid,

    Nep. Dion. 6, 7; Aur. Vict. Orig. 6, 3:

    accipere,

    Sall. C. 3, 2:

    tolerare,

    id. J. 31:

    quo aequiore animo Germanicus celerem successionem operiretur,

    Suet. Tib. 25:

    testem se in judiciis interrogari aequissimo animo patiebatur,

    id. Aug. 56.—In eccl. Lat. = bono animo:

    aequo animo esto,

    be of good cheer, Vulg. 3 Reg. 21, 7:

    aequo animo (aliquis) est? Psallat,

    ib. Jacob. 5, 13.—Hence: aequi bonique facere aliquid, to regard as fair and reasonable (prop., a gen. of value, Roby, § 1191), to put up with, be content with, submit to, acquiesce in, etc.:

    istuc aequi bonique facio,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40: tranquillissimus animus meus totum istuc aequi boni [p. 59] facit, Cic. Att. 7, 7; Liv. 34, 22 fin.:

    aequi istuc faciam,

    it will be all the same to me, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 189.—So also:

    aequi bonique dicere,

    to propose any thing reasonable, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32.—Hence, aequē, adv., in like manner, equally, just as = ex aequo, pariter, Gr. isôs, omoiôs (indicating the entire equality of two objects compared, while similiter denotes only likeness):

    eā (benevolentiā) non pariter omnes egemus... honore et gloriā fortasse non aeque omnes egent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 8, 30:

    non possum ego non aut proxime atque ille aut etiam aeque laborare,

    id. Fam. 9, 13, 2:

    universa aeque eveniunt justo et impio,

    Vulg. Eccl. 9, 2.
    1.
    In the comic poets with cum or the comp. abl. (cf. adaeque); in Cic. and good class. authors gen. with et, atque, ac, ac si; less class. with quam, ut, quam ut; in Petr. with tamquam.
    (α).
    Aeque—cum:

    animum advorte, ut aeque mecum haec scias,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 66, id. Poen. prol. 47: novi aeque omnia tecum, Ter Phorm. 5, 9, 43. But in Plaut. As. 4, 1, 26, tecum una postea aeque pocla potitet, una belongs with tecum to potitet, and aeque is put absol. (sc. ut tu).—
    (β).
    Aeque with comp. abl.:

    nullus est hoc meticulosus aeque,

    as this person, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 137:

    qui me in terrā aeque fortunatus erit,

    id. Curc. 1, 2, 51.—
    (γ).
    Aeque—et or aeque— que (as in Gr. ison kai, isa kai, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 611;

    Thuc. 3, 14). nisi aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus,

    equally as ourselves, Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 67. versūs aeque prima et media et extrema pars attenditur, id. de Or. 3, 50, 192; id. Rosc. Com. 1, 2; so id. Mur. 13, 28; id. Clu. 69, 195, id. Tusc. 2, 26, 62 al.:

    quod Aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 26.—
    (δ).
    Aeque—atque, —ac, —ac si, as... as; as much as, as: vide ne, quem tu esse hebetem deputes aeque ac pecus, is, etc., Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45: pumex non aeque aridus atque hic est senex, Plaut Aul. 2, 4, 18; Ter. Phorm 1, 2, 43; Varr. R. R. 3, 8, 2:

    nisi haberes, qui illis aeque ac tu ipse gauderet,

    Cic. Lael. 6, 22:

    sed me colit et observat aeque atque patronum suum,

    id. Fam. 13, 69; 2, 2; so id. Brut. 71, 248; id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; Cels. 6, 15; Tac. H. 4, 5; Suet. Caes. 12 al.: aeque ac si. with the subj., just as if. altogether as if:

    Egnatii absentis rem ut tueare, aeque a te peto ac si mea negotia essent,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 43, 3; Auct Her 2, 13, 19: quo factum est, ut jumenta aeque nitida ex castellis educeret ac si in campestribus ea locis habuisset, Nep Eum. 5. 6; Liv. 10, 7, 4; 44, 22, 5 al.—
    (ε).
    Aeque— quam (only in Plaut. and prose writers from the Aug. per.;

    neither in Cic. nor in Cæs.),

    as... as, in the same manner as, as well... as, like, Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 55;

    nullum esse agrum aeque feracem quam hic est,

    id. Epid. 2, 3, 1:

    nihil aeque eos terruit quam robur et color imperatoris,

    Liv. 28, 26, 14, 5, 6, 11; so 5, 3, 4; 31, 1, 3;

    in navibus posita aeque quam in aedificiis,

    Plin. 2, 81, 83, § 196; so 2, 70, 72, § 180; Tac. A. 14, 38; id. H. 2, 10; 4, 52; Suet. Aug. 64, 89; id. Galb. 4 al.—
    (ζ).
    Aeque—ut, a rare combination, and unworthy of imitation (in authors of the class. per. its reception rests, for the most part, upon false readings for aeque et or aeque ac), as much as, like, cui nihil aeque in causis agendis ut brevitas placet, Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 1 Keil. accinctus aeque ut discinctus, Vulg. 3 Reg. 20, 11. Possidebitis eam (terram) singuli aeque ut frater suus, ib. Ezech. 47, 14:

    idemque proficeret aeque ut rosaceum,

    Plin. 23, 4, 45, § 89, where Jan reads proficeret quod rosaceum. —In Plaut. once aeque—quasi for the class. aeque ac. quem videam aeque esse maestum quasi dies si dicta sit, Plaut. As. 5, 1, 11 Fleck.—
    (η).
    Sometimes aeque—aeque, as well as, as much as. aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 25:

    aeque discordiam praepositorum, aeque concordiam subjectis exitiosam,

    Tac. Agr. 15.—
    2.
    The comparison is often to be supplied from the whole sentence or context; hence, aeque stands absol. for aeque ac, etc. (ante-class. freq.; also in Cic. and Liv.), equally, as much as, as: eadem oratio non aeque valet, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4 (from Eurip. Hec. 295: logos... ou tauton sthenei):

    satin habes, si feminarum nullast quam aeque diligam?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 11: Aetna mons non aeque altus, id. Mil. 4, 2, 73; 4, 7, 10; id. Most. 1, 3, 85, etc.; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 32; Cic. Fam. 4, 6, 1; so id. ib. 5, 21; id. Fin. 4, 33, 62:

    aeque sons,

    Liv. 29, 19, 2;

    so 29, 19, 4 al.: aeque non est dubium,

    it is as little doubtful, Plin. 2, 15, 13, § 68.—
    3.
    With omnes, uterque, and definite numerals, to indicate that a thing applies equally to all the objects designated, equally:

    non omnia eadem aeque omnibus suavia esse scito,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 51; Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 2; so Cic. Off. 2, 8, 31; id. Fin. 4, 27, 75 al.:

    etsi utrique nostrum prope aeque gratae erant (litterae),

    id. Fam. 13, 18; so id. Quint. 28, 86; Verg. G. 3, 118; Ov. Tr. 3, 8, 33; id. Fast. 1, 226:

    aeque ambo pares,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 60:

    duae trabes aeque longae,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 10; Suet. Aug. 101. —
    4.
    Sometimes absol., with several substantives, alike, equally:

    Tragici et comici Numquam aeque sunt meditati,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 2, 4. imperium bonus ignavus aeque sibi exoptant, Sall. C. 11.—
    5.
    In Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 42, nec est mihi quisquam, melius aeque cui velim, melius velle is, perhaps, to be taken together as a phrase, and the comp. considered as used in a restricted sense, as in melius est. Others consider the comp. as used for the simple positive; cf. adaeque.—
    B.
    Justly, with equity:

    mihi id aeque factum arbitror,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 22 dub. (Ritschl: jureque id factum arbitror).— Comp.: ferro quam fame aequius perituros, more willingly, Sall. H. Fragm.— Sup.:

    aequissime jus dicere,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 11, 2:

    judicas ut qui aequissime,

    Sid. 15, Ep. 11.
    An old adverb.
    form, aequĭter, also occurs: praeda per participes aequiter partita est, Liv. Andr. ap. Non. 512, 31; so Pac. ib., Att. ib., and Plaut. acc. to Prisc. 1010 P.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aequum

  • 33 aequus

    aequus ( aecus, Pac. 32 Rib.; Lucr. 5, 1023 Lachm. and Munro; AIQVOS, S. C. de Bacch. 1. 26), a, um, adj. [formerly referred to EIKÔ, eoika, but Pott connects it with Sanscr. ēka = one, as if properly, one and uniform; others consider it as akin to aemulor, q. v.].
    I.
    A.. Of place, that extends or lies in a horizontal direction, plain, even, level, flat (esp. freq. in the strategic descriptions of the histt.;

    syn.: planus, aequalis, aequabilis, par, similis, justus): locus ad libellam aequus,

    level, Varr. R. R. 1, 6 fin.:

    aequus et planus locus,

    Cic. Caec. 17 fin.:

    in aequum locum se demittere,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 28: legio, quae paulo aequiore loco constiterat, id. ib. 7, 51:

    in aequum locum deducere,

    Sall. J. 42 (cf. in Gr. eis to isoW katabainein, Xen. Anab. 4, 6, 18).— Trop.:

    sive loquitur ex inferiore loco sive aequo sive ex superiore,

    i. e. before the judges, sitting on raised seats, or in the Senate, or in the assembly of the people from the rostra, Cic. de Or. 3, 6, 23:

    meos multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos cum tuā summā laude,

    from the tribune, and on private matters, id. Fam. 3, 8.—In the histt., sometimes subst.: aequum, i, n., with a gen., level ground, a plain:

    facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore,

    Liv. 5, 38:

    ut primum agmen aequo, ceteri per acclive jugum insurgerent,

    Tac. Agr. 35:

    in aequum digredi,

    id. ib. 18:

    in aequo obstare,

    id. ib. 36; id. H. 4, 23.—Also, an eminence, if it rises without inequalities:

    dum Romanae cohortes in aequum eniterentur,

    up the slope, Tac. A. 2, 80.—As a level place is more favorable for military operations than an uneven one, aequus has the signif.,
    B.
    Favorable, convenient, advantageous (as its opp., iniquus, uneven, has that of unfavorable, etc.).
    1.
    Of place:

    locum se aequum ad dimicandum dedisse,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 73:

    etsi non aequum locum videbat suis,

    Nep. Milt. 5, 4:

    non hic silvas nec paludes, sed aequis locis aequos deos,

    Tac. A. 1, 68. —
    2.
    Of time: judicium aequiore tempore fieri oportere, more propitious, Cic. Corn. Fragm. ap. Ascon. p. 72:

    et tempore et loco aequo,

    Liv. 26, 3:

    tempore aequo,

    Suet. Caes. 35.—
    3.
    In gen., of persons or things (freq. and class.), favorable, kind, friendly, benevolent, etc.; constr. absol. with dat., or in and acc. (in poets in with abl.).
    (α).
    Absol.:

    consequeris, ut eos ipsos, quos contra statuas, aequos placatosque dimittas,

    Cic. Or. 10, 34:

    nobilitate inimica, non aequo senatu,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 3 med.:

    meis aequissimis utuntur auribus,

    id. Fam. 7, 33:

    oculis aspicere aequis,

    Verg. A. 4, 372:

    O dominum aequum et bonum,

    Suet. Aug. 53:

    boni et aequi et faciles domini,

    id. Tib. 29.—
    (β).
    With dat.:

    aequa Venus Teucris, Pallas iniqua fuit,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 6; id. A. A. 2, 310.—
    (γ).
    With in and acc.:

    quis hoc statuit, quod aequum sit in Quintium, id iniquum esse in Maevium,

    Cic. Quint. 14.—
    (δ).
    With in and abl.:

    victor erat quamvis, aequus in hoste fuit,

    Prop. 4, 18, 28.—Hence,
    4.
    aequus, i, m. subst., a friend:

    ego ut me tibi amicissimum esse et aequi et iniqui intellegant, curabo,

    both friends and enemies, Cic. Fam. 3, 6 fin.:

    aequis iniquisque persuasum erat,

    Liv. 5, 45.
    II.
    That is equal to another in any quality, equal, like; and of things divided into two equal parts, a half:

    aequo censu censeri,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 92:

    partīs,

    Lucr. 3, 125; so Aur. Vict. Orig. 19, 1; and Vulg. 1 Reg. 30, 24:

    aequa erit mensura sagorum,

    ib. Exod. 26, 8:

    pondera,

    ib. Lev. 19, 36:

    portio,

    ib. 2 Mach. 8, 30:

    aequa dementia,

    Lucr. 1, 705 al.:

    aequā manu discedere,

    to come off with equal advantage, Sall. C. 39; so,

    aequo Marte pugnare,

    with equal success, Liv. 2, 6; Curt. 4, 15, 29; Flor. 4, 2, 48 al.:

    urbs erat in summo nubibus aequa jugo,

    Ov. P. 4, 7, 24:

    aequum vulnus utrique tulit,

    id. M. 9, 719 (cf. id. ib. 7, 803:

    aequales urebant pectora flammae): sequiturque patrem non passibus aequis,

    Verg. A. 2, 724:

    pars aequa mundi,

    Plin. 2, 19, 17, § 81:

    utinam esset mihi pars aequa amoris tecum, i. e. aeque vicissim amaremus,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 12:

    non tertiam portionem, verum aequam,

    Plin. 3, 1, 1, § 5 al. —Hence the adverbial phrases,
    1.
    Ex aequo, in like manner, in an equal degree, equally ( = ex isou, Hdt., Dem.), Lucr. 1, 854:

    dixit et ex aequo donis formaque probata, etc.,

    Ov. H. 16, 87; 20, 123; id. Am. 1, 10, 33; id. A. A. 2, 682; id. M. 3, 145; 4, 62; Liv. 36, 37:

    adversarum rerum ex aequo socii sunt (Fosi Cheruscis), cum in secundis minores fuissent,

    Tac. G. 36 fin.
    2.
    In aequo esse or stare, to be equal:

    qui cogit mori nolentem, in aequo est, quique properantem impedit,

    Sen. Phoen. 98:

    ut naturam oderint, quod infra deos sumus, quod non in aequo illis stetimus,

    id. Ben. 2, 29: in aequo ponere aliquem alicui, to make equal, to put on an equality, to compare:

    in aequo eum (Philopoemenem) summis imperatoribus posuerunt,

    Liv. 39, 50 fin.
    B.
    Morally.
    1.
    Of persons, fair, equitable, impartial in conduct toward others (diff. from justus, just; v. aequitas, II.); constr. absol., with dat.; more rarely with gen.:

    praetor aequus et sapiens,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65; 2, 5, 59:

    aequissimus aestimator et judex,

    id. Fin. 3, 2:

    praebere se aequum alicui,

    id. Fam. 2, 1:

    absentium aequi, praesentibus mobiles,

    benevolent toward, Tac. A. 6, 36.—
    2.
    Of things, fair, right, equitable, reasonable: ITA. SENATVS. AIQVOM. CENSVIT., S. C. de Bach. 1. 26: et aecum et rectum est, Pac. ap. Non. 261, 13 (Trag. Rel. p. 81 Rib.):

    aequa et honesta postulatio,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2:

    quod justum est et aequum, servis praestate,

    just and fair, Vulg. Col. 4, 1:

    postulo primum id, quod aequissimum est, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 2:

    aequa lex et omnibus utilis,

    id. Balb. 27:

    aequissimis legibus monere,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 5:

    aequae conditiones,

    Vell. 2, 25; see Fischer, Gr. II. 611.—Hence,
    3.
    ae-quum, i, n. subst., what is fair, equitable, or just; fairness, equity, or justice, etc.: jus atque aequum, Enn. ap. Non. p. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    utilitas justi prope mater et aequi,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 98:

    aequi studium,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 6.—Often with comparatives, more than is right, proper, reasonable:

    lamentari amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 966:

    injurias gravius aequo habere,

    to feel too deeply, Sall. C. 50:

    potus largius aequo,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 215.—Hence, aequum est, it is reasonable, proper, right, etc.; constr. with acc. and inf., in good prose also with dat. pers. and ut, Rudd. II. p. 235, n. 21: nos quiescere aequom est, Enn. ap. Diom. p. 382 P. (Trag. v. 199 Vahl.):

    quae liberum scire aequom est adulescentem,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 25:

    significant Imbecillorum esse aecum misererier omnīs,

    Lucr. 5, 1023:

    non est aequum nos derelinquere verbum Dei,

    Vulg. Act. 6, 2:

    aequius est mori quam auctoritatem imperii foedare,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 12, 7:

    ut peritis? Ut piscatorem aequomst (sc. perire), fame sitique speque,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 7; so,

    sicut aequum est homini de potestate deorum timide et pauca dicamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 16, 47.—In Plaut., with abl.:

    plus vidissem quam med atque illo aequom foret,

    would be becoming in me and him, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 84; id. Rud. prol. 47.—
    4.
    Aequum as subst. very freq. with bonum = aequitas, equitable conduct toward others, fairness, equity, etc.:

    neque quidquam queo aequi bonique ab eo impetrare,

    what is right and just, Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 65:

    cum de jure civili, cum de aequo et bono disputaretur,

    Cic. Brut. 38:

    ex aequo et bono, non ex callido versutoque jure rem judicari oportere,

    id. Caecin. 23:

    fit reus magis ex aequo bonoque quam ex jure gentium,

    in accordance with justice and equity, Sall. J. 35.— Also without et:

    illi dolum malum, illi fidem bonam, illi aequum bonum tradiderunt,

    Cic. Top. 17.—So also, aequius melius, according to greater equily, Cic. Off. 3, 15; id. Top. 17.—
    C.
    Of a state of mind, even, unruffled, calm, composed, tranquil, patient, enduring (cf. aequitas, II. B.);

    esp. freq. with animus or mens: animus aequos optumum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71:

    concedo et quod animus aequus est et quia necesse est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50:

    quodadest memento Componere aequus,

    Hor. C. 3, 29, 32:

    tentantem majora, fere praesentibus aequum,

    id. Ep. 1, 17, 24;

    and so, aequam memento rebus in arduis Servare mentem, etc.,

    id. C. 2, 3, 1.—Esp. freq. in the adv. abl.: aequo (aequiore, aequissimo) animo, with even mind, with equanimity, patiently, calmly, quietly, with forbearance: ego, nisi Bibulus adniteretur de triumpho, aequo animo essem, nunc vero aischron siôpan, Cic. Att. 6, 8:

    carere aequo animo aliquā re,

    id. Brut. 6:

    ferre aliquid,

    Nep. Dion. 6, 7; Aur. Vict. Orig. 6, 3:

    accipere,

    Sall. C. 3, 2:

    tolerare,

    id. J. 31:

    quo aequiore animo Germanicus celerem successionem operiretur,

    Suet. Tib. 25:

    testem se in judiciis interrogari aequissimo animo patiebatur,

    id. Aug. 56.—In eccl. Lat. = bono animo:

    aequo animo esto,

    be of good cheer, Vulg. 3 Reg. 21, 7:

    aequo animo (aliquis) est? Psallat,

    ib. Jacob. 5, 13.—Hence: aequi bonique facere aliquid, to regard as fair and reasonable (prop., a gen. of value, Roby, § 1191), to put up with, be content with, submit to, acquiesce in, etc.:

    istuc aequi bonique facio,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40: tranquillissimus animus meus totum istuc aequi boni [p. 59] facit, Cic. Att. 7, 7; Liv. 34, 22 fin.:

    aequi istuc faciam,

    it will be all the same to me, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 189.—So also:

    aequi bonique dicere,

    to propose any thing reasonable, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32.—Hence, aequē, adv., in like manner, equally, just as = ex aequo, pariter, Gr. isôs, omoiôs (indicating the entire equality of two objects compared, while similiter denotes only likeness):

    eā (benevolentiā) non pariter omnes egemus... honore et gloriā fortasse non aeque omnes egent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 8, 30:

    non possum ego non aut proxime atque ille aut etiam aeque laborare,

    id. Fam. 9, 13, 2:

    universa aeque eveniunt justo et impio,

    Vulg. Eccl. 9, 2.
    1.
    In the comic poets with cum or the comp. abl. (cf. adaeque); in Cic. and good class. authors gen. with et, atque, ac, ac si; less class. with quam, ut, quam ut; in Petr. with tamquam.
    (α).
    Aeque—cum:

    animum advorte, ut aeque mecum haec scias,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 66, id. Poen. prol. 47: novi aeque omnia tecum, Ter Phorm. 5, 9, 43. But in Plaut. As. 4, 1, 26, tecum una postea aeque pocla potitet, una belongs with tecum to potitet, and aeque is put absol. (sc. ut tu).—
    (β).
    Aeque with comp. abl.:

    nullus est hoc meticulosus aeque,

    as this person, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 137:

    qui me in terrā aeque fortunatus erit,

    id. Curc. 1, 2, 51.—
    (γ).
    Aeque—et or aeque— que (as in Gr. ison kai, isa kai, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 611;

    Thuc. 3, 14). nisi aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus,

    equally as ourselves, Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 67. versūs aeque prima et media et extrema pars attenditur, id. de Or. 3, 50, 192; id. Rosc. Com. 1, 2; so id. Mur. 13, 28; id. Clu. 69, 195, id. Tusc. 2, 26, 62 al.:

    quod Aeque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 26.—
    (δ).
    Aeque—atque, —ac, —ac si, as... as; as much as, as: vide ne, quem tu esse hebetem deputes aeque ac pecus, is, etc., Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45: pumex non aeque aridus atque hic est senex, Plaut Aul. 2, 4, 18; Ter. Phorm 1, 2, 43; Varr. R. R. 3, 8, 2:

    nisi haberes, qui illis aeque ac tu ipse gauderet,

    Cic. Lael. 6, 22:

    sed me colit et observat aeque atque patronum suum,

    id. Fam. 13, 69; 2, 2; so id. Brut. 71, 248; id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; Cels. 6, 15; Tac. H. 4, 5; Suet. Caes. 12 al.: aeque ac si. with the subj., just as if. altogether as if:

    Egnatii absentis rem ut tueare, aeque a te peto ac si mea negotia essent,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 43, 3; Auct Her 2, 13, 19: quo factum est, ut jumenta aeque nitida ex castellis educeret ac si in campestribus ea locis habuisset, Nep Eum. 5. 6; Liv. 10, 7, 4; 44, 22, 5 al.—
    (ε).
    Aeque— quam (only in Plaut. and prose writers from the Aug. per.;

    neither in Cic. nor in Cæs.),

    as... as, in the same manner as, as well... as, like, Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 55;

    nullum esse agrum aeque feracem quam hic est,

    id. Epid. 2, 3, 1:

    nihil aeque eos terruit quam robur et color imperatoris,

    Liv. 28, 26, 14, 5, 6, 11; so 5, 3, 4; 31, 1, 3;

    in navibus posita aeque quam in aedificiis,

    Plin. 2, 81, 83, § 196; so 2, 70, 72, § 180; Tac. A. 14, 38; id. H. 2, 10; 4, 52; Suet. Aug. 64, 89; id. Galb. 4 al.—
    (ζ).
    Aeque—ut, a rare combination, and unworthy of imitation (in authors of the class. per. its reception rests, for the most part, upon false readings for aeque et or aeque ac), as much as, like, cui nihil aeque in causis agendis ut brevitas placet, Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 1 Keil. accinctus aeque ut discinctus, Vulg. 3 Reg. 20, 11. Possidebitis eam (terram) singuli aeque ut frater suus, ib. Ezech. 47, 14:

    idemque proficeret aeque ut rosaceum,

    Plin. 23, 4, 45, § 89, where Jan reads proficeret quod rosaceum. —In Plaut. once aeque—quasi for the class. aeque ac. quem videam aeque esse maestum quasi dies si dicta sit, Plaut. As. 5, 1, 11 Fleck.—
    (η).
    Sometimes aeque—aeque, as well as, as much as. aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 25:

    aeque discordiam praepositorum, aeque concordiam subjectis exitiosam,

    Tac. Agr. 15.—
    2.
    The comparison is often to be supplied from the whole sentence or context; hence, aeque stands absol. for aeque ac, etc. (ante-class. freq.; also in Cic. and Liv.), equally, as much as, as: eadem oratio non aeque valet, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4 (from Eurip. Hec. 295: logos... ou tauton sthenei):

    satin habes, si feminarum nullast quam aeque diligam?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 11: Aetna mons non aeque altus, id. Mil. 4, 2, 73; 4, 7, 10; id. Most. 1, 3, 85, etc.; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 32; Cic. Fam. 4, 6, 1; so id. ib. 5, 21; id. Fin. 4, 33, 62:

    aeque sons,

    Liv. 29, 19, 2;

    so 29, 19, 4 al.: aeque non est dubium,

    it is as little doubtful, Plin. 2, 15, 13, § 68.—
    3.
    With omnes, uterque, and definite numerals, to indicate that a thing applies equally to all the objects designated, equally:

    non omnia eadem aeque omnibus suavia esse scito,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 51; Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 2; so Cic. Off. 2, 8, 31; id. Fin. 4, 27, 75 al.:

    etsi utrique nostrum prope aeque gratae erant (litterae),

    id. Fam. 13, 18; so id. Quint. 28, 86; Verg. G. 3, 118; Ov. Tr. 3, 8, 33; id. Fast. 1, 226:

    aeque ambo pares,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 60:

    duae trabes aeque longae,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 10; Suet. Aug. 101. —
    4.
    Sometimes absol., with several substantives, alike, equally:

    Tragici et comici Numquam aeque sunt meditati,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 2, 4. imperium bonus ignavus aeque sibi exoptant, Sall. C. 11.—
    5.
    In Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 42, nec est mihi quisquam, melius aeque cui velim, melius velle is, perhaps, to be taken together as a phrase, and the comp. considered as used in a restricted sense, as in melius est. Others consider the comp. as used for the simple positive; cf. adaeque.—
    B.
    Justly, with equity:

    mihi id aeque factum arbitror,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 22 dub. (Ritschl: jureque id factum arbitror).— Comp.: ferro quam fame aequius perituros, more willingly, Sall. H. Fragm.— Sup.:

    aequissime jus dicere,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 11, 2:

    judicas ut qui aequissime,

    Sid. 15, Ep. 11.
    An old adverb.
    form, aequĭter, also occurs: praeda per participes aequiter partita est, Liv. Andr. ap. Non. 512, 31; so Pac. ib., Att. ib., and Plaut. acc. to Prisc. 1010 P.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aequus

  • 34 albus

    albus, a, um, adj. [cf. Umbr. alfu and Sab. alpus = white; alphos = white rash; O. H. Germ. Elbiz = a swan; to this have been referred also Alba Longa, Albunea, Alpes from their snowy summits (Paul. ex Fest. p. 4 Müll.), Albion from its chalky cliffs, Alpheios, and Albis = Elbe], white (properly dead white, not shining; e. g. hair, complexion, garments, etc., opp. ater, black that is without lustre; while candidus denotes a glistening, dazzling white, opp. niger, shining black.—Hence, trop., albus and ater, a symbol of good or ill fortune; on the other hand, candidus and niger of moral worth or unworthiness; cf. Doed. Syn. III. 193 sq.—So Serv. ad Verg. G. 3, 82: aliud est candidum, i. e. quādam nitenti luce perfusum esse; aliud album, quod pallori constat esse vicinum; cf. Verg. E. 7, 38: Candidior cycnis, hederā formosior albā, with id. ib. 3, 39: diffusos hederā vestit pallente corymbos; but this distinction is freq. disregarded by the poets).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    barba,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 15:

    corpus,

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 115:

    color albus praecipue decorus deo est, maxime in textili,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 18, 45: albus calculus, the small white stone used in voting, as a sign of acceding to the opinion of any one, or of the acquittal of one who is under accusation (opp. ater calculus;

    v. calculus).— Hence, trop.: alicui rei album calculum adicere,

    to allow, approve of, authorize, Plin. Ep. 1, 2, 5.—In Enn. an epithet of the sun and moon: sol, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 92 Vahl.): jubar Hyperionis, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 658 P. (Ann. v. 547 ib.).—The following are examples of the opposition of albus and niger (instead of ater) as exceptions to the gen. rule; so always in Lucr. (who also uses albus and candidus or candens promiscuously), 2, 810; 822 sqq.; 731 sq.; 790; 767-771. Once in Cic.: quae alba sint, quae nigra dicere, Div. 2, 3; so Phaedr. 3, 15, 10; Ov. M. 2, 541; cf. with id. ib. 2, 534 and 535; also id. ib. 12, 403; 15, 46; id. H. 15, 37 al.:

    albi et nigri velleris,

    Vulg. Gen. 30, 35:

    non potes unum capillum album facere aut nigrum,

    ib. Matt. 5, 36.—
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    Pale, from sickness, terror, care, and the like:

    aquosus albo Corpore languor, of dropsical persons,

    Hor. C. 2, 2, 15:

    pallor,

    id. Epod. 7, 15:

    vivat et urbanis albus in officiis,

    pale from the cares of his public office, Mart. 1, 56 fin. et saep. —
    2.
    Of clothing, white: alba decent Cererem;

    vestes Cerealibus albas Sumite,

    Ov. F. 4, 619:

    vidit duos Angelos in albis,

    Vulg. Joan. 20, 12; ib. Apoc. 3, 4.—Hence, poet. transf. to the person, clothed in white, Hor. S. 1, 2, 36: pedibus qui venerat albis, who had come with white feet, i. e. marked with chalk, as for sale, Juv. 1, 111 (cf. gypsatus and also Plin. 35, 17, 58, §§ 199-201; Mayor ad 1. 1.).—
    3.
    Prov. phrases.
    a.
    Dentibus albis deridere, to deride one by laughing so as to show the teeth, for to deride much, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 48 (cf. id. Capt. 3, 1, 26).—
    b.
    Albus an ater sit, nescio or non curo, I know not, care not whether he is white or black, i. e. he is entirely indifferent to me:

    vide, quam te amārit is, qui albus aterve fueris ignorans, fratris filium praeteriit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 16:

    unde illa scivit, ater an albus nascerer,

    Phaedr. 3, 15, 10; Cat. 93, 2; cf. Quint. 11, 1, 38.—
    c.
    Albo rete aliquid oppugnare, to attack or seize upon something with a white net, i. e. in a delicate, skilful manner:

    qui hic albo rete aliena oppugnant bona,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 22 (so the passage seems to be more simply explained than acc. to the opinion of Gron.: qui albo (by the register of the prætor) tamquam rete, which omission of the tamquam is a Horatian, but not a Plautinian idiom). —
    d.
    Albā lineā aliquid signare, to make a white line upon a white ground, i. e. to make no distinction: et amabat omnes, nam ut discrimen non facit... signat linea alba, Lucil. ap. Non. 282, 28 (where the common editions have neque before signare, which gives the expression a directly opposite sense): albā, ut dicitur, lineā sine curā discriminis convertebant, Gell. praef. 11.—
    * e.
    Alba avis, a white sparrow, for something rare, uncommon, strange:

    quasi avem albam videntur bene sentientem civem videre,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28 (quasi novum quiddam; proverbium ex eo natum, quia rarae aves albae, Manut. ad h. 1.).—
    * f.
    Filius albae gallinae, fortune's favorite child, Juv. 13, 141, prob. an allusion to the miracle that happened to Livia in regard to a white hen, v. Plin. 15, 30, 40; Suet. Galb. 1 (Ruperti ad h. 1, refers this expression to the unfruitfulness of a white hen, and conpares Col. R. R. 8, 2, 7).—
    * g.
    Equis albis praecurrere aliquem, to excel, surpass one, Hor. S. 1, 7, 8 (the figure being drawn from the white horses attached to a triumphal chariot; cf. Suet. Ner. 25; id. Dom. 2).—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Favorable, fortunate, propitious:

    simul alba nautis Stella refulsit,

    i. e. the twin-star Castor, favorable to sailors, Hor. C. 1, 12, 27:

    dies,

    Sil. 15, 53:

    sint omnia protinus alba,

    Pers. 1, 110.—
    B.
    Poet. and act., of the wind, making clear or bright, dispersing the clouds; hence, dry:

    Notus,

    Hor. C. 1, 7, 15 (as a transl. of the Gr. leukonotos):

    iapyx,

    id. ib. 3, 27, 19 (cf.:

    clarus aquilo,

    Verg. G. 1, 460).—Whence,
    III.
    album, i, n., whiteness.
    A.
    White color, white:

    maculis insignis et albo,

    Verg. G. 3, 56;

    sparsis pellibus albo,

    id. E. 2, 41:

    columnas polire albo,

    to make white, whiten, Liv. 40, 51.—Hence,
    2.
    Esp.,
    a.
    The white of the eye:

    oculorum,

    Cels. 2, 6; so id. 7, 7, n. 6 and 12.—
    b.
    The white of an egg:

    ovi,

    Cels. 6, 6, n. 7.—
    c.
    In Col. 6, 17, 7, a white spot on the eye, i. e. a disease of it, = albugo.—
    B.
    In the lang. of polit. life, a white tablet, on which any thing is inscribed (like leukôma in Gr.).
    1.
    The tablets on which the Pontifex Maximus registered the principal events of the year, the Annales maximi (v. annales): in album referre, to enter or record in, Cic. de Or. 2, 12, 52; Liv. 1, 32, 2.—
    2.
    The tablets of the prœtor, on which his edicts were written, and which were posted up in some public place, Paul. Sent. l. 1, t. 14.—Hence, sedere ad album, to be employed with the edicts of the prœtor, Sen. Ep. 48:

    se ad album transferre,

    Quint. 12, 3, 11 Spald.—
    3.
    Esp., a list of names, a register, e. g. Album senatorium, the tablet on which the names of the senators were enrolled, the roll, register, which, by the order of Augustus, was to be posted up annually in the senate-house, Diom. 55, 3, and Fragm. 137:

    aliquem albo senatorio eradere,

    Tac. A. 4, 42 fin. —Also, the list of the judges chosen by the quœstors:

    aliquem albo judicum eradere,

    Suet. Claud. 16; so id. Dom. 8.—And transf. to other catalogues of names:

    citharoedorum,

    Suet. Ner. 21.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > albus

  • 35 amo

    ămo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. (amāsso = amavero, Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 23; id. Curc. 4, 4, 22; id. Mil. 4, 2, 16; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 28 Müll.:

    amāsse = amavisse,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 1, 11:

    amantum = amantium,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 4; Lucr. 4, 1077; Ov. A. A. 1, 439) [cf. Sanscr. kam = to love; hama = Sanscr. sam = Germ. sammt; Engl. same, Lat. similis; with the radical notion of likeness, union], to like, to love, eraô, phileô (both in the higher and the lower sense, opp. odisse; while diligere (agapô) designates esteem, regard; opp. neglegere or spernere; cf. Doed. Syn. IV. p. 97; in the high sense in the philos. writings and Epp. of Cicero; often in the low sense, esp. in the comic poets. In the Vulg. amo and amor are comparatively little used, prob. from their bad associations, amo being used 51 times and amor 20. Instead of these words, diligo, dilectio and caritas were used. Diligo (incl. dilectus) occurs 422 times, and dilectio and caritas 144 times in all; dilectio 43 and caritas 101 times).
    I.
    In gen.:

    quid autem est amare, nisi velle bonis aliquem adfici, quam maximis, etiamsi ad se ex iis nihil redeat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24:

    amare autem nihil aliud est, nisi eum ipsum diligere, quem ames, nullā indigentiā, nullā utilitate quaesitā,

    id. Am. 27, 100:

    videas corde amare (eos) inter se,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 60; Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 42:

    liberi amare patrem atque matrem videntur,

    Gell. 12, 1, 23:

    qui amat patrem aut matrem,

    Vulg. Matt. 6, 5:

    ipse Pater amat vos, h. l. used of God,

    ib. Joan. 16, 27:

    Cicerones pueri amant inter se,

    love each other, Cic. Att. 6, 1:

    magis te quam oculos nunc amo meos,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 67:

    quem omnes amare meritissimo debemus,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 55, 234.—So, amare aliquem ex animo, to love with all one's heart, Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 5:

    unice patriam et cives,

    id. Cat. 3, 5:

    aliquem amore singulari,

    id. Fam. 15, 20:

    sicut mater unicum amat filium suum,

    Vulg. 2 Reg. 1, 26:

    dignus amari,

    Verg. E. 5, 89.—Amare in ccntr. with diligere, as stronger, more affectionate: Clodius valde me diligit, vel, ut emphatikôteron dicam, valde me amat, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 1; id. Fam. 9, 14:

    eum a me non diligi solum, verum etiam amari,

    id. ib. 13, 47; id. Fragm. ap. Non. 421, 30 (Orell. IV. 2, p. 466); Plin. Ep. 3, 9.—But diligere, as indicative of esteem, is more emph. than amare, which denotes an instinctive or affectionate love:

    non quo quemquam plus amem, aut plus diligam, Eo feci, sed, etc.,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 16:

    homo nobilis, qui a suis et amari et diligi vellet,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23:

    te semper amavi dilexique,

    have loved and esteemed, id. Fam. 15, 7: diligis (agapais) me plus his? Etiam, Domine, tu scis quia amo (philô) te, Vulg. Joan. 21, 15 sqq., ubi v. Alford, Gr. Test. al.—Hence in asseverations: ita (sic) me dii (bene) ament or amabunt, so may the gods love me, by the love of the gods, most assuredly:

    ita me di amabunt, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 3, 30 (v. the pass. in its connection):

    ita me di ament, credo,

    Ter. And. 5, 4, 44:

    non, ita me di bene ament,

    id. Hec. 2, 1, 9:

    sic me di amabunt, ut, etc.,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 54.—Hence also ellipt.: ita me Juppiter! (sc. amet or amabit), Plaut. Poen. 1, 3, 31 (so in Engl. with different ellipsis, bless me! sc. God).—And as a salutation: Me. Salvus atque fortunatus, Euclio, semper sies. Eu. Di te ament, Me gadore, the gods bless you! Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 6 al.—
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    Amare se, of vain men, to be in love with, to be pleased with one's self, also, to be selfish (used mostly by Cic.):

    quam se ipse amans sine rivali!

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 8:

    nisi nosmet ipsos valde amabimus,

    id. Off. 1, 9, 29; so id. Att. 4, 16 med.; id. Har. Resp. 9:

    homines se ipsos amantes,

    Vulg. 2 Tim. 3, 2.—
    B.
    Of unlawful love, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 30:

    ut videas eam medullitus me amare!

    id. Most. 1, 3, 86 et saep.:

    meum gnatum rumor est amare,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 14; 1, 2, 20 al.:

    ibi primum insuevit exercitus populi Romani amare, potare, etc.,

    Sall. C. 11, 6:

    quae (via) eo me solvat amantem,

    Verg. A. 4, 479:

    non aequo foedere amare,

    id. ib. 4, 520; Hor. S. 2, 3, 250 Heind.; Vulg. Jud. 16, 4; ib. 2 Reg. 13, 4 al. —
    C.
    Trop., to love a thing, to like, to be fond of, to find pleasure in, delight in:

    nomen, orationem, vultum, incessum alicujus amare,

    Cic. Sest. 49, 105:

    amavi amorem tuum,

    id. Fam. 9, 16:

    Alexidis manum amabam,

    id. Att. 7, 2:

    amabat litteras,

    Nep. Att. 1, 2:

    ea, quae res secundae amant, lasciviā atque superbiā incessere,

    Sall. J. 41, 3:

    amare nemus et fugere urbem,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 77:

    amat bonus otia Daphnis,

    Verg. E. 5, 61:

    non omnes eadem mirantur amantque,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 58:

    mirā diversitate naturā, cum īdem homines sic ament inertiam et oderint quietem,

    Tac. G. 15:

    pax et quies tunc tantum amata,

    id. ib. 40:

    qui amant vinum et pinguia,

    Vulg. Prov. 21, 17:

    amant salutationes in foro,

    ib. Luc. 20, 46: amat Janua limen, loves to remain shut, i. e. is constantly closed, Hor. C. 1, 25, 3; so,

    Nilus amet alveum suum,

    keep to its bed, Plin. Pan. 31, 4 al. —With inf. as object:

    hic ames dici pater atque princeps,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 50:

    amant in synagogis orare,

    Vulg. Matt. 6, 5.—
    D.
    Amare aliquem de or in aliquā re, quod, etc., to like one for something, to be obliged to one for something, to be under obligation, be thankful.
    a.
    With de:

    ecquid nos amas De fidicinā istac?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 3:

    de raudusculo multum te amo,

    Cic. Att. 7, 2, 7.—
    b.
    With in:

    et in Attilii negotio te amavi,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 62.—
    c.
    With quod:

    te multum amamus, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 3: amas me, quod te non vidi? Domit. Afer. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 93.—Also without prep. or quod: soror, parce, amabo. Anter. Quiesco. Adelph. Ergo amo te, I like you, am much obliged to you, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 40:

    bene facis: Merito te amo,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 23.—Hence in the eilipt. lang. of conversation, amabo or amabo te (never amabo vos, etc.), lit. I shall like you ( if you say, do, etc., that for me).—Hence in entreaties = oro, quaeso, precor (with ut or ne foll.), be so good, I pray, entreat you (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.; in the latter always amabo without te;

    in Cic. only in Epistt.): quis hic, amabo, est, qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 26:

    qui, amabo?

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 19:

    quid, amabo, obticuisti?

    id. ib. 1, 1, 28 et saep.:

    id, amabo, adjuta me,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 70:

    id agite, amabo,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 50 al.; Cat. 32, 1:

    id, amabo te, huic caveas,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 10; id. Men. 4, 3, 4:

    amabo te, advola,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 10:

    cura, amabo te, Ciceronem nostrum,

    id. Att. 2, 2.—With ut or ne foll.:

    scin quid te amabo ut facias?

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 71; 3, 3, 1:

    amabo, ut illuc transeas,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 31:

    amabo te, ne improbitati meae assignes, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 4.—
    E.
    With inf., to do a thing willingly, to be wont or accustomed to (cf. phileô; mostly poet. or in post-Aug. prose):

    clamore, vultu, saepe impetu, atque aliis omnibus, quae ira fieri amat,

    delights to have done, is wont to do, Sall. J. 34, 1; cf. Quint. 9, 3, 17:

    aurum per medios ire satellites Et perrumpere amat saxa potentius Ictu fulmineo,

    Hor. C. 3, 16, 9; so id. ib. 2, 3, 9; id. Epod. 8, 15; Plin. 13, 4, 7, § 28; Tac. A. 4, 9.—Hence, ămans, antis, P. a., with gen. or absol.
    A.
    Fond, loving, kind, feeling kindly to, benevolent, pleasing; and subst., a friend, patron:

    continentem, amantem uxoris maxime,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 7:

    veterem amicum suum studiosum, amantem, observantem sui,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 16:

    homines amantes tui,

    id. Fam. 9, 6:

    cives amantes patriae,

    id. Att. 9, 19; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 5:

    amans cruoris,

    Ov. P. 2, 9, 46:

    ad nos amantissimos tui veni,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 7:

    Amantissimus Domini habitabit in eo,

    Vulg. Deut. 33, 12; ib. Amos, 5, 11: amantissima eorum non proderunt iis, their most [p. 108] pleasant things, ib. Isa. 44, 9; so ib. Os. 9, 16.—
    B.
    Trop., of things, friendly, affectionate:

    nomen amantius indulgentiusque,

    Cic. Clu. 5:

    lenissimis et amantissimis verbis utens,

    id. Fam. 5, 15 al. —
    C.
    Sometimes in a bad sense = amator or amica, a paramour; cf. Wolf ad Cic. Tusc. 4, 12, 27; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 38:

    quis fallere possit amantem,

    Verg. A. 4, 296; 4, 429:

    amantium irae amoris integratio est,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 23:

    oblitos famae melioris amantīs,

    Verg. A. 4, 221:

    perjuria amantūm,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 633.— Hence, ămanter, adv., lovingly, affectionately, Cic. Fam. 5, 19; id. Att. 2, 4.— Comp., Tac. A. 1, 43.— Sup., Cic. Am. 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amo

  • 36 amplissime

    amplus, a, um, adj. [some regard this as a shortened form of anapleôs, = filled up, full; others, as for ambulus from amb-, rounded out, as superus from super, etc.; v. Doed. Syn. II. p. 113; but perh. it is better to form it from am- and -plus, akin to -pleo, plenus, q. v. Pott], thus pr., full all round; hence, great, large. —In space, of large extent, great, large, wide, ample, spacious (the forms amplus and amplior are very rare in the ante-class. per., and rare in all periods. Amplius is com. in the ante-class., freq. in the class., and very freq. in the post-class. per., the Vulg. rarely using the other forms, but using this 121 times. Amplissimus belongs to prose, and is scarcely used before Cicero, with whom it was a very favorite word. It was also used by Plin. Maj. and Min., but never by Tac., Sall. (in his genuine works), nor the Vulg. Catullus used only the form amplius, and Prop. only amplus, while Tib. and Pers. never used this word in any form. Ampliter is found mostly in Plaut.; and ample and amplissime are used a few times by Cic. and by writers that followed him; syn.: magnus, ingens, latus, late patens, spatiosus, laxus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    amplus et spectu protervo ferox,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 94 Rib.:

    qui (Pluto) ter amplum Geryonen compescit unda,

    Hor. C. 2, 14, 7:

    ampla domus dedecori domino fit, si est in ea solitudo,

    Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139; so Verg. A. 2, 310:

    admodum amplum et excelsum signum,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 74:

    collis castris parum amplus,

    Sall. J. 98, 3:

    porticibus in amplis,

    Verg. A. 3, 353:

    per amplum mittimur Elysium,

    id. ib. 6, 743:

    vocemque per ampla volutant Atria,

    id. ib. 1, 725:

    nil vulva pulchrius ampla,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 41:

    amplae aures,

    Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274:

    milium amplum grano,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 55:

    cubiculum amplum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 6:

    baptisterium amplum atque opacum,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 25.— Comp.:

    quanto est res amplior,

    Lucr. 2, 1133:

    Amplior Urgo et Capraria,

    Plin. 3, 6, 12, § 81:

    avis paulo amplior passere,

    id. 10, 32, 47, § 89:

    amplior specie mortali,

    Suet. Aug. 94; id. Caes. 76 (for the neutr. amplius, v. infra).— Sup.:

    amplissima curia... gymnasium amplissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53:

    urbs amplissima atque ornatissima,

    id. Agr. 2, 76:

    amplissimum peristylum,

    id. Dom. 116:

    (candelabrum) ad amplissimi templi ornatum esse factum,

    id. Verr. 4, 65:

    mons Italiae amplissimus,

    Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48:

    amplissimum flumen,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 3:

    amplissimus lacus,

    id. ib. 10, 41, 2:

    amplissima insula,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 71:

    amplissimi horti,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 18, 11:

    amplissima arborum,

    Plin. 16, 39, 76, § 200:

    est (topazon) amplissima gemmarum,

    id. 37, 8, 32, § 109:

    amplissimum cubiculum,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 23.—
    B.
    Transf., great, abundant, ample, much, long:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6 and Ep. 2, 2, 117:

    pabula miseris mortalibus ampla,

    Lucr. 5, 944:

    ampla civitas,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 81; 4, 96:

    civitas ampla atque florens,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 3:

    gens ampla,

    Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 125:

    amplae copiae,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19:

    ampla manus militum,

    Liv. Epit. 1, 4, 9:

    pecuaria res ampla,

    Cic. Quinct. 12:

    res familiaris ampla,

    id. Phil. 13, 8:

    (res) ampla,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 3, 82, 20 Kritz:

    patrimonium amplum et copiosum,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 6; id. Dom. 146: id. Phil. 2, 67:

    amplae divitiae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 101:

    esse patri ejus amplas facultates,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 9:

    in amplis opibus heres,

    Plin. 9, 36, 59, § 122.— Comp.:

    amplior numerus,

    Cic. Mil. 57; Sall. J. 105, 3; Tac. A. 14, 53:

    ampliores aquae,

    Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 58:

    amplior exercitus,

    Sall. J. 54, 3; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    commeatus spe amplior,

    Sall. J. 75, 8:

    amplior pecunia, Auct. B. Alex. 56: pecunia amplior,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 2:

    pretia ampliora,

    Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84:

    omnia longe ampliora invenire quam etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10:

    ampliores noctes,

    Plin. 18, 26, 63, § 232:

    ut ampliori tempore maneret,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 20.— Sup.:

    peditatus copiae amplissimae e Gallia,

    Cic. Font. 8:

    exercitus amplissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; 9, 13, 11:

    amplissima pecunia,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 31:

    amplissimae fortunae,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 8; id. Quinct. 49; id. Phil. 10, 4:

    amplissimae patrimonii copiae,

    id. Fl. 89:

    amplissimas summas emptionibus occupare,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 2, 3:

    opes amplissimae,

    id. ib. 8, 18, 4:

    amplissima dies horarum quindecim etc.,

    the longest day, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 218.—Also subst. in comp. neutr. (v. amplius, adv. infra), more:

    ut quirem exaudire amplius,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    si vis amplius dari, Dabitur,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 18:

    jam amplius orat,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    daturus non sum amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29:

    non complectar in his libris amplius quam quod etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 22:

    tantum adfero quantum ipse optat, atque etiam amplius,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 10:

    ni amplius etiam, quod ebibit,

    id. Trin. 2, 1, 20: Ph. Etiamne amplius? Th. Nil, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 63: Tr. Dimidium Volo ut dicas. Gr. Immo hercle etiam amplius, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 21: Th. Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae? Tr. Haud nummo amplius, id. Most. 3, 3, 16:

    etiam amplius illam adparare condecet,

    Turp. Com. Rel. p. 100 Rib.:

    hoc onere suscepto amplexus animo sum aliquanto amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1:

    si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 54:

    omnis numerus amplius octingentis milibus explebat,

    Vell. 2, 110, 3:

    Segestanis imponebat aliquanto amplius quam etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 76:

    illa corona contentus Thrasybulus neque amplius requisivit,

    Nep. Thras. 4, 3:

    amplius possidere,

    Plin. 18, 4, 3, § 17:

    Ille imperio ei reddito haud amplius, quam ut duo ex tribus filiis secum militarent, exegit,

    Curt. 8, 4, 21:

    dedit quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius, si potuisset,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 21, 6:

    cum hoc amplius praestet, quod etc.,

    id. ib. 7, 25, 1.—Also with part. gen., more of, a greater quantity or number of:

    gaudeo tibi liberorum esse amplius,

    Plaut. Cist. 5, 4:

    te amplius bibisse praedicet loti,

    Cat. 39, 21:

    amplius frumenti auferre,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 49:

    expensum est auri viginti paulo amplius,

    id. Fl. 6, 8:

    amplius negotii contrahi,

    id. Cat. 4, 9:

    si amplius obsidum vellet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9, ubi v. Herz.:

    quanto ejus amplius processerat temporis,

    id. B. C. 3, 25.—
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Of internal power or force, great, strong, violent, impetuous:

    pro viribus amplis,

    Lucr. 5, 1174:

    amplae vires peditum,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 75;

    ampla nepotum Spes,

    Prop. 4, 22, 41:

    poena sera, sed ampla,

    full, strict, id. 4, 5, 32. — Comp.:

    haec irae factae essent multo ampliores,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 9:

    si forte morbus amplior factus siet, i. e. gravior,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 50:

    amplior metus,

    Cic. Clu. 128:

    amplior potentia feris,

    Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153:

    ampliorem dicendi facultatem consequi,

    Quint. 2, 3, 4:

    amplior eoque acrior impetus,

    Flor. 4, 2, 66:

    spes amplior,

    Sall. J. 105, 4:

    amplius accipietis judicium,

    severer, Vulg. Matt. 23, 14:

    amplior auctoritas,

    Plin. 37, 3, 12, § 47:

    amplior virtus,

    higher merit, Quint. 8, 3, 83:

    idem aut amplior cultus (dei),

    Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 18:

    amplior est quaestio,

    Quint. 3, 5, 8:

    ampliora verba,

    of larger meaning, id. 8, 4, 2: scientia intellegentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventae sunt in te, Vulg. Dan. 5, 14:

    quo legatis animus amplior esset,

    Sall. C. 40, 6; 59, 1:

    spiritus amplior,

    Vulg. Dan. 5, 12; 6, 3.— Sup.:

    (honos) pro amplissimis meritis redditur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 41:

    cujus sideris (Caniculae) effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur,

    very violent, Plin. 2, 40, 40, § 107:

    amplissima spes,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    his finis cognitionis amplissimae,

    most important trial, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 23.—
    B.
    Of external splendor, great, handsome, magnificent, splendid, glorious:

    illis ampla satis forma, pudicitia,

    great enough, Prop. 1, 2, 24:

    haec ampla sunt, haec divina,

    Cic. Sest. 102; id. Arch. 23:

    res gestae satis amplae,

    Sall. C. 8, 2:

    cur parum amplis adfecerit praemiis,

    Cic. Mil. 57:

    ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus meritis praemia acceperunt,

    Tac. A. 14, 53:

    amplum in modum praemia ostentare,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 26, 6:

    amplis honoribus usi,

    Sall. J. 25, 4:

    amplis honoribus auctos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 11.—Sometimes in mal. part. or ironically:

    amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    a fine opportunity, Cic. Verr. 2, 61:

    spolia ampla refertis Tuque puerque tuus,

    glorious spoils, Verg. A. 4, 93.— Comp.:

    ne ullum munus aedilitatis amplius aut gratius populo esse possit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5; id. Mur. 37:

    praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri,

    id. de Or. 1, 4, 13:

    alicui ampliorem laudem tribuere,

    id. Sest. 27:

    in aliqua re esse laudem ampliorem,

    id. Marcell. 4:

    corporis membris plus dedit, id amplius atque augustius ratus (Zeuxis),

    Quint. 12, 10, 5:

    ut Augustus vocaretur ampliore cognomine,

    Suet. Aug. 7.— Subst.:

    in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur,

    of something greater, Sall. J. 63, 5.— Sup.:

    ut consules monumentum quam amplissimum faciundum curent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 38; 14, 31; id. Verr. 4, 82:

    hoc munus aedilitatis amplissimum,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 36; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 1, 74:

    alicui amplissimas potestates dare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31:

    insignibus amplissimis ornatus,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    dona amplissima conferre,

    Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9:

    praemia legatis dedistis amplissima,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5; id. Phil. 2, 32:

    spe amplissimorum praemiorum adduci,

    id. Mil. 5; id. de Or. 1, 5, 16:

    velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi laboris,

    Quint. 10, 7, 1:

    munera amplissima mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    vestris beneficiis amplissimis adfectus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 51; id. Dom. 98:

    laudi amplissimae lauream concedere,

    id. Pis. 74:

    laudibus amplissimis adficere,

    id. Phil. 7, 11:

    amplissimam gloriam consequi,

    id. Prov. Cons. 39:

    ut eum amplissimo regis honore et nomine adfeceris,

    id. Deiot. 14:

    amplissimis aliquem efferre honoribus,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 17, 3:

    amplissimis uti honoribus,

    Cic. Fl. 45:

    amplissimos honores adipisci,

    id. Verr. 5, 181:

    honores adsequi amplissimos,

    id. Mil. 81:

    aliquem ad honores amplissimos perducere,

    id. Am. 20, 73:

    meus labor fructum est amplissimum consecutus,

    id. Imp. Pomp 2:

    mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur,

    in the handsomest termis, id. Cat. 3, 14; id. Phil. 2, 13; id. Quir. 15:

    ei amplissimis verbis gratias egimus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3:

    provincia Gallia merito ornatur verbis amplissimis ab senatu,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    amplissimis verbis conlaudatus,

    Suet. Caes. 16:

    amplissimo populi senatusque judicio exercitus habuistis,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 12; id. Fl. 5; id. Dom. 86; id. Planc. 93:

    de meo consulatu amplissima atque ornatissima decreta fecerunt,

    id. Dom. 74:

    quam universi populi, illius gentis, amplissimum testimonium (said of Cic.),

    Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116.—
    C.
    In respect of the opinion of others, esteemed, renowned, etc.:

    quicquid est, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare (putare possumus), qui etc.,

    great or noble, id. Imp. Pomp. 37:

    omnia, quae vobis cara atque ampla sunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 9; id. Arch. 23:

    convenerunt corrogati et quidem ampli quidam homines,

    id. Phil. 3, 20:

    hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli,

    small and great, Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 28:

    amplis doctoribus instructus,

    Tac. A. 14, 52:

    sin autem sunt amplae et honestae familiae plebeiae,

    Cic. Mur. 7, 15.— Comp.:

    cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    ampliores ordines,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 77, where Dinter reads priores: quo (ingenio) neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, [p. 112] Sall. J. 2, 4:

    nihil amplius potes (tribuere) amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    quid amplius facitis?

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 47.— Sup.:

    ex amplissimo genere nubere,

    Cic. Cael. 34:

    amplissimo genere natus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    genere copiisque amplissimus, id. ib 6, 15: quam (familiam) vidit amplissimam,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12:

    amplissimos patruos habere,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 147:

    amplissima civitas,

    id. Verr. 5, 122:

    apud illos Fabiorum nomen est amplissimum,

    id. Font. 36; id. Caecin. 104; id. Verr. 3, 96; id. Deiot. 14:

    mihi hic locus ad agendum amplissimus est visus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    non adgrediar ad illa maxima atque amplissima prius quam etc.,

    id. Sest. 5:

    licet tribuas ei quantum amplissimum potes, nihil tamen amplius potes amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplissimis operibus increscere,

    id. ib. 8, 4, 3:

    honores in amplissimo consilio collocare,

    Cic. Sen. 2:

    amplissimi orbis terrae consilii principes,

    id. Phil. 3, 34: honoris amplissimi puto esse accusare improbos, I esteem it to be the greatest honor, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 70:

    promotus ad amplissimas procurationes,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 31, 3:

    praeter honores amplissimos cognomenque etc.,

    Plin. 7, 44, 45, § 142:

    spes amplissimae dignitatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 49; id. Sen. 19, 68; Suet. Vit. 2.—
    D.
    Hence, amplissimus (almost always thus in sup.) as a title for persons holding great and honored offices, as consul, senator, etc., or as an honorable epithet of the office itself or the body of officers, distinguished, very distinguished, honorable, right honorable, most honorable, etc.:

    is mihi videtur amplissimus, qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 83:

    homo et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimus,

    id. Mur. 8:

    P. Africanus rebus gestis amplissimus,

    id. Caecin. 69:

    ut homines amplissimi testimonium de sua re non dicerent,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 102; id. Clu. 197:

    Q. Catuli atque ceterorum amplissimorum hominum auctoritas,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 63:

    vir amplissimus ejus civitatis,

    id. Verr. 4, 17; id. Fl. 32:

    exercitum Cn. Domitii, amplissimi viri, sustentavit,

    id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem (of L. Lucullus),

    id. Arch. 4, 8; id. Lig. 22:

    in quo consilio amplissimi viri judicarent,

    id. Mil. 5; id. Balb. 1; id. Dom. 2:

    comitatus virorum amplissimorum,

    id. Sull. 9:

    viros primarios atque amplissimos civitatis in consilium advocare,

    id. Verr. 3, 18:

    ordinis amplissimi esse,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 13, 1; 37, 6:

    cives amplissimos legare,

    Cic. Balb. 42:

    hoc amplissimum nomen, i. e. senatorium,

    id. Verr. 3, 96:

    amplissimus honos, i. e. consulatus,

    id. Rep. 1, 6; so,

    amplissimo praeditus magistratu,

    Suet. Aug. 26:

    amplissimus ordo, i. e. senatorius,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 3; Suet. Calig. 49:

    amplissimi ordines, i. e. senatus et equites,

    id. Vesp. 9:

    amplissimum collegium decemvirale,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49:

    an vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 3:

    amplissimum sacerdotium,

    id. Verr. 2, 126; id. Phil. 13, 8:

    sacerdotium amplissimum,

    id. Verr. 2, 127.—
    E.
    As rhet. epithet:

    amplus orator,

    one that speaks richly and with dignity, Cic. Or. 9; id. Brut. 68:

    herous (pes), qui est idem dactylus Aristoteli amplior, iambus humanior videatur,

    grander, more stately, Quint. 9, 4, 88:

    amplius compositionis genus,

    more copious style, id. 9, 4, 129.— Adv. (on the extent of the use of the different forms of the adverb, v. supra init.), largely, abundantly, copiously.
    I.
    Lit.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    benigne ei largi atque ampliter,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    aptate munde atque ampliter convivium,

    Pomp. Com. Rel. p. 234 Rib.:

    extructam ampliter mensam,

    Lucil. 13, 7 Mull.:

    opsonato ampliter,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65:

    adpositum est ampliter,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 163:

    acceptus hilare atque ampliter,

    id. Merc. prol. 98:

    modeste melius facere sumptum quam ampliter,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 10:

    parum (digitulos) immersisti ampliter,

    not deep enough, id. Bacch. 4, 4, 26.—
    b.
    Form amplē:

    exornat ample magnificeque triclinium,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 62: qui ample valetudinarios nutriunt, in great numbers (v. the context), Cels. praef. med.
    II.
    Trop., fully, handsomely.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    ampliter dicere,

    fully, particularly, Gell. 10, 3, 4:

    laudare ampliter,

    id. 2, 6, 11.—
    b.
    Form amplē: duo genera sunt: unum attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, with great fulness, richly (v. amplus, II. E.), Cic. Brut. 55, 201; so,

    elate ampleque loqui,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 24:

    satis ample sonabant in Pompeiani nominis locum Cato et Scipio,

    full grandly filled the place of, Flor. 4, 2, 65.— Comp.: amplĭus, more, longer, further, besides (syn.: ultra, praeterea); of time, number, and action (while plus denotes more in quantity, measure, etc.; magis, more, in the comparison of quality, and sometimes of action; and potius, rather, the choice between different objects or acts), constr. absol., with comp. abl., and, in the case of numerals, like minus, plus, propius, q. v., without quam with the nom., acc., or gen., or rarely with the abl. comp., or with quam, but chiefly in the post-Aug. per.; cf. Zumpt, § 485; Madv. § 305; Roby, § 1273; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 4, 12; and Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 521 sq.
    a.
    In gen.:

    deliberatum est non tacere [me] amplius,

    Afran. Com. Rel. p. 199 Rib.:

    otium ubi erit, de istis rebus tum amplius tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18:

    cui amplius male faxim,

    id. Aul. 3, 2, 6: De. Etiam? Li. Amplius, id. As. 1, 1, 29: Ar. Vale. Ph. Aliquanto amplius valerem, si hic maneres, id. ib. 3, 3, 2:

    etiam faxo amabit (eam) amplius,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 40:

    multo tanto illum accusabo, quam te accusavi, amplius,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 49:

    quo populum servare potissit amplius,

    Lucil. 1, 15 Mull.:

    At ego amplius dico,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 26:

    amplius posse,

    Sall. J. 69, 2:

    armis amplius valere,

    id. ib. 111, 1:

    si lamentetur miser amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 953:

    tribus vobis opsonatumst an opsono amplius Tibi et parasito et mulieri?

    besides, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 45:

    Quam vellem invitatum, ut nobiscum esset amplius,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    in illo exercitu cuncta (probra) fuere et alia amplius,

    Sall. J. 44, 5:

    felices ter et amplius,

    Hor. C. 1, 13, 17:

    binas aut amplius domos continuare,

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    ter nec amplius,

    Suet. Caes. 25:

    cum non solum de his scripserit, sed amplius praecepta (reliquerit),

    Quint. 12, 11, 24:

    multa promi amplius possunt,

    Plin. 2, 17, 15, § 77:

    si studere amplius possum,

    Quint. 6, prooem. 4:

    auram communem amplius haurire potui?

    id. 6, prooem. 12:

    sagum, quod amplius est,

    Vulg. Exod. 26, 12.—
    b.
    And so very often with the pron. quid, etc.; with the negatives nihil, non, neque, nec, ne; and sometimes with nemo and haud.
    (α).
    With quid, etc.:

    Quid faciam amplius?

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 14, and Cic. Har. Resp. 42:

    quid dicam amplius?

    Quint. 8, 4, 7:

    quid a me amplius dicendum putatis?

    Cic. Verr. 3, 60:

    quid quaeris amplius?

    id. Sex. Rosc. 145; id. Dom. 41; id. Verr. 2, 191:

    quid vultis amplius?

    id. Mil. 35:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    quid exspectatis amplius?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 174:

    quid amplius exspectabo,

    Vulg. 4 Reg. 6, 33:

    quid loquar amplius de hoc homine?

    Cic. Caecin. 25:

    quid amplius laboremus?

    Quint. 8, prooem. 31:

    quid habet amplius homo?

    Vulg. Eccl. 1, 3; 6, 8:

    quid ego aliud exoptem amplius, nisi etc.,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 134:

    quid amplius debeam optare?

    Quint. 4, 1, 51: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 11; Ter. And. 2, 1, 25: De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, id. Ad. 3, 4, 22:

    quid est quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

    more than this, id. And. 1, 1, 4:

    Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 6; id. Sull. 90:

    si quid amplius scit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 23:

    si quid ego addidero amplius,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 13:

    si amplius aliquid gloriatus fuero,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 10, 8.—And often hoc amplius, where hoc is commonly an abl., but sometimes may be regarded as a nom. or an acc.:

    hoc amplius si quid poteris,

    any thing beyond this, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 44: et hoc amplius (additur), quod etc., and this further, that etc., id. Sull. 44; so Quint. 5, 13, 36:

    de paedagogis hoc amplius, ut aut sint etc.,

    id. 1, 1, 8:

    Mario urbe Italiaque interdicendum, Marciano hoc amplius, Africa,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19; Quint. 1, 5, 50; 1, 5, 55; sometimes in plur., his amplius:

    his amplius apud eundem (est) etc.,

    Quint. 9, 3, 15;

    so rarely eo amplius: inferiasque his annua religione, publice instituit, et eo amplius matri Circenses,

    Suet. Calig. 15:

    quaeris quid potuerit amplius adsequi,

    Cic. Planc. 60: prius quam (hic) turbarum quid faciat amplius, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 93:

    quare jam te cur amplius excrucies?

    Cat. 76, 10.—
    (β).
    With nihil, etc.:

    habet nihil amplius quam lutum,

    Lucil. 9, 46 Mull.:

    nihil habui amplius, quod praeciperem,

    Quint. 7, 1, 64:

    nihil enim dixit amplius,

    Cic. Deiot. 21:

    Nihil dico amplius: causa dicta est,

    I say no more; I have done with my case, id. ib. 8:

    nihil amplius dico, nisi me etc.,

    id. Planc. 96:

    nihil amplius dicam quam victoriam etc.,

    id. Marcell. 17.—Hence, nihil dico or dicam amplius, when one fears to wound by declaring his opinion, etc., I say no more, have nothing further to say or add:

    vetus est, Nihili cocio est. Scis cujus? non dico amplius,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51:

    si, quod equitis Romani filius est, inferior esse debuit: omnes tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico amplius,

    Cic. Planc. 7 (tacite significat eos dignitate inferiores esse Plancio, Manut. ad h.l.):

    Alterius vero partis nihil amplius dicam quam id, quod etc.,

    id. Marcell. 6, 17:

    amplius nihil respondit,

    Vulg. Marc. 15, 5:

    nihil amplius addens,

    ib. Deut. 5, 22:

    nihil noverunt amplius,

    ib. Eccl. 9, 5:

    nihil amplius optet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 46:

    nihil amplius potes,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplius quod desideres, nihil erit,

    this will leave nothing to be desired, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    nil amplius oro, nisi ut etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 4:

    ipse Augustus nihil amplius quam equestri familia ortum se scribit,

    Suet. Aug. 2:

    si non amplius, ad lustrum hoc protolleret unum,

    Lucil. 1, 33 Mull.:

    non luctabor tecum, Crasse, amplius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 17, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 98:

    verbum non amplius addam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 121:

    non amplius me objurgabis,

    Quint. 5, 10, 47:

    non amplius posse,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 3, 82, 19 Kritz:

    non habent amplius quid faciant,

    Vulg. Luc. 12, 4: non videbitis amplius faciem meam. ib. Gen. 44, 23; ib. Heb. 10, 17:

    amplius illa jam non inveniet,

    ib. Apoc. 18, 14:

    studium, quo non aliud ad dignitatem amplius excogitari potest,

    Tac. Or. 5:

    extra me non est alia amplius,

    Vulg. Soph. 2, 15:

    neque hoc amplius quam quod vides nobis quicquamst,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 21:

    neque va dari amplius neque etc.,

    Cic. Quinct. 23:

    nec jam amplius ullae Adparent terrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 192; 3, 260; 5, 8; 9, 426; 9, 519; 11, 807; 12, 680; id. G. 4, 503:

    nec irascar amplius,

    Vulg. Ezech. 16, 42; ib. Apoc. 7, 16:

    ne amplius dona petas,

    Cat. 68, 14:

    urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus,

    Lucr. 4, 874;

    ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    ut ne quem amplius posthac discipulum reciperet,

    Suet. Gram. 17:

    ne amplius morando Scaurum incenderet,

    Sall. J. 25, 10; id. Fragm. Hist. 1, 2, 10 Kritz;

    3, 82, 17: ne amplius divulgetur,

    Vulg. Act. 4, 17:

    ut nequaquam amplius per eamdem viam revertamini,

    ib. Deut. 17, 16:

    nolite amplius accipere pecuniam,

    ib. 4 Reg. 12, 7.—
    (γ).
    With nemo:

    cur non restipulatur neminem amplius petiturum?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 12, 36:

    cum amplius nemo occurreret,

    nobody further, no one more, Curt. 8, 10, 2; so,

    neminem amplius viderunt,

    Vulg. Marc. 9, 7:

    nemo emet amplius,

    no one will buy any longer, any more, ib. Apoc. 18, 11 (for cases of haud with amplius, v. c. a and g).—
    c.
    With numerals and numeral forms.
    (α).
    Without quam:

    amplius horam suffixum in cruce me memini esse,

    Cat. 69, 3:

    horam amplius jam in demoliendo signo homines moliebantur,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 95:

    amplius annos triginta tribunus fuerat,

    Sall. C. 59, 6:

    me non amplius novem annos nato,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 3:

    per annos amplius quadraginta,

    Suet. Aug. 72; 32:

    quid si tandem amplius triennium est?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 8:

    Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo,

    Verg. A. 1, 683:

    inveniebat Sabim flumen non amplius milia passuum decem abesse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 16; 4, 12:

    reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius pedum sexcentorum, mons continet,

    id. ib. 1, 28;

    2, 29: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 40; id. Fl. 68; so Plin. Ep. 10, 39, 1:

    huic paulo amplius tertiam partem denegem?

    id. ib. 5, 7, 3:

    cum eum amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14; 5, 155:

    victi amplius ducenti ceciderunt,

    Liv. 21, 29, 3: non amplius quattuordecim cohortes, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, C:

    ex omni multitudine non amplius quadraginta locum cepere,

    Sall. J. 58, 3: torrentes amplius centum, [p. 113] Plin. 5, 28, 29, § 103; 9, 5, 4, § 10.—And very rarely placed after the numeral:

    qui septingentos jam annos amplius numquam mutatis legibus vivunt,

    Cic. Fl. 63:

    pugnatum duas amplius horas,

    Liv. 25, 19, 15 Weissenb.:

    duo haud amplius milia peditum effugerunt,

    id. 28, 2:

    decem amplius versus perdidimus,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 12:

    tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas,

    Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    (β).
    With the comp. abl. (rare but class.):

    cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 5; 4, 37:

    pugnatum amplius duabus horis est,

    Liv. 27, 12:

    neque triennio amplius supervixit,

    Suet. Caes. 89:

    uti non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23; 2, 7;

    6, 29: non amplius patet milibus quinque et triginta,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 4, 1, 34 Kritz:

    est ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 90, 1:

    ab Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo,

    Sall. J. 91, 3:

    (Catilina) cum initio non amplius duobus milibus (militum) habuisset,

    id. C. 56, 2; so,

    denas alii, alii plures (uxores) habent, set reges eo amplius,

    id. J. 80, 7.—

    And prob. the following ambiguous cases: cum mille non amplius equitibus,

    Sall. J. 105, 3:

    oppidum non amplius mille passuum abesse,

    id. ib. 68, 3.—
    (γ).
    With quam (postAug. and eccl.):

    non amplius, cum plurimum, quam septem horas dormiebat,

    Suet. Aug. 78:

    nec amplius quam septem et viginti dies Brundisii commoratus,

    id. ib. 17:

    Toto triennio semel omnino eam nec amplius quam uno die paucissimis vidit horis,

    id. Tib. 51:

    demoratus dies non amplius quam octo aut decem,

    Vulg. Act. 25, 6:

    ut non amplius apud te quam quarta (pars) remaneret,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19:

    ut vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quam quingenti numero, copias fuderint,

    Tac. A. 3, 21:

    haud amplius quam ducentos misit,

    id. ib. 14, 32:

    insidiantur ei ex iis viri amplius quam quadraginta,

    Vulg. Act. 23, 21.—
    d. (α).
    Amplius, t. t. of judges when they deferred an important case for future examination:

    Amplius adeo prolixum temporis spatium significat, ut judices quotienscunque significarent, adhuc se audire velle, amplius dicebant. Itaque negotium differebant, unde hodieque ampliari judicium differri dicitur,

    Charis. 176 P.; so Don. ad Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 39; cf.

    also amplio and ampliatio: cum consules re audita amplius de consilii sententia pronuntiavissent,

    Cic. Brut. 22, 86:

    antea vel judicari primo poterat vel amplius pronuntiari,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26:

    ut de Philodamo amplius pronuntiaretur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 29.—

    And metaph.: ego amplius deliberandum censeo,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 17.—
    (β).
    Amplius non petere, judicial t. phr., to bring no further action, to make no further claim:

    quid ita satis non dedit, AMPLIVS [A SE] NEMINEM PETITVRVM?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35:

    Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero amplius eo nomine neminem, cujus petitio sit, petiturum,

    id. Brut. 5, 18:

    sunt duo, quae te rogo: primum, ut si quid satis dandum erit, AMPLIVS EO NOMINE NON PETI, cures etc.,

    id. Fam. 13, 28 A:

    quod ille recusarit satis dare amplius abs te non peti,

    id. Att. 1, 8, 1.—
    (γ).
    Hoc amplius, beside the general use given above (II. Comp. b. a), as t. phr. of senators when they approved a measure, but amended it by addition:

    Servilio adsentior et HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, magnum Pompeium fecisse etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 21, 50:

    cui cum essem adsensus, decrevi HOC AMPLIVS, ut etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 5, 1;

    so Seneca: fortasse et post omnes citatus nihil improbabo ex iis, quae priores decreverint, et dicam HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, Vit. Beat. 3, 2: Quaedam ex istis sunt, quibus adsentire possumus, sed HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO,

    id. Q. N. 3, 15, 1.—
    (δ).
    To this may be added the elliptical phrases, nihil amplius and si nihil amplius:

    nihil amplius, denoting that there is nothing further than has been declared: sese ipsum abs te repetit. Nihil amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 5, 49, 128;

    (res publica) ulta suas injurias est per vos interitu tyranni. Nihil amplius,

    id. Fam. 12, 1, 2; and, si nihil amplius, marking a limit, if nothing more, at least:

    excedam tectis? An, si nihil amplius, obstem?

    Ov. M. 9, 148.
    The form amplius has the ambiguity of the Engl.
    word more, which is sometimes an adj., sometimes a subst., and sometimes an adv., and some of the above examples would admit of different classifications; as, non amplius dicere, not to speak further (adv.) or not to say more (subst.), Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51; but some of them would admit of only one explanation;

    as, ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43. Sup.: amplissimē.
    I.
    Lit., very largely, most abundantly:

    ut quibus militibus amplissime (agri) dati adsignati essent,

    in the largest shares, Cic. Phil. 5, 53:

    duumviri (deos) tribus quam amplissume tum apparari poterat stratis lectis placavere,

    Liv. 5, 13, 6 Weissenb.—
    II.
    Fig., most generously, most handsomely:

    qui amplissime de salute mea decreverint,

    Cic. Dom. 44:

    amplissime laudare,

    in the handsomest style, Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11; Suet. Calig. 15:

    honores amplissime gessit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 112:

    pater cum amplissime ex praetura triumphasset,

    with the greatest pomp, id. Mur. 15:

    placere eum quam amplissime supremo suo die efferri,

    should be carried forth with every possible solemnity, id. Phil. 9, 7, 16. V. on this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 287-296.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amplissime

  • 37 amplus

    amplus, a, um, adj. [some regard this as a shortened form of anapleôs, = filled up, full; others, as for ambulus from amb-, rounded out, as superus from super, etc.; v. Doed. Syn. II. p. 113; but perh. it is better to form it from am- and -plus, akin to -pleo, plenus, q. v. Pott], thus pr., full all round; hence, great, large. —In space, of large extent, great, large, wide, ample, spacious (the forms amplus and amplior are very rare in the ante-class. per., and rare in all periods. Amplius is com. in the ante-class., freq. in the class., and very freq. in the post-class. per., the Vulg. rarely using the other forms, but using this 121 times. Amplissimus belongs to prose, and is scarcely used before Cicero, with whom it was a very favorite word. It was also used by Plin. Maj. and Min., but never by Tac., Sall. (in his genuine works), nor the Vulg. Catullus used only the form amplius, and Prop. only amplus, while Tib. and Pers. never used this word in any form. Ampliter is found mostly in Plaut.; and ample and amplissime are used a few times by Cic. and by writers that followed him; syn.: magnus, ingens, latus, late patens, spatiosus, laxus).
    I.
    Lit.:

    amplus et spectu protervo ferox,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 94 Rib.:

    qui (Pluto) ter amplum Geryonen compescit unda,

    Hor. C. 2, 14, 7:

    ampla domus dedecori domino fit, si est in ea solitudo,

    Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139; so Verg. A. 2, 310:

    admodum amplum et excelsum signum,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 74:

    collis castris parum amplus,

    Sall. J. 98, 3:

    porticibus in amplis,

    Verg. A. 3, 353:

    per amplum mittimur Elysium,

    id. ib. 6, 743:

    vocemque per ampla volutant Atria,

    id. ib. 1, 725:

    nil vulva pulchrius ampla,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 41:

    amplae aures,

    Plin. 11, 52, 114, § 274:

    milium amplum grano,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 55:

    cubiculum amplum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 6:

    baptisterium amplum atque opacum,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 25.— Comp.:

    quanto est res amplior,

    Lucr. 2, 1133:

    Amplior Urgo et Capraria,

    Plin. 3, 6, 12, § 81:

    avis paulo amplior passere,

    id. 10, 32, 47, § 89:

    amplior specie mortali,

    Suet. Aug. 94; id. Caes. 76 (for the neutr. amplius, v. infra).— Sup.:

    amplissima curia... gymnasium amplissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53:

    urbs amplissima atque ornatissima,

    id. Agr. 2, 76:

    amplissimum peristylum,

    id. Dom. 116:

    (candelabrum) ad amplissimi templi ornatum esse factum,

    id. Verr. 4, 65:

    mons Italiae amplissimus,

    Plin. 3, 5, 7, § 48:

    amplissimum flumen,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 3:

    amplissimus lacus,

    id. ib. 10, 41, 2:

    amplissima insula,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 71:

    amplissimi horti,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 18, 11:

    amplissima arborum,

    Plin. 16, 39, 76, § 200:

    est (topazon) amplissima gemmarum,

    id. 37, 8, 32, § 109:

    amplissimum cubiculum,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 23.—
    B.
    Transf., great, abundant, ample, much, long:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6 and Ep. 2, 2, 117:

    pabula miseris mortalibus ampla,

    Lucr. 5, 944:

    ampla civitas,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 81; 4, 96:

    civitas ampla atque florens,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 3:

    gens ampla,

    Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 125:

    amplae copiae,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19:

    ampla manus militum,

    Liv. Epit. 1, 4, 9:

    pecuaria res ampla,

    Cic. Quinct. 12:

    res familiaris ampla,

    id. Phil. 13, 8:

    (res) ampla,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 3, 82, 20 Kritz:

    patrimonium amplum et copiosum,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 6; id. Dom. 146: id. Phil. 2, 67:

    amplae divitiae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 101:

    esse patri ejus amplas facultates,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 9:

    in amplis opibus heres,

    Plin. 9, 36, 59, § 122.— Comp.:

    amplior numerus,

    Cic. Mil. 57; Sall. J. 105, 3; Tac. A. 14, 53:

    ampliores aquae,

    Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 58:

    amplior exercitus,

    Sall. J. 54, 3; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    commeatus spe amplior,

    Sall. J. 75, 8:

    amplior pecunia, Auct. B. Alex. 56: pecunia amplior,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 2:

    pretia ampliora,

    Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84:

    omnia longe ampliora invenire quam etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 14, 10:

    ampliores noctes,

    Plin. 18, 26, 63, § 232:

    ut ampliori tempore maneret,

    Vulg. Act. 18, 20.— Sup.:

    peditatus copiae amplissimae e Gallia,

    Cic. Font. 8:

    exercitus amplissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 2; 9, 13, 11:

    amplissima pecunia,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 31:

    amplissimae fortunae,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 8; id. Quinct. 49; id. Phil. 10, 4:

    amplissimae patrimonii copiae,

    id. Fl. 89:

    amplissimas summas emptionibus occupare,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 2, 3:

    opes amplissimae,

    id. ib. 8, 18, 4:

    amplissima dies horarum quindecim etc.,

    the longest day, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 218.—Also subst. in comp. neutr. (v. amplius, adv. infra), more:

    ut quirem exaudire amplius,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    si vis amplius dari, Dabitur,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 18:

    jam amplius orat,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    daturus non sum amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 29:

    non complectar in his libris amplius quam quod etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 22:

    tantum adfero quantum ipse optat, atque etiam amplius,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 10:

    ni amplius etiam, quod ebibit,

    id. Trin. 2, 1, 20: Ph. Etiamne amplius? Th. Nil, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 63: Tr. Dimidium Volo ut dicas. Gr. Immo hercle etiam amplius, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 21: Th. Nempe octoginta debentur huic minae? Tr. Haud nummo amplius, id. Most. 3, 3, 16:

    etiam amplius illam adparare condecet,

    Turp. Com. Rel. p. 100 Rib.:

    hoc onere suscepto amplexus animo sum aliquanto amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1:

    si sit opus liquidi non amplius urna,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 54:

    omnis numerus amplius octingentis milibus explebat,

    Vell. 2, 110, 3:

    Segestanis imponebat aliquanto amplius quam etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 76:

    illa corona contentus Thrasybulus neque amplius requisivit,

    Nep. Thras. 4, 3:

    amplius possidere,

    Plin. 18, 4, 3, § 17:

    Ille imperio ei reddito haud amplius, quam ut duo ex tribus filiis secum militarent, exegit,

    Curt. 8, 4, 21:

    dedit quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius, si potuisset,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 21, 6:

    cum hoc amplius praestet, quod etc.,

    id. ib. 7, 25, 1.—Also with part. gen., more of, a greater quantity or number of:

    gaudeo tibi liberorum esse amplius,

    Plaut. Cist. 5, 4:

    te amplius bibisse praedicet loti,

    Cat. 39, 21:

    amplius frumenti auferre,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 49:

    expensum est auri viginti paulo amplius,

    id. Fl. 6, 8:

    amplius negotii contrahi,

    id. Cat. 4, 9:

    si amplius obsidum vellet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9, ubi v. Herz.:

    quanto ejus amplius processerat temporis,

    id. B. C. 3, 25.—
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Of internal power or force, great, strong, violent, impetuous:

    pro viribus amplis,

    Lucr. 5, 1174:

    amplae vires peditum,

    Plin. 6, 20, 23, § 75;

    ampla nepotum Spes,

    Prop. 4, 22, 41:

    poena sera, sed ampla,

    full, strict, id. 4, 5, 32. — Comp.:

    haec irae factae essent multo ampliores,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 9:

    si forte morbus amplior factus siet, i. e. gravior,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 50:

    amplior metus,

    Cic. Clu. 128:

    amplior potentia feris,

    Plin. 28, 10, 42, § 153:

    ampliorem dicendi facultatem consequi,

    Quint. 2, 3, 4:

    amplior eoque acrior impetus,

    Flor. 4, 2, 66:

    spes amplior,

    Sall. J. 105, 4:

    amplius accipietis judicium,

    severer, Vulg. Matt. 23, 14:

    amplior auctoritas,

    Plin. 37, 3, 12, § 47:

    amplior virtus,

    higher merit, Quint. 8, 3, 83:

    idem aut amplior cultus (dei),

    Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 18:

    amplior est quaestio,

    Quint. 3, 5, 8:

    ampliora verba,

    of larger meaning, id. 8, 4, 2: scientia intellegentiaque ac sapientia ampliores inventae sunt in te, Vulg. Dan. 5, 14:

    quo legatis animus amplior esset,

    Sall. C. 40, 6; 59, 1:

    spiritus amplior,

    Vulg. Dan. 5, 12; 6, 3.— Sup.:

    (honos) pro amplissimis meritis redditur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 41:

    cujus sideris (Caniculae) effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur,

    very violent, Plin. 2, 40, 40, § 107:

    amplissima spes,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    his finis cognitionis amplissimae,

    most important trial, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 23.—
    B.
    Of external splendor, great, handsome, magnificent, splendid, glorious:

    illis ampla satis forma, pudicitia,

    great enough, Prop. 1, 2, 24:

    haec ampla sunt, haec divina,

    Cic. Sest. 102; id. Arch. 23:

    res gestae satis amplae,

    Sall. C. 8, 2:

    cur parum amplis adfecerit praemiis,

    Cic. Mil. 57:

    ampla quidem, sed pro ingentibus meritis praemia acceperunt,

    Tac. A. 14, 53:

    amplum in modum praemia ostentare,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 26, 6:

    amplis honoribus usi,

    Sall. J. 25, 4:

    amplis honoribus auctos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 11.—Sometimes in mal. part. or ironically:

    amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    a fine opportunity, Cic. Verr. 2, 61:

    spolia ampla refertis Tuque puerque tuus,

    glorious spoils, Verg. A. 4, 93.— Comp.:

    ne ullum munus aedilitatis amplius aut gratius populo esse possit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5; id. Mur. 37:

    praemiis ad perdiscendum amplioribus commoveri,

    id. de Or. 1, 4, 13:

    alicui ampliorem laudem tribuere,

    id. Sest. 27:

    in aliqua re esse laudem ampliorem,

    id. Marcell. 4:

    corporis membris plus dedit, id amplius atque augustius ratus (Zeuxis),

    Quint. 12, 10, 5:

    ut Augustus vocaretur ampliore cognomine,

    Suet. Aug. 7.— Subst.:

    in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, ut ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur,

    of something greater, Sall. J. 63, 5.— Sup.:

    ut consules monumentum quam amplissimum faciundum curent,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 38; 14, 31; id. Verr. 4, 82:

    hoc munus aedilitatis amplissimum,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 36; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 1, 74:

    alicui amplissimas potestates dare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31:

    insignibus amplissimis ornatus,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    dona amplissima conferre,

    Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9:

    praemia legatis dedistis amplissima,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5; id. Phil. 2, 32:

    spe amplissimorum praemiorum adduci,

    id. Mil. 5; id. de Or. 1, 5, 16:

    velut praemium quoddam amplissimum longi laboris,

    Quint. 10, 7, 1:

    munera amplissima mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    vestris beneficiis amplissimis adfectus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 51; id. Dom. 98:

    laudi amplissimae lauream concedere,

    id. Pis. 74:

    laudibus amplissimis adficere,

    id. Phil. 7, 11:

    amplissimam gloriam consequi,

    id. Prov. Cons. 39:

    ut eum amplissimo regis honore et nomine adfeceris,

    id. Deiot. 14:

    amplissimis aliquem efferre honoribus,

    Aur. Vict. Epit. 17, 3:

    amplissimis uti honoribus,

    Cic. Fl. 45:

    amplissimos honores adipisci,

    id. Verr. 5, 181:

    honores adsequi amplissimos,

    id. Mil. 81:

    aliquem ad honores amplissimos perducere,

    id. Am. 20, 73:

    meus labor fructum est amplissimum consecutus,

    id. Imp. Pomp 2:

    mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur,

    in the handsomest termis, id. Cat. 3, 14; id. Phil. 2, 13; id. Quir. 15:

    ei amplissimis verbis gratias egimus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3:

    provincia Gallia merito ornatur verbis amplissimis ab senatu,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    amplissimis verbis conlaudatus,

    Suet. Caes. 16:

    amplissimo populi senatusque judicio exercitus habuistis,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 12; id. Fl. 5; id. Dom. 86; id. Planc. 93:

    de meo consulatu amplissima atque ornatissima decreta fecerunt,

    id. Dom. 74:

    quam universi populi, illius gentis, amplissimum testimonium (said of Cic.),

    Plin. 7, 30, 31, § 116.—
    C.
    In respect of the opinion of others, esteemed, renowned, etc.:

    quicquid est, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    quid hunc hominem magnum aut amplum de re publica cogitare (putare possumus), qui etc.,

    great or noble, id. Imp. Pomp. 37:

    omnia, quae vobis cara atque ampla sunt,

    id. Agr. 2, 9; id. Arch. 23:

    convenerunt corrogati et quidem ampli quidam homines,

    id. Phil. 3, 20:

    hoc studium parvi properemus et ampli,

    small and great, Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 28:

    amplis doctoribus instructus,

    Tac. A. 14, 52:

    sin autem sunt amplae et honestae familiae plebeiae,

    Cic. Mur. 7, 15.— Comp.:

    cum est aliquid amplius,

    Cic. Marcell. 26:

    ampliores ordines,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 77, where Dinter reads priores: quo (ingenio) neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, [p. 112] Sall. J. 2, 4:

    nihil amplius potes (tribuere) amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    quid amplius facitis?

    Vulg. Matt. 5, 47.— Sup.:

    ex amplissimo genere nubere,

    Cic. Cael. 34:

    amplissimo genere natus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    genere copiisque amplissimus, id. ib 6, 15: quam (familiam) vidit amplissimam,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12:

    amplissimos patruos habere,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 147:

    amplissima civitas,

    id. Verr. 5, 122:

    apud illos Fabiorum nomen est amplissimum,

    id. Font. 36; id. Caecin. 104; id. Verr. 3, 96; id. Deiot. 14:

    mihi hic locus ad agendum amplissimus est visus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    non adgrediar ad illa maxima atque amplissima prius quam etc.,

    id. Sest. 5:

    licet tribuas ei quantum amplissimum potes, nihil tamen amplius potes amicitia tua,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplissimis operibus increscere,

    id. ib. 8, 4, 3:

    honores in amplissimo consilio collocare,

    Cic. Sen. 2:

    amplissimi orbis terrae consilii principes,

    id. Phil. 3, 34: honoris amplissimi puto esse accusare improbos, I esteem it to be the greatest honor, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 70:

    promotus ad amplissimas procurationes,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 31, 3:

    praeter honores amplissimos cognomenque etc.,

    Plin. 7, 44, 45, § 142:

    spes amplissimae dignitatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 49; id. Sen. 19, 68; Suet. Vit. 2.—
    D.
    Hence, amplissimus (almost always thus in sup.) as a title for persons holding great and honored offices, as consul, senator, etc., or as an honorable epithet of the office itself or the body of officers, distinguished, very distinguished, honorable, right honorable, most honorable, etc.:

    is mihi videtur amplissimus, qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 83:

    homo et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimus,

    id. Mur. 8:

    P. Africanus rebus gestis amplissimus,

    id. Caecin. 69:

    ut homines amplissimi testimonium de sua re non dicerent,

    id. Sex. Rosc. 102; id. Clu. 197:

    Q. Catuli atque ceterorum amplissimorum hominum auctoritas,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 63:

    vir amplissimus ejus civitatis,

    id. Verr. 4, 17; id. Fl. 32:

    exercitum Cn. Domitii, amplissimi viri, sustentavit,

    id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem (of L. Lucullus),

    id. Arch. 4, 8; id. Lig. 22:

    in quo consilio amplissimi viri judicarent,

    id. Mil. 5; id. Balb. 1; id. Dom. 2:

    comitatus virorum amplissimorum,

    id. Sull. 9:

    viros primarios atque amplissimos civitatis in consilium advocare,

    id. Verr. 3, 18:

    ordinis amplissimi esse,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 13, 1; 37, 6:

    cives amplissimos legare,

    Cic. Balb. 42:

    hoc amplissimum nomen, i. e. senatorium,

    id. Verr. 3, 96:

    amplissimus honos, i. e. consulatus,

    id. Rep. 1, 6; so,

    amplissimo praeditus magistratu,

    Suet. Aug. 26:

    amplissimus ordo, i. e. senatorius,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 3; Suet. Calig. 49:

    amplissimi ordines, i. e. senatus et equites,

    id. Vesp. 9:

    amplissimum collegium decemvirale,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49:

    an vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 3:

    amplissimum sacerdotium,

    id. Verr. 2, 126; id. Phil. 13, 8:

    sacerdotium amplissimum,

    id. Verr. 2, 127.—
    E.
    As rhet. epithet:

    amplus orator,

    one that speaks richly and with dignity, Cic. Or. 9; id. Brut. 68:

    herous (pes), qui est idem dactylus Aristoteli amplior, iambus humanior videatur,

    grander, more stately, Quint. 9, 4, 88:

    amplius compositionis genus,

    more copious style, id. 9, 4, 129.— Adv. (on the extent of the use of the different forms of the adverb, v. supra init.), largely, abundantly, copiously.
    I.
    Lit.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    benigne ei largi atque ampliter,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 173 Rib.:

    aptate munde atque ampliter convivium,

    Pomp. Com. Rel. p. 234 Rib.:

    extructam ampliter mensam,

    Lucil. 13, 7 Mull.:

    opsonato ampliter,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 65:

    adpositum est ampliter,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 163:

    acceptus hilare atque ampliter,

    id. Merc. prol. 98:

    modeste melius facere sumptum quam ampliter,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 10:

    parum (digitulos) immersisti ampliter,

    not deep enough, id. Bacch. 4, 4, 26.—
    b.
    Form amplē:

    exornat ample magnificeque triclinium,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 62: qui ample valetudinarios nutriunt, in great numbers (v. the context), Cels. praef. med.
    II.
    Trop., fully, handsomely.
    a.
    Form amplĭter:

    ampliter dicere,

    fully, particularly, Gell. 10, 3, 4:

    laudare ampliter,

    id. 2, 6, 11.—
    b.
    Form amplē: duo genera sunt: unum attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, with great fulness, richly (v. amplus, II. E.), Cic. Brut. 55, 201; so,

    elate ampleque loqui,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 24:

    satis ample sonabant in Pompeiani nominis locum Cato et Scipio,

    full grandly filled the place of, Flor. 4, 2, 65.— Comp.: amplĭus, more, longer, further, besides (syn.: ultra, praeterea); of time, number, and action (while plus denotes more in quantity, measure, etc.; magis, more, in the comparison of quality, and sometimes of action; and potius, rather, the choice between different objects or acts), constr. absol., with comp. abl., and, in the case of numerals, like minus, plus, propius, q. v., without quam with the nom., acc., or gen., or rarely with the abl. comp., or with quam, but chiefly in the post-Aug. per.; cf. Zumpt, § 485; Madv. § 305; Roby, § 1273; Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 4, 12; and Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 521 sq.
    a.
    In gen.:

    deliberatum est non tacere [me] amplius,

    Afran. Com. Rel. p. 199 Rib.:

    otium ubi erit, de istis rebus tum amplius tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18:

    cui amplius male faxim,

    id. Aul. 3, 2, 6: De. Etiam? Li. Amplius, id. As. 1, 1, 29: Ar. Vale. Ph. Aliquanto amplius valerem, si hic maneres, id. ib. 3, 3, 2:

    etiam faxo amabit (eam) amplius,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 40:

    multo tanto illum accusabo, quam te accusavi, amplius,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 49:

    quo populum servare potissit amplius,

    Lucil. 1, 15 Mull.:

    At ego amplius dico,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 26:

    amplius posse,

    Sall. J. 69, 2:

    armis amplius valere,

    id. ib. 111, 1:

    si lamentetur miser amplius aequo,

    Lucr. 3, 953:

    tribus vobis opsonatumst an opsono amplius Tibi et parasito et mulieri?

    besides, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 45:

    Quam vellem invitatum, ut nobiscum esset amplius,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    in illo exercitu cuncta (probra) fuere et alia amplius,

    Sall. J. 44, 5:

    felices ter et amplius,

    Hor. C. 1, 13, 17:

    binas aut amplius domos continuare,

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    ter nec amplius,

    Suet. Caes. 25:

    cum non solum de his scripserit, sed amplius praecepta (reliquerit),

    Quint. 12, 11, 24:

    multa promi amplius possunt,

    Plin. 2, 17, 15, § 77:

    si studere amplius possum,

    Quint. 6, prooem. 4:

    auram communem amplius haurire potui?

    id. 6, prooem. 12:

    sagum, quod amplius est,

    Vulg. Exod. 26, 12.—
    b.
    And so very often with the pron. quid, etc.; with the negatives nihil, non, neque, nec, ne; and sometimes with nemo and haud.
    (α).
    With quid, etc.:

    Quid faciam amplius?

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 14, and Cic. Har. Resp. 42:

    quid dicam amplius?

    Quint. 8, 4, 7:

    quid a me amplius dicendum putatis?

    Cic. Verr. 3, 60:

    quid quaeris amplius?

    id. Sex. Rosc. 145; id. Dom. 41; id. Verr. 2, 191:

    quid vultis amplius?

    id. Mil. 35:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    quid exspectatis amplius?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 174:

    quid amplius exspectabo,

    Vulg. 4 Reg. 6, 33:

    quid loquar amplius de hoc homine?

    Cic. Caecin. 25:

    quid amplius laboremus?

    Quint. 8, prooem. 31:

    quid habet amplius homo?

    Vulg. Eccl. 1, 3; 6, 8:

    quid ego aliud exoptem amplius, nisi etc.,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 134:

    quid amplius debeam optare?

    Quint. 4, 1, 51: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 11; Ter. And. 2, 1, 25: De. An quid est etiam amplius? He. Vero amplius, id. Ad. 3, 4, 22:

    quid est quod tibi mea ars efficere hoc possit amplius?

    more than this, id. And. 1, 1, 4:

    Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 6; id. Sull. 90:

    si quid amplius scit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 23:

    si quid ego addidero amplius,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 13:

    si amplius aliquid gloriatus fuero,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 10, 8.—And often hoc amplius, where hoc is commonly an abl., but sometimes may be regarded as a nom. or an acc.:

    hoc amplius si quid poteris,

    any thing beyond this, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 44: et hoc amplius (additur), quod etc., and this further, that etc., id. Sull. 44; so Quint. 5, 13, 36:

    de paedagogis hoc amplius, ut aut sint etc.,

    id. 1, 1, 8:

    Mario urbe Italiaque interdicendum, Marciano hoc amplius, Africa,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19; Quint. 1, 5, 50; 1, 5, 55; sometimes in plur., his amplius:

    his amplius apud eundem (est) etc.,

    Quint. 9, 3, 15;

    so rarely eo amplius: inferiasque his annua religione, publice instituit, et eo amplius matri Circenses,

    Suet. Calig. 15:

    quaeris quid potuerit amplius adsequi,

    Cic. Planc. 60: prius quam (hic) turbarum quid faciat amplius, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 93:

    quare jam te cur amplius excrucies?

    Cat. 76, 10.—
    (β).
    With nihil, etc.:

    habet nihil amplius quam lutum,

    Lucil. 9, 46 Mull.:

    nihil habui amplius, quod praeciperem,

    Quint. 7, 1, 64:

    nihil enim dixit amplius,

    Cic. Deiot. 21:

    Nihil dico amplius: causa dicta est,

    I say no more; I have done with my case, id. ib. 8:

    nihil amplius dico, nisi me etc.,

    id. Planc. 96:

    nihil amplius dicam quam victoriam etc.,

    id. Marcell. 17.—Hence, nihil dico or dicam amplius, when one fears to wound by declaring his opinion, etc., I say no more, have nothing further to say or add:

    vetus est, Nihili cocio est. Scis cujus? non dico amplius,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51:

    si, quod equitis Romani filius est, inferior esse debuit: omnes tecum equitum Romanorum filii petiverunt. Nihil dico amplius,

    Cic. Planc. 7 (tacite significat eos dignitate inferiores esse Plancio, Manut. ad h.l.):

    Alterius vero partis nihil amplius dicam quam id, quod etc.,

    id. Marcell. 6, 17:

    amplius nihil respondit,

    Vulg. Marc. 15, 5:

    nihil amplius addens,

    ib. Deut. 5, 22:

    nihil noverunt amplius,

    ib. Eccl. 9, 5:

    nihil amplius optet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 46:

    nihil amplius potes,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 10:

    amplius quod desideres, nihil erit,

    this will leave nothing to be desired, Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    nil amplius oro, nisi ut etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 4:

    ipse Augustus nihil amplius quam equestri familia ortum se scribit,

    Suet. Aug. 2:

    si non amplius, ad lustrum hoc protolleret unum,

    Lucil. 1, 33 Mull.:

    non luctabor tecum, Crasse, amplius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 17, 74; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 98:

    verbum non amplius addam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 121:

    non amplius me objurgabis,

    Quint. 5, 10, 47:

    non amplius posse,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 3, 82, 19 Kritz:

    non habent amplius quid faciant,

    Vulg. Luc. 12, 4: non videbitis amplius faciem meam. ib. Gen. 44, 23; ib. Heb. 10, 17:

    amplius illa jam non inveniet,

    ib. Apoc. 18, 14:

    studium, quo non aliud ad dignitatem amplius excogitari potest,

    Tac. Or. 5:

    extra me non est alia amplius,

    Vulg. Soph. 2, 15:

    neque hoc amplius quam quod vides nobis quicquamst,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 21:

    neque va dari amplius neque etc.,

    Cic. Quinct. 23:

    nec jam amplius ullae Adparent terrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 192; 3, 260; 5, 8; 9, 426; 9, 519; 11, 807; 12, 680; id. G. 4, 503:

    nec irascar amplius,

    Vulg. Ezech. 16, 42; ib. Apoc. 7, 16:

    ne amplius dona petas,

    Cat. 68, 14:

    urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus,

    Lucr. 4, 874;

    ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    ut ne quem amplius posthac discipulum reciperet,

    Suet. Gram. 17:

    ne amplius morando Scaurum incenderet,

    Sall. J. 25, 10; id. Fragm. Hist. 1, 2, 10 Kritz;

    3, 82, 17: ne amplius divulgetur,

    Vulg. Act. 4, 17:

    ut nequaquam amplius per eamdem viam revertamini,

    ib. Deut. 17, 16:

    nolite amplius accipere pecuniam,

    ib. 4 Reg. 12, 7.—
    (γ).
    With nemo:

    cur non restipulatur neminem amplius petiturum?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 12, 36:

    cum amplius nemo occurreret,

    nobody further, no one more, Curt. 8, 10, 2; so,

    neminem amplius viderunt,

    Vulg. Marc. 9, 7:

    nemo emet amplius,

    no one will buy any longer, any more, ib. Apoc. 18, 11 (for cases of haud with amplius, v. c. a and g).—
    c.
    With numerals and numeral forms.
    (α).
    Without quam:

    amplius horam suffixum in cruce me memini esse,

    Cat. 69, 3:

    horam amplius jam in demoliendo signo homines moliebantur,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 95:

    amplius annos triginta tribunus fuerat,

    Sall. C. 59, 6:

    me non amplius novem annos nato,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 3:

    per annos amplius quadraginta,

    Suet. Aug. 72; 32:

    quid si tandem amplius triennium est?

    Cic. Q. Rosc. 8:

    Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo,

    Verg. A. 1, 683:

    inveniebat Sabim flumen non amplius milia passuum decem abesse,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 16; 4, 12:

    reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius pedum sexcentorum, mons continet,

    id. ib. 1, 28;

    2, 29: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 40; id. Fl. 68; so Plin. Ep. 10, 39, 1:

    huic paulo amplius tertiam partem denegem?

    id. ib. 5, 7, 3:

    cum eum amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14; 5, 155:

    victi amplius ducenti ceciderunt,

    Liv. 21, 29, 3: non amplius quattuordecim cohortes, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, C:

    ex omni multitudine non amplius quadraginta locum cepere,

    Sall. J. 58, 3: torrentes amplius centum, [p. 113] Plin. 5, 28, 29, § 103; 9, 5, 4, § 10.—And very rarely placed after the numeral:

    qui septingentos jam annos amplius numquam mutatis legibus vivunt,

    Cic. Fl. 63:

    pugnatum duas amplius horas,

    Liv. 25, 19, 15 Weissenb.:

    duo haud amplius milia peditum effugerunt,

    id. 28, 2:

    decem amplius versus perdidimus,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 12:

    tris pateat caeli spatium non amplius ulnas,

    Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    (β).
    With the comp. abl. (rare but class.):

    cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 5; 4, 37:

    pugnatum amplius duabus horis est,

    Liv. 27, 12:

    neque triennio amplius supervixit,

    Suet. Caes. 89:

    uti non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 15; 1, 23; 2, 7;

    6, 29: non amplius patet milibus quinque et triginta,

    Sall. Fragm. Hist. 4, 1, 34 Kritz:

    est ab capite paulo amplius mille passibus locus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 90, 1:

    ab Capsa non amplius duum milium intervallo,

    Sall. J. 91, 3:

    (Catilina) cum initio non amplius duobus milibus (militum) habuisset,

    id. C. 56, 2; so,

    denas alii, alii plures (uxores) habent, set reges eo amplius,

    id. J. 80, 7.—

    And prob. the following ambiguous cases: cum mille non amplius equitibus,

    Sall. J. 105, 3:

    oppidum non amplius mille passuum abesse,

    id. ib. 68, 3.—
    (γ).
    With quam (postAug. and eccl.):

    non amplius, cum plurimum, quam septem horas dormiebat,

    Suet. Aug. 78:

    nec amplius quam septem et viginti dies Brundisii commoratus,

    id. ib. 17:

    Toto triennio semel omnino eam nec amplius quam uno die paucissimis vidit horis,

    id. Tib. 51:

    demoratus dies non amplius quam octo aut decem,

    Vulg. Act. 25, 6:

    ut non amplius apud te quam quarta (pars) remaneret,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19:

    ut vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quam quingenti numero, copias fuderint,

    Tac. A. 3, 21:

    haud amplius quam ducentos misit,

    id. ib. 14, 32:

    insidiantur ei ex iis viri amplius quam quadraginta,

    Vulg. Act. 23, 21.—
    d. (α).
    Amplius, t. t. of judges when they deferred an important case for future examination:

    Amplius adeo prolixum temporis spatium significat, ut judices quotienscunque significarent, adhuc se audire velle, amplius dicebant. Itaque negotium differebant, unde hodieque ampliari judicium differri dicitur,

    Charis. 176 P.; so Don. ad Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 39; cf.

    also amplio and ampliatio: cum consules re audita amplius de consilii sententia pronuntiavissent,

    Cic. Brut. 22, 86:

    antea vel judicari primo poterat vel amplius pronuntiari,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26:

    ut de Philodamo amplius pronuntiaretur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 29.—

    And metaph.: ego amplius deliberandum censeo,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 17.—
    (β).
    Amplius non petere, judicial t. phr., to bring no further action, to make no further claim:

    quid ita satis non dedit, AMPLIVS [A SE] NEMINEM PETITVRVM?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 35:

    Tibi ego, Brute, non solvam, nisi prius a te cavero amplius eo nomine neminem, cujus petitio sit, petiturum,

    id. Brut. 5, 18:

    sunt duo, quae te rogo: primum, ut si quid satis dandum erit, AMPLIVS EO NOMINE NON PETI, cures etc.,

    id. Fam. 13, 28 A:

    quod ille recusarit satis dare amplius abs te non peti,

    id. Att. 1, 8, 1.—
    (γ).
    Hoc amplius, beside the general use given above (II. Comp. b. a), as t. phr. of senators when they approved a measure, but amended it by addition:

    Servilio adsentior et HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, magnum Pompeium fecisse etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 21, 50:

    cui cum essem adsensus, decrevi HOC AMPLIVS, ut etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 5, 1;

    so Seneca: fortasse et post omnes citatus nihil improbabo ex iis, quae priores decreverint, et dicam HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO, Vit. Beat. 3, 2: Quaedam ex istis sunt, quibus adsentire possumus, sed HOC AMPLIVS CENSEO,

    id. Q. N. 3, 15, 1.—
    (δ).
    To this may be added the elliptical phrases, nihil amplius and si nihil amplius:

    nihil amplius, denoting that there is nothing further than has been declared: sese ipsum abs te repetit. Nihil amplius,

    Cic. Verr. 5, 49, 128;

    (res publica) ulta suas injurias est per vos interitu tyranni. Nihil amplius,

    id. Fam. 12, 1, 2; and, si nihil amplius, marking a limit, if nothing more, at least:

    excedam tectis? An, si nihil amplius, obstem?

    Ov. M. 9, 148.
    The form amplius has the ambiguity of the Engl.
    word more, which is sometimes an adj., sometimes a subst., and sometimes an adv., and some of the above examples would admit of different classifications; as, non amplius dicere, not to speak further (adv.) or not to say more (subst.), Plaut. As. 1, 3, 51; but some of them would admit of only one explanation;

    as, ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43. Sup.: amplissimē.
    I.
    Lit., very largely, most abundantly:

    ut quibus militibus amplissime (agri) dati adsignati essent,

    in the largest shares, Cic. Phil. 5, 53:

    duumviri (deos) tribus quam amplissume tum apparari poterat stratis lectis placavere,

    Liv. 5, 13, 6 Weissenb.—
    II.
    Fig., most generously, most handsomely:

    qui amplissime de salute mea decreverint,

    Cic. Dom. 44:

    amplissime laudare,

    in the handsomest style, Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11; Suet. Calig. 15:

    honores amplissime gessit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 112:

    pater cum amplissime ex praetura triumphasset,

    with the greatest pomp, id. Mur. 15:

    placere eum quam amplissime supremo suo die efferri,

    should be carried forth with every possible solemnity, id. Phil. 9, 7, 16. V. on this word, Hand, Turs. I. pp. 287-296.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > amplus

  • 38 assequor

    as-sĕquor ( ads-, Fleck., B. and K., Halm), sĕcūtus (or sĕquutus; v. sequor), 3, v. dep., to follow one in order to come up to him, to pursue.
    I.
    A.. In gen. (only ante-class. in the two foll. exs.): ne sequere, adsequere, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Müll.:

    Adsequere, retine,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 89.—Far more freq.,
    B.
    Esp., to reach one by pursuing him:

    sequendo pervenire ad aliquem: nec quicquam sequi, quod adsequi non queas,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—Hence, to overtake, come up with a person or thing (with the idea of active exertion; while consequi designates merely a coming up with, a meeting with a desired object, the attainment of a wish; cf. Doed. Syn. III. p. 147 sq. According to gen. usage, adsequor is found only in prose;

    but consequor is freq. found in the poets): si es Romae jam me adsequi non potes, sin es in viā, cum eris me adsecutus, coram agemus,

    Cic. Att. 3, 5; [p. 178] poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 39, 94:

    Pisonem nuntius adsequitur,

    Tac. A. 2, 75.—In the histt. also absol.:

    ut si viā rectā vestigia sequentes īssent, haud dubie adsecuturi fuerint,

    Liv. 28, 16:

    in Bruttios raptim, ne Gracchus adsequeretur, concessit,

    id. 24, 20:

    nondum adsecutā parte suorum,

    arrived, id. 33, 8; Tac. H. 3, 60.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To gain, obtain, procure:

    eosdem honorum gradus adsecuti,

    Cic. Planc. 25, 60:

    immortalitatem,

    id. ib. 37, 90:

    omnes magistratus sine repulsā,

    id. Pis. 1, 2; so Sall. J. 4, 4:

    regnum,

    Curt. 4, 6 al.:

    nihil quicquam egregium,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 30, 134; id. Verr. 2, 1, 57:

    quā in re nihil aliud adsequeris, nisi ut, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 34, 96:

    adsecutas virtute, ne, etc.,

    Just. 2, 4.—
    B.
    To attain to one in any quality, i. e. to come up to, to equal, match; more freq. in regard to the quality itself, to attain to:

    Sisenna Clitarchum velle imitari videtur: quem si adsequi posset, aliquantum ab optimo tamen abesset,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 2 fin.:

    benevolentiam tuam erga me imitabor, merita non adsequar,

    id. Fam. 6, 4 fin.; so id. ib. 1, 4 fin.:

    qui illorum prudentiam, non dicam adsequi, sed quanta fuerit perspicere possint,

    id. Har. Resp. 9, 18:

    ingenium alicujus aliquā ex parte,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 8, 5: ut longitudo aut plenitudo harum multitudinem alterius adsequatur et exaequet, Auct. ad Her. 4, 20.—
    III.
    Transf. to mental objects, to attain to by an effort of the under standing, to comprehend, understand:

    ut essent, qui cogitationem adsequi possent et voluntatem interpretari,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 47, 139:

    quibus (ratione et intellegentiā) utimur ad eam rem, ut apertis obscura adsequamur,

    id. N. D. 3, 15, 38:

    ut scribas ad me, quid ipse conjecturā adsequare,

    id. Att. 7, 13 A fin.:

    Quis tot ludibria fortunae... aut animo adsequi queat aut oratione complecti?

    Curt. 4, 16, 10; Sex. Caecil. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 5:

    quid istuc sit, videor ferme adsequi,

    Gell. 3, 1, 3:

    visum est et mihi adsecuto omnia a principio diligenter ex ordine tibi scribere,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 3:

    adsecutus es meam doctrinam,

    ib. 2 Tim. 3, 10; ib. 1 Tim. 4, 6.
    Pass. acc. to Prisc. p. 791 P., but without an example; in Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 73 fin., instead of the earlier reading, it is better to read, ut haec diligentia nihil eorum investigare, nihil adsequi potuerit; cf. Zumpt ad h. l., and Gronov. Observ. 1, 12, 107; so also B. and K.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > assequor

  • 39 bonae

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonae

  • 40 bonus

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonus

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