Перевод: с латинского на английский

с английского на латинский

under these circumstances

  • 1 ita

        ita adv.    [2 I-].    I. In gen., referring to what precedes, in this manner, in this wise, in such a way, so, thus, accordingly, as has been said: des operam ut investiges sitne ita: Ita aiunt, T.: his rebus ita actis, S.: factum est ita: ita digerit omina Calchas, such is his interpretation, V.: quae cum ita sint, and since this is so, and accordingly: quod cum ita sit.—Referring to what follows, thus, in the following manner, as follows, in this way: ita censes; publicandas pecunias, etc., S.: is ita cum Caesare egit; si, etc., Cs.: ita constitui, fortiter esse agendum.—In affirmation, yes, it is so, just so, true: quid istic tibi negotist? Dav. mihin'? Si. Ita, T.: an laudationes? ita, inquit Antonius: Davusne? ita, H.: itast, T.: non est ita: ita prorsus: ita plane.—In interrogations, expecting an affirmative answer: itane? really? truly? is it so?: Itan credis? T.: itane est?: itane tandem?—In the phrase, quid ita? implying reproach or surprise, why so? how is that? what do you mean?: accusatis Sex. Roscium. quid ita?: quid ita passus est Eretriam capi? L.—    II. Esp., in comparisons, so, thus, just, in the same way: ita ut res sese habet, T.: ita vero, Quirites, ut precamini, eveniat: ut homo est, ita morem geras, T.: ita loquor, quasi ego fecerim, etc.: me consulem ita fecistis, quo modo pauci facti sunt: castra ita posita, tamquam procul abesset hostis, L.—Correl. with ut, in parallel clauses: in pace ita ut in bello, alike in peace, etc., S.: ut Eurysthei filios, ita suos configebat, his own, as well as, etc.—In oaths or emphatic wishes, so, if it be true: Ita me di ament, non nil timeo, i. e. so help me, T.: sollicitat, ita vivam, me tua valetudo: ita me referat tibi Iuppiter, V.: tecum esse, ita mihi omnia quae opto contingant, ut vehementer velim.—    III. Praegn., of kind or quality, so, such, of this nature, of this kind: ita sunt res nostrae: ita inquam (i. e. hoc dico).—Of a natural consequence or inference, so, thus, accordingly, under these circumstances, in this manner, therefore: ita sine periculo, etc., Cs.: ita praetorium missum, L.: ita Iovis illud sacerdotium per hanc rationem Theomnasto datur: ita fit ut animus iudicet, etc., thus it comes to pass: ita fit ut deus ille nusquam prorsus appareat, hence it follows.—In restriction, on the condition, on the assumption, in so far, to such an extent, only in so far: haec ita administrabat, ut, etc., Cs.: cuius ingenium ita laudo, ut non pertimescam: pax ita convenerat, ut Etruscis Latinisque fluvius finis esset, L.: ita admissi captivi, ne tamen iis senatus daretur, L.—Of degree, so, to such a degree, so very, so much: ita fugavit Samnites, ut, etc., L.: iudices ita fortes tamen fuerunt, ut... vel perire maluerint, quam, etc.: ita acriter... itaque repente, Cs. —With negatives, not very, not especially: non ita magnus numerus, Cs.: non ita lato interiecto mari: accessione utuntur non ita probabili: post, neque ita multo, N.
    * * *
    thus, so; therefore

    Latin-English dictionary > ita

  • 2 nunc

        nunc adv.    [num+ce], of present time, now, at present, at this time: de quibus nunc quaerimus: nunc quae est, non quae olim fuit, T.: omnia, quae sunt conclusa nunc artibus, dispersa quondam fuerunt: sed erat tunc excusatio oppressis; nunc nulla est: arx minus aliquanto nunc munita quam antea: aut nunc... aut aliquando: Cluentio nisi nunc satisfecero, postea non erit, etc.: deos nunc testīs esse, mox fore ultores, L.: Nunc, olim, quocumque tempore, V.: nunc demum intellego, not till now, T.: ut mihi nunc denique amare videar, antea dilexisse: nunc primum, not until now: Nunc, nunc o liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam, V.: hem, nuncin demum? now at last? T.: quae (causae) si manebunt... et, ut nunc est, mansurae videntur, in the present state of affairs: Suaviter, ut nunc est, inquam, H.: iudiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, of contemporaries: nunc tamen ipsum, just now.—Of past or future time, conceived as present, now, at this time, then, at that time: Idem Menandri Phasma nunc nuper dedit, T.: nunc in causā refrixit: nunc reus erat apud Crassum: nunc Tempus erat, etc., H.: dixit, nunc demum se voti esse damnatum, N.—Of circumstances, now, under these circumstances, in view of this, as matters are: nunc quoniam hominem generavit et ornavit deus, perspicuum sit, etc.: vix nunc obsistitur illis, O.: si omnia manerent, tamen... nunc vero exul patriā, quo adcedam? S.: nec abnuitur ita fuisse, si... nunc haud sane, etc., but as matters are, L.: si haec non ad homines verum ad bestias conqueri vellem... nunc vero cum loquar apud senatores populi R., etc.— Repeated in parallel clauses, nunc... nunc, now... now, at one time, at another, sometimes... sometimes: facinora nunc in expeditionibus, nunc in acie, L.: Nunc hos, nunc illos aditūs pererrat, V.: nunc ad prima signa, nunc in medium, nunc in ultimo agmine aderat, Cu.; cf. pariterque sinistros, Nunc dextros solvere sinūs, V.: nunc... postremo, L.: nunc... modo, L.: modo... Nunc, O.
    * * *
    now, today, at present

    Latin-English dictionary > nunc

  • 3 sīc

        sīc adv.    [for the old sīce; sī (locat. of pron. stem sa-)+ce].—Referring to something done or pointed out by the speaker, thus, in this way, as I do, as you see (colloq.): Cape hoc flabellum, ventulum huic sic facito, T.—In curses or threats: Sic dabo, thus will I treat (every foe), T.: sic eat quaecunque Romana lugebit hostem, so let every woman fare who, etc., L.—Referring to what precedes, so, thus, in this manner, in such a manner, in the same way or manner, in like manner, likewise: in angulum Aliquo abeam; sic agam, T.: sic ille annus duo firmamenta rei p. evertit, in the way described: sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, Cs.: sic regii constiterant, L.—With a part. or adj.: sic igitur instructus veniet ad causas: cum sic adfectos dimisisset, L.—Parenthet., thus, so: commentabar declamitans—sic enim nunc loquuntur: Crevit in inmensum (sic di statuistis), O.— Instead of a pron dem., thus, this: iis litteris respondebo; sic enim postulas (i. e. hoc postulas): hic adsiste; sic volo (i. e. hoc te facere volo), T.: sic fata iubent (i. e. hoc facere iubent), O.—As subject (representing an inf.): Sic commodius esse arbitror quam Manere hanc (i. e. abire), T.: Sic opus est (i. e. hoc facere), O.—In place of a clause of action, thus: sic provolant duo Fabii (i. e. sic loquentes), L.: sic enim nostrae rationes postulabant (i. e. ut sic agerem): sic enim concedis mihi proximis litteris (i. e. ut sic agam): Sic soleo (i. e. bona consilia reddere), T.: quoniam sic cogitis ipsi (i. e. hoc facere), O.—Of nature or character, such: sic vita hominum est (i. e. talis): familiaris noster—sic est enim: sic, Crito, est hic, T.: Sic est (i. e. sic res se habet), that is so, T.: Laelius sapiens—sic enim est habitus: Sic ad me miserande redis! in this condition, O.—Of consequence, so, thus, under these circumstances, accordingly, hence: sic Numitori ad supplicium Remus deditur, L.—Of condition, so, thus only, on this condition, if this be done: reliquas illius anni pestīs recordamini, sic enim facillime perspicietis, etc.— Of degree, so, to such a degree, in such wise: non latuit scintilla ingeni; sic erat in omni sermone sollers (i. e. tam sollers erat ut non lateret ingenium).—Referring to what follows, thus, as follows, in the following manner: sic enim dixisti; vidi ego tuam lacrimulam: res autem se sic habet; composite et apte dicere, etc., the truth is this: placido sic pectore coepit, V.—Ellipt.: ego sic; diem statuo, etc. (sc. ego), for instance: mala definitio est... cum aliquid non grave dicit, sic; stultitia est inmensa gloriae cupiditas.—As correlative, with a clause of comparison, thus, so, just so, in the same way: ut non omnem arborem in omni agro reperire possis, sic non omne facinus in omni vitā nascitur: de Lentulo sic fero ut debeo: fervidi animi vir, ut in publico periculo, sic in suo, L.: mihi sic placuit ut cetera Antisthenis, in the same way as, i. e. no more than: quem ad modum tibicen... sic orator: tecum simul, sicut ego pro multis, sic ille pro Appio dixit: sicut priore anno... sic tum, L.: velut ipse in re trepidā se sit tutatus, sic consulem loca tutiora castris cepisse, L.: tamquam litteris in cerā, sic se aiebat imaginibus perscribere: huius innocentiae sic in hac famā, quasi in aliquā flammā subvenire: ceu cetera nusquam Bella forent... Sic Martem indomitum Cernimus, V.—With acc. and inf: sic te opinor dixisse, invenisse, etc., T.: sic igitur sentio, naturam ad dicendum vim adferre maximam: ego sic existimo, in summo imperatore quattuor res inesse oportere.—Hence the phrase, sic habeto, be sure of this: sic habeto, in eum statum tuum reditum incidere ut, etc.—With a clause of contrast, ut... sic, while... yet, though... still: ut ad bella suscipienda promptus est animus, sic mollis ad calamitates perferendas mens est, Cs.: Ut cognoscit formam, Sic facit incertam color, O.: ut nondum satis claram victoriam, sic prosperae spei pugnam imber diremit, L.: (forma erat) Ut non cygnorum, sic albis proxima cygnis, O.: ut sunt, sic etiam nominantur senes: utinam ut culpam, sic etiam suspitionem vitare potuisses: ut, quem ad modum est, sic etiam appelletur tyrannus: quo modo ad bene vivendum, sic etiam ad beate.—With a clause of manner, sic... ut, so... that, in such a way that, so that: armorum magnā multitudine iactā... sic ut acervi, etc., Cs.: sic agam vobiscum ut aliquid de vestris vitiis audiatis.—With a clause of degree, to such a degree, so, so far: sic animos timor praeoccupaverat, ut dicerent, etc., Cs.: sic adficior, ut Catonem, non me loqui existimem: cuius responso iudices sic exarserunt ut hominem condemnarent.—With a clause of purpose or result, so, with this intent, with this result: ab Ariobarzane sic contendi ut talenta, quae mihi pollicebatur, illi daret.—With a restrictive clause, but so, yet so, only so: sic conveniet reprehendi, ut demonstretur, etc.—With a conditional clause, with the proviso that, but only, if: decreverunt ut cum populus regem iussisset, id sic ratum esset si patres auctores fierent, should be valid, if the Senate should ratify it, L.—In a wish or prayer corresp. to an imperative (poet.), then, if so: Pone, precor, fastūs... Sic tibi nec vernum nascentia frigus adurat Poma, etc., O.: Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos... Incipe (sc. cantare) si quid habes (i. e. si incipies cantare, opto tibi ut tua examina, etc.), V.: Sic mare compositum, sic sit tibi piscis in undā Credulus... Dic ubi sit, O.—With ut in strong asseveration: Sic me di amabunt, ut me tuarum miseritum'st fortunarum, i. e. by the love of the gods, I pity, etc., T.: sic has deus aequoris artīs Adiuvet, ut nemo iam dudum littore in isto constitit, O.—Of circumstance, so, as the matter stands now, as it now is, as it then was: sic vero, but as things now stand: At sic citius qui te expedias his aerumnis reperias, T.: non sic nudos in flumen deicere (voluerunt), naked, as they are: Mirabar hoc si sic abiret, i. e. without trouble, T.—In a concession, even as it is now, even without doing so, in spite of it: sed sic quoque erat tamen Acis, i. e. in spite of all this, O.: sed sic me et liberalitatis fructu privas et diligentiae.—Ellipt.: Quid si hoc nunc sic incipiam? nihil est. quid, sic? tantumdem egero. At sic opinor. non potest, thus, i. e. as occurs to me, T.: illa quae aliis sic, aliis secus videntur, to some in one way, to others in another: deinde quod illa (quae ego dixi) sive faceta sunt, sive sic, fiunt narrante te venustissima, i. e. or otherwise.—In an answer, yes (colloq.): Ph. Phaniam relictam ais? Ge. Sic, T.: De. Illa maneat? Ch. Sic, T.
    * * *
    thus, so; as follows; in another way; in such a way

    Latin-English dictionary > sīc

  • 4 in

    1.
    in (old forms endŏ and indŭ, freq. in ante-class. poets; cf. Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4; id. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2; Lucil. ap. Lact. 5, 9, 20; Lucr. 2, 1096; 5, 102; 6, 890 et saep.), prep. with abl. and acc. [kindr. with Sanscr. an; Greek en, en-tha, en-then, eis, i. e. en-s, ana; Goth. ana; Germ. in], denotes either rest or motion within or into a place or thing; opp. to ex; in, within, on, upon, among, at; into, to, towards.
    I.
    With abl.
    A.
    In space.
    1.
    Lit., in (with abl. of the place or thing in which):

    aliorum fructus in terra est, aliorum et extra,

    Plin. 19, 4, 22, § 61:

    alii in corde, alii in cerebro dixerunt animi esse sedem et locum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    eo in rostris sedente suasit Serviliam legem Crassus,

    id. Brut. 43, 161:

    qui sunt cives in eadem re publica,

    id. Rep. 1, 32 fin.:

    facillimam in ea re publica esse concordiam, in qua idem conducat omnibus,

    id. ib.:

    T. Labienus ex loco superiore, quae res in nostris castris gererentur, conspicatus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 26, 4:

    quod si in scaena, id est in contione verum valet, etc.,

    Cic. Lael. 26, 97:

    in foro palam Syracusis,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 33, § 81:

    plures in eo loco sine vulnere quam in proelio aut fuga intereunt,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 35:

    tulit de caede, quae in Appia via facta esset,

    Cic. Mil. 6, 15:

    in via fornicata,

    Liv. 22, 36:

    vigebat in illa domo mos patrius et disciplina,

    Cic. de Sen. 11, 37:

    in domo furtum factum ab eo qui domi fuit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 16:

    nupta in domo,

    Liv. 6, 34, 9:

    copias in castris continent,

    in, within, Caes. B. C. 1, 66:

    cum in angusto quodam pulpito stans diceret,

    Quint. 11, 3, 130:

    se ac suos in vehiculo conspici,

    Liv. 5, 40, 10:

    malo in illa tua sedecula sedere, quam in istorum sella curuli,

    Cic. Att. 4, 10:

    sedere in solio,

    id. Fin. 2, 21, 66:

    Albae constiterant, in urbe opportuna,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 6. —

    Sometimes, also, with names of places: omnes se ultro sectari in Epheso memorat mulieres,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 182:

    heri aliquot adolescentuli coiimus in Piraeo,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 1:

    navis et in Cajeta est parata nobis et Brundisii,

    Cic. Att. 8, 3, 6:

    complures (naves) in Hispali faciendas curavit,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 18:

    caesos in Marathone ac Salamine,

    Quint. 12, 10, 24:

    in Berenice urbe Troglodytarum,

    Plin. 2, 73, 75, § 183.—
    2.
    In indicating a multitude or number, of, in, or among which a person or thing is, in, among (= gen. part.):

    in his poeta hic nomen profitetur suum,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 3:

    Thales, qui sapientissimus in septem fuit,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 26:

    peto ut eum complectare, diligas, in tuis habeas,

    id. Fam. 13, 78, 2; cf.:

    in perditis et desperatis,

    id. ib. 13, 56, 1:

    omnia quae secundum naturam fiunt, sunt habenda in bonis,

    id. de Sen. 19, 71:

    dolor in maximis malis ducitur,

    id. Leg. 1, 11, 31:

    justissimus unus in Teucris,

    Verg. A. 2, 426:

    cecidere in pugna ad duo milia... in his quatuor Romani centuriones,

    Liv. 27, 12, 16:

    in diis et feminae sunt,

    Lact. 1, 16, 17.—
    3.
    Of analogous relations of place or position:

    sedere in equo,

    on horseback, id. Verr. 2, 5, 10:

    quid legati in equis,

    id. Pis. 25, 60:

    sedere in leone,

    Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 109:

    in eo flumine pons erat,

    on, over, Caes. B. G. 2, 5:

    in herboso Apidano,

    on the banks of, Prop. 1, 3, 6:

    in digitis,

    on tiptoe, Val. Fl. 4, 267:

    castra in limite locat,

    on the rampart, Tac. A. 1, 50:

    ipse coronam habebat unam in capite, alteram in collo,

    on, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27:

    oleae in arbore,

    Cels. 2, 24:

    Caesaris in barbaris erat nomen obscurius,

    among, Caes. B. C. 1, 61:

    in ceteris nationibus, Cels. praef. 1: qui in Brutiis praeerat,

    Liv. 25, 16, 7:

    in juvenibus,

    Quint. 11, 1, 32:

    nutus in mutis pro sermone est,

    id. 11, 3, 66.—Of dress, like cum, q. v.:

    in veste candida,

    Liv. 45, 20, 5; 34, 7, 3:

    in calceis,

    id. 24, 38, 2:

    in insignibus,

    id. 5, 41, 2:

    in tunicis albis,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 13:

    in Persico et vulgari habitu,

    Curt. 3, 3, 4:

    in lugubri veste,

    id. 10, 5, 17:

    in Tyriis,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 297:

    in Cois,

    id. ib. v. 298; cf.:

    homines in catenis Romam mittere,

    Liv. 29, 21, 12; 32, 1, 8: quis multa te in rosa urget, etc., Hor C. 1, 5, 1; so, in viola aut in rosa, Cic. Tusc. [p. 912] 5, 26, 73.—So of arms:

    duas legiones in armis,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 11, 6; cf. Verg. A. 3, 395:

    in armis hostis,

    under arms, Ov. M. 12,65:

    quae in ore atque in oculis provinciae gesta sunt (= coram),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 33, § 81; so,

    in oculis provinciae,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 2:

    in oculis omnium,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 7:

    divitiae, decus, gloria in oculis sita sunt,

    Sall. C. 20, 14; Curt. 4, 13, 1; Liv. 22, 12, 6:

    Julianus in ore ejus (Vitellii) jugulatur,

    Tac. H. 3, 77; Sen. Ben. 7, 19, 7.—Of a passage in any writing (but when the author is named, by meton., for his works, apud is used, Krebs, Antibarb. p. 561):

    in populorum institutis aut legibus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 15, 42:

    in illis libris qui sunt de natura deorum,

    id. Fat. 1, 1:

    in Timaeo dicit,

    id. N. D. 1, 12, 30:

    epistula, in qua omnia perscripta erant,

    Nep. Pelop. 3, 2:

    perscribit in litteris, hostes ab se discessisse,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 49; but in is also used with an author's name when, not a place in his book, but a feature of his style, etc., is referred to:

    in Thucydide orbem modo orationis desidero,

    Cic. Or. 71, 234:

    in Herodoto omnia leniter fluunt,

    Quint. 9, 4, 18.—Of books:

    libri oratorii diu in manibus fuerunt,

    Cic. Att. 4, 13, 2; id. Lael. 25, 96; but more freq. trop.: in manibus habere, tenere, etc., to be engaged, occupied with, to have under control or within reach:

    philosophi quamcunque rem habent in manibus,

    id. Tusc. 5, 7, 18:

    quam spem nunc habeat in manibus, exponam,

    id. Verr. 1, 6, 16:

    rem habere in manibus,

    id. Att. 6, 3, 1; cf.:

    neque mihi in manu fuit Jugurtha qualis foret,

    in my power, Sall. J. 14, 4:

    postquam nihil esse in manu sua respondebatur,

    Liv. 32, 24, 2:

    quod ipsorum in manu sit,... bellum an pacem malint,

    Tac. A. 2, 46; but, cum tantum belli in manibus esset, was in hand, busied (cf.:

    inter manus),

    Liv. 4, 57, 1; so,

    quorum epistulas in manu teneo,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 4, 9; cf. id. Att. 2, 2, 2:

    in manu poculum tenens,

    id. Tusc. 1, 29, 71:

    coronati et lauream in manu tenentes,

    Liv. 40, 37, 3; Suet. Claud. 15 fin. —Of that which is thought of as existing in the mind, memory, character, etc.:

    in animo esse,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 11:

    in animo habere,

    id. Rosc. Am. 18, 52:

    lex est ratio insita in natura,

    id. Leg. 1, 6, 18:

    in memoria sedere,

    id. de Or. 2, 28, 122; cf.:

    tacito mutos volvunt in pectore questus,

    Luc. 1, 247:

    quanta auctoritas fuit in C. Metello!

    Cic. de Sen. 17, 61. —So freq. of a person's qualities of mind or character:

    erat in eo summa eloquentia, summa fides,

    Cic. Mur. 28, 58; cf.:

    in omni animante est summum aliquid atque optimum, ut in equis,

    id. Fin. 4, 41, 37:

    si quid artis in medicis est,

    Curt. 3, 5, 13; cf.:

    nibil esse in morte timendum,

    Lucr. 3, 866.— Esp., in eo loco, in that state or condition:

    in eo enim loco res sunt nostrae, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 35, 7: si vos in eo loco essetis, quid aliud fecissetis? Cat. ap. Quint. 9, 2, 21; so,

    quo in loco, etc.: cum ex equitum et calonum fuga, quo in loco res essent, cognovissent,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 26:

    videtis, quo in loco res haec siet, Ter Phorm. 2, 4, 6: quod ipse, si in eodem loco esset, facturus fuerit,

    Liv. 37, 14, 5.—Hence, without loco, in eo esse ut, etc., to be in such a condition, etc.:

    non in eo esse Carthaginiensium res, ut Galliam armis obtineant,

    Liv. 30, 19, 3:

    cum res non in eo esset, ut Cyprum tentaret,

    id. 33, 41, 9; 8, 27, 3; 2, 17, 5; Nep. Mil. 7, 3; id. Paus. 5, 1 (cf. I. C. 1. infra).—
    B.
    In time, indicating its duration, in, during, in the course of:

    feci ego istaec itidem in adulescentia,

    in my youth, when I was young, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 6:

    in tempore hoc,

    Ter. And. 4, 5, 24:

    in hoc tempore,

    Tac. A. 13, 47:

    in tali tempore,

    Sall. C. 48, 5; Liv. 22, 35; 24, 28 al.:

    in diebus paucis,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 77:

    in brevi spatio,

    id. Heaut. 5, 2, 2; Suet. Vesp. 4:

    in qua aetate,

    Cic. Brut. 43 fin.:

    in ea aetate,

    Liv. 1, 57:

    in omni aetate,

    Cic. de Sen. 3, 9:

    in aetate, qua jam Alexander orbem terrarum subegisset,

    Suet. Caes. 7:

    qua (sc. Iphigenia) nihil erat in eo quidem anno natum pulchrius,

    in the course of, during the year, Cic. Off. 3, 25, 95 (al. eo quidem anno):

    nihil in vita se simile fecisse,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 91: nihil in vita vidit calamitatis A. Cluentius. id. Clu. 6, 18:

    in tota vita inconstans,

    id. Tusc. 4, 13, 29.—
    b.
    In tempore, at the right or proper time, in time (Cic. uses only tempore; v. tempus): eccum ipsum video in tempore huc se recipere, Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 24:

    ni pedites equitesque in tempore subvenissent,

    Liv. 33, 5:

    spreta in tempore gloria interdum cumulatior redit,

    id. 2, 47:

    rebellaturi,

    Tac. A. 12, 50:

    atque adeo in ipso tempore eccum ipsum obviam,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 52: in tempore, opportune. Nos sine praepositione dicimus tempore et tempori, Don. ad Ter. And. 4, 4, 19.—
    c.
    In praesentia and in praesenti, at present, now, at this moment, under these circumstances:

    sic enim mihi in praesentia occurrit,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 8, 14:

    vestrae quidem cenae non solum in praesentia, sed etiam postero die jucundae sunt,

    id. ib. 5, 35, 100:

    id quod unum maxime in praesentia desiderabatur,

    Liv. 21, 37:

    haec ad te in praesenti scripsi, ut, etc.,

    for the present, Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 4.—
    d.
    With gerunds and fut. pass. participles, to indicate duration of time, in:

    fit, ut distrahatur in deliberando animus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 3, 9; id. Fam. 2, 6, 2:

    vitiosum esse in dividendo partem in genere numerare,

    id. Fin. 2, 9, 26:

    quod in litteris dandis praeter consuetudinem proxima nocte vigilarat,

    id. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    ne in quaerendis suis pugnandi tempus dimitteret,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 21:

    in agris vastandis incendiisque faciendis hostibus,

    in laying waste, id. ib. 5, 19:

    in excidenda Numantia,

    Cic. Off. 1, 22, 76:

    cum in immolanda Iphigenia tristis Calchas esset,

    id. Or. 21, 74.—
    C.
    In other relations, where a person or thing is thought of as in a certain condition, situation, or relation, in:

    qui magno in aere alieno majores etiam possessiones habent,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 8, 18:

    se in insperatis repentinisque pecuniis jactare,

    id. Cat. 2, 9, 20:

    Larinum in summo timore omnium cum armatis advolavit,

    id. Clu. 8, 25.—

    So freq., of qualities or states of mind: summa in sollicitudine ac timore Parthici belli,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 31:

    torpescentne dextrae in amentia illa?

    Liv. 23, 9, 7:

    hunc diem perpetuum in laetitia degere,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 5; Cic. Cat. 4, 1, 2:

    in metu,

    Tac. A. 14, 43:

    in voluptate,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 19, 62:

    alicui in amore esse,

    beloved, id. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 3:

    alicui in amoribus esse,

    id. Att. 6, 1, 12:

    res in invidia erat,

    Sall. J. 25, 5; Liv. 29, 37, 17: sum in expectatione omnium rerum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 4, 10:

    num... Diogenem Stoicum coegit in suis studiis obmutescere senectus?

    in his studies, Cic. de Sen. 7, 21:

    mirificam cepi voluptatem ex tua diligentia: quod in summis tuis occupationibus mihi tamen rei publicae statum per te notum esse voluisti,

    even in, notwithstanding your great occupations, id. Fam. 3, 11, 4.—

    So freq., of business, employment, occupations, etc.: in aliqua re versari,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 47, § 105:

    similia iis, quae in consilio dixerat,

    Curt. 5, 5, 23:

    in certamine armorum atque in omni palaestra quid satis recte cavetur,

    Quint. 9, 4, 8:

    agi in judiciis,

    id. 11, 1, 78:

    tum vos mihi essetis in consilio,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 18, 28:

    in actione... dicere,

    Quint. 8, 2, 2.—Of an office, magistracy:

    in quo tum magistratu forte Brutus erat,

    Liv. 1, 59, 7; 4, 17, 1:

    in eo magistratu pari diligentia se praebuit,

    Nep. Han. 7, 5 (cf. B. 1. supra):

    in ea ipsa causa fuit eloquentissimus,

    Cic. Brut, 43, 160:

    qui non defendit nec obsistit, si potest, injuriae, tam est in vitio, quam, etc.,

    is in the wrong, acts wrongly, id. Off. 1, 7, 23:

    etsi hoc quidem est in vitio, dissolutionem naturae tam valde perhorrescere,

    is wrong, id. Fin. 5, 11, 31:

    non sunt in eo genere tantae commoditates corporis,

    id. ib. 4, 12, 29; cf.:

    an omnino nulla sit in eo genere distinctio,

    id. Or. 61, 205:

    Drusus erat de praevaricatione absolutus in summa quatuor sententiis,

    on the whole, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 16; cf.:

    et in omni summa, ut mones, valde me ad otium pacemque converto,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 5;

    but, in summa, sic maxime judex credit, etc.,

    in a word, in fine, Quint. 9, 2, 72; Auct. B. Alex. 71; Just. 37, 1, 8:

    horum (juvenum) inductio in parte simulacrum decurrentis exercitus erat: ex parte elegantioris exercitii quam militaris artis,

    in part, Liv. 44, 9, 5; cf.:

    quod mihi in parte verum videtur,

    Quint. 2, 8, 6:

    patronorum in parte expeditior, in parte difficilior interrogatio est,

    id. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc facere in eo homine consueverunt,

    in the case of, Caes. B. G. 7, 21:

    in furibus aerarii,

    Sall. C. 52, 12:

    Achilles talis in hoste fuit,

    Verg. A. 2, 540:

    in hoc homine saepe a me quaeris, etc.,

    in the case of, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 6: in nominibus impiis, Sall. C. 51, 15:

    suspectus et in morte matris fuit,

    Suet. Vit. 14:

    qui praesentes metuunt, in absentia hostes erunt, = absentes,

    Curt. 6, 3, 8 (cf. I. B. c. supra).—Of the meaning of words, etc.:

    non solum in eodem sensu, sed etiam in diverso, eadem verba contra,

    Quint. 9, 3, 36:

    aliter voces aut eaedem in diversa significatione ponuntur,

    id. 9, 3, 69:

    Sallustius in significatione ista non superesse sed superare dicit,

    Gell. 1, 22, 15:

    stips non dicitur in significatione trunci,

    Charis. 1, 18, 39:

    semper in significatione ea hortus,

    Plin. 19, 4, 19, § 50. —
    2.
    In with abl. of adjj. is used with the verbs esse and habere to express quality:

    cum exitus haud in facili essent, i. e. haud faciles,

    Liv. 3, 8, 9:

    adeo moderatio tuendae libertatis in difficili est,

    id. 3, 8, 11; 3, 65, 11; but mostly with adjj. of the first and second declension:

    in obscuro esse, Liv. praef. § 3: in dubio esse,

    id. 2, 3, 1; 3, 19, 8; Ov. H. 19, 174:

    dum in dubiost animus,

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 31; 2, 2, 10:

    in integro esse,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 11, 15, 4:

    in incerto esse,

    Liv. 5, 28, 5:

    in obvio esse,

    id. 37, 23, 1:

    in tuto esse,

    id. 38, 4, 10; cf.:

    videre te in tuto,

    Cat. 30, 6:

    in aequo esse,

    Liv. 39, 37, 14; Tac. A. 2, 44:

    in expedito esse,

    Curt. 4, 2, 22:

    in proximo esse,

    Quint. 1, 3, 4:

    in aperto esse,

    Sall. C. 5, 3:

    in promisco esse,

    Liv. 7, 17, 7:

    in augusto esse,

    Cels. 5, 27, 2:

    in incerto haberi,

    Sall. J. 46, 8; Tac. A. 15, 17:

    in levi habitum,

    id. H. 2, 21; cf.:

    in incerto relinquere,

    Liv. 5, 28, 5; Tac. H. 2, 83.
    II.
    With acc.
    A.
    In space, with verbs of motion, into or to a place or thing (rarely with names of towns and small islands;

    v. Zumpt, Gram. § 398): influxit non tenuis quidam e Graecia rivulus in hanc urbem,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19:

    in Ephesum advenit,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 1, 35:

    in Epirum venire,

    Cic. Att. 13, 25, 3:

    ibo in Piraeeum, visamque, ecquae advenerit in portum ex Epheso navis mercatoria,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 2: venio ad Piraeea, in quo magis reprehendendus sum, quod... Piraeea scripserim, non Piraeeum, quam in quod addiderim;

    non enim hoc ut oppido praeposui, sed ut loco,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 10:

    se contulisse Tarquinios, in urbem Etruriae florentissimam,

    id. Rep. 2, 19:

    remigrare in domum veterem e nova,

    id. Ac. 1, 4, 13:

    cum in sua rura venerunt,

    id. Tusc. 5, 35, 102:

    a te ipso missi in ultimas gentes,

    id. Fam. 15, 9:

    in Ubios legatos mittere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11:

    dein Thalam pervenit, in oppidum magnum et opulentum,

    Sall. J. 75, 1:

    Regillum antiquam in patriam se contulerat,

    Liv. 3, 58, 1:

    abire in exercitum,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 102.— With nuntio:

    cum id Zmyrnam in contionem nuntiatum est,

    Tac. A. 4, 56:

    nuntiatur in castra,

    Lact. Most. Pers. 46; cf.:

    allatis in castra nuntiis,

    Tac. H. 4, 32: in manus sumere, tradere, etc., into one's hands:

    iste unumquodque vas in manus sumere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 27, § 63:

    Falerios se in manus Romanis tradidisse,

    Liv. 5, 27, 3.—Rarely with the verbs ponere, collocare, etc. (pregn., i. e. to bring into... and place there):

    in crimen populo ponere,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 10:

    ut liberos, uxores suaque omnia in silvas deponerent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 19:

    duplam pecuniam in thesauros reponi,

    Liv. 29, 19, 7:

    prius me collocavi in arborem,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 8, 6:

    sororem et propinquas suas nuptum in alias civitates collocasse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 18.— Motion in any direction, up to, to, into, down to:

    in caelum ascendere,

    Cic. Lael. 23 fin.:

    filium ipse paene in umeros suos extulisset,

    id. de Or. 1, 53, 228:

    tamquam in aram confugitis ad deum,

    up to the altar, id. Tusc. 3, 10, 25:

    Saturno tenebrosa in Tartara misso,

    Ov. M. 1, 113:

    in flumen deicere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Nep. Chab. 4, 3.—
    2.
    Denoting mere direction towards a place or thing, and hence sometimes joined with versus, towards:

    quid nunc supina sursum in caelum conspicis,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 78:

    si in latus aut dextrum aut sinistrum, ut ipsi in usu est, cubat,

    Cels. 2, 3:

    Belgae spectant in septentriones et orientem solem,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    in orientem Germaniae, in occidentem Hispaniae obtenditur, Gallis in meridiem etiam inspicitur,

    Tac. Agr. 10:

    in laevum prona nixus sedet Inachus urna,

    Stat. Th. 2, 218.—With versus:

    castra ex Biturigibus movet in Arvernos versus,

    towards, Caes. B. G. 7, 8 fin.:

    in Galliam versus movere,

    Sall. C. 56, 4: in [p. 913] ltaliam versus, Front. Strat. 1, 4, 11:

    si in urbem versus venturi erant,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 82. —
    3.
    So of that which is thought of as entering into the mind, memory, etc. (cf. I. A. 2. fin.):

    in memoriam reducere,

    Cic. Inv 1, 52, 98:

    in animum inducere,

    Liv. 27, 9:

    in mentem venire,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 3:

    frequens imitatio transit in mores,

    Quint. 1, 11, 3. —

    Or into a writing or speech: in illam Metellinam orationem addidi quaedam,

    Cic. Att. 1, 13, 5.—
    B.
    In time, into, till, for:

    dormiet in lucem,

    into the daylight, till broad day, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 34:

    statim e somno, quem plerumque in diem extrahunt, lavantur,

    Tac. G. 22: sermonem in multam noctem produximus, deep into the night, Cic. Rep. Fragm. ap. Arus. Mess. p. 239 Lindem.:

    in multam noctem luxit,

    Suet. Tib. 74:

    si febris in noctem augetur,

    Cels. 7, 27:

    dixit in noctem atque etiam nocte illatis lucernis,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 9, 14:

    indutias in triginta annos impetraverunt,

    for thirty years, Liv. 9, 37, 12; 7, 20, 8:

    nisi id verbum in omne tempus perdidissem,

    forever, Cic. Fam. 5, 15, 1:

    ad cenam hominem in hortos invitavit in posterum diem,

    for the following day, id. Off. 3, 14, 58:

    audistis auctionem constitutam in mensem Januarium,

    id. Agr. 1, 2, 4:

    subito reliquit annum suum seque in annum proximum transtulit,

    id. Mil. 9, 24:

    solis defectiones itemque lunae praedicuntur in multos annos,

    for many years, id. Div. 2, 6, 17:

    postero die Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie,

    Liv. 27, 2:

    qui ab matutino tempore duraverunt in occasum,

    Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99:

    seritur (semen lini) a Kalendis Octobribus in ortum aquilae,

    Col. 2, 10, 17.—With usque:

    neque illi didicerunt haec usque in senectutem,

    Quint. 12, 11, 20:

    in illum usque diem servati,

    id. 8, 3, 68:

    in serum usque patente cubiculo,

    Suet. Oth. 11:

    regnum trahat usque in tempora fati,

    Sil. 11, 392: in posterum (posteritatem) or in futurum, in future, for the future: in praesens, for the present: in perpetuum or in aeternum, forever:

    sancit in posterum, ne quis, etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 5, 10:

    res dilata est in posterum,

    id. Fam. 10, 12, 3:

    video quanta tempestas invidiae nobis, si minus in praesens, at in posteritatem impendeat,

    id. Cat. 1, 9, 22:

    id aegre et in praesentia hi passi et in futurum etiam metum ceperunt,

    Liv. 34, 27, 10; cf.:

    ingenti omnium et in praesens laetitia et in futurum spe,

    id. 30, 17, 1:

    effugis in futurum,

    Tac. H. 1, 71:

    quod eum tibi quaestoris in loco constitueras, idcirco tibi amicum in perpetuum fore putasti?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 30; cf.:

    oppidum omni periculo in perpetuum liberavit,

    id. Fam. 13, 4, 2:

    quae (leges) non in tempus aliquod, sed perpetuae utilitatis causa in aeternum latae sunt,

    Liv. 34, 6, 4: in tempus, for a while, for a short time, for the occasion (postAug.):

    sensit miles in tempus conficta,

    Tac. A. 1, 37:

    ne urbs sine imperio esset, in tempus deligebatur, qui jus redderet,

    id. ib. 6, 11:

    scaena in tempus structa,

    id. ib. 14, 20. —So in diem, for the day, to meet the day's want:

    nihil ex raptis in diem commeatibus superabat,

    Liv. 22, 40, 8:

    rapto in diem frumento,

    id. 4, 10, 1;

    but, cum illa fundum emisset in diem,

    i. e. a fixed day of payment, Nep. Att. 9, 5: in singulos dies, or simply in dies, with comparatives and verbs denoting increase, from day to day, daily:

    vitium in dies crescit,

    Vell. 2, 5, 2:

    in dies singulos breviores litteras ad te mitto,

    Cic. Att. 5, 7:

    qui senescat in dies,

    Liv. 22, 39, 15: in diem, daily:

    nos in diem vivimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    in diem et horam,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 47;

    and in horas,

    hourly, id. C. 2, 13, 14; id. S. 2, 7, 10.—
    C.
    In other relations, in which an aiming at, an inclining or striving towards a thing, is conceivable, on, about, respecting; towards, against; for, as; in, to; into:

    id, quod apud Platonem est in philosophos dictum,

    about the philosophers, Cic. Off. 1, 9, 28:

    Callimachi epigramma in Ambraciotam Cleombrotum est,

    id. Tusc. 1, 34, 84; cf.:

    cum cenaret Simonides apud Scopam cecinissetque id car men, quod in eum scripsisset, etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 86, 352:

    quo amore tandem inflammati esse debemus in ejus modi patriam,

    towards, id. ib. 1, 44, 196:

    in liberos nostros indulgentia,

    id. ib. 2, 40, 168:

    de suis meritis in rem publicam aggressus est dicere,

    id. Or. 38, 133: ita ad impietatem in deos, in homines adjunxit injuriam, against, id. N. D. 3, 34 fin.:

    in dominum quaeri,

    to be examined as a witness against, id. Mil. 22, 60:

    in eos impetum facere,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 1:

    invehi in Thebanos,

    Nep. Epam. 6, 1; id. Tim. 5, 3:

    quaecumque est hominis definitio, una in omnes valet,

    id. Leg. 1, 10, 29:

    num etiam in deos immortales inauspicatam legem valuisse?

    Liv. 7, 6, 11:

    vereor coram in os te laudare amplius,

    to your face, Ter. Ad. 2, 4, 5:

    si in me exerciturus (pugnos), quaeso, in parietem ut primum domes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 168:

    in puppim rediere rates,

    Luc. 3, 545 Burm. (cf.:

    sic equi dicuntur in frena redire, pulsi in terga recedere, Sulp. ad loc.): Cumis eam vidi: venerat enim in funus: cui funeri ego quoque operam dedi,

    to the funeral, to take charge of the funeral, Cic. Att. 15, 1, B:

    se quisque eum optabat, quem fortuna in id certamen legeret,

    Liv. 21, 42, 2:

    quodsi in nullius mercedem negotia eant, pauciora fore,

    Tac. A. 11, 6:

    haec civitas mulieri redimiculum praebeat, haec in collum, haec in crines,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 33:

    Rhegium quondam in praesidium missa legio,

    Liv. 28, 28; so,

    datae in praesidium cohortes,

    Tac. H. 4, 35: hoc idem significat Graecus ille in eam sententiam versus, to this effect or purport, Cic. Div. 2, 10, 25; cf. id. Fam. 9, 15, 4:

    haec et in eam sententiam cum multa dixisset,

    id. Att. 2, 22:

    qui omnia sic exaequaverunt, ut in utramque partem ita paria redderent, uti nulla selectione uterentur,

    id. Fin. 3, 4, 12:

    in utramque partem disputat,

    on both sides, for and against, id. Off. 3, 23, 89: te rogo, me tibi in omnes partes defendendum putes, Vatin. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 10 fin.:

    facillime et in optimam partem cognoscuntur adulescentes, qui se ad claros et sapientes viros contulerunt,

    id. Off. 2, 13, 46:

    cives Romani servilem in modum cruciati et necati,

    in the manner of slaves, Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 13; cf.:

    miserandum in modum milites populi Romani capti, necati sunt,

    id. Prov. Cons. 3, 5:

    senior quidam Veiens vaticinantis in modum cecinit,

    Liv. 5, 15, 4;

    also: domus et villae in urbium modum aedificatae,

    Sall. C. 12, 3:

    perinde ac si in hanc formulam omnia judicia legitima sint,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 5, 15:

    judicium quin acciperet in ea ipsa verba quae Naevius edebat, non recusasse,

    id. Quint. 20, 63; cf.:

    senatusconsultum in haec verba factum,

    Liv. 30, 43, 9:

    pax data Philippo in has leges est,

    id. 33, 30:

    Gallia omnis divisa est in partes tres,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1; cf.:

    quae quidem in confirmationem et reprehensionem dividuntur,

    Cic. Part. Or. 9, 33: describebat censores binos in singulas civitates, i. e. for or over each state, id. Verr. 2, 2, 53; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 26:

    itaque Titurium Tolosae quaternos denarios in singulas vini amphoras portorii nomine exegisse,

    id. Font. 5, 9:

    extulit eum plebs sextantibus collatis in capita,

    a head, for each person, Liv. 2, 33 fin.:

    Macedonibus treceni nummi in capita statutum est pretium,

    id. 32, 17, 2; cf.:

    Thracia in Rhoemetalcen filium... inque liberos Cotyis dividitur (i. e. inter),

    Tac. A. 2, 67.—
    2.
    Of the object or end in view, regarded also as the motive of action or effect:

    non te in me illiberalem, sed me in se neglegentem putabit,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 16:

    neglegentior in patrem,

    Just. 32, 3, 1:

    in quem omnes intenderat curas,

    Curt. 3, 1, 21:

    quos ardere in proelia vidi,

    Verg. A. 2, 347:

    in bellum ardentes,

    Manil. 4, 220:

    nutante in fugam exercitu,

    Flor. 3, 10, 4:

    in hanc tam opimam mercedem agite ( = ut eam vobis paretis, Weissenb. ad loc.),

    Liv. 21, 43, 7:

    certa praemia, in quorum spem pugnarent,

    id. 21, 45, 4:

    in id sors dejecta,

    id. 21, 42, 2:

    in id fide accepta,

    id. 28, 17, 9:

    in spem pacis solutis animis,

    id. 6, 11, 5 et saep.:

    ingrata misero vita ducenda est in hoc, ut, etc.,

    Hor. Epod. 17, 63:

    nec in hoc adhibetur, ut, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 16, 3:

    alius non in hoc, ut offenderet, facit, id. de Ira, 2, 26, 3: in quod tum missi?

    Just. 38, 3, 4.—So, like ad, with words expressing affections or inclination of the mind:

    in obsequium plus aequo pronus,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 10:

    paratus in res novas,

    Tac. H. 4, 32:

    in utrumque paratus,

    Verg. A. 2, 61.—
    3.
    Of the result of an act or effort:

    denique in familiae luctum atque in privignorum funus nupsit,

    Cic. Clu. 66, 188:

    paratusque miles, ut ordo agminis in aciem adsisteret,

    Tac. A. 2, 16: excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, Verg. A. 6, 42:

    portus ab Euroo fluctu curvatus in arcum,

    id. ib. 3, 533:

    populum in obsequia principum formavit,

    Just. 3, 2, 9:

    omnium partium decus in mercedem conruptum erat,

    Sall. H. 1, 13 Dietsch:

    commutari ex veris in falsa,

    Cic. Fat. 9, 17; 9, 18:

    in sollicitudinem versa fiducia est,

    Curt. 3, 8, 20.—
    4.
    Esp. in the phrase: in gratiam or in honorem, alicujus, in kindness, to show favor, out of good feeling, to show honor, etc., to any one (first in Liv.; cf. Weissenb. ad Liv. 28, 21, 4;

    Krebs, Antibarb. p. 562): in gratiam levium sociorum injuriam facere,

    Liv. 39, 26, 12:

    pugnaturi in gratiam ducis,

    id. 28, 21, 4:

    quorum in gratiam Saguntum deleverat Hannibal,

    id. 28, 39, 13; cf. id. 35, 2, 6; 26, 6, 16:

    oratio habita in sexus honorem,

    Quint. 1, 1, 6:

    convivium in honorem victoriae,

    id. 11, 2, 12:

    in honorem Quadratillae,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 7:

    in honorem tuum,

    Sen. Ep. 20, 7; 79, 2; 92, 1; Vell. 2, 41 al.—
    5.
    In the phrase, in rem esse, to be useful, to avail (cf.: e re esse;

    opp.: contra rem esse): ut aequom est, quod in rem esse utrique arbitremur,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 10:

    si in rem est Bacchidis,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 27; 2, 2, 7:

    hortatur, imperat, quae in rem sunt,

    Liv. 26, 44, 7:

    cetera, quae cognosse in rem erat,

    id. 22, 3, 2; 44, 19, 3:

    in rem fore credens universos adpellare,

    Sall. C. 20, 1; cf.:

    in duas res magnas id usui fore,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7:

    in hos usus,

    Verg. A. 4, 647.—
    6.
    To form adverbial expressions:

    non nominatim, qui Capuae, sed in universum qui usquam coissent, etc.,

    in general, Liv. 9, 26, 8; cf.:

    terra etsi aliquanto specie differt, in universum tamen aut silvis horrida aut paludibus foeda,

    Tac. G. 5:

    in universum aestimanti, etc.,

    id. ib. 6:

    aestate in totum, si fieri potest, abstinendum est (Venere),

    wholly, entirely, Cels. 1, 3 fin.; cf. Col. 2, 1, 2:

    in plenum dici potest, etc.,

    fully, Plin. 16, 40, 79, § 217:

    Marii virtutem in majus celebrare,

    beyond due bounds, Sall. J. 73, 5:

    aliter se corpus habere atque consuevit, neque in pejus tantum, sed etiam in melius,

    for the worse, for the better, Cels. 2, 2:

    in deterius,

    Tac. A. 14, 43:

    in mollius,

    id. ib. 14, 39:

    quid enim est iracundia in supervacuum tumultuante frigidius? Sen. de Ira, 2, 11: civitas saepta muris neque in barbarum corrupta (v. barbarus),

    Tac. A. 6, 42; cf.:

    aucto in barbarum cognomento,

    id. H. 5, 2:

    priusquam id sors cerneret, in incertum, ne quid gratia momenti faceret, in utramque provinciam decerni,

    while the matter was uncertain, Liv. 43, 12, 2:

    nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos In tantum spe tollet avos,

    so much, Verg. A. 6, 876:

    in tantum suam felicitatem virtutemque enituisse,

    Liv. 22, 27, 4; cf.:

    quaedam (aquae) fervent in tantum, ut non possint esse usui,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 24:

    viri in tantum boni, in quantum humana simplicitas intellegi potest,

    Vell. 2, 43, 4:

    quippe pedum digitos, in quantum quaeque secuta est, Traxit,

    Ov. M. 11, 71:

    meliore in omnia ingenio animoque quam fortuna usus,

    in all respects, Vell. 2, 13:

    ut simul in omnia paremur,

    Quint. 11, 3, 25:

    in antecessum dare,

    beforehand, Sen. Ep. 118.—
    7.
    Sometimes with esse, habere, etc., in is followed by the acc. (constr. pregn.), to indicate a direction, aim, purpose, etc. (but v. Madvig. Gram. § 230, obs. 2, note, who regards these accusatives as originating in errors of pronunciation); so, esse in potestatem alicujus, to come into and remain in one ' s power: esse in mentem alicui, to come into and be in one ' s mind: esse in conspectum, to appear to and be in sight: esse in usum, to come into use, be used, etc.:

    quod, qui illam partem urbis tenerent, in eorum potestatem portum futurum intellegebant,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38:

    ut portus in potestatem Locrensium esset,

    Liv. 24, 1, 13; 2, 14, 4:

    eam optimam rem publicam esse duco, quae sit in potestatem optimorum,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17:

    neque enim sunt motus in nostram potestatem,

    Quint. 6, 2, 29:

    numero mihi in mentem fuit,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 25; cf.:

    ecquid in mentem est tibi?

    id. Bacch. 1, 2, 53:

    nec prius surrexisse ac militibus in conspectum fuisse, quam, etc.,

    Suet. Aug. 16:

    quod satis in usum fuit, sublato, ceterum omne incensum est,

    Liv. 22, 20, 6: ab hospitibus clientibusque suis, ab exteris nationibus, quae in amicitiam populi Romani dicionemque essent, injurias propulsare, Cic. Div. ap. Caecil. 20, 66: adesse in senatum [p. 914] jussit a. d. XIII. Kal. Octobr., id. Phil. 5, 7, 19.—Less freq. with habere: facito in memoriam habeas tuam majorem filiam mihi te despondisse, call or bring to mind, Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 108:

    M. Minucium magistrum equitum, ne quid rei bellicae gereret, prope in custodiam habitum,

    put in prison, kept in prison, Liv. 22, 25, 6:

    reliquos in custodiam habitos,

    Tac. H. 1, 87.—So rarely with other verbs:

    pollicetur se provinciam Galliam retenturum in senatus populique Romani potestatem,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 4, 8. —
    III.
    In composition, n regularly becomes assimilated to a foll. l, m, or r, and is changed before the labials into m: illabor, immitto, irrumpo, imbibo, impello.—As to its meaning, according as it is connected with a verb of rest or motion, it conveys the idea of existence in a place or thing, or of motion, direction, or inclination into or to a place or thing: inesse; inhibere, inferre, impellere, etc. See Hand, Turs. III. pp. 243- 356.
    2.
    in (before b and p, im; before l, m, and r, the n assimilates itself to these consonants), an inseparable particle [kindred with Sanscr. a-, an-; Gr. a-, an; Goth. and Germ. un-], which negatives the meaning of the noun or participle with which it is connected; Engl. un-, in-, not: impar, unequal: intolerabilis, unbearable, intolerable: immitis, not mild, rude, etc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > in

  • 5 ita

    ĭta, adv. [pronom. stem i-; cf. is; Sanscr. itthā; Zend, itha], in the manner specified, in this manner, in this wise, in such a way, so, thus.
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    Referring to what precedes, as has been said, thus, so:

    des operam ut investiges sitne ita,

    Cic. Att. 12, 17: vidi ego nequam homines, verum te nullum deteriorem. Phil. Ita sum, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 60:

    ita aiunt,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 21; 3, 3, 18; id. Ad. 5, 5, 7:

    et hercule ita fecit,

    Cic. Cael. 11, 37:

    factum est ita,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 4:

    aiunt enim te ita dictitare,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 64, § 151;

    frequent in phrase: quae cum ita sint,

    since what has been said is true, id. Rosc. Com. 6, 17 init.; so,

    quod cum ita sit,

    id. Caecin. 12, 33:

    quae cum ita essent,

    id. Clu. 34, 94 fin.
    B.
    To introduce the thought which follows, thus, in the following manner, as follows, in this way:

    in tertio de oratore ita scriptum est, in perpetua, etc.,

    Quint. 9, 1, 25:

    haec ita digerunt: primum... secundum, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 20:

    ita sciunt procuratores... nullius apud te auctoritatem valere plus quam meam,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 42, 4; id. Tusc. 3, 18, 41:

    ita constitui, fortiter esse agendum,

    id. Clu. 19, 51. —
    C.
    In affirmations, esp. in replies, yes, it is so, just so, true: quid istic tibi negoti est? Dav. Mihin'? Si. Ita, Ter. And. 5, 2, 8:

    an laudationes? ita, inquit Antonius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 44:

    Davusne? ita,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 2; so in solemn affirmation: est ita: est, judices, ita, ut dicitur, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 52, § 117:

    et certe ita est,

    id. Att. 9, 13, 2:

    ita est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 51; Ter. And. 1, 1, 27;

    and in negations: non est ita,

    Cic. Off. 1, 44, § 158; strengthened by other particles of affirmation: as vero, profecto, prorsus, plane;

    ita vero,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 37:

    ita profecto,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 214:

    non est profecto ita, judices,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 121:

    ita prorsus,

    id. Tusc. 2, 27, 67:

    prorsus ita,

    id. Leg. 3, 12, 26:

    ita plane,

    id. Tusc. 1, 7, 13; id. Ac. 2, 35, 113.—
    D.
    In interrogations, esp.
    a.
    Jeeringly, implying an affirmative, = alêthes: itane? really? truly? is it so? itane credis? Ter. And. 2, 3, 25; id. Eun. 5, 8, 28; Cic. Div. 2, 40, 83:

    itane est?

    id. Rosc. Am. 39, 113;

    so with vero or tandem: itane vero? ego non justus?

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 5, 30, § 77; id. Div. 1, 13, 23:

    itane tandem?

    id. Clu. 65, 182. —
    b.
    Where surprise or reproach is implied: quid ita? (Gr. ti dai), why so? how is that? what do you mean? accusatis Sex. Roscium. Quid ita? Cic. Rosc. Am. 12, 34; id. N. D. 1, 35, 99; id. Off. 2, 23, 83:

    quid ita passus est Eretriam capi? quid ita tot Thessaliae urbes? Quid ita, etc.,

    Liv. 32, 21, 13; 27, 34, 13; Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 42.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    In comparisons, so.
    1.
    To point out the resemblance, usually corresponding to ut; sometimes to quasi, quomodo, quemadmodum, quam, tamquam, veluti, qualis, etc., as, like, in the same way as:

    non ita amo ut sani solent homines,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 38:

    ita ut res sese habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 24:

    ita vero, Quirites, ut precamini, eveniat,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 4, 10:

    omnis enim pecunia ita tractatur, ut praeda, a praefectis,

    id. Fam. 2, 17, 7:

    an ita tu's animata, ut qui expers matris imperiis sies?

    Plaut. As. 3, 1, 2:

    ut homost, ita morem geras,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 77:

    ut hirundines... ita falsi amici, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 48, 61:

    tametsi ita de meo facto loquor, quasi ego illud mea voluntate fecerim,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 11, § 29:

    sed prorsus ita, quasi aut reus numquam esset futurus, aut, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 22, § 49; Quint. 9, 4, 87:

    me consulem ita fecistis, quomodo pauci facti sunt,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 1, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 92:

    quemadmodum dicimus non feci furtum, ita, non est hoc furtum,

    Quint. 7, 3, 1:

    non ita variant undae... quam facile mutantur amantes,

    Prop. 3, 5, 11:

    castra in hostico incuriose ita posita, tamquam procul abesset hostis,

    Liv. 8, 38, 2:

    neque enim ita se gessit tamquam rationem aliquando esset redditurus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 49:

    Alexander ita cupide profectus fuerat, veluti, etc.,

    Just. 12, 2, 1:

    sane ita se habet sacrum, quale apud Homerum quoque est,

    Quint. 1, 5, 67.—
    2.
    Following or followed by ut, to denote that two things are in the same condition or category.
    (α).
    Ut... ita, as... so, just as... so also, alike... and, as well... as: Dolabellam ut Tarsenses, ita Laodiceni multo amentiores ultro arcessierunt, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 13, 10:

    Hercules cum ut Eurysthei filios, ita suos configebat sagittis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Leg. 2, 2, 5. —
    (β).
    Ut... ita, although... yet:

    ut errare potuisti, sic decipi te non potuisse quis non videt?

    Cic. Fam. 10, 20, 2:

    haec omnia ut invitis, ita non adversantibus patriciis transacta,

    Liv. 3, 55, 15; cf.;

    pleraque Alpium sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    id. 21, 35, 11. —
    (γ).
    Ita ut, just as:

    ita ut occoepi dicere,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 24; id. Trin. 4, 2, 52:

    ita ut antea demonstravimus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 76; Cato, R. R. 144, 2.—
    3.
    In oaths, emphatic wishes, solemn assertions, etc., expressed by a comparison:

    ita ille faxit Juppiter,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 51: ita me di ament, non nil timeo, i.e. may they so love me as it is true that, etc., Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 1; 3, 2, 21:

    ita sim felix,

    Prop. 1, 7, 3:

    sollicitat, ita vivam, me tua valetudo,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 20, 1; Verg. A. 9, 208; so, followed by ut, with indic.:

    ita mihi salvā re publicā vobiscum perfrui liceat, ut ego non moveor, etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 6, 11:

    ita me Venus amet, ut ego te numquam sinam, etc.,

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 52:

    ita me amabit sancta Saturitas, itaque suo me condecoret cognomine, ut ego vidi,

    id. Capt. 4, 2, 97; by ut, with subj., adding a second wish:

    nam tecum esse, ita mihi omnia quae opto contingant, ut vehementer velim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 21, 1; for which the abl. absol.: ita incolumi Caesare moriar, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B, 3; for the subj. with ita, the fut. indic.:

    ita te amabit Juppiter, ut tu nescis?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 31; id. Merc. 4, 4, 22.—
    B.
    To denote a kind or quality, so, such, of this nature, of this kind:

    nam ita est ingenium muliebre,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 5, 3:

    ita est amor: balista ut jacitur,

    id. Trin. 3, 2, 42:

    ita sunt res nostrae,

    Cic. Att. 4, 1, 8:

    ita sunt Persarum mores,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 2, 25:

    si ita sum, non tam est admirandum regem esse me,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 22; id. Dom. 27, 71:

    ita inquam = hoc dico,

    id. Phil. 14, 5, 12.—
    C.
    To denote an expected or natural consequence, so, thus, accordingly, under these circumstances, in this manner, therefore:

    ita praetorium missum,

    Liv. 21, 54, 3:

    ita Jovis illud sacerdotium per hanc rationem Theomnasto datur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 51 fin.; esp.: ita fit, thus it comes to pass, hence it follows:

    ita fit ut animus de se ipse tum judicet, cum id ipsum, quo judicatur, aegrotet,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 1, 1; id. Off. 1, 28, 101; 1, 45, 160:

    ita fit ut deus ille nusquam prorsus appareat,

    id. N. D. 1, 14, 37; id. Leg. 1, 15, 42; so in an inference, therefore: et deus vester nihil agens; expers virtutis igitur;

    ita ne beatus quidem,

    id. N. D. 1, 40, 110; Suet. Caes. 60; so,

    itaque (= et ita), crassum (caelum) Thebis, itaque pingues Thebani,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7; id. N. D. 3, 17, 44.—
    D.
    Introducing a limitation or restriction, on the condition, on the assumption, in so far, to such an extent, only in so far, etc., commonly followed by ut:

    et tamen ita probanda est mansuetudo, ut adhibeatur rei publicae causa severitas,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 88:

    pax ita convenerat, ut Etruscis Latinisque fluvius Albula finis esset,

    Liv. 1, 3; 24, 29 fin.:

    sed ante omnia ita vos irae indulgere oportet, ut potiorem irā salutem habeatis,

    id. 23, 3; so with tamen:

    longiorem dicturis periodum colligendus est spiritus, ita tamen ut id neque diu neque cum sono faciamus,

    Quint. 11, 3, 53:

    haec ita praetereamus, ut tamen intuentes ac respectantes relinquamus,

    Cic. Sest. 5, 13. —
    E.
    To denote degree, so, to such a degree, so very, so much:

    quod quid ita placuerit iis, non video,

    Quint. 9, 4, 10:

    hoc tibi ita mando, ut dubitem an etiam te rogem, ut pugnes ne intercaletur,

    Cic. Att. 5, 9, 2:

    ita fugavit Samnites, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 8, 36; esp. with adjj.:

    judices ita fortes tamen fuerunt, ut... vel perire maluerint, quam,

    Cic. Att. 1, 16, 5:

    ita sordidus ut se Non umquam servo melius vestiret,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 96:

    ita sunt omnia debilitata,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 5, 2; so with negatives: non (haud, nec, etc.) ita, not very, not especially:

    non ita magna mercede,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 3:

    non ita lato interjecto mari,

    id. Or. 8, 25:

    non ita antiqua,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 49, § 109:

    accessione utuntur non ita probabili,

    id. Fin. 2, 13, 42:

    haec nunc enucleare non ita necesse est,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 23:

    non ita multum provectus,

    id. Phil. 1, 3, 7:

    post, neque ita multo,

    Nep. Cim. 3, 4; id. Pel. 2, 4; id. Phoc. 2, 5.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ita

  • 6 nunc

    nunc, adv. [Sanscr. nu, nūnam, now; Gr. nu, nun; cf. Lat. num, with demonstr. -ce], now, at present, at this time (prop of that which is present to the speaker or writer).
    A.
    In gen.
    1.
    Contrasted with past time (opp. tum, tunc, antea, quondam, aliquando, olim, etc.):

    longe aliam, inquam, praebes nunc atque olim,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 53; Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 4:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim,

    id. And. 3, 3, 13:

    omnia, quae sunt conclusa nunc artibus, dispersa quondam fuerunt,

    Cic. de Or 1, 42, 187:

    sed tu illum animum nunc adhibe, quaeso, quo me tum esse oportere censebas,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 16; Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 24; Verg. A. 6, 776: sed erat tunc excusatio oppressis;

    nunc nulla est,

    Cic. Phil. 7, 5, 14; Liv. 4, 34, 6; 4, 25, 13:

    arx minus aliquanto nunc munita quam antea,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 5, 13: nunc si videtur, hoc;

    illud alias,

    id. Tusc. 1, 11, 23; Liv. 29, 18, 18; Suet. Tib. 29:

    aut nunc... aut aliquando,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 67:

    ante hoc tempus numquam... sed nunc,

    id. Ac. 1, 1, 3.—
    2.
    Contrasted with future time (opp. postea, mox, olim, etc.):

    Cluentio nisi nunc satisfecero, postea satisfaciendi potestas non erit,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 10; Liv. 39, 19, 6:

    deos nunc testes esse, mox fore ultores,

    id. 3, 2, 4; 3, 25, 8:

    qui olim nominabitur, nunc intellegitur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104; Verg. A. 4, 627; cf. Liv. 40, 15, 4.—
    3.
    Absol. of present time, without suggestion of contrast, = hodie, nostro tempore:

    nunc tibi pater hic est,

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 21:

    Marcellus, qui nunc aedilis curulis est,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57.— With the interrog. ne, in the form nun-cine (for num-ce-ne;

    ante-class.): hem, nuncin demum?

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 59.—
    B.
    Strengthened by demum, denique, primum (v. h. vv.):

    nunc demum intellego,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 6, 62; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 12:

    nunc demum rescribo his litteris,

    Cic. Att. 16, 3, 1:

    tantum accessit, ut mihi nunc denique amare videar, antea dilexisse,

    id. ib. 14, 17, A, 5; id. Fam. 9, 14, 11; Ov. A. A. 3, 121:

    nunc, quam rem oratum huc veni, primum proloquar,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 50; 2, 2, 63; 2, 2, 52:

    nunc primum hoc aures tuae crimen accipiunt?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 8, § 24; 2, 2, 60, § 147:

    hoc quoque propter tuos ternos denarios nunc primum postulatur,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 25, § 63.—
    C.
    In special phrases.
    1.
    Ut nunc est, as things now are, in the present state of affairs, as matters stand: constitui, ut nunc est, cum exercitu proficisci, Poll. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 31, 17:

    quae (causae) si manebunt... et, ut nunc est, mansurae videntur,

    Cic. Att. 12, 29, 1:

    suaviter, ut nunc est, inquam,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 5.—
    2.
    Qui nunc sunt, the men of this time, those now living, the present age:

    judiciis, qui nunc sunt. hominum,

    Cic. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43; Plin. 22, 25, 71, § 147; cf.:

    tace stulta: non tu nunc hominum mores vides?

    of the men of this day, Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 57.—
    3.
    Nunc ipsum, just now, at this very time:

    quin nunc ipsum non dubitabo rem tantam abicere si id erit rectius,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 2; 8, 9, 2; 12, 40, 2:

    nunc tamen ipsum,

    id. ib. 12, 16, 11.—Nunc repeated with emphasis:

    nunc, nunc o liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam,

    Verg. A. 8, 579 (al. nunc o nunc);

    5, 189: nunc, nunc adeste, nunc in hostiles domos Iram vertite,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 53.—
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Of past or future time, conceived as present, now, at that time.
    1.
    Of past time:

    id adeo nos nunc factum invenimus,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 46: item Menandri Phasma nunc nuper dedit (Gr. nun arti), Ter. Eun. prol. 9:

    nunc in causā refrixit,

    Cic. Planc. 23, 55:

    quos ego campos antea nitidissimos vidissem, hos ita vastatos nunc videbam, ut, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    nunc reus erat apud Crassum,

    id. Att. 2, 24, 4:

    cum eum antea tui similem in dicendo viderim, tum vero nunc... multo videbam similiorem,

    id. Brut. 71, 250:

    incerto nunc etiam exitu victoriae signa intulerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 62, 6; 6, 40, 6: nunc Saliaribus Ornare pul vinar deorum Tempus erat dapibus, Hor C. 1, 37, 2.—Esp. in orat. obliq., where the nunc of direct narration is retained: dixit, nunc demum se voti esse damnatum, Nep Timol. 5, 3; Liv. 3, 19, 8; 3, 40, 10; 8, 33, 18; 8, 34, 3;

    42, 52, 8: nec nunc adulteria objecturum ait,

    Tac. A. 11, 30; cf. Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 14, 35; Krebs, Antibarb. p. 774. —
    2.
    Of future time (rare):

    quis nunc te adibit? Cui videberis bella? Quem nunc amabis?

    Cat. 8, 16 sq.; Just. 8, 2, 10.—
    B.
    Of the state of affairs, the condition of the argument, etc., now, under these circumstances, in view of this.
    1.
    In gen.:

    nunc quoniam hominem generavit et ornavit deus, perspicuum sit, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 9, 27; Prop. 4, 9, 73:

    vera igitur illa sunt nunc omnia,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 106:

    non ego nunc vereor, ne sis mihi vilior istis,

    Prop. 1, 2, 25; Ov. F. 1, 333:

    nunc itaque et versus et cetera ludicra pono,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 10:

    quid nunc?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 71; id. Aul. 2, 3, 77.—
    2.
    Introducing a fact or conclusion opposed to a previous supposition or thought:

    etiamsi ad vos esset singulos aliquid ex hoc agro perventurum, tamen honestius eum vos universi quam singuli possideretis. Nunc vero cum ad nos nihil pertineat, etc.,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31, 85; id. Tusc. 3, 1, 2; id. Cat. 2, 7, 16; id. Font. 11, 24: si ecastor nunc habeas quod des, alia verba perhibeas;

    nunc quia nihil habes, maledictis te eam ductare postulas,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 36; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 8; Quint. 8, 6, 48; 10, 5, 7; Liv. 21, 40, 3:

    quodsi Mazaeus supervenisset, ingens clades accipi potuit: nunc, dum ille segnis in eo tumulo sedet, etc.,

    Curt. 4, 12, 15.—
    C.
    Nunc... nunc, now... now; at one time, at another; sometimes... sometimes:

    tribuni plebis nunc fraudem, nunc neglegentiam consulum accusabant,

    Liv. 4, 2:

    nunc hac parte, nunc illā,

    id. 34, 13:

    ut nunc in liminibus starent, nunc errabundi domos suas pervagarentur,

    id. 1, 29:

    nunc hos, nunc illos aditus omnemque pererrat Arte locum,

    Verg. A. 5, 441; 5, 189:

    nunc huc, nunc illuc curro,

    Ov. H. 10, 19.—Also thrice repeated:

    nunc ad prima signa, nunc in medium, nunc in ultimo agmine aderat,

    Curt. 7, 3, 17; Just. 4, 1, 4;

    and even five times,

    Sen. Dial. 5 (Ira), 3, 6.—The first nunc is sometimes poetically omitted: pariterque sinistros, Nunc dextros solvere sinus, Verg. A. [p. 1228] 5, 830.—
    b.
    Nunc... mox, Vell. 2, 63.—
    c.
    Nunc... postremo, Liv. 3, 49.—
    d.
    Nunc... modo, Liv. 8, 32; Ov. M. 13, 922.—
    D.
    In forming a climax, but now, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 8:

    quae quidem multo plura evenirent, si ad quietem integri iremus: nunc onusti cibo et vino perturbata et confusa cernimus,

    Cic. Div. 1, 29, 60:

    si haec non ad cives Romanos, si non ad homines, verum ad bestias conqueri vellem, tamen tantā rerum atrocitate commoverentur. Nunc vero cum loquar apud senatores populi Romani, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 171:

    si... nunc (vero),

    id. Font. 11, 25; id. Cat. 2, 7, 14; id. Fam. 15, 13, 3: cum aliquid videbatur caveri posse, tum id neglegi dolebam;

    nunc vero, eversis omnibus rebus, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 21, 1: cum... nunc vero, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 19, 1.—
    E.
    In a transition, to introduce a new subject, in that case, now, then: abi nunc, populi fidem implora, Auct. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 32, 3; Sen. Ben. 5, 12, 3 sq.; 6, 35, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 17; cf. Sall. J. 14, 17; for nunciam, v. jam, I. A. 1. b.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > nunc

  • 7 tum

    tum, adv. demonstr., of time [pronom. demonstr. stems to-, ta-; Gr. to, seen in ita, tam, etc.; cf. quom or cum], then.
    I.
    Absol.
    A.
    Referring to a time previously specified.
    1.
    To a definite past time.
    (α).
    To a period of time in which something was or happened (opp. later periods) = illis temporibus:

    is dictu'st ollis popularibus olim Qui tum vivebant homines,

    Enn. Ann. v. 308 Vahl.:

    quod tum erat res in pecore et locorum possessionibus, i. e. Romuli temporibus,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 16:

    cum illi male dicerent, quod tum fieri licebat, i. e. Periclis temporibus,

    id. de Or. 3, 34, 138:

    erat omnino tum mos ut faciles essent in suum cuique tribuendo,

    id. Brut. 21, 85; cf. id. Tusc. 1, 46, 111:

    vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant,

    Liv. 1, 4, 6; 2, 6, 8; 3, 29, 3; 4, 6, 12; 42, 62, 11;

    44, 9, 4: ut tum erant tempora,

    Nep. Att. 1, 2; 12, 3; Liv. 1, 3, 3; 1, 8, 4; 2, 7, 4; 2, 9, 8; 2, 50, 2; 2, 63, 6;

    39, 6, 7 and 9.—With illis temporibus: nam jam tum illis temporibus fortius... loquebantur quam pugnabant,

    Nep. Thras. 2, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to a point of time, then, at that time:

    insigneita fere tum milia militum octo Duxit,

    Enn. Ann. v. 336 Vahl.: ut jacui exsurgo;

    ardere censui aedis: ita tum confulgebant,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 15:

    jam duo restabant fata tum,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 35; id. Cist. 1, 3, 14: quot eras annos gnatus tum, quom, etc.? Me Septuennis, nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum, id. Men. 5, 9, 56; id. Merc. prol. 66; id. Most. 1, 2, 49; id. Am. 2, 1, 56; Ter. And. 1, 1, 82: sic igitur tum se levis ac diffusilis aether... undique flexit. Lucr. 5, 467; 5, 837; 5, 911; 5, 432;

    5, 942: atque huic anno proximus Sulla consule et Pompejo fuit. Tum P. Sulpicii in tribunatu, cottidie contionantis, totum genus dicendi cognovimus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 306; id. Ac. 2, 22, 69:

    scribit Eudemum Pheras venisse, quae erat urbs in Thessalia tum admodum nobilis,

    id. Div. 1, 25, 53; id. Rep. 2, 37, 63:

    hi tum in Asia rhetorum principes,

    id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Sest. 11, 26; id. Planc. 37, 90; id. Quint. 61, 170; id. Fam. 9, 21, 2:

    hoc tum veritus Caesar Pharum prehendit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 112:

    eodem anno a Campanis Cumae, quam Graeci tum urbem tenebant, capiuntur,

    Liv. 4, 44, 13; 1, 7, 14; 2, 9, 5;

    2, 37, 7: praetores tum duos Latium habebat,

    id. 8, 3, 9:

    Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant, dictatorem dixit,

    id. 8, 12, 13; 5, 8, 4; 22, 46, 6;

    1, 7, 12: tum Athenis perpetui archontes esse desierunt,

    Vell. 1, 8, 3:

    tum Cimbri et Teutoni transcendere Rhenum,

    id. 2, 8, 3; Val. Max. 1, 5, 3; Tac. H. 4, 49; 3, 57:

    non timido, non ignavo cessare tum licuit,

    Curt. 3, 11, 5:

    Archiae, qui tum maximum magistratum Thebis obtinebat,

    Nep. Pelop. 3, 2; id. Phoc. 3, 3.—With in eo tempore: eum quem virile secus tum in eo tempore habebat, Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 5.—Repeated by anaphora:

    quae nox omnium temporum conjurationis acerrima fuit. Tum Catilinae dies exeundi, tum ceteris manendi condicio, tum descriptio... constituta est, tum tuus pater, etc.,

    Cic. Sull. 18, 52; cf. Lucr. 5, 1377; 5, 1399.—
    (γ).
    Esp., referring to a former state, implying that it no longer exists:

    quaesivit ex lege illa Cornelia quae tum erat,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 55:

    cum sententias Oppianicus, quae tum erat potestas, palam ferri velle dixisset,

    id. ib. 27, 75:

    Caere, opulento tum oppido,

    Liv. 1, 2, 3; 3, 52, 3:

    praetores aerarii (nam tum a praetoribus tractabatur aerarium), etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 9.—
    (δ).
    Expressly opposed to present time (hodie, nunc, hoc tempore, etc.; class. and very freq.; but in post-Aug. writers tunc is regularly used): prius non is eras qui eras;

    nunc is factu's qui tum non eras,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 138:

    tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopia?

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 25; id. Hec. 3, 3, 48:

    quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revulsa, nunc a me tamen reportata est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 46, § 112:

    tum imperator populi Romani deos patrios reportabat, nunc praetor ejusdem populi eosdem illos deos... auferebat,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 77; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 78; 2, 5, 20, § 51; id. Clu. 31, 86; id. Planc. 9, 22; id. Quint. 22, 71; id. Phil. 14, 8, 21; id. Leg. 2, 22, 57; Caes. B. C. 3, 17; Liv. 5, 3, 5; 6, 15, 11; 10, 9, 6.—
    (ε).
    Opposed to another time specified:

    itaque tum eos exire jussit. Post autem e provincia litteras ad conlegium misit, se, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11:

    itaque ut tum carere rege, sic pulso Tarquinio nomen regis audire non poterat,

    id. Rep. 2, 30, 53; id. Mil. 21, 55:

    sicut legatorum antea, ita tum novorum colonorum caede imbutis armis,

    Liv. 4, 31, 7; 39, 22, 10; 9, 36, 1; 2, 52, 7; 4, 2, 10; 4, 57, 11;

    21, 17, 1: et tum sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide,

    Ov. M. 2, 218; Verg. A. 11, 33; Nep. Arist. 2, 3; id. Ham. 11, 7.—
    (ζ).
    In the historians in applying general statements or truths to the state of affairs spoken of: communi enim fit vitio naturae ut invisis atque incognitis rebus... vehementius exterreamur;

    ut tum accidit,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 4; 3, 68; id. B. G. 7, 3; 2, 6; id. B. C. 1, 80:

    foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus,

    Liv. 1, 24, 4; 1, 32, 14; 21, 31, 12.—
    (η).
    Denoting coincidence or inner connection with an action before mentioned = a temporal clause (tum = cum hoc fieret), then, on that occasion:

    quis tum non ingemuit?

    Cic. Vatin. 13, 31:

    ne tum quidem hominum venustatem et facetias perspicere potuisti? i. e. cum coronam auream imponebant,

    id. Fl. 31, 76: apud imperitos tum illa dicta sunt;

    nunc agendum est subtilius,

    id. Fin. 4, 27, 74:

    itaque tum Stajenus condemnatus est,

    i. e. in that trial, id. Clu. 36, 101; id. Sen. 7, 22:

    M. Porcius Cato qui, asper ingenio, tum lenem mitemque senatorem egit,

    Liv. 45, 25; Val. Max. 8, 3, 3:

    sed tum supplicia dis... decernuntur,

    Tac. A. 3, 64; 3, 72:

    Graecia tum potuit Priamo quoque flenda videri,

    Ov. M. 14, 474.—

    With the occasion referred to specified in the same clause: Manlius... ex petulanti scurra in discordiis civitatis ad eam columnam tum suffragiis populi pervenerat,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 39:

    emisti tum in naufragio hujus urbis... tum, inquam, emisti ut, etc.,

    id. Prov. Cons. 4, 7.—Repeated by anaphora: et Capitolinis injecit sedibus ignes. Tum statua Nattae, tum simulacra deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice belua vi fulminis icti conciderunt, Cic. Div. 2, 20, 45;

    so repeated seven times,

    id. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—
    (θ).
    Redundant, the time of the action being clear without it (esp. in Cic.):

    atque hoc tum judicio facto... tamen Avitus Oppianicum reum statim non facit,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 56:

    itaque tum ille inopia et necessitate coactus ad Caepasios confugit,

    id. ib. 20, 57; id. Brut. 23, 90; 39, 145; 43, 161; cf. id. Sull. 18, 51, where tum redundant occurs six times successively.—
    2.
    In oblique discourse, referring to the time of the speaker, = nunc in direct discourse:

    quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore?

    if they were not now so, Liv. 3, 62, 1:

    (dixit Sempronius)... nec tum agrum plebi, sed sibi invidiam quaeri,

    id. 4, 44, 9; 4, 57, 4:

    moenia eos tum transcendere non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romanae,

    id. 21, 35, 9; 5, 21, 7 (in this use nunc is also freq.).—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    (α).
    Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc., at such a season:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo (after Lyra rises),

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 12; 1, 35 fin.; Col. 11, 2, 87.—
    (β).
    With the force of an indefinite temporal clause, at such a time, in such circumstances, i. e. when such a thing happens as has happened:

    qui (porci) a partu decimo die habentur puri, ab eo appellantur sacres, quod tum ad sacrificium idonei habentur primum,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 16; 2, 7, 13:

    deinde cibum sequitur somnus... quia plurima tum se corpora conturbant (i. e. cum cibum ceperunt),

    Lucr. 4, 957; 3, 599; 4, 892; 4, 919;

    4, 1030: quam regionem cum superavit animus... finem altius se efferendi facit. Tum enim sui similem et levitatem et calorem adeptus... nullam in partem movetur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43; 1, 31, 75; 3, 23, 55; 4, 24, 54; Tac. Dial. 7.—
    (γ).
    With the force of a conditional clause, then, in this instance, if so: immo res omnis relictas habeo prae quod tu velis. Ph. Tum tu igitur, qua causa missus es ad portum, id expedi (i. e. si ita est), Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 39; id. Most. 5, 1, 55; id. As. 1, 1, 93; 2, 2, 64; 3, 3, 36; id. Aul. 3, 6, 31; id. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 2, 78: non potitus essem;

    fuisset tum illos mi aegre aliquot dies,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 7; id. Eun. 2, 2, 50; 5, 1, 23; id. Hec. 3, 5, 12:

    ego C. Caesaris laudibus desim, quas, etc.? Tum hercule me confitear non judicium aliquod habuisse,

    Cic. Planc. 39, 93: scribant aliquid Isocrateo more...;

    tum illos existimabo non desperatione formidavisse genus hoc,

    id. Or. 70, 235; id. Font. 21, 49 (17, 39); id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85; id. Fam. 9, 8, 2; Ov. H. 18 (19), 81: vellem tam ferax saeculum haberemus...;

    tum ego te primus hortarer, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 15, 8.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    To a definite time before mentioned:

    ut sit satius perdere Quam aut nunc manere tam diu, aut tum persequi,

    i. e. after my future return, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 27:

    jam nunc mente prospicio quae tum studia hominum, qui concursus futuri sint,

    Cic. Div. in Caecin. 13, 42; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37; 1, 10, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 17; id. Marcell. 9, 30:

    tum meae... Vocis accedet bona pars,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 45.—
    (β).
    With the force of a conditional clause (cf. 3. b, supra), then, in this instance, if so: specta, tum scies. Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 100; cf.:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 37: tuom incendes genus;

    Tum igitur aquae erit tibi cupido, etc.,

    id. Trin. 3, 2, 50; id. Curc. 2, 3, 17:

    confer sudantes, ructantes, refertos epulis... tum intelleges, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 100; id. Planc. 18, 45; id. Phil. 2, 45, 115:

    agedum, dictatorem creemus... Pulset tum mihi lictorem qui sciet, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 29, 12; Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 6; id. Or. 23, 78; 71, 235; Liv. 4, 22, 11; 5, 16, 10; 9, 11, 4.—
    B.
    Referring to a time subsequent to a time mentioned, then, thereupon.
    1.
    Simple sequence in time.
    (α).
    Time proper (only of an immediate sequence;

    otherwise deinde, postea, etc., are used): tum cum corde suo divum pater atque hominum rex Effatur, etc.,

    Enn. Ann. 179:

    dico ei quo pactod eam viderim erilem nostram filiam sustollere. Extimuit tum illa,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 9; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 58: tum ille egens forte adplicat Primum ad Chrysidis patrem se. Ter. And. 5, 4, 21; id. Eun. 3, 1, 17; Cato, R. R. 48 (49); 135 (136); so id. ib. 112 (113): equos quinto anno... amittere binos (dentes);

    tum renascentes eis sexto anno impleri,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 2 sq.: collo [p. 1909] cari jussit hominem in aureo lecto, abacosque complures ornavit... Tum ad mensam eximia forma pueros jussit consistere, eosque, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 61:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum puer nuntiavit venire ad eum Laelium... Tum Scipio e cubiculo est egressus, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18; id. Div. 2, 66, 135; id. Clu. 14, 40; id. Cat. 3, 5, 10; id. Ac. 2, 5, 13; id. Div. 1, 35, 77:

    hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum suo more conclamaverunt ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 26; cf. id. ib. 7, 64; 5, 43 fin.;

    5, 48: adsurgentem ibi regem cuspide ad terram adfixit. Tum spolia caputque abscisum spiculo gerens... hostes fudit,

    Liv. 4, 19, 5; 5, 21, 1; 1, 26, 9; 1, 18, 10; 1, 20, 1; 1, 22, 6; 1, 28, 4; 1, 28, 9; 2, 24, 4;

    3, 8, 11, etc.: tum Caesar cum exercitu Thessaliam petit,

    Vell. 2, 52, 1; Val. Max. 5, 1, 3; Curt. 4, 3, 7; Tac. A. 3, 28; 11, 35; id. H. 4, 84; Ov. M. 2, 122; 4, 80; 7, 121; 10, 481; 14, 386; Flor. 1, 13, 12; Gell. 1, 19, 5; 1, 23, 5.—
    (β).
    In partic., foll. by an abl. absol.:

    tum, prope jam perculsis aliis tribunis, A. Verginius Caesoni capitis diem dicit,

    Liv. 3, 11, 9; 8, 32, 1; 10, 29, 12:

    tum omni spe perdita, Meherdates dolo ejus vincitur, traditurque victori,

    Tac. A. 12, 15; 12, 16:

    tum, ferro extracto, confestim exanimatus est,

    Nep. Epam. 9, 4.—
    (γ).
    Implying a connection between two events, hence, under these circumstances, accordingly, thereupon:

    at pater omnipotens ira tum percitus acri... Phaethonta... Deturbavit in terram,

    Lucr. 5, 399:

    madefactum iri Graeciam sanguine... tum neque te ipsum non esse commotum, Marcumque Varronem et M. Catonem... vehementer esse perterritos,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 68; cf. id. ib. 1, 34, 76; Caes. B. G. 4, 25; cf. id. ib. 5, 49; 5, 51;

    7, 59: quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis, nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit,

    Liv. 1, 9, 2; 3, 26, 1; 3, 31, 7; 4, 45, 7.—
    2.
    Enumeration of a series of events; the co-ordinate clauses introduced by tum... tum, or primum (primo)... deinde... tum, etc.
    (α).
    Succession of time proper:

    ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Jove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 24, 49; 1, 27, 57; 2, 28, 58 sq.:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. Fin. 1, 16, 50; 5, 23, 65; id. Tusc. 5, 2, 5:

    primum... deinde... tum... postremo,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; 3, 3, 6: primum colonos inde Romanos expulit: inde in Latinam viam transgressus, etc., inde Lavinium recepit; tum deinceps Corbionem, Vitelliam;

    postremum, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 39, 4:

    primi consules sub jugum missi, tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, tum deinceps singulae legiones,

    id. 9, 6, 1:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. 21, 22, 8; id. praef. 9; 3, 28, 8: 5, 39, 7;

    23, 23, 6: deinde... deinde... Tum... post quas, etc.,

    Curt. 3, 3, 24: primum... deinde... deinde... tum... postea, Masur. Gabin. ap. Gell. 5, 13, 5; Gai. Inst. 4, 60.—
    (β).
    So in partic.: tum (also hic, et;

    not deinde or postea), to denote the succession of speakers in dialogue: immo duas dabo, inquit adulescens... Tum senex ille: Si vis, inquit, quattuor sane dato,

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 46 dub.:

    tum Piso... inquit, etc. Tum Quintus... inquit, etc. Hic ego... inquam, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Piso... inquit, etc. Et ille ridens... inquit, etc. Tum Piso exorsus est, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2 sqq.:

    tum Atticus... inquit, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Brutus, etc. Tum ille, etc. Tum Atticus, etc. Tum Pomponius... inquit, etc.,

    id. Brut. 3, 11 sqq., and through the whole treatise; cf. id. Ac. 1, 2, 4; 1, 3, 9; 1, 4, 13; 1, 12, 43 and 44; 2, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 15 sqq.; id. Rep. 1, 13, 19 sqq.; Liv. 7, 10, 2 sqq.; 23, 12, 8; Tac. Dial. 3; 15; 25; 42; Gell. 3, 1, 11 sqq.; 18, 1, 9 sqq.; Ov. M. 14, 594.—
    (γ).
    Transf., of sequence or succession of thought, passing into mere co-ordination (v. C. 2. b, g), then... again... furthermore:

    qui mi in cursu obstiterit, faxo vitae is obstiterit suae. Prius edico ne quis, etc. Tum pistores scrofipasci qui, etc. Tum piscatores.... Tum lanii autem qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 28; 4, 2, 34; 4, 2, 39: (res familiaris) primum bene parta sit, tum quam plurimis se utilem praebeat, deinde augeatur ratione, diligentia, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 26, 92; id. Ac. 2, 47, 146; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 68 sq.; 5, 40, 117; id. Ac. 2, 10, 30; id. de Or. 1, 42, 190; id. Cat. 4, 3, 5; id. Agr. 1, 2, 5; id. Clu. 2, 6; Liv. 3, 26, 11.—
    C.
    Hence, as co-ordinating conjunction, introducing an additional assertion, or thought.
    1.
    Alone, = praeterea, and then, besides, also, moreover, on the other hand (freq. in ante-class. style and in Cic.;

    rare in Livy and post-Aug. prose): argenti aurique advexit multum, lanam purpuramque multam... tum Babylonica peristromata, etc.,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 3, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 10; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 71; 4, 8, 17; id. Ps. 3, 2, 78; id. Aul. 1, 2, 6; 1, 3, 16; id. Men. 5, 5, 41; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 1, 3, 15; 4, 2, 3; Ter. And. 1, 5, 27; 1, 2, 21; 2, 3, 7; id. Eun. prol. 4; 5, 6, 15; id. Heaut. 2, 1, 16; Lucr. 4, 680; cf. id. 1, 494; 4, 1152:

    magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum omnis ab eo percepta doctrina... caruit omnino rebus urbanis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 1; 2, 14, 43; id. Div. 1, 24, 50; 1, 42, 94; id. de Or. 1, 46, 201; id. Off. 1, 6, 19; id. Fin. 1, 6, 21; 2, 16, 53; id. Leg. 1, 5, 17; 1, 9, 26; id. Rab. Post. 14, 40; id. Phil. 13, 12, 26:

    altera ex parte Bellovaci instabant, alteram Camulogenus tenebat: tum legiones a praesidio interclusas maximum flumen distinebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59; id. B. C. 3, 49: naves convenerunt duae Punicae quinqueremes;

    duae ab Heraclea triremes... tum quinque Rhodiae quadriremes,

    Liv. 42, 56, 6; 1, 40, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 3, 4; Just. 5, 10, 3.—Sometimes connecting two terms of the same clause, with the force of cum... tum (v. infra, 3. d.):

    quot me censes homines jam deverberasse, hospites tum civis?

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 14:

    faciendum est igitur nobis ut... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus... confirmetur,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 3, 7; Liv. 28, 43, 1 (in co-ordination often with etiam, autem, and sometimes with praeterea and porro; v. III. infra).—
    2.
    Tum as correlative of a preceding tum.
    (α).
    With an added assertion or thought: ita est haec hominum natio: voluptarii atque potatores, Tum sycophantae... plurimi In urbe habitant;

    tum meretrices mulieres Nusquam perhibentur blandiores gentium,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 28; id. Mil. 3, 1, 100; 3, 1, 102.—
    (β).
    Tum... tum = nunc... nunc (modo... modo), sometimes... sometimes, now... now, at one time... at another (freq. in Cic., not in Caes., rare in Liv., and very rare in postAug. writers):

    tum huc, tum illuc inretitos impedit piscis,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 17:

    tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 134:

    mihi... tum hoc tum illud probabilius videtur,

    id. Off. 3, 7, 33; so id. Am. 4, 13; id. Sen. 13, 45; id. Top. 7, 31; id. N. D. 2, 19, 49:

    (alvus) tum restringitur, tum relaxatur,

    id. ib. 2, 54, 136; id. Rep. 3, 13 (14), 23; id. Leg. 2, 7, 16; id. Or. 63, 212; id. Sen. 3, 7; id. Inv. 1, 37, 66:

    dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites,

    Liv. 8, 39, 4; Suet. Ner. 1; Gell. 1, 11, 15.—Tum may be repeated several times:

    plerique propter voluptatem tum in morbos graves, tum in damna, tum in dedecora incurrunt,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 14, 47; 3, 7, 26;

    so three times,

    id. N. D. 1, 12, 29; 1, 14, 37; 1, 15, 39; id. Inv. 1, 52, 98; id. Or. 3, 45, 177; id. Off. 1, 7, 22; id. Leg. 2, 17, 43; id. Top. 25, 96;

    four times,

    id. N. D. 1, 43, 120; 2, 20, 52; 2, 39, 101; id. Verr. 2, 4, 34, § 75;

    five times,

    id. N. D. 2, 5, 14; id. Inv. 1, 13, 17; 1, 41, 76; id. Verr. 2, 5, 36, § 94;

    six times,

    id. ib. 1, 53, 120;

    seven times,

    Quint. 9, 4, 133;

    nine times,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 50, 51.—And in chronological order (to be distinguished from the instances B. 2. a and g):

    Atheniensium (rem publicam constituerunt) tum Theseus, tum Draco, tum Solo, tum Clisthenes, tum multi alii,

    at different times, successively, Cic. Rep. 2, 1, 2.—
    (γ).
    Preceded or followed by other co-ordinate words (alias, modo, aliquando, aut... aut, nunc... nunc):

    ex quo intellegitur qualis ille sit quem tum moderatum, alias modestum, tum temperantem, alias constantem continentemque dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 36:

    tum... tum... aliquando,

    id. Div. 2, 2, 6:

    tum... tum... aut... aut,

    id. Or. 61, 204:

    modo... tum autem,

    id. N. D. 2, 40, 142:

    nunc... nunc... tum... tum,

    Flor. 1, 17, 5.—
    (δ).
    Tum... tum = et... et, both... and, not only... but also, partly... partly, without regard to time, the second term being frequently strengthened by etiam (mostly post-Aug.):

    Milo Compsam oppugnans, ictusque lapide tum Clodio, tum patriae, quam armis petebat, poenas dedit,

    Vell. 2, 68, 3:

    Muciam et Fulviam, tum a patre, tum a viro utramque inclitam,

    Val. Max. 9, 1, 8:

    Caesar Pompejo tum proprias, tum etiam filiae lacrimas reddidit,

    id. 5, 1, 10; Quint. 7, 3, 18; Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 28; id. Clem. 1, 19, 2; Front. Aquaed. 1; Tac. A. 12, 33; Suet. Tit. 3; Nep. praef. 8;

    and with etiam,

    Val. Max. 2, 2, 8; 5, 9, 1; 7, 6 prooem.; Nep. Them. 2, 3.—
    3.
    As correlative with a preceding cum, introducing particular after a universal or a stronger or more important assertion after a weaker or less important.
    a.
    Connecting complete sentences with different predicates, cum... tum = as... so, while... (tum being not translated; ante-class. cum always with indic.; class. with subj. or indic.):

    quom antehac te amavi, et mihi amicam esse crevi... tum id mihi hodie aperuisti,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 2; id. Truc. 4, 1, 6:

    quom id mihi placebat, tum uno ore omnes omnia Bona dicere,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 10:

    quae cum res tota ficta sit pueriliter, tum ne efficit quidem quod vult,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 19; id. Tusc. 5, 39, 13; id. Fam. 13, 16, 1; and so with subj., id. N. D. 1, 1, 1; id. Off. 3, 2, 5; id. Lael. 7, 23; id. Brut. 39, 145; 11, 250:

    cum omnium rerum simulatio est vitiosa, tum amicitiae repugnat maxime,

    id. Lael. 25, 91; id. Div. 2, 27, 58; and so with indic., id. Planc. 33, 80; id. Tull. 4, 8; id. Div. in Caecil. 20, 65; id. Sest. 1, 2; id. Fam. 16, 4, 4:

    haec cum merito ejus fieri intellegebat, tum magni interesse arbitrabatur, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 4; 3, 16; id. B. C. 1, 58; Liv. 3, 34, 1; 4, 53, 4.—
    b.
    Clauses with the same predicate, which is placed after the first clause (always with indic.):

    nam mihi, cum multa eximie divineque videntur Athenae tuae peperisse, tum nihil melius illis mysteriis quibus, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 36; id. Tusc. 4, 18, 42; id. Phil. 2, 5, 12; Liv. 4, 46, 10; 6, 38, 10.—
    c.
    Clauses with a common predicate placed before both co-ordinate terms, cum... tum = not only, but also; as... so especially:

    visa est Arcesilae cum vera sententia, tum honesta et digna sapiente,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 77; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; 2, 35, 119; 3, 1, 3:

    movit patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor,

    Liv. 9, 10, 1; 4, 57, 2; Suet. Ner. 46 init.
    d.
    With a common predicate after both co-ordinate terms:

    quom virum tum uxorem, di vos perdant,

    Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 103:

    luxuria cum omni aetati turpis tum senectuti foedissima est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 123; id. Clu. 59, 161; id. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 86; id. N. D. 1, 21, 57; id. Deiot. 9, 26; id. Clu. 16, 46:

    concitatos animos flecti quam frangi putabat cum tutius tum facilius esse,

    Liv. 2, 23, 15; 6, 9, 8; 1, 57, 1; 10, 26, 13; Tac. Dial. 5.—With tum several times repeated:

    quem pater moriens cum tutoribus et propinquis, tum legibus, tum aequitati magistratuum, tum judiciis vestris commendatum putavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 151; cf. esp. id. Planc. 40, 95. —
    e.
    Tum, in this construction, is freq. strengthened,
    (α).
    By vero:

    cum haec sunt videnda, tum vero illud est hominis magni, etc.,

    in particular, Cic. Clu. 58, 159; id. Mur. 27, 55; id. Phil. 3, 5, 12; 7, 3, 9; cf. id. Or. 1, 23, 106; 3, 16, 60; Liv. 34, 39, 9; Quint. 12, 1, 25.—
    (β).
    By maxime, above all, most of all, especially, chiefly:

    cum omnibus in rebus temeritas in adsentando turpis est, tum in eo loco maxime in quo ju dicandum est quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 4, 7; id. Tusc. 4, 1, 1; 5, 12, 36; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 69:

    cum infamia atque indignitas rei impediebat, tum maxime quod, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 56; Sall. J. 43, 5; Liv. 1, 8, 2; Suet. Claud. 30; Quint. 6, 1, 29.—
    (γ).
    By praecipue, especially, chiefly, above all:

    cum omnium sociorum provinciarumque rationem diligenter habere debetis, tum praecipue Siciliae,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 2; id. Fam. 13, 11, 3:

    fortuna quae plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus, tum praecipue in bello,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 68; Liv. 22, 43, 11; 1, 40, 3; Quint. 1, 1, 29; 1, 10, 13; 5, 10, 106; Plin. Ep. 4, 3, 2.—
    (δ).
    By inprimis, chiefly, principally:

    cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 18; id. Fam. 12, 22, 3.—
    (ε).
    By cumprimis, chiefly, principally: quapropter bene cum superis de rebus habenda Nobis est ratio... tum cumprimis Unde anima atque animi constet [p. 1910] natura videndum, Lucr. 1, 131.—
    (ζ).
    By certe, especially, at least, assuredly:

    at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 5, 13; id. Fam. 7, 4; cf. Quint. 2, 1, 10.—
    (η).
    By nimirum, assuredly, undoubtedly:

    cum plurimas... commoditates amicitia contineat, tum illa nimirum praestat omnibus quod, etc.,

    Cic. Am. 7, 23. —
    (θ).
    By etiam, besides, as well:

    cum omnes omnibus ex terris homines improbos audacesque collegerat, tum etiam multos fortes viros et bonos... tenebat,

    Cic. Cael. 6, 14; id. Ac. 2, 10, 31; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2:

    quos tu cum memoriter, tum etiam erga nos amice et benevole collegisti,

    id. Fin. 1, 10, 34; id. Verr. 2, 3, 23, § 56:

    cum sua virtute, tum etiam alienis vitiis,

    id. Leg. 23, 67; id. Fin. 2, 12, 38; id. N. D. 2, 37, 95; id. de Or. 3, 60, 225; Liv. 1, 21, 2; 7, 23, 6; 7, 32, 10; Val. Max. 7, 2, 3; 3, 2, 10; 9, 6, 3; Quint. 9, 1, 20; 9, 4, 143.—
    (ι).
    By quoque, also, besides, as well:

    cum potestas major, tum vir quoque potestati par hostes trans Anienem submovere,

    Liv. 4, 17, 11; 1, 22, 2; cf. Quint. 12, 10, 72.—
    (κ).
    By et, also, besides, too:

    cujus mortem cum luctus civitatis, tum et dictaturae undecim insignem fecere,

    Just. 19, 1, 7.—
    (λ).
    By praeterea, moreover, besides:

    dicimus C. Verrem cum multa libidinose fecerit, tum praeterea quadringentiens sestertium ex Sicilia abstulisse,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56.
    II.
    Tum as correlative of dependent clauses (freq. in ante - class. writings and Cic., rare in post-Aug. writings).
    A.
    With temporal clauses, introduced by cum, = at the time when, at a time when.
    1.
    Referring to definite past time.
    a.
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    jam tum cum primum jussit me ad se arcessier, Roget quis, Quid tibi cum illa?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 4; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21:

    qui (Hercules) tum dolore frangebatur cum immortalitatem ipsa morte quaerebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20:

    bene apud majores nostros senatus tum cum florebat imperium decrevit ut, etc.,

    id. Div. 1, 41, 91; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114; id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 2, 66, § 160; id. Clu. 33, 89; id. Verr. 1, 2, 5; id. Brut. 2, 7; 23, 89; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Agr. 2, 24, 64; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; 3, 4, 11:

    tum mittendos legatos fuisse cum Perseus Graecas urbes obsideret,

    Liv. 45, 3, 7:

    tum cum Vipereos sparsi... dentes,

    Ov. M. 4, 572; id. H. 3, 23; Val. Max. 6, 1, 12.—After pluperf.:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant scimus Romae solutione impedita fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19; Val. Max. 3, 6, 1; 2, 8, 15 fin. —Tum inserted in the temporal clause:

    cum Davo egomet vidi jurgantem ancillam... quom ibi me adesse neuter tum praesenserat,

    Ter. And. 5, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Tum, introducing the apodosis of the temporal clause (generally not transl. in Engl.).
    (α).
    Of coincident events, cum... tum = while: quom genui tum morituros scivi, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132 (Trag. Rel. v. 361 Vahl.); Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 18:

    cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 3, 6; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Cael. 26, 63; id. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum pavida mulier nullam opem videret, tum Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, etc.,

    Liv. 1, 58, 3; 5, 11, 4. —
    (β).
    Tum = deinde, usu. after a pluperf.:

    id cum Sulla fecisset, tum ante oppidum Nolam Samnitium castra cepit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 33, 72; id. Brut. 92, 319; id. Ac. 2, 3, 9; 2, 3, 15; id. Fin. 1, 8, 26; id. Tusc. 4, 20, 45; id. Div. 1, 25, 53; 2, 2, 7; id. Rep. 2, 25, 47; Liv. 21, 11, 8; cf. id. 1, 26, 7; 23, 22, 4.—Inserted in the apodosis:

    cum jam humanae opes egestae a Veis essent, amoliri tum deum dona,

    Liv. 5, 22, 3.—
    2.
    Referring to definite present time:

    quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis. Cum enim miserum esse dicis, tum eum qui non sit, dicis esse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 12.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent of the clause, = at the time when, at a time when, whenever: hominum inmortalis est infamia;

    etiam tum vivit quom esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28; id. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7; Cato, R. R. 31:

    nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque requirit Cum pariter mens et corpus sopita quiescunt,

    Lucr. 3, 919; 4, 444; 4, 455;

    4, 1166: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adjungitur,

    Cic. Div. 2, 25, 54; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104; id. N. D. 2, 3, 9: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, Ov. H. 5, 109; Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44; 2, 27, 88; id. Fin. 4, 8, 20; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 20; 5, 26, 73; id. N. D. 1, 4, 9; id. Off. 1, 27, 93.—Tum maxime... cum plurimum = eo magis quo magis:

    eam (partem animi) tum maxime vigere cum plurimum absit a corpore,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 70; so, cum maxime... tum maxime; v. b. a foll.—
    b.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    As coincident:

    quom amamus, tum perimus,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 94:

    ulmus, cum folia cadunt, tum iterum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; so id. ib. 155 (156):

    cum ea quae quasi involuta fuerunt, aperti sunt, tum inventa dicuntur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 8, 26; id. Fin. 5, 10, 29; 1, 17, 57; id. N. D. 2, 52, 129; 1, 19, 49; id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 15.—Cum maxime... tum maxime = quo magis eo magis:

    nam quom pugnabant maxume, ego tum fugiebam maxume,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 45:

    quamobrem omnes, cum secundae res sunt maxume, tum maxume Meditari secum oportet, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 14, 30 poet. —
    (β).
    As subsequent:

    ad legionem quom itum, adminiculum eis danunt tum jam aliquem cognatum suum,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 47:

    eo cum accessit ratio argumentique conclusio... tum et perceptio eorum omnium apparet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 10, 30; 2, 41, 128; id. Fin. 5, 9, 24; 1, 20, 69; 5, 15, 41; id. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 1, 24, 58; 3, 2, 3; id. N. D. 2, 48, 123; id. Div. 2, 19, 44.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    quom mi haec dicentur dicta, tum tu, furcifer, quasi mus in medio pariete vorsabere,

    Plaut. Cas. 1, 51; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 20:

    non committam ut tum haec res judicetur cum haec frequentia Roma discesserit,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 54; id. Agr. 2, 17, 44; 2, 25, 67; id. Fin. 4, 22, 62; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Liv. 23, 13, 4; 41, 10, 7; Ov. M. 2, 651; id. H. 15, 293; Nep. Them. 6, 5.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; 4, 6, 30:

    de quo cum perpauca dixero, tum ad jus civile veniam,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Clu. 2, 6; 4, 9; Liv. 3, 56, 10.—
    B.
    With temporal clause, introduced by ubi.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    vitem novellam resecare tum erit tempus ubi valebit,

    Cato, R. R. 33:

    tum tu igitur demum id adulescenti aurum dabis, ubi erit locata virgo in matrimonium?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 52.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time (tum always = deinde):

    ubi eorum dolorem majorem quam ceterorum cognovi, tum meum animum in illos, tum mei consilii causam proposui, tum eos hortatus sum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    ubi illuxit, et Romanis Punica et Gallica arma cognita, tum dubitationem exemere,

    Liv. 25, 10, 5; 1, 9, 10; 4, 57, 3; 9, 43, 16; 21, 25, 12; 23, 11, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    post ubi tempust promissa jam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 8: Cato, R. R. 3 init.; 17:

    ubi jam morbi se flexit causa... Tum quasi vaccillans primum consurgit,

    Lucr. 3, 503; 6, 129; 6, 526.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time:

    otium ubi erit, tum tibi operam ludo et deliciae dabo,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 4, 13; id. Stich. 4, 2, 14:

    ubi tu voles, Ubi tempus erit, sat habet si tum recipitur,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 32; Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 72; id. Pers. 4, 7, 19; id. Cas. 3, 2, 27:

    ut ubi id interrogando argumentis firmavero, tum testes ad crimen accommodem,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 55:

    ubi haerere jam aciem videris, tum terrorem equestrem infer,

    Liv. 6, 12, 10; 22, 55, 8.—
    C.
    With a temporal clause introduced by postquam.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    Flaminius qui ne quieto quidem hoste ipse quieturus erat, tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 3, 7; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 (v. infra, III. A. 2. a. b).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis (always = deinde).
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    posteaquam e portu piratae exierunt, tum coeperunt quaerere homines, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 100; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40 (al. tunc):

    postquam satis virium collectum videbat, tum ex suis unum sciscitatum Romam ad patrem misit,

    Liv. 1, 54, 5; 3, 66, 5; 6, 13, 4; 22, 48, 4; 25, 10, 6; Gell. 5, 3, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time: postquam vero commoditas quaedam... dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum ingenio freta malitia pervertere urbes adsuevit, Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 3.—
    D.
    With a temporal clause introduced by ut.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    tum vero ingentem gemitum dat Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici... conspexit,

    Verg. A. 1, 485; cf. id. ib. 12, 218.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    nam ut dudum adcurrimus ad Alcesimarchum... tum mi, puto, prae timore hic excidisse Cistellam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 46:

    sed ut intellectum est quantam vim haberet accurata... oratio, tum etiam magistri dicendi multi subito exstiterunt,

    Cic. Brut. 8, 30; id. Phil. 9, 4, 9; Liv. 24, 44, 10; id. 21, 54, 9; 23, 34, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to future time:

    neque ut quaeque res delata ad nos erit, tum denique scrutari locos debemus,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 34, 146:

    traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum, si eam Romanus rite emisisset, victoriam de Vejentibus dari (= si quando),

    Liv. 5, 15, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.—
    E.
    With a temporal clause introduced by quando.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    auctoritatem senatus exstare sentio, tum, quando Alexandro mortuo, legatos Tyrum misimus,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 16, 41.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at scire tum memento quando id quod voles habebis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 41; id. Mil. 3, 1, 213; id. Most. 3, 1, 136; id. Men. 5, 7, 57:

    utinam tum essem natus quando Romani dona accipere coepissent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of indefinite time (quando = whenever):

    quando esurio tum crepant (intestina),

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 27; id. Truc. 1, 1, 15; id. Ps. 4, 7, 85:

    quando mulier dotem marito dabat, tum quae ex suis bonis retinebat reciperare dicebatur,

    Gell. 17, 6, 6; 7 (6), 14, 4.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at tu, quando habebis, tum dato,

    Plaut. Men. 3, 3, 23:

    quando ab eadem parte sol eodemque tempore iterum defecerit, tum signis omnibus ad principium revocatis, expletum annum habeto,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    quando mihi usus venerit, tum quaeram ex te atque discam,

    Gell. 6 (7), 17, 4.—
    F.
    In the apodosis after simul ac:

    an simul ac nubes successere, ipse in eas tum Descendit (Juppiter), prope ut hinc teli determinet ictus?

    Lucr. 6, 402.—
    G.
    With a temporal clause introduced by dum.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent:

    sanctius visum est nomen Augusti, ut scilicet jam tum dum colit terras, ipso numine ac titulo consecretur,

    Flor. 2, 33, 66 (4, 12, 66).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    dum habeat, tum amet,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23:

    dum se glomerant... tum pondere turris Procubuit,

    Verg. A. 9, 540.—
    H.
    As antecedent of quamdiu:

    qui cum tibi amicus non modo tum fuerit quamdiu tecum in provincia fuerit, verum etiam nunc sit cum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 24, § 58.—
    K.
    Denoting a logical consequence after quando and cum:

    quando ergo erga te benignus fui... tum te mihi benigne itidem addecet... referre gratiam,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 35:

    cum magnus numerus deesset, tum iste homo nefarius in eorum locum... substituere coepit cives Romanos,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 72.—
    L.
    After relative clauses denoting time: qua tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis junxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis jam fere ad pariendum mensibus, Poet. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 58, 219 (Trag. Rel. p. 246 Rib.).—
    M.
    With conditional clauses.
    1.
    With a conditional clause introduced by si, sin, ni (not nisi).
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of clause:

    tum pol ego interii, homo si ille abiit,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 6; id. Men. 2, 2, 71; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 40:

    si tenuis causa est, tum etiam argumentandi tenue filum,

    Cic. Or. 36, 124; id. Rep. 1, 40, 62; 2, 9, 15; id. Fin. 1, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 13; id. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    tum vero ego nequiquam Capitolium servaverim si civem in servitutem duci videam,

    Liv. 6, 14, 4; 3, 9, 11; 6, 14, 4; 7, 34, 14; Cato ap. Plin. 29, 1, 7, § 14; Gell. 2, 12, 1 sq.; 4, 13, 1; 14, 2, 21.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si triduum hoc hic erimus, tum arbores in te cadent,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 30; id. Rud. 5, 2, 59; 3, 4, 49; id. As. 1, 3, 89; id. Rud. 1, 3, 13; id. Ps. 4, 1, 1; 4, 1, 48 (39); Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 64; 3, 1, 17; id. Phorm. 1, 3, 19; Cato, R. R. 26; cf. id. ib. 27:

    quod si, ut spero, cepero, tum vero litteras publice mittam,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 3; id. Div. 1, 44, 100; cf. id. Ac. 2, 10, 32; id. Fin. 2, 4, 79; id. N. D. 3, 36, 87; id. Rep. 1, 43, 66: id. [p. 1911] Rosc. Am. 49, 142:

    si dimicandum erit, tum tu in novissimos te recipito,

    Liv. 7, 40, 13; 8, 10, 12; Hor. S. 1, 2, 97; Ov. M. 7, 32.—

    Esp., denoting the consequences of perjury in ancient formulas of oaths: si ego injuste illos homines dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae compotem me numquam siris esse,

    Liv. 1, 32, 7; 1, 24, 8; 22, 53, 11; hence, quid si falles? Me. Tum Mercurius Sosiae iratus siet, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 239; 3, 2, 52; id. Aul. 4, 10, 50; cf. also Liv. 3, 64, 10.—
    2.
    With a condition contrary to fact.
    (α).
    Tum, antecedent of clause:

    tum esset ostentum, si anguem vectis circumplicavisset,

    Cic. Div. 2, 28, 62; id. Verr. 2, 2, 68, § 164:

    tum id audirem si tibi soli viveres,

    id. Marcell. 8, 25; id. Fin. 4, 13, 33; id. Div. 2, 35, 73.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si quidem me amaret, tum istuc prodesset,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 56:

    quodsi omnia nobis quae ad victum pertinent. suppeditarentur, tum optimo quisque ingenio, totum se in cognitione et scientia collocaret,

    Cic. Off. 1, 44, 158. —
    N.
    After an abl. absol.
    1.
    With perfect participles (= postquam or cum... tum), mostly with denique, vero, demum.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    ut morte ejus nuntiata tum denique bellum confectum arbitraretur,

    Cic. Mur. 16, 34:

    sed confecto proelio tum vero cerneres quanta vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae,

    Sall. C. 61, 1:

    ita rebus divinis peractis tum de bello deque republica dictator rettulit,

    Liv. 22, 11, 1; 2, 29, 1; 2, 29, 3; 3, 56, 1; 5, 50, 8; Plin. 11, 20, 22, § 68.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    hisce omnibus rebus consideratis, tum denique id quod primum est dicendum, postremum soleo cogitare, quo utar exordio,

    Cic. Or. 2, 77, 315.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time (the abl. absol. = a fut. perf.):

    ita prope XL. diebus interpositis tum denique se responsuros esse arbitrantur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 10, 31; 1, 18, 54; id. Fin. 4, 13, 32; id. Scaur. Fragm. 10, 22.—
    2.
    With pres. participles (post-class.):

    tacentibus cunctis, tum ipse (dixit), etc.,

    Just. 12, 15, 6.
    III.
    Particular connections.
    A.
    With other particles of time.
    1.
    Jam tum, already at that time, i. e. earlier than might be anticipated:

    jam tum erat suspitio Dolo malo haec fieri,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 8; cf. id. ib. 4, 4, 58; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 34:

    quippe etenim jam tum divom mortalia saecla Egregias animo facies vigilante videbant,

    Lucr. 5, 1169; 5, 1037:

    ut mihi jam tum divinasse ille (Romulus) videatur hanc urbem sedem aliquando summo esse imperio praebituram,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 5, 10; 2, 7, 12; id. Div. 2, 57, 118; id. Tusc. 4, 2, 4:

    jam tum in Palatio monte Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt,

    Liv. 1, 5, 1; 1, 7, 16; 1, 41, 7; 10, 21, 14;

    24, 49, 1: ut jam tum qualis futurus esset ostenderet,

    Suet. Dom. 1; Curt. 4, 6, 29.—
    2.
    Tum demum and tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, i. e. later than might be expected, implying delayed action.
    a.
    Tum demum.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    adversisque in rebus noscere qui sit. Nam verae voces tum demum pectore ab imo Eiciuntur,

    Lucr. 3, 58:

    tum demum Liscus, oratione Caesaris adductus, quod antea tacuerat proponit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 5, 33; Sall. J. 46, 1:

    nec ante in campum degressi sunt quam, etc. Tum demum castra Etruscorum pro moenibus Fidenarum posita,

    Liv. 4, 17, 12; 45, 12, 6; 2, 20, 11; 5, 39, 2; 23, 19, 15 et saep.; Val. Max. 1, 6, 10; 1, 7, 4; Curt. 3, 12, 12; Tac. A. 3, 18; 3, 47.—
    (β).
    In partic., referring to clauses introduced by cum, ubi, si, or abl. absol. (v. II. A. B. L. M.), denoting absolute restriction to the terms of the clause:

    imo etiam ubi expolivero, magis hoc tum demum dices,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 60:

    tum demum mihi procax Academia videbitur si aut consenserint omnes, aut, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 6, 13:

    cum is Casilini eo die mansurum dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error,

    Liv. 22, 13, 8; Vell. 2, 115, 4; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 fin.; 7, 2, 4; Curt. 3, 11, 6; Plin. Ep. 8, 20, 7.—
    (γ).
    Sometimes = nunc demum (anteclass.): victus es, Chaline. St. Tum nos demum vivere. Olympio. Gaudeo, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 65.—
    b.
    Tum denique.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5:

    injecta glaeba tumulus is (locus) ubi humatus est vocatur, ac tum denique multa religiosa jura complectitur,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 57; id. Fin. 3, 22, 76; id. Tusc. 3, 26, 61: nequiquam temptati ut tum denique desisterent impediendo bello, Liv. 4, 55, 5; Ov. M. 4, 519; 7, 857; 10, 664.—
    (β).
    Referring to clauses with cum, etc. (v. II. A. B. L. M.):

    tum denique homines nostra intellegimus bona quom quae in potestate habuimus ea amisimus,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    quo cum venerimus, tum denique vivemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 31, 75; 3, 31, 75; id. Leg. 2, 4, 10; id. Rep. 1, 6, 11; so,

    tum denique si,

    id. Fam. 14, 2, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 10, § 29; id. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 1:

    indicandum primum fuisse, dein petendum praesidium, postremo ni impetraretur, tum denique querendum,

    Liv. 23, 43, 2; Cato ap. Plin. 17, 18, 29, § 126 (for tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9, v. II. D. 2. a).—
    3.
    Tum primum (rarely primo), then for the first time:

    tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit,

    Lucr. 5, 1014:

    ludorum gratia quos tum primum anniversarios in circo facere constituisset,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 7, 12; id. Sen. 21, 78; Caes. B. G. 7, 11:

    ponte sublicio tum primum in Tiberi facto,

    Liv. 1, 33, 6; 2, 41, 3; 39, 22, 2; 2, 20, 6; 39, 49, 4; Vell. 2, 37, 5; Tac. A. 2, 27; id. H. 4, 57; Curt. 3, 12, 26. —
    4.
    With deinde, hic, postea, with consecutive force emphatic.
    a.
    Deinde tum (very rare):

    primum ea quae sumus acturi cogitare debemus, deinde tum dicere ac facere,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 6, 62.—
    b.
    Tum deinde.
    (α).
    = tum demum or tum denique, then at length, not till then, then only:

    nonne optime patronus occurrat prius conviciis luxuriae, etc., tum deinde narret de bonis Pallae? etc.,

    Quint. 4, 2, 27; 12, 10, 11:

    emam, aedificabo, credam, exigam, honores geram: tum deinde lassam senectutem in otium referam,

    Sen. Ep. 101, 4; Plin. 16, 44, 95, § 251.—So corresp. with cum:

    quas cum solus pertulisset, tum deinde comitia collegae subrogando habuit,

    Liv. 2, 8, 3 (Weissenb. demum, by conj.); Col. R. R. 1, 6, 13. —
    (β).
    = an emphatic deinde: nam praetermisit quod in prima parte sumere debuit;

    tum deinde eodem ipso quod omiserat quasi proposito ad confirmandum aliud utitur,

    Gell. 2, 8, 3; 13, 24 (23), 1; Just. 2, 1, 19.—
    c.
    With hic:

    hic tum repente Pacilius quidam accedit, ait, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94:

    hic ego tum ad respondendum surrexi,

    id. Clu. 18, 51; 27, 73:

    hic tum injectus est hominibus scrupulus,

    id. ib. 28, 76; id. Sest. 11, 25.—
    d.
    Tum postea:

    tum postea complorantibus nostris, dies quidem tandem inluxit,

    Gell. 19, 1, 3; so id. 14, 3, 10 (for quid tum postea, v. D. 1.).—
    5.
    With interim:

    unum, alterum, tertium annum Sassia quiescebat... Tum interim, Q. Hortensio, Q. Metello coss.... despondet ei filiam suam,

    Cic. Clu. 64, 179.—
    B.
    With particles of emphasis.
    1.
    Tum vero (sometimes tum enimvero or enimvero tum), then indeed, at that crisis, then if not before, etc., or merely = emphatic then, denoting either coincidence or sequence of action.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    discedit a Melino Cluentia. Tum vero illa egregia mater palam exsultare... coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 14; 22, 61; id. Agr. 1, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107:

    semper equidem magno cum metu incipio dicere... tum vero ita sum perturbatus ut, etc.,

    id. Clu. 18, 51:

    tum vero dubitandum non existimavit quin ad eos proficisceretur,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8; 5, 37; id. B. C. 1, 82; 2, 42:

    Aruns Tarquinius et Tullia minor... junguntur nuptiis. Tum vero in dies infestior Tulli senectus... coepit esse,

    Liv. 1, 47, 1; 2, 22, 6; 4, 49, 13; 10, 19, 12; 21, 45, 9; 21, 58, 5; Ov. M. 2, 227; 7, 685; Curt. 4, 13, 1; 3, 11, 5; Tac. Agr. 37.—And in enumerations:

    deinde... post autem... tum vero ipsam veterem Karthaginem vendunt,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 5.—
    (β).
    As correlative of temporal or conditional clauses, and after abl. absol.:

    quod ubi Romam est nuntiatum, senatui metum injecit ne tum vero sustineri nec in urbe seditio, nec in castris posset,

    Liv. 5, 7, 4; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    tum vero... si,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 19, 63; Liv. 6, 14, 4 (v. II. M. 1. a, b).—With cum, Liv. 32, 12, 1:

    quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari... vidit, Tum vero gemitus... Edidit,

    Ov. M. 2, 621; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40; v. C. 1. b. (so, tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; v. II. D. 2. and M. 1.).—
    2.
    Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least (usu. opposed to a later time): dixit sibi in somnis visum esse, etc. Et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem devovit se, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 24, 51; so,

    actum quidem,

    id. Fl. 25, 59; id. Lael. 11, 39:

    et tum quidem ab Dio Perseus in interiora regni recepit se... post dies paucos, etc.,

    Liv. 42, 39, 1; 1, 57, 10; 3, 2, 10;

    7, 17, 3.—Often in resuming the narrative after a digression: ac tum quidem regem... filium appellat,

    Curt. 4, 7, 25.—Merely emphatic:

    Duillio Cornelioque coss. etiam mari congredi ausus est. Tum quidem ipsa velocitas classis comparatae victoriae auspicium fuit,

    Flor. 1, 18 (2, 2), 7; so id. 1, 22 (2, 6), 20; 1, 40 (3, 5), 12.—With cum, Tac. Dial. 11.—
    3.
    Ne tum quidem, not even then:

    num quis horum miser hodie? Ne tum quidem, post spiritum extremum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 37, 89; id. Div. 1, 26, 55; id. Verr. 2, 2, 40, § 98:

    ubi ne tum quidem eos prodire intellexit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 50; 7, 53; Tac. H. 5, 21; Curt. 3, 2, 18.—With cum:

    ille vere ne tum quidem miser cum ab Oroete in crucem actus est,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92; so id. Tusc. 5, 20, 57; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; Liv. praef. 12; 39, 39, 11.—
    4.
    Tum maxime (sometimes tum cummaxime).
    (α).
    Especially at that time, chiefly then: illi sumposia, nos convivia quod tum maxime simul vivitur, Cic. Fam. 9, 24, 35; id. Leg. 2, 11, 26.—With cum:

    quae quidem vis tum maxime cognita est cum... M. Cato, legem suadens, in Galbam multa dixit,

    Cic. Brut. 23, 89; id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Par. 4, 1, 29.—
    (β).
    Just then, just at that moment (not ante-Aug.):

    regi, tum maxime captivos ex Illyrico vendenti,

    Liv. 43, 20, 3; 1, 10, 1:

    per totam aciem vulgatum est, castra amissa esse, et tum cummaxime ardere,

    id. 40, 32, 1; so,

    tum cummaxime,

    id. 43, 7, 8:

    corpus enim suum a caupone trucidatum tum maxime plaustro ad portam ferri,

    Val. Max. 1, 7, ext. 10; 2, 10, 2; 3, 2, 2 fin.; Curt. 3, 4, 14; 6, 6, 10; Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154; Quint. 2, 15, 30; 2, 61, 31; Suet. Caes. 65; id. Calig. 53.—So with cum:

    et quod tum maxime Abydum oppugnaret cum rex ab Attalo et Rhodiis ultro se bello lacessitum diceret,

    Liv. 31, 18, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 15, 2.—
    (γ).
    Strengthening the co-ordinate tum after cum, so especially; v. I. C. 3. e. b (for cum maxime... tum maxime and tum maxime... cum plurimum, v. II. A. 3. a. b.).—
    5.
    Tum potissimum = tum maxime, just then (rare):

    C. Caesar... tum potissimum acie commissa impeditos religione hostes vicit,

    Front. Strat. 2, 1, 16.—
    6.
    Etiam tum.
    (α).
    Even then:

    etiam tum vivit cum esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28:

    totum se Servilio etiam tum tradidit,

    even then, at so late a time, Cic. Sest. 62, 130:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit,

    id. Rosc. Am. 20, 57.— So with cum, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 59, § 154; id. Dom. 13, 23; id. Sest. 38, 81.—
    (β).
    Still, as yet (also as one word; cf. etiamtum, and v. the foll. additional passages), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 19, § 41; id. Fin. 3, 14, 48; id. Rep. 2, 12, 24; id. Arch. 3, 5; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; id. Brut. 20, 80; id. Off. 2, 14, 47; Caes. B. C. 3, 93; Liv. 5, 40, 10; Val. Max. 9, 6, 3; Tac. A. 3, 72; Suet. Claud. 27 fin.; id. Dom. 22.—

    And with a negation, = nondum: ipsa ego non longos etiam tum scissa capillos,

    not yet long, Ov. H. 8, 79.—
    7.
    Tum etiam.
    (α).
    Followed by si or cum, even if, even when:

    atque equidem filium Tum etiam si nolit, cogam,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 65:

    qui tum etiam cum... circumfusi erant caligine,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 45.—
    (β).
    Then also, then too, besides:

    tum etiam illud cogitatote, sic vivere Cornelium ut, etc.,

    Cic. Balb. 28, 65; id. N. D. 1, 16, 43; so id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Fin. 2, 16, 53; Col. 12 praef.—
    8.
    Tum quoque.
    (α).
    Also then, then likewise, then as before, then as on another occasion mentioned before: ceu lapidem si Percutiat lapis aut ferrum;

    nam tum quoque lumen Exsilit,

    Lucr. 6, 162:

    tum quoque homini plus tribui quam nescio cui necessitati,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 11, 28:

    tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis,

    Liv. 1, 33, 5; 2, 52, 2; 21, 22, 4; Caes. B. C. 3, 37; Ov. M. 14, 369.—
    (β).
    Even then, = etiam tum (rare):

    et tamen tum quoque se absentes triumphare credunt,

    Liv. 45, 38, 13; 39, 41, 3; 39, 47, 11; Ov. H. 17 (18), 190.—
    (γ).
    In orat. obliq. (v. I. A. 2.), even now:

    quod si Romani tum quoque aequa aspernarentur,

    Liv. 42, 62, 7. —
    (δ).
    = sic quoque, even under the circumstances, even as it was, etc. (v. sic, V. 3.): ut si effugium patuisset in publicum, impleturae urbem tumultu fuerint. Tum quoque [p. 1912] aliquotiens integro corpore evaserunt, Liv. 24, 26, 13; 40, 16, 6; 43, 4, 1;

    9, 13, 9: tum quoque, amputata dextra, navem sinistra comprehendit,

    Just. 2, 9, 18.—
    9.
    Tum ipsum = eo ipso tempore, at the very time, just then, even then (only in Cic. in four passages; cf.:

    nunc ipsum): tota igitur ratio talium largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum... moderanda est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 17, 60:

    quem quidem cum sua voluntate ex patria Karthaginem revertisset, tum ipsum cum vigiliis et fame cruciaretur, clamat virtus beatiorem fuisse quam Thorium,

    id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv. ad loc.:

    tum ipsum cum immolare velis extorum fieri mutatio potest,

    id. Div. 1, 52, 118:

    ita (oratores), non injuria, quotienscunque dicerent, id quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere,

    id. Or. 1, 27, 123.—
    C.
    Tum with co-ordinating particles.
    1.
    Tum autem.
    (α).
    = praeterea, and then, besides (v. I. C. 1.): turpilucricupidum te vocant cives tui;

    tum autem sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64:

    oves scabrae sunt... Tum autem Surorum nemo exstat qui ibi sex menses vixerit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 141; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 4, 2, 3; id. Poen. 5, 5, 34; 5, 7, 22; Ter. And. 1, 5, 34; id. Eun. 5, 9, 7; id. Hec. 2, 1, 14; 3, 2, 10:

    tum autem qui non ipso honesto movemur... callidi sumus, non boni,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 14, 41; id. Or. 1, 58, 247; 2, 19, 80.—
    (β).
    = tum... tum:

    visne igitur inter hos populos inambulantes, tum autem residentes quaeramus eisdem de rebus?

    Cic. Leg. 1, 5, 15.—
    (γ).
    = eo tempore, with autem as connective:

    tum illic autem Lemnius... uxorem duxit, etc.,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 25:

    tum autem ex omnibus montibus nives proluit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 48.—
    (δ).
    But in this instance:

    uxori emunda ancilla'st: tum autem pluscula Supellectile opus est,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 60; 5, 7, 25 sq.—
    2.
    For tum etiam, v. B. 7. b.—
    3.
    Tum praeterea:

    nam tui similis est probe. Tum praeterea talem, nisi tu, nulla pareret filium,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 20; so id. Ad. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33; Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56 (v. I. C. 3. e. l).—
    4.
    Tum porro:

    tum porro venti magnam quoque tollere partem Umoris possunt,

    Lucr. 6, 623; 4, 829 (827).—
    D.
    Quid tum?
    1.
    In dialogue, what then? what next? what further? novi ego hos pugnos meos. Ca. Quid tum? Th. Quid tum? Rogitas? Hisce ego, si tu me inritaveris, placidum te hodie reddam, Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 49; so id. As. 2, 2, 83; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 47; 3, 5, 66; id. Phorm. 3, 3, 8.—And strengthened:

    quid tum postea?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; id. As. 2, 2, 68; 2, 2, 79; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 78; 4, 2, 9; 4, 7, 23; id. Ad. 4, 5, 15; id. Hec. 4, 1, 36: videsne abundare me otio? A. Quid tum? Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 26.—
    2.
    In imitation of a dialogue:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules. Quid tum? Parumne multa de toleranda paupertate dicuntur?

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 37, 107; so id. Quint. 22, 72; 27, 84; id. Verr. 2, 4, 59, § 132; id. Dom. 47, 123; id. Dejot. 7, 22; id. Phil. 1, 10, 26; Hor. S. 2, 3, 230.—
    3.
    As emphatic co-ordinative in quoting the different items of a document, law, etc.: quive in senatu sententiam dixit, dixerit. Quid tum? Qui eorum coiit, coierit, etc., what next? i. e. and then, listen! Cic. Clu. 54, 148; so id. Agr. 1, 5, 16; 3, 3, 11; id. Mur. 12, 26; id. Fl. 23, 55.—
    E.
    Tum temporis = eo tempore (post class. and rare; cf.:

    tunc temporis): postera die civitas principem suum, ac tum temporis consulem in foro expectabat,

    Just. 31, 2, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tum

  • 8 tunc

    tunc, adv. demonstr., of time [tum, and demonstr. suffix -ce], then, at that time; but in ante-class. and class. prose tunc is always emphatic, and generally refers to a point of time. In post-Aug. style tunc freq. occurs without emphasis, and is freely used of periods of time. Tunc = deinde occurs first in the class. per. and rarely in prose; but is very freq. after the Aug. per. Tunc in mere co-ordinative use is very rare and not ante-class. (v. I. C.). Tunc coupled with an emphatic or temporal particle is very rare in class. prose, but freq. in the postAug. period. Poets often use tunc instead of tum before vowels for the sake of the metre. In general, tunc is not freq. till after the Aug. period. Cic. has tum about thirty times as often as tunc; Caes. has tunc only five times; Livy, in the first two books, has tunc five times, tum eighty-two times; but Val. Max. has tunc four times as often as tum. Sen. almost always has tunc; tum only in a few passages, mostly in co ordinative use. In Vitr., Suet., Plin., Just., and the jurists, tunc largely predominates; but Nep. has tunc once only, and Tac., who employs both words sparingly, has tum oftener than tunc. The Codd. very freq. vary between the words, and in many passages the reading is still doubtful. Undue weight has been given by some critics to opposition to nunc and connection with cum; cf. Kritz ad Sall. J. 5, 1; Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 64, § 142; 2, 5, 10, § 27. Both tum and tunc are freq. opposed to nunc, and connected with cum.
    I.
    Absol.
    A.
    Referring an event to a time before mentioned.
    1.
    To definite past time.
    (α).
    To a period of time, = illis temporibus (only post-Aug.):

    tunc melius tenuere fidem cum paupere cultu Stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus,

    Tib. 1, 10, 19:

    nulli tunc subsessores alienorum matrimoniorum oculi metuebantur,

    Val. Max. 2, 1, 5:

    sed tunc clarissimus quisque juvenum pro amplificanda patria plurimum periculi sustinebat,

    id. 3, 2, 6:

    nunc quo ventum est? A servis vix impetrari potest ne eam supellectilem fastidiant qua tunc consul non erubuit,

    id. 4, 3, 7:

    quo pacto inter amicos viguisse tunc justitiam credimus, cum inter accusatores quoque, etc.,

    id. 6, 5, 6:

    si vere aestimare Macedonas qui tunc erant volumus, fatebimur, etc.,

    Curt. 4, 16, 33:

    sed civitati nullae tunc leges erant,

    Just. 2, 7, 3; 6, 9, 5.—
    (β).
    Referring to a point of time spoken of: cives Romani [p. 1914] tunc facti sunt Campani, Enn. ap. Censor. 14 (Ann. v. 174 Vahl.): tanto sublatae sunt Augmine tunc lapides, id. ap. Non. p. 211, 8 (Ann. v. 542 ib.): tunc ipsos adoriant, ne quis Spartam referat nuntium, Naev. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 801 P. (Trag. Rel. v. 16 Rib.):

    (Sulla) statim ex iis rebus quas tunc vendebat jussit ei praemium tribui, etc.,

    Cic. Arch. 10, 25:

    neque ego tunc princeps ad salutem esse potuissem si, etc.,

    id. Sull. 3, 9:

    his tunc cognitis rebus amici regis his... liberaliter responderunt,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 104:

    tunc duces Nerviorum... colloqui sese velle dicunt,

    at this time, id. B. G. 5, 41:

    quod se facturos minabantur, aegreque tunc sunt retenti quin oppidum irrumperent,

    id. B. C. 2, 13 fin.:

    Romanus tunc exercitus in agro Larinati erat,

    Liv. 22, 24, 1:

    itaque cum in ipsum, et innocentia tutum et magistratu in quo tunc erat, impetus fieri non posset, etc.,

    id. 4, 44, 6; cf. id. 2, 2, 2; 4, 8, 6; 10, 37, 10;

    44, 44, 3: nec, si rescindere posses (sc. jussa Jovis), Tunc aderas,

    Ov. M. 2, 679:

    tunc ego nec cithara poteram gaudere sonora, nec, etc.,

    Tib. 3, 4, 69:

    tunc urbis custodiis praepositus C. Maecenas,

    Vell. 2, 88, 2:

    forte evenit ut tunc summae dignitatis ibi femina veneno consumere se destinarit,

    Val. Max. 2, 6, 8:

    qui tunc Libitinam exercebant,

    id. 5, 2, 10:

    Coriolanus ad Volscos, infestos tunc Romanis, confugit,

    id. 5, 4, 1; cf. id. 2, 10, 3; 4, 8, 5; 5, 5, 3; 7, 6, 5 fin.;

    8, 1 damn. 1: Carthaginiensium legati ad celebrandum sacrum anniversarium more patrio tunc venerant,

    Curt. 4, 2, 10:

    et tunc aestas erat, cujus calor, etc.,

    id. 3, 5, 1:

    perierat imperium, quod tunc in extremo stabat, si Fabius, etc.,

    Sen. Troad. 1, 11, 5:

    tunc,distractis Orientis viribus, casus Mithridati datus est occupandi Armeniam,

    Tac. A. 11, 9; cf. id. ib. 2, 25:

    quidam ex eis qui tunc egerant, decesserunt,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 24, 3:

    ardente tunc in Africa bello,

    Suet. Caes. 70; cf. id. Calig. 48; id. Ner. 20; 21:

    Asiam tunc tenebat imperio rex Darius,

    Gell. 17, 9, 20:

    hostes tunc populi Romani fuerant Fidenates,

    id. 17, 21, 17; cf. id. 13, 5, 2 and 3; 14, 1, 8; Ael. Spart. Had. 11; 23; 24.—Repeated by anaphora:

    tunc victus abiere feri, tunc consita pomus, tunc bibit inriguas fertilis hortus aquas, Aurea tunc pressos, etc.,

    Tib. 2, 1, 43:

    tunc Parmenio et Philotas, tunc Amyntas consobrinus, tunc noverca fratresque interfecti, tunc Attalus, Eurylochus... occurrebant,

    Just. 12, 6, 14; so id. 43, 3, 2; 43, 4, 2.—Attributively:

    regem tunc Lacedaemoniorum,

    Just. 6, 2, 4.—
    (γ).
    Referring to a state no longer in existence:

    silvae tunc circa viam erant, plerisque incultis,

    Liv. 21, 25, 8:

    urbs (Corinthus) erat tunc praeclara ante excidium,

    id. 45, 28, 2:

    hic (Curio) primo pro Pompei partibus, id est, ut tunc habebatur, pro republica, mox... pro Caesare stetit,

    Vell. 2, 48, 3:

    certissimum tunc proscriptorum perfugium penetravit,

    Val. Max. 7, 3, 9:

    docuit in atrio Catulinae domus, quae pars Palatii tunc erat,

    Suet. Gram. 17: tunc (i. e. olim) in usu erat, eam hereditatem, etc., Gai Inst. 2, 254 erat autem tunc mos ut cum princeps causam cognosceret... sententiam ex omnium deliberatione proferret, Ael. Spart. Had. 8.—
    (δ).
    Expressly opposed to present time: tunc igitur pelles, nunc aurum et purpura exercent hominum vitam, Lucr 5, 1423;

    ea lege quae tunc erat Sempronia, nunc est Cornelia,

    Cic. Clu. 56, 154:

    cum vero causam justam deus ipse dederit, ut tunc Socrati, nunc Catoni, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 30, 74, cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 18, § 45; 2, 3, 67, § 156; id. Arch. 3, 5; id. Pis. 13, 30; id. Rab. Post. 12, 34; id. Phil. 7, 5, 14:

    cur privati non damus remiges, sicut tunc dedimus?

    Liv. 34, 6, 18:

    munitiones et locis opportunioribus tunc fuerunt et validiores impositae (i. e. quam nunc),

    id. 36, 17, 4:

    parva nunc res videri potest quae tunc patres ac plebem accendit,

    id. 4, 25, 13; cf. id. 8, 31, 4; 21, 18, 5:

    Macedones milites ea tunc erant fama qua nunc Romani feruntur,

    Nep. Eum. 3, 4: nunc solvo poenas;

    tunc tibi inferias dedi,

    Sen. Phoen. 172:

    nunc haberent socios quos tunc hostes habuerant,

    Just. 6, 7, 5; cf. id. 8, 2, 9:

    hoc tunc Veii fuere, nunc fuisse quis meminit?

    Flor. 1, 12, 11.—And tunc and tum in co-ordinated sentences: qui ager nunc multo pluris est quam tunc fuit. Tum enim, etc., nunc, etc.;

    tum erat ager incultus, nunc est cultissimus,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33: vos etiamsi tunc faciendum non fuerit, nunc utique faciendum putatis;

    ego contra, etiamsi tum migrandum fuisset, nunc has ruipas relinquendas non censerem,

    Liv. 5, 53, 3 (in such connections tum generally refers to a previous tunc, rarely vice versa).—
    (ε).
    Opposed to a previous or a later time:

    quae ipsum Hannibalem, armis tunc invictum voluptate vicit (i. e. etsi non postea),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 35, 95:

    raro alias tribuni popularis oratio acceptior plebi quam tunc severissimi consulis fuit,

    Liv. 3, 69, 1:

    (Syphax) tunc accessio Punici belli fuerat, sicut Gentius Macedonici,

    id. 45, 7, 2; 5, 37, 2; 45, 25, 10:

    non ab Scipionibus aliisque veteribus Romanorum ducum quidquam ausum fortius quam tunc a Caesare,

    Vell. 2, 80, 3:

    et tunc Aeanti, ut deo, immolaverunt, et deinceps, etc.,

    Val. Max. 1, 5, ext. 2:

    praetor hic Alexandri fuerat, tunc transfuga,

    Curt. 3, 11, 18; cf. id. 4, 13, 18:

    Cilicum nationes saepe et alias commotae, tunc Troxoboro duce, montes asperos castris cepere,

    Tac. A. 12, 55; cf. id. ib. 2, 62; id. H. 3, 58:

    ob res et tunc in Africa, et olim in Germania gestas,

    Suet. Galb. 8; cf. id. Tib. 10; 18; id. Oth. 4:

    idem tunc Faesulae quod Carrhae nuper,

    Flor. 1, 5, 8.—
    (ζ).
    In general statements, applied to the actual state of affairs:

    mos est regibus quotiens in societatem coeant, pollices inter se vincire, etc. Sed tunc, qui ea vincula admovebat decidisse simulans, genua Mithridatis invadit,

    Tac. A. 12, 47:

    legebatur ergo ibi tunc in carmine Latino, etc.,

    Gell. 2, 22, 2.— Pregn., as matters then stood:

    aptissimum tempus fuerat, delinimentum animis Bolani agri divisionem obici: tunc haec ipsa indignitas angebat animos,

    Liv. 4, 51, 6.—
    (η).
    Of coincidence in time: tunc = cum hoc fieret, on that occasion:

    quodsi tu tunc, Crasse, dixisses, omnem eorum importunitatem evellisset oratio tua,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 230; id. Clu. 56, 153; id. Lig. 5, 16; id. Phil. 7, 5, 14:

    tunc Lacedaemoniis accusantibus respondendum erat, nunc a vobis ipsis accusati sumus,

    Liv. 39, 36, 7:

    jam Horatius secundam pugnam petebat. Tunc... clamore adjuvant militem suum,

    while he was doing so, id. 1, 25, 9; 45, 23, 17:

    sed neque... nubes Tunc habuit, nec... imbres,

    Ov. M. 2, 310:

    quid mihi tunc animi fuit?

    id. ib. 7, 582:

    quid mihi tunc animi credis, germane, fuisse?

    id. H. 11, 87; 12, 31:

    quid tunc homines timuerint, quae senatus trepidatio... neque mihi exprimere vacat, neque, etc.,

    Vell. 2, 124, 1:

    non Catoni tunc praetura, sed praeturae Cato negatus est,

    Val. Max. 7, 5, 6; cf. id. 1, 8, 6; 4, 5, 3; 6, 1, 8; 6, 2, 3; 6, 2, 6; 6, 6, ext. 1;

    9, 3, 1: tunc ego dicere debui,

    Sen. Ep. 63, 15:

    non possum dicere aliud tunc mihi quam deos adfuisse,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 5, 5:

    tunc domus priscorum ducum arserunt,

    Suet. Ner. 38; Just. 18, 3, 14; Gell. 6 (7), 3, 48; 12, 13, 21; 19, 1, 11.—Tunc and tum co-ordinate: sanguine tunc (Phaethontis) credunt... Tum facta'st Libya... arida;

    tum, etc.,

    Ov. M. 2, 235 sqq.: tunc... sorores Debuerant, etc.;

    Tum potui Medea mori bene,

    id. H. 12, 3 sqq.—And referring to a supposed action at a definite time:

    nobis tunc repente trepidandum in acie instruenda erat,

    if we had accepted the battle then, Liv. 44, 38, 11.—
    (θ).
    Redundant (post-class.):

    id quale fuerit, neque ipse tunc prodidit, neque cuiquam facile succurrat,

    Suet. Tit. 10; cf.: in ejusmodi temporibus tunc eae ambulationes aperiuntur, Vitr 5, 9, 9.—
    2.
    = nunc, in oblique discourse (rare):

    quod si consulatus tanta dulcedo sit, jam tunc ita in animum inducant, consulatum captum a tribunicia potestate esse,

    Liv. 2, 54, 5:

    ut cum multis saeculis murus urbi civium virtus fuerit, tunc cives salvos se fore non existimaverint nisi intra muros laterent,

    Just. 14, 5, 7.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    (α).
    Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc.; at such a season:

    tunc (i. e. autumno) praecidi arbores oportere secundum terram,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 27:

    ab eo in fastis dies hordicalia nominantur, quod tunc hordae boves immolantur,

    id. ib. 2, 5:

    omnes (nubes sol) enim sub se tunc (= medio die),

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 8, 7:

    tunc enim maximae et integrae adhuc nives (= aestate prima),

    id. ib. 4, 2, 21:

    et tunc potest ventis concitari mare,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 25; cf. id. ib. 4, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    With the force of an indefinite temporal clause:

    tunc ignes tenuissimi iter exile designant et caelo producunt, of shooting stars,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 1, 6: nemo observat lunam nisi laborantem. Tunc urbes conclamant, tunc pro se quisque superstitione vana trepidat, id. ib. 7, 1, 2:

    adjuvari se tunc (i. e. cum faces vident) periclitantes existimant Pollucis et Castoris numine,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 13; cf. id. ib. 1, 8, 3; 2, 55, 2; 5, 3, 1; 6, 12, 2; id. Ep. 42, 4; id. Brev. Vit. 11, 1: si ancilla ex cive Romand conceperit, deinde civis Romana facta sit, et tunc pariat, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 88; 1, 90; Dig. 1, 6, 8; 40, 12, 22, § 3.—
    (γ).
    With the force of a conditional clause, in this instance: Tr. Erus peregre venit. Si. Tunc tibi actutum chorda tenditur, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 55 Lorenz (al. tum):

    dominae mentem convertite... Tunc ego crediderim vobis, et sidera et amnes Posse, etc.,

    Prop. 1, 1, 23:

    itaque tunc dividere optimum erit (= si plura sunt quae nocent),

    Quint. 4, 2, 101; so id. 6, 1, 22:

    cuperem tecum communicare tam subitam mutationem mei: tunc amicitiae nostrae certiorem fiduciam habere coepissem,

    Sen. Ep. 6, 2: nemo est ex inprudentibus qui reliqui sibi debeat. Tunc mala consilia agitant, tunc aut aliis aut ipsis pericula struunt;

    tunc cupiditates improbas ordinant, tunc... tunc... denique, etc.,

    id. ib. 10, 2;

    7, 2: tunc enim (i. e. si cottidie reputes) subit recordatio: Quot dies quam frigidis rebus absumpsi!

    Plin. Ep. 1, 9, 3:

    propter liberos retentio fit (dotis) si culpa mulieris divortium factum sit, tunc enim sextae retinentur ex dote,

    Ulp. Fragm. 6, 10: veluti si a femina manumissa sit: tunc enim e lege Atilia petere debet tutorem, Gai Inst. 1, 195; 1, 76; 1, 40; 3, 181; Fragm. Vat. 52; Dig. 2, 4, 8; 5, 3, 13, § 12; 7, 3, 1; 19, 1, 11, § 15; 11, 1, 20; Just. Inst. 1, 12, § 6; in the jurists, saep.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    In gen.: tunc illud vexillum... coloniae Capuae inferetur;

    tunc contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 86:

    tunc, ut quaeque causa crit statuetis, nunc libertatem repeti satis est,

    Liv. 3, 53, 10:

    senatus consultum adjectum est ut... praetor qui tunc esset... apud eorum quem qui manumitteretur... jusjurandum daret, etc.,

    id. 41, 9, 11:

    nec taedebit avum parvo advigilare nepoti... Tunc operata deo pubes discumbet in herba, etc.,

    Tib. 2, 5, 95:

    tunc interea tempus exercitus ex hoc loco educendi habebis,

    Gell. 3, 7, 7.—
    (β).
    With the force of a conditional clause:

    tunc me biremis Tutum... Aura feret geminusque Pollux (i. e. si mugiat malus procellis),

    Hor. C. 3, 29, 62:

    vectabor umeris tunc ego inimicis eques (i. e. si hoc feceris),

    id. Epod. 17, 74:

    tunc tua me infortunia laedent (i. e. si dolebis tibi),

    id. A. P. 103:

    tunc ego jurabo quaevis tibi numina... Tunc ego... Efficiam, etc.,

    Ov. H. 15 (16), 319:

    tunc piger ad nandum, tunc ego cautus ero,

    id. ib. 17 (18), 210.—
    B.
    Representing sequence or succession in events, = deinde.
    1.
    Simple sequence in time.
    (α).
    Time proper (rare till after the Aug. per.;

    in Cic. perh. only in the foll. passages): Herodotus cum Roma reverteretur, offendit eum mensem qui sequitur mensem comitialem. Tunc Cephaloeditani decrerunt intercalarium XLV dies longum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 130:

    veni in eum sermonem ut docerem, etc. Tunc mihi ille dixit quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    dixi ei, me ita facturum esse ut, etc. Tunc ille a me petivit, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 6, 2 is finis pugnae equestris fuit. Tunc adorti peditum aciem, nuntios ad consules rei gestae mittunt, Liv. 3, 70, 8:

    tandem curia excesserunt. Tunc sententiae interrogari coeptae,

    id. 45, 25, 1:

    equites, relictis equis, provolant ante signa... Tunc inter priores duorum populorum res geritur,

    id. 7, 8, 1:

    iterum deinde interpellatus, in proposito persistit. Tunc Poppedius, abjecturum inde se... minatus est,

    Val. Max. 3, 1, 2; cf. id. 5, 4, 1; 7, 3, 2; 7, 3, 6: tunc intendit arcum, et ipsum cor adulescentis figit, Sen. de Ira, 3, 14, 2; so id. Ot. Sap. 1, 1; id. Q. N. 1, 12, 1:

    Dareum XXX inde stadia abesse praemissi indicabant. Tunc consistere agmen jubet,

    Curt. 3, 8, 24:

    contionem discedere in manipulos jubet. Tunc a veneratione Augusti orsus flexit ad victorias,

    Tac. A. 1, 34; cf. id. ib. 1, 67; 12, 31; 12, 33; 12, 69; id. H. 4, 72; Vitr. 1, 4, 12; 1, 6, 7; 2, 1, 2; 2, 1, 4; 5, 12, 5; 7, praef. 5; 7, 1, 3; 7, 2, 2; 8, 1, 1; Suet. Ner. 49; id. Vit. 15 fin.; id. Dom. 16; Front. Strat. 2, 5, 4; Gell. 1, 22, 6; 6 (7), 17, 6; 13, 31 (30), 6; 14, 2, 9; [p. 1915] Flor. 2, 13 (4, 2), 71; Just. 11, 4, 1; 11, 10, 2; 12, 7, 7; 13, 3, 4; 18, 4, 10 et saep.; Dig. 1, 2, 2, § 26.—
    (β).
    Before an abl. absol. (postclass.):

    statuunt tempus quo foedissimum quemque invadant. Tunc, signo inter se dato, inrumpunt contubernia,

    Tac. A. 1, 48:

    tunc, Campaniae ora proximisque insulis circuitis, Caprearum secessui quadriduum impendit,

    Suet. Aug. 98:

    tunc, exercitu in Aetoliam promoto, pecunias civitatibus imperat,

    Just. 14, 1, 6; 21, 5, 2; 22, 2, 7; 25, 2, 6.—
    (γ).
    Implying a consequence, then, under these circumstances, hence, accordingly:

    caedere januam saxis, instare ferro, ligna circumdare ignemque circumicere coeperunt. Tunc cives Romani, qui Lampsaci negotiabantur, concurrunt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 27, § 69: huc tota Vari conversa acies suos fugere videbat. Tunc Rebilus; Perterritum, inquit, hostem vides;

    quid dubitas, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 34:

    animadversum est, extra consuetudinem longius a vallo esse aciem Pompei progressum. Tunc Caesar apud suos Differendum est iter, inquit, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 85:

    omnium spe celerius Saguntum oppugnari adlatum est. Tunc relata de integro res ad senatum,

    Liv. 21, 6, 5; cf. id. 9, 30, 10:

    Tisiphoneque Saevit et huc illuc impia turba fugit. Tunc niger in porta serpentum Cerberus ore Stridet,

    Tib. 1, 3, 71:

    apud patres disseruit, nec posse Orientem nisi Germanici sapientia conponi, etc. Tunc decreto patrum permissae Germanico provinciae,

    Tac. A. 2, 43; id. H. 4, 83; Vitr. 2, 8, 14; 2, 9, 16; Just. 39, 3, 11.—Emphatically, = tum vero:

    donec ipse quoque longinquo morbo est implicitus. Tunc adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi feroces ut, etc.,

    Liv. 1, 31, 6.—And = tum primum:

    multitudo tandem perrumpit ordines hostium. Tunc vinci pertinacia coepta, et averti manipuli quidam,

    Liv. 9, 39, 10. —
    2.
    In enumerations with tum... deinde... postea, etc.
    (α).
    In gen. (postclass.): ante omnia instituit ut e libertorum bonis dextans... cogeretur; deinde ut ingratorum, etc.;

    tunc ut lege majestatis facta omnia... tenerentur,

    Suet. Ner. 32 med.; so,

    tunc... deinde... tunc, etc.,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 12 and 13:

    tunc... tunc... deinde... tunc,

    id. 3, 5, 5 and 6; cf. id. 5, 12, 4; cf. Suet. Oth. 6; Flor. 4, 2, 88.—With tum: terras primum situmque earum quaerit; deinde condicionem maris;

    tunc quidquid inter caelum terrasque interjacet perspicit... tum, peragratis humilioribus, ad summa prorumpit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 17 fin.; so Gai Inst. 3, 6, 3.—
    (β).
    Of successive speakers in dialogue (rare):

    tu vero abi, inquit, etc. Tunc Mucius Quandoquidem, inquit, est apud te virtuti honos, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 12, 15:

    apud quem Valerius in hunc modum egit, etc. Tunc Collatinus Quaero inquit, etc.,

    Val. Max. 2, 8, 2.—With tum:

    tunc poeta... inquit, etc. Tum Fronto ita respondit, etc.,

    Gell. 19, 8, 10 and 11; 12, 13, 19; Val. Max. 7, 3, ext. 4.—
    C.
    In co-ordination (very rare).
    1.
    = praeterea, and then:

    (Romulus) hoc consilio fultus... locupletari civis non destitit. Tunc, id quod retinemus hodie magna cum salute rei publicae, auspiciis plurimum obsecutus est Romulus,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 15 sq.:

    praeter has, frugalitas et continentia... splendorem illi suum adfunderent. Tunc providentia cum elegantia quantum decoris illi adderent!

    Sen. Ep. 115, 3.—
    2.
    In the connection cum... tunc (v. tum, I. C. 3.):

    vivendum recte est cum propter plurima, tunc est Idcirco, etc.,

    Juv. 9, 118 ( poet. for tum, on account of the foll. vowel).—
    3.
    Vid. tunc etiam, III. B. 7. b.
    II.
    As correlative of dependent clauses.
    A.
    Of temporal clauses with cum.
    1.
    Referring to definite past time.
    a.
    Tunc as antecedent of the clause:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 108:

    etiamne in ara tunc sedebant mulieres Quom ad me profectu's ire?

    id. Rud. 3, 6, 8:

    quo damnato tunc, cum judicia fiebant, HS. IV milibus lis aestimata est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 10, § 22:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiscebatur,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 43, §

    111: atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat: vos tunc paruistis cum paruit nemo nisi qui voluit,

    id. Lig. 7, 20: se ita pugnaturos ut Romae pugnaverint in repetenda patria, ut postero die ad Gabios, tunc cum effecerint ne quis hostium, etc., Liv. 6, 28, 9:

    et quod tunc fecimus cum hostem Hannibalem in Italia haberemus, id nunc, pulso Hannibale, cunctamur facere?

    id. 31, 7, 5:

    infelix Dido, nunc te facta impia tangunt? Tunc decuit cum sceptra dabas,

    Verg. A. 4, 597 (Rib. tum; v. Prisc. p. 8, 841 P.):

    prudenter sensit tunc incrementum Romano imperio petendum fuisse cum intra septimum lapidem triumphi quaerebantur,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 10:

    quorum nihil tunc cum diceretur parum aptum fuit,

    Quint. 11, 1, 89; cf. Val. Max. 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 8, ext. 1.—
    b.
    Introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of coincident actions:

    cum jam adpropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubie esset... tunc injecta trepidatio,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10.—
    (β).
    = deinde:

    adversus singula quaeque cum respondere haud facile esset, et quereretur... purgaretque se invicem, tunc Papirius, redintegrata ira, virgas et secures expediri jussit,

    Liv. 8, 32, 10:

    divus Caesar cum exercitum habuisset circa Alpes, imperavissetque, etc., tunc qui in eo castello fuerunt... noluerunt imperio parere,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 15:

    cum nuntiatum esset Leonidae a XX milibus hostium summum cacumen teneri, tunc hortatur socios, recedant,

    Just. 2, 11, 5.—
    2.
    Of definite present time, tunc is not found; v. tum.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent:

    arbitror, quo nos etiam tunc utimur cum ea dicimus jurati quae comperta habemus,

    Cic. Font. 13, 29 (9, 19):

    tunc obsequatur naturae cum senserit, etc.,

    id. Fragm. Hort. Phil. 75 B. and K.; id. Tusc. 2, 6, 16; id. Verr. 1, 18, 55; 2, 5, 12, § 29: qui tunc vocat me, cum malum librum legi, only... when, never... unless (= tote dê), Cat. 44, 21 Ellis (Mull. tum):

    deum tunc adfuisse cum id evenisset, veteres oratores aiebant,

    Quint. 10, 7, 14:

    tunc est commovendum theatrum cum ventum est ad illud Plodite,

    id. 6, 1, 52; cf. id. 4, 2, 8; 12, 11, 7; Vitr. 2, 9, 3:

    voluptas tunc, cum maxime delectat, exstinguitur,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 7, 4; cf. id. Q. N. 1, prol. 3; 5, 3, 3; 6, 3, 1; id. Ep. 10, 5; 85, 38:

    in tantam quantitatem tenetur quae tunc in peculio fuit cum sententiam dicebat,

    Dig. 5, 1, 15: tunc cum certum esse coeperit neminem ex eo testamento fore heredem, Gai Inst. 3, 13; 4, 71; Dig. 28, 3, 6, § 6; 40, 12, 16, § 2; 40, 7, 34.—
    b.
    Introducing the apodosis:

    cum autem fundamenta ita distantia inter se fuerint constituta, tunc inter ea alia transversa... collocentur,

    Vitr. 1, 5, 7; 2, 1, 6; 2, 3, 2; 2, 5, 2;

    3, 5, 13: cum folia pauca in acumine germinent, tunc maxime serendas ficus,

    Plin. 18, 26, 65, § 245; Just. 41, 2, 9.—
    4.
    Referring to future time:

    ex ceteris autem generibus tunc pecunia expedietur cum legionibus victricibus erunt quae spopondimus persolvenda, Cic. Fragm. Ep. Caes. jun. 1, 8: tunc inter eas fore finem belli dixit cum alterutra urbs in habitum pulveris esset redacta,

    Val. Max. 9, 3, ext. 3:

    poterant videri tunc incohanda cum omnia quae... peregissem,

    Quint. 6, 4, 1; Col. praef. 33; v. infra, III. A. 2. b.—
    B.
    With temporal clauses introduced by ubi (rare).
    1.
    Of definite past time:

    ad quod bellum ubi consules dilectum habere occipiunt, obstare tunc enixe tribuni,

    Liv. 4, 55, 2:

    haec ubi convenerunt, tunc vero Philomelus consuetudinem nocte egrediendi frequentiorem facere,

    id. 25, 8, 9.—
    2.
    Of indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent:

    tunc autem est consummata infelicitas, ubi turpia non solum delectant, sed etiam placent,

    Sen. Ep. 39, 6; id. Ben. 2, 3, 3; 2, 17, 3; id. Ep. 89, 19.—
    b.
    In apodosis:

    stillicidia ubi plura coiere et turba vires dedit, tunc fluere et ire dicuntur,

    Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 4; 6, 17, 2; 6, 18, 2.—
    C.
    With temporal clauses introduced by postquam (posteaquam); rare.
    1.
    Of definite past time:

    posteaquam ingenuae virgines et ephebi venerunt ad deprecandum, tunc est pollicitus his legibus ut, etc.,

    Vitr. 10, 16, 7 (but in Sall. C. 51, 40 Dietsch reads tum).—
    2.
    Of indefinite time: si vero posteaquam eam destinasses, tunc perierit, etc., Dig 17, 2, 58, § 1.—
    D.
    With temporal clauses introduced by ut (very rare):

    ut vero... casus suorum miseris eluxit, tunc toto littore plangentium gemitus, tunc infelicium matrum ululatus... audiebantur,

    Just. 19, 2, 11.—
    E.
    With temporal clauses introduced by quando (rare).
    1.
    As antecedent:

    tunc quando abiero,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 7, 19 (4, 8, 8): tunc inserentur (cerasi) quando his vel non est, vel desinit gummi effluere, Pall. Oct. 12.—
    2.
    In apodosis:

    quando quodque eorum siderum cursum decorum est adeptum... tunc ex alterius naturae motione transversa... vinci a tardioribus videbantur,

    Cic. Univ. 9.—
    F.
    With temporal clauses introduced by dum (very rare):

    tunc tamen utrumque tolerabile est, dum illi vis sua est,

    Sen. Ep. 83, 21.—
    G.
    With conditional clauses.
    1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    As antecedent:

    consilium istud tunc esset prudens si rationes ad Hispaniensem casum accommodaturi essemus,

    Cic. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    sin autem ventus interpellaverit et... tunc habeat canalem longum pedes quinque, etc.,

    Vitr. 8, 5, 2:

    tunc fidem fallam, tunc inconstantiae crimen audiam si, cum omnia eadem sint quae erant promittente me, non praestitero promissum,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 35, 2.—
    (β).
    In apodosis:

    si se simul cum gloria rei gestae exstinxisset, tunc victorem, quidquid licuerit in magistro equitum, in militibus ausurum,

    Liv. 8, 31, 7:

    quem si inclusit mare, tum ille exitu simul redituque praecluso, volutatur,

    Sen. Q. N. 6, 15:

    quod si non illum, sed me peccasse putabis, tunc ego te credam cordis habere nihil,

    Mart. 2, 8, 6: si nullus sit suorum heredum, tunc hereditas pertinet ad adgnatos, Gai Inst. 3, 9:

    si vero dissentiunt, tunc praetoris partes necessariae sunt,

    Dig. 2, 14, 7, § 19; Sen. Q. N. 6, 9, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 205; Dig. 1, 3, 22.—
    2.
    With a supposition contrary to fact:

    audivi te cum alios consolareris: tunc conspexissem, si te ipse consolatus esses,

    Sen. Prov. 4, 5.—
    H.
    After abl. absol. (rare):

    legatis auditis, tunc de bello referre sese Aemilius dixit,

    Liv. 44, 21, 1:

    his ita praeparatis, tunc in rotae modiolo tympanum includatur,

    Vitr. 10, 9 (14), 2.
    III.
    Particular connections.
    A.
    With other particles of time.
    1.
    Jam tunc (rare):

    nisi jam tunc omnia negotia diligentissime confecissem,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 3: bellum jam tunc ab illis geri coeptum cum sibi Phrygiam ademerint, Trog. Pomp. ap. Just. 38, 53:

    At. C. Marius L. Sullam jam tunc, ut praecaventibus fatis, copulatum sibi quaestorem habuit,

    Vell. 2, 12, 1:

    Archilochum Nepos Cornelius tradit, Tullo Hostilio Romae regnante, jam tunc fuisse poematis clarum et nobilem,

    Gell. 17, 21, 8:

    palam jam tunc multae civitates libertatem bello vindicandam fremebant,

    Just. 13, 5, 5. —
    2.
    With demum and denique, not until then, then only, then at last.
    a.
    Tunc demum.
    (α).
    Absol.:

    tunc demum nuntius missus ad tertiam legionem revocandam,

    Liv. 41, 3, 5:

    tunc demum pectora plangi Contigit,

    Ov. H. 11, 91:

    tunc demum intrat tabernaculum,

    Curt. 4, 13, 20:

    tunc demum alia mala (exstiterunt),

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 17, 6:

    (aquilae) primo deponunt, expertaeque pondus, tunc demum abeunt,

    Plin. 10, 3, 4, § 14:

    tunc demum... invidiam quae sibi fieret deprecati sunt,

    Suet. Calig. 9:

    tunc demum ad otium concessit,

    id. Claud. 5.—
    (β).
    With cum clause:

    postero die cum circumsessi aqua arceremur, nec ulla... erumpendi spes esset, tunc demum pacti sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 21, 59, 6:

    et serius cum redisset, tum demum, recepto sospite filio, victoriae tantae gaudium consul sensit,

    id. 44, 44, 3:

    cum ab his oritur, tunc demum ei ratio constat,

    Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.: quos ordine suo tunc demum persequar cum praefaturus fuero, Col. praef. 33; Sen. Ep. 84, 6; id. Q. N. 7, 13, 1.—
    b.
    Tunc denique (very rare): hi dicebantur in eo tempore mathêmatikoi. Exinde ad perspicienda principia naturae procedebant ac tunc denique nominabantur phusikoi, Gell. 1, 9, 7.—
    3.
    Tunc primum:

    quia tunc primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est,

    Sall. J. 5, 2:

    tunc primum circo qui nunc maximus dicitur, designatus locus est,

    Liv. 1, 35, 8:

    eum dolorem ulta est (plebs) tunc primum plebeis quaestoribus creatis,

    id. 4, 54, 2:

    tunc primum equo merere equites coeperunt,

    id. 5, 7, 13:

    lectisternio tunc primum in urbe Romana facto,

    id. 5, 13, 6; Tac. A. 11, 38; Suet. Ner. 17; Just. 8, 5, 1; 11, 10, 2; Jul. Capitol. Anton. Phil. 5; 7.—
    4.
    With deinde (cf.: tum deinde).
    (α).
    Deinde tunc:

    roga bonam mentem, bonam valetudinem animi, deinde tunc corporis,

    Sen. Ep. 10, 4; 74, 23; 117, 1.—
    (β).
    Tunc deinde: primum militiae vinculum est religio et signorum amor, et deserendi nefas; tunc deinde facile cetera [p. 1916] exiguntur, Sen. Ep. 95, 35; 11, 4; Val. Fl. 8, 109; Cels. 4, 15.—So, tunc postea, Vitr. 1, 6, 7.—
    5.
    Tunc tandem:

    simul enim cessit possessione Dii, excitavit hostem, ut tunc tandem sciret recuperanda esse quae prius amissa forent,

    Liv. 44, 8, 4.—
    B.
    With emphatic particles.
    1.
    Tunc vero (or enimvero):

    in turbatos jam hostes equos inmittunt. Tunc vero Celtiberi omnes in fugam effunduntur,

    Liv. 40, 40, 10:

    cunctantem tamen ingens vis morbi adorta est. Tunc enim vero deorum ira admonuit,

    id. 2, 36, 6:

    tunc vero impotentis fortunae species conspici potuit,

    Curt. 3, 11, 23: Tiberioque suspensa semper verba;

    tunc vero nitenti, etc.,

    Tac. A. 1, 11.—
    2.
    Tunc quidem: et tunc quidem Perseus copias reduxit;

    postero die, etc.,

    Liv. 42, 57, 9:

    tunc quidem sacrificio rite perpetrato, reliquum noctis rediit, etc.,

    Curt. 4, 13, 16; cf. id. 3, 12, 21.—
    3.
    Ne tunc quidem:

    quia ne tunc quidem obsistebatur,

    Front. Strat. 3, 17, 9:

    ac ne tum quidem senatu aut populo appellato,

    Suet. Ner. 41; cf. Just. 27, 3, 6.—
    4.
    Tunc maxime (or tunc cum maxime).
    (α).
    Chiefly at that time, especially then:

    Theophrastus est auctor, in Ponto quosdam amnes crescere tempore aestivo... aut quia tunc maxime in umorem mutabilis terra est, aut quia, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 26, 2.—
    (β).
    Just then:

    hospitem tunc cum maxime utilia suadentem abstrahi jussit ad capitale supplicium,

    Curt. 3, 2, 17:

    non incidunt causae quae iram lacessant? sed tunc maxime illi oppugnandae manus sunt, Sen. de Ira, 2, 14, 2: sapiens tunc maxime paupertatem meditatur cum in mediis divitiis constitit,

    id. Vit. Beat. 26, 1.—
    5.
    Tunc interea, Gell. 3, 7, 7; v. supra, I. A. 4. a.—
    6.
    Etiam tunc.
    (α).
    Even then:

    experiri etiam tunc volens an ullae sibi reliquae vires essent, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 16, 3.—
    (β).
    Still:

    quam defunctam praetextatus etiam tunc pro rostris laudavit,

    Suet. Calig. 10.— And with cum, Plaut. Rud. 3, 6, 8; v. supra, II. A. 1. a.—
    7.
    Tunc etiam.
    (α).
    Etiam as connective, tum = eo tempore:

    in civitate plena religionum, tunc etiam ob recentem cladem superstitiosis principibus, ut renovarentur auspicia, res ad interregnum redit,

    Liv. 6, 5, 6.—
    (β).
    Poet. for tum etiam, on account of the vowel:

    ultima prona via est, et eget moderamine certo, Tunc etiam... Tethys solet ipsa vereri,

    Ov. M. 2, 68.—
    8.
    Tunc quoque.
    (α).
    Also then:

    irae adversus Vejentes in insequentem annum dilatae sunt. Tunc quoque ne confestim bellum indiceretur religio obstitit,

    Liv. 4, 30, 13; 44, 37, 12: saepe legit flores;

    et tunc quoque forte legebat,

    Ov. M. 4, 315:

    quare et sereno tonat? quia tunc quoque per quassum et scissum aera spiritus prosilit,

    Sen. Q. N. 2, 18:

    cum quidam histriones producti olim, tunc quoque producerentur,

    Suet. Claud. 21:

    tunc quoque in Hyrcaniam remittitur,

    Just. 38, 9, 9.—
    (β).
    Even then:

    tunc quoque cum antiqui illi viri inclite viverent, cura comere capillum fuit,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 17, 7:

    faba vero non antequam trium foliorum. Tunc quoque levi sarculo purgare melius quam fodere,

    Plin. 18, 26, 65, § 241; Suet. Ner. 26; Flor. 1, 7, 12.—With tum demum:

    tametsi ad audiendum pigre coitur. Plerique in stationibus sedent... ac sibi nuntiari jubent an jam recitator intraverit... an ex magna parte evolverit librum: tum demum ac tunc quoque lente cunctanterque veniunt,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 13, 2.—
    (γ).
    = sic quoque, even as it was:

    quin nisi firmata extrema agminis fuissent, ingens in eo saltu accipienda clades fuerit. Tunc quoque ad extremum periculi ventum est,

    Liv. 21, 34, 8.—
    C.
    Tunc temporis (postclass.;

    v. tum, III. E.): ex gente obscura tunc temporis Persarum,

    Just. 1, 4, 4:

    parvae tunc temporis vires Atheniensibus erant,

    id. 3, 6, 6:

    ad abolendam invidiae famam qua insignis praeter ceteros tunc temporis habebatur,

    id. 8, 3, 7:

    erat namque tunc temporis urbs Appulis Brundisium,

    id. 12, 2, 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tunc

  • 9 inter

    inter, adv., and prep. with acc. [kindred to in, intra; Sanscr. antar; Goth. undar; Germ. unter; Engl. under].
    I.
    Adv., in the midst, in between ( poet. and rare):

    dumque pii petit ora patris stetit arduus inter pontus,

    Val. Fl. 5, 337:

    tot montibus inter diviso,

    id. 6, 220; 8, 382. —
    II.
    Prep., with acc., between, belwixt, among, amid, surrounded by.
    A.
    Lit., in space.
    1.
    Of position only.
    a.
    Referring to two places or objects, between:

    qui (mons Jura) est inter Sequanos et Helvetios,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2:

    cum inter me et Brundisium Caesar esset,

    Cic. Att. 9, 2:

    inter Padum atque Alpes,

    Liv. 5, 35:

    ager Tarquiniorum, qui inter urbem ac Tiberim fuit,

    id. 2, 5:

    locus inter duos lucos,

    id. 1, 8, 5:

    apud Artemisium inter Euboeam continentemque terram,

    id. 2, 5, 2; so,

    inter haec maria Asia,

    Curt. 3, 1, 13.—
    b.
    Referring to more than two places or objects, among, in the midst of:

    inter hostium tela versari,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 46:

    inter multos saucios spe incertae vitae relictus,

    Liv. 2, 17, 4:

    rex inter primos constiterat,

    Curt. 5, 3, 9:

    inter multitudinem,

    Liv. 22, 13, 2:

    inter lignarios,

    id. 35, 41, 10:

    repertae inter spolia catenae,

    Tac. A. 2, 18:

    vicos aut inter vias manere,

    Suet. Caes. 39:

    inter ingentes solitudines,

    Sall. J 89, 4:

    inter deserta ferarum Lustra domosque,

    Verg. A. 3, 646.— So, even with a noun in the sing., in the midst of, surrounded by:

    erat inter ceteram planitiem mons,

    Sall. J. 92, 5:

    tibicines inter exercitum positi,

    Gell. 1, 11, 3:

    inter caedem aquila,

    Tac. A. 1, 60; cf.:

    inter ceteram praedam,

    Liv. 22, 16, 7; 8, 10, 10:

    inter purpuram atque aurum,

    id. 9, 17, 16. —
    2.
    With verbs of motion.
    a.
    Between, through, among:

    inter medias stationes hostium erupere,

    Liv. 35, 11:

    acies inter bina castra procedunt,

    id. 4, 18, 3; Tac. A. 14, 33:

    inter oppositas classes transmisit,

    Suet. Caes. 58:

    spatiabatur in nemore Parmenion medius inter duces,

    Curt. 7, 2, 23:

    medios inter hostes Londinium perrexit,

    Tac. A. 14, 33.—
    b.
    Pregn., including motion to and position between or among things mentioned, among, into the midst of:

    inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos Adsidue veniebat,

    Verg. E. 2, 3:

    te mea dextera magna inter praemia ducet,

    id. A. 12, 437:

    dico te priore nocte venisse inter falcarios in Laecae domum,

    among the scythe-makers, into the street of the scythe-makers, Cic. Cat. 1, 4, 8.—
    B.
    Transf., of relations conceived as local.
    1.
    In discrimination (doubt, choice, etc.), between two or more objects:

    judicium inter deas tres,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 114; cf.:

    inter Marcellos et Claudios patricios judicare,

    id. de Or. 1, 39, 176:

    inter has sententias dijudicare,

    id. Tusc. 1, 11, 23:

    inter diversas opiniones electio, Quint. prooem. 2: discrimen inter gratiosos cives atque fortes,

    id. Balb. 21, 49:

    inter optime valere et gravissime aegrotare nihil prorsus interesse,

    id. Fin. 2, 13, 43:

    qui bellum et pacem inter dubitabant,

    Tac. A. 12, 32:

    trepidare inter scelus metumque,

    id. H. 3, 39:

    inter pugnae fugaeque consilium,

    Liv. 1, 27.—So, with inter repeated:

    ut nihil inter te atque inter quadrupedem aliquam putes interesse,

    Cic. Par. 1; id. Fin. 1, 9, 30:

    quid intersit inter popularem civem et inter constantem, severum et gravem,

    id. Lael. 25, 95.—
    2.
    In expressing any relation which connects two or more persons, conceived as between or among them (strife, rivalry, friendship, intercourse, etc.).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    quos inter magna fuit contentio,

    Nep. Mil. 4, 4:

    Nestor componere lites Inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 12:

    certamen inter primores civitates,

    Liv. 10, 6.—Esp., with pronouns, to express all reciprocal relations, among, with, or between one another; mutually, together:

    quasi nunc non norimus nos inter nos,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 4, 7; Cic. Div. 1, 28, 58; id. Att. 10, 4, 10; id. N. D. 1, 26, 51:

    quod colloquimur inter nos,

    with one another, id. de Or. 1, 8, 32; cf.:

    inter nos naturā ad civilem communitatem conjuncti sumus,

    id. Fin. 3, 20, 66:

    vobis inter vos voluntatem fuisse conjunctam,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 11, 34: Ciceronis pueri amant inter se, love one another (like the Fr. s ' entr ' aimer), id. Att. 6, 1, 12:

    inter se consultare,

    id. de Or. 2, 3, 13:

    inter se amare,

    id. Q. Fr. 3, 3, 1:

    neque solum se colent inter se ac diligent,

    id. Lael. 22, 82:

    Di inter se diligunt,

    id. N. D. 1, 44, 122:

    furtim inter se aspiciebant,

    id. Cat. 3, 5, 13:

    complecti inter se lacrimantes milites coepisse,

    Liv. 7, 42:

    haec inter se cum repugnent, plerique non vident,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 29, 72:

    inter se nondum satis noti,

    Liv. 21, 39:

    ratio et oratio conciliat homines inter se,

    Cic. Off. 1, 16, 50:

    ne nostra nobiscum aut inter nos cessatio vituperetur,

    id. Fam. 9, 3, 4:

    quae res eos in magno diuturnoque bello inter se habuit,

    Sall. J. 79, 3.—Sometimes pleon., the reciprocal relation being sufficiently expressed by the context:

    manus conserentis inter se Romanos exercitus,

    Sall. H. 1, 41, 19 Dietsch:

    Ulixes cum Ajace summa vi contendere inter se,

    Dict. Cret. 5, 14:

    conferti inter se,

    id. 2, 46.—
    (β).
    So of things:

    ita effici complexiones atomorum inter se,

    mutual, reciprocal, Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 19:

    colles duos inter se propinquos occupat,

    near one another, Sall. J. 98, 3:

    haud procul inter se erant,

    id. ib. 41, 2:

    multum inter se distant istae facultates,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 49, 215:

    res inter se similes,

    Quint. 9, 2, 51:

    inter se dissimilis,

    id. 9, 4, 17.—
    (γ).
    Of a common privacy, secrecy, etc.: inter nos, between or among ourselves, confidentially, like the Fr. entre nous:

    nec consulto dicis occulte, sed quod inter nos liceat, ne tu quidem intellegis,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 26, 74:

    quod inter nos liceat dicere,

    id. Att. 2, 4:

    quod inter nos sit,

    but let that be between ourselves, Sen. Ep. 12, 2. —
    (δ).
    With nouns denoting a multitude of persons, like apud (not ante-Aug.):

    haudquaquam inter id genus contemptor habebatur,

    Liv. 6, 34, 5:

    inter hostes variae fuere sententiae,

    id. 4, 18, 1:

    credula fama inter gaudentes,

    Tac. H. 1, 34:

    more inter veteres recepto,

    id. ib. 2, 85.—
    3.
    Of a class of persons or things to which the subject is referred.
    a.
    In gen., among:

    homines inter suos nobiles,

    Cic. Fl. 22, 52:

    inter suos et honestus et nobilis,

    id. Clu. 5, 11:

    in oratoribus vero admirabile est, quantum inter omnes unus excellat,

    id. Or. 2, 6:

    inter philosophos (Xenophon) reddendus est,

    Quint. 10, 1, 37:

    ille Croesus, inter reges opulentissimus,

    Sen. Contr. 2, 9:

    Borysthenes inter Scythiae amnes amoenissimus,

    Mel. 2, 1, 6.— So freq. with sup., inter and acc. take the place of a gen.:

    honestissimus inter suos numerabatur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 16:

    plurimum inter eos valere,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 4, 4:

    maximum imperium inter finitimos,

    Liv. 5, 3, 10:

    inter Atheniensīs longe clarissimi,

    Curt. 4, 13, 15; Plin. 34, 8, 21, § 81; Petr. 78; Sen. Suas. 2, 7; 2, 12; Just. 12, 7, 2; 36, 2, 6.
    b.
    Esp.: inter paucos, etc., [p. 977] among few, i. e. among the few select ones, eminently, especially:

    pingunt et vestes in Aegypto inter pauca mirabili genere,

    Plin. 35, 11, 42, § 150; cf.:

    sternutamento utilis inter pauca,

    id. 24, 11, 58, § 97:

    pugna inter paucas memorata populi Romani clades,

    Liv. 22, 7; cf.:

    inter paucos disertus,

    Quint. 10, 3, 13:

    inter paucos familiarium Neroni assumptus est,

    Tac. A. 16, 18:

    claritudine paucos inter senum regum,

    id. ib. 11, 10; so, inter alios: judicatur inter alios omnes beatus, qui in proelio profuderit animam, among all others to be noticed, i. e. especially, in the highest degree, Amm. 2, 3, 6; so,

    inter cuncta,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 96:

    inter omnia,

    Curt. 3, 3, 18:

    inter cetera,

    Liv. 37, 12.—
    c.
    In judic. lang., t. t.: inter sicarios, on the charge of assassination:

    cum praetor quaestionem inter sicarios exercuisset,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 16, 54; id. Clu. 53, 147; cf.:

    in recuperatorio judicio ejus maleficii, de quo inter sicarios quaeritur,

    id. Inv. 2, 20, 60:

    longo intervallo judicium inter sicarios hoc primum committitur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11:

    sexcenti sunt, qui inter sicarios et de veneficiis accusabant,

    id. ib. 32, 90:

    si ostenderis, quomodo sis eos inter sicarios defensurus,

    id. Phil. 2, 4, 8.—
    4.
    In some idiomatic phrases.
    a.
    Inter manus, within reach, i. e. close at hand:

    ante oculos interque manus sunt omnia vestras,

    Verg. A. 11, 311; also, upon or in the hands:

    inter manus domum ablatus,

    Liv. 3, 13:

    inter quas (manus) collapsus extinguitur,

    Curt. 8, 2, 39:

    inter manus auferri,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 28:

    inter manus meas crevit,

    under my hands, Sen. Ep. 12:

    manus inter maestorumque ora parentum,

    before their faces and within their reach, Verg. A. 2, 681.—
    b.
    Inter viam, vias, on the way:

    dum rus eo, coepi egomet mecum inter vias,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 2, 1; Plaut. Poen. 5, 3, 43:

    si se inter viam obtulerit,

    Cic. Att. 4, 3, 5. —
    C.
    Of time.
    a.
    Between two dates or periods specified:

    dies XLV. inter binos ludos,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52 fin.; Liv. 1, 3.—
    b.
    During, in the course of, within; for which, in English, we sometimes use by or at:

    quot prandia inter continuum perdidi triennium,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 61:

    omnia agentur, quae inter decem annos nefarie flagitioseque facta sunt,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 13; cf.:

    qui inter annos tot unus inventus sit, quem, etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 23, 68:

    inter ipsum pugnae tempus,

    Liv. 36, 20:

    inter noctem lux orta,

    id. 32, 29:

    qui plus cernant oculis per noctem quam inter diem,

    Gell. 9, 4.—
    c.
    Freq., with substt., to denote an act performed at a certain time, in the course of, while:

    haec inter cenam Tironi dictavi,

    at table, Cic. Quint. Fragm. 3, 1, 6; cf.:

    illuseras heri inter scyphos,

    id. Fam. 7, 22:

    inter fulmina et tonitrua,

    id. Phil. 5, 6, 15:

    promptior inter tenebras affirmatio,

    Tac. A. 2, 82:

    inter initia,

    at the beginning, Cels. 3, 25.—
    d.
    During, and hence under the circumstances described, i. e. in spite of, notwithstanding:

    nobis inter has turbas senatus tamen frequens flagitavit triumphum,

    amid, in spite of these commotions, Cic. Fam. 16, 11:

    utrumque consilium aspernatus, quod inter ancipitia deterrimum est, dum media sequitur,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    senum coloniae inter male parentes et injuste imperantes aegra municipia et discordantia,

    id. Agr. 32; cf.:

    ita neutris cura posteritatis inter infensos vel obnoxios,

    id. H. 1, 1.—
    e.
    Inter haec, inter quae, meanwhile, during this time:

    = interea, inter haec major alius terror,

    in the mean time, Liv. 2, 24; cf.:

    inter haec jam praemissi Albam erant equites,

    id. 1, 29; 3, 57, 7; 44, 10, 5; Curt. 3, 1, 1; Suet. Tib. 8; 63:

    inter quae tribuni plebei petivere, etc.,

    Tac. A. 1, 15; 2, 34; 58; 3, 33; id. H. 1, 78; Curt. 4, 2, 10:

    inter quae unctione uti licet,

    Cels. 4, 2, 3.—

    So with gerunds and gerundives: inter agendum,

    at, while, Verg. E. 9, 24; Quint. 12, 3, 10:

    inter disceptandum,

    id. 12, 7, 6:

    inter res agendas,

    Suet. Caes. 45.—
    D.
    In composition its final r is assimilated in intellego and its derivatives.
    a.
    Between; as, intercedere, interponere. —
    b.
    At intervals, from time to time; as, interaestuare, intermittere, intervisere.—
    c.
    Under, down, to the bottom; as, interire, interficere.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > inter

  • 10 sisto

    sisto, stĭti (Charis. p. 220, and Diom. p. 369, give steti for both sisto and sto, confining stiti to the compounds of both. But steti, as perfect of sisto, is late jurid. Lat., and perh. dub.;

    for steterant,

    Verg. A. 3, 110;

    steterint,

    id. ib. 3, 403; Liv. 8, 32, 12, belong to stare; cf. also Gell. 2, 14, 1 sqq.; and v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 461 sq.), stătum [root stă, strengthened by reduplication; cf. histêmi], used in two general senses, I. To cause to stand, place, = colloco, pono; II. To stand, be placed, = sto.
    I.
    Sistere, in gen., = collocare (in class. prose only in the partic. uses, v. A. 4. C. and D., infra).
    A.
    Causative, with acc.
    1.
    To place = facere ut stet; constr. with in and abl., with abl. alone, and with ad, super, etc., and acc.:

    O qui me gelidis in vallibus Haemi Sistat,

    Verg. G. 2, 489:

    tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in oris,

    id. A. 3, 117 (classis stat;

    v. sto): inque tuo celerem litore siste gradum,

    Ov. H. 13, 102 (cf. infra, III. 2. A.):

    jaculum clamanti (al. clamantis) sistit in ore,

    plants the dart in his face, Verg. A. 10, 323:

    disponit quas in fronte manus, medio quas robore sistat,

    Stat. Th. 7, 393:

    (equum ligneum) sacratā sistimus arā,

    Verg. A. 2, 245:

    aeternis potius me pruinis siste,

    Stat. Th. 4, 395: ut stata (est) lux pelago, as soon as light was set ( shone) on the sea, id. ib. 5, 476:

    victima Sistitur ante aras,

    Ov. M. 15, 132:

    quam (suem) Aeneas ubi... sistit ad aram,

    Verg. A. 8, 85:

    post haec Sistitur crater,

    Ov. M. 8, 669: vestigia in altero (monte) sisti (non posse), that no footprints can be placed ( made) on the other mountain, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211:

    cohortes expeditas super caput hostium sistit,

    Tac. H. 3, 77; cf. id. A. 12, 13; Stat. Th. 4, 445; Sil. 4, 612. —
    2.
    To place, as the result of guidance or conveyance; hence, to convey, to send, lead, take, conduct to, = facere ut veniat; constr. with in and abl., with abl. alone, and with advv. of place: officio meo ripā sistetur in illā Haec, will be carried by me to, etc., Ov. M. 9, 109:

    terrā sistēre petitā,

    id. ib. 3, 635:

    (vos) facili jam tramite sistam,

    Verg. A. 6, 676:

    ut eum in Syriā aut Aegypto sisterent orabat,

    to convey him to, Tac. H. 2, 9.—So with hic (= in with abl.) or huc (= in with acc.):

    hic siste patrem,

    Sen. Phoen. 121:

    Annam huc siste sororem,

    Verg. A. 4, 634.—
    3.
    To place an army in order of battle, draw up, = instruere:

    aciem in litore sistit,

    Verg. A. 10, 309; cf.:

    sistere tertiam decimam legionem in ipso aggere jubet,

    Tac. H. 3, 21.—
    4.
    Se sistere = to betake one's self, to present one's self, to come (so twice in Cicero's letters):

    des operam, id quod mihi affirmasti, ut te ante Kal. Jan., ubicumque erimus, sistas,

    Cic. Att. 3, 25:

    te vegetum nobis in Graeciā sistas,

    id. ib. 10, 16, 6 (cf. infra, E.):

    hic dea se primum rapido pulcherrima nisu Sistit,

    Verg. A. 11, 853.—
    5.
    With two acc. (cf.: praesto, reddo) = to cause to be in a certain condition, to place, etc.; often with dat. of interest (ante- and post-class., and poet.; cf.

    supra, 4.): ego vos salvos sistam,

    I will place you in safety, see you to a safe place, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 5:

    omnia salva sistentur tibi,

    all will be returned to you in good order, id. ib. 5, 3, 3; so,

    suam rem sibi salvam sistam,

    id. Poen. 5, 2, 123; cf.:

    rectius tacitas tibi res sistam, quam quod dictum est mutae mulieri,

    will keep your secrets, id. ib. 4, 2, 54:

    neque (dotem) incolumem sistere illi, et detraxe autument,

    that you deliver it entire to her, id. Trin. 3, 3, 15:

    cum te reducem aetas prospera sistet,

    Cat. 64, 238: tu modo servitio vacuum me siste (= praesta) superbo, set me free from, Prop. 4, 16 (3, 17), 42:

    tutum patrio te limine sistam,

    will see you safe home, Verg. A. 2, 620:

    praedā onustos triumphantesque mecum domos reduces sistatis,

    Liv. 29, 27, 3 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    Pelasgis siste levem campum,

    Stat. Th. 8, 328:

    modo se isdem in terris victorem sisterent,

    Tac. A. 2, 14:

    operā tuā sistas hunc nobis sanum atque validum,

    give him back to us, safe and sound, Gell. 18, 10, 7: ita mihi salvam ac sospitem rempublicam sistere in suā sede liceat, Aug. ap. Suet. Aug. 28.—
    b.
    Neutr, with double nom., = exsistere, to be, to become: judex extremae sistet vitaeque necisque, he will become a judge, etc., Manil. 4, 548 (dub.):

    tempora quod sistant propriis parentia signis,

    id. 3, 529 (dub.; al. sic stant; cf. infra, II.).—
    B.
    As neuter verb, to stand, rest, be placed, lie ( poet.);

    constr. like sto: ne quis mihi obstiterit obviam, nam qui obstiterit, ore sistet,

    will lie on his face, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 13 Brix ad loc.: (nemo sit) tantā gloriā... quin cadat, quin capite sistat, will be placed or stand on his head, id. Curc. 2, 3, 8:

    ibi crebro, credo, capite sistebant cadi,

    id. Mil. 3, 2, 36 Lorenz (Brix, hoc illi crebro capite):

    ipsum si quicquam posse in se sistere credis,

    to rest upon itself, Lucr. 1, 1057:

    neque posse in terrā sistere terram,

    nor can the earth rest upon itself, id. 2, 603:

    at conlectus aquae... qui lapides inter sistit per strata viarum,

    id. 4, 415:

    incerti quo fata ferant, ubi sistere detur,

    to rest, to stay, Verg. A. 3, 7; cf.:

    quaesitisque diu terris, ubi sistere detur,

    Ov. M. 1, 307. —
    C.
    As jurid. term.
    1.
    In both a causative and neuter sense = to produce in court, or to appear in court after being bound over by the judge or by promise to the adversary (vadimonium); constr. either absol. or with the dat. of the adversary to whom the promise is made (alicui sisti), to appear upon somebody's demand; also, in judicio sisti. The present active is either used reflexively (se sistere = to appear), or with a transitive object (sistere aliquem = to produce in court one in whose behalf the promise has been made). The present passive, sisti, sistendus, sistitur, = to appear or to be produced. The perfect act., stiti, stitisse, rarely the perfect passive, status sum, = to have appeared, I appeared. So in all periods of the language:

    cum autem in jus vocatus fuerit adversarius, ni eo die finitum fuerit negotium, vadimonium ei faciendum est, id est ut promittat se certo die sisti,

    Gai. 4, 184:

    fit ut Alfenus promittat, Naevio sisti Quinctium,

    that Quinctius would be forthcoming upon Naevius's complaint, Cic. Quint. 21, 67; cf. id. ib. 8, 30 (v. infra, B.):

    testificatur, P. Quinctium non stitisse, et se stitisse,

    id. ib. 6, 25:

    quin puellam sistendam promittat (= fore ut puella sistatur in judicio),

    Liv. 3, 45, 3:

    interrogavit quisquam, in quem diem locumque vadimonium promitti juberet, et Scipio manum ad ipsam oppidi, quod obsidebatur, arcem protendens: Perendie sese sistant illo in loco,

    Gell. 7, 1, 10:

    si quis quendam in judicio sisti promiserit, in eādem causā eum debet sistere,

    Dig. 2, 11, 11:

    si servum in eādem causā sistere promiserit, et liber factus sistatur,... non recte sistitur,

    ib. 2, 9, 5:

    sed si statu liberum sisti promissum sit, in eādem causā sisti videtur, quamvis liber sistatur,

    ib. 2, 9, 6:

    cum quis in judicio sisti promiserit, neque adjecerit poenam si status non esset,

    ib. 2, 6, 4:

    si quis in judicio secundum suam promissionem non stitit,

    ib. 2, 11, 2, § 1; cf. ib. 2, 5, 1; 2, 8, 2; 2, 11, 2, § 3.—
    2.
    Vadimonium sistere, to present one's self in court, thus keeping the solemn engagement (vadimonium) made to that effect; lit., to make the vadimonium stand, i. e. effective, opp. deserere vadimonium = not to appear, to forfeit the vadimonium. The phrase does not occur in the jurists of the Pandects, the institution of the vadimonium being abolished by Marcus Aurelius. It is found in the following three places only: quid si vadimonium capite obvoluto stitisses? Cat. ap. Gell. 2, 14, 1: ut Quinctium sisti Alfenus promitteret. Venit Romam Quinctius;

    vadimonium sistit,

    Cic. Quint. 8, 30:

    ut nullum illa stiterit vadimonium sine Attico,

    Nep. Att. 9; Gai. 4, 185; cf. diem sistere under status, P. a. infra.—
    D.
    Transf., out of judicial usage, in gen., = to appear or present one's self, quasi ex vadimonio; constr. absol. or with dat. of the person entitled to demand the appearance:

    ubi tu es qui me vadatus's Veneriis vadimoniis? Sisto ego tibi me, et mihi contra itidem ted ut sistas suadeo (of a lover's appointment),

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 5; so,

    tibi amatorem illum alacrem vadimonio sistam,

    produce, App. M. 9, p. 227, 14:

    nam promisimus carnufici aut talentum magnum, aut hunc hodie sistere,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 73:

    vas factus est alter ejus sistendi, ut si ille non revertisset, moriendum esset sibi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 10, 45. —
    E.
    Fana sistere, acc. to Festus anciently used, either = to place ( secure and fix places for) temples in founding a city, or to place the couches in the lectisternia:

    sistere fana, cum in urbe condendā dicitur, significat loca in oppido futurorum fanorum constituere: quamquam Antistius Labeo, in commentario XV. juris pontificii ait fana sistere esse lectisternia certis locis et diebus habere,

    Fest. p. 267 Lind. To this usage Plaut. perh. alludes:

    apud illas aedis sistendae mihi sunt sycophantiae,

    the place about that house I must make the scene of my tricks, Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 25.—
    F.
    Sistere monumenta, etc., or sistere alone, to erect statues, etc. (= statuere; post-class. and rare;

    mostly in Tac.): ut apud Palatium effigies eorum sisteret,

    Tac. A. 15, 72:

    cum Augustus sibi templum sisti non prohibuisset,

    id. ib. 4 37:

    at Romae tropaea de Parthis arcusque sistebantur,

    id. ib. 15, 18:

    monuere ut... templum iisdem vestigiis sisteretur,

    id. H. 4, 53:

    sistere monumenta,

    Aus. Ep. 24, 55: Ast ego te... Carthaginis arce Marmoreis sistam templis (cf. histanai tina), Sil. 8, 231; v. statuo.
    II.
    Sistere = to cause what is tottering or loose to stand firm, to support or fasten; and neutr., to stand firm.
    A.
    Causative (rare;

    perh. not in class. prose) = stabilire: sucus... mobilis (dentes) sistit,

    Plin. 20, 3, 8, § 15; and trop.: hic (Marcellus) rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu Sistet (cf.: respublica stat;

    v. sto),

    Verg. A. 6, 858; cf.:

    non ita civitatem aegram esse, ut consuetis remediis sisti posset,

    Liv. 3, 20, 8 (where sisti may be impers.; v. infra, III. C.).—
    B.
    Neutr., to stand firm, to last, = stare:

    nec mortale genus, nec divum corpora sancta Exiguom possent horai sistere tempus,

    Lucr. 1, 1016: qui rem publicam sistere negat posse, nisi ad equestrem ordinem judicia referantur, Cotta ap. Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 96, § 223.—
    2.
    Neutr., to stand firm, to resist:

    nec quicquam Teucros Sustentare valet telis, aut sistere contra,

    Verg. A. 11, 873; so with dat. = resistere:

    donec Galba, inruenti turbae neque aetate neque corpore sistens, sella levaretur,

    Tac. H. 1, 35; cf. sisti = resistere, III. B. 1. f. infra.
    III.
    Sistere = to stand still, and to cause to stand still.
    A.
    Neutr. = stare (rare; in Varr., Tac., and the poets).
    a.
    To stand still:

    solstitium dictum est quod sol eo die sistere videatur,

    Varr. L. L. 5, p. 53 (Bip.):

    sistunt amnes,

    Verg. G. 1, 479:

    incurrit, errat, sistit,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 248.—
    b.
    To remain, stop:

    Siste! Quo praeceps ruis?

    Sen. Thyest. 77; id. Oedip. 1050:

    vis tu quidem istum intra locum sistere?

    will you remain in that position? Tac. A. 4, 40.—
    c.
    Trop., to stop, not to go any farther:

    depunge, ubi sistam,

    Pers. 6, 79:

    nec in Hectore tracto sistere,

    to stop at the dragging of Hector, Stat. Achill. 1, 7.—
    d.
    To cease (dub.):

    hactenus sistat nefas' pius est,

    if his crime ceases here, he will be pious, Sen. Thyest. 744 (perh. act., to stop, end).—
    B.
    Causative (not ante-Aug.; freq. in Tac., Plin., and the poets).
    1.
    To arrest, stop, check an advancing motion.
    a.
    With gradum:

    plano sistit uterque gradum,

    arrest their steps, Prop. 5 (4), 10, 36; Verg. A. 6, 465:

    siste properantem gradum,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 772:

    repente sistunt gradum,

    Curt. 4, 6, 14. —With pedem, Ov. R. Am. 80.—
    b.
    With fugam, to stop, stay, check, stem, arrest the flight:

    fugam foedam siste,

    Liv. 1, 12, 5:

    si periculo suo fugam sistere posset,

    id. 30, 12, 1; so Curt. 8, 14, 37; 4, 16, 2; 8, 3, 2; Tac. A. 12, 39.—
    c.
    Of vehicles, horses, etc.:

    esseda siste,

    Prop. 2, 1, 76:

    equos,

    Verg. A. 12, 355:

    quadrijugos,

    Stat. Achill. 2, 429; so id. Th. 5, 364.—
    d.
    With iter, to arrest the advance of an army, to halt:

    exercitus iter sistit,

    Tac. H. 3, 50.—
    e.
    With bellum, to halt (cf. infra, D.):

    Aquilejae sisti bellum expectarique Mucianum jubebat,

    Tac. H. 3, [p. 1712] 8.—
    f.
    Of living objects, in gen.
    (α).
    To arrest their course, make them halt:

    aegre coercitam legionem Bedriaci sistit,

    Tac. H. 2, 23:

    festinantia sistens Fata,

    staying the hurrying Fates, Stat. S. 3, 4, 24.—So, se sistere with ab, to desist from:

    non prius se ab effuso cursu sistunt,

    Liv. 6, 29, 3; hence, to arrest by wounding, i. e. to wound or kill:

    aliquem cuspide,

    Sil. 1, 382; 1, 163; so,

    cervum vulnere sistere,

    id. 2, 78.—
    (β).
    To stop a hostile attack of persons, to resist them, ward them off:

    ut non sisterent modo Sabinas legiones, sed in fugam averterent,

    Liv. 1, 37, 3:

    ibi integrae vires sistunt invehentem se jam Samnitem,

    id. 10, 14, 18:

    nec sisti vis hostium poterat,

    Curt. 5, 3, 11:

    nec sisti poterant scandentes,

    Tac. H. 3, 71; 5, 21. —
    g.
    Trop., to stop the advance of prices:

    pretia augeri in dies, nec mediocribus remediis sisti posse,

    Tac. A. 3, 52.—
    2. a.
    Of water:

    sistere aquam fluviis,

    Verg. A. 4, 489:

    amnis, siste parumper aquas,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 2:

    quae concita flumina sistunt,

    id. M. 7, 154:

    sistito infestum mare,

    calm, Sen. Agam. 523; cf. Ov. M. 7, 200; id. H. 6, 87; Plin. 28, 8, 29, § 118.—
    b.
    Of blood and secretions:

    (ea) quibus sistitur sanguis parari jubet,

    Tac. A. 15, 54:

    sanguinem,

    Plin. 20, 7, 25, § 59; 28, 18, 73, § 239; 27, 4, 5, § 18:

    haemorrhoidum abundantiam,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 19:

    fluctiones,

    id. 20, 8, 27, § 71, 34, 10, 23, § 105; 35, 17, 57, § 195:

    nomas,

    id. 30, 13, 39, § 116; 24, 16, 94, § 151:

    mensis,

    id. 23, 6, 60, § 112:

    vomitiones,

    id. 20, 20, 81, § 213:

    alvum bubus,

    id. 18, 16, 42, § 143:

    alvum,

    stop the bowels, id. 23, 6, 60, § 113; 22, 25, 59, § 126; 20, 5, 18, § 37:

    ventrem,

    id. 20, 23, 96, § 256; Mart. 13, 116.—
    3.
    To arrest the motion of life, make rigid:

    ille oculos sistit,

    Stat. Th. 2, 539.—
    4.
    To end, put an end to (= finem facere alicui rei); pass., to cease:

    querelas,

    Ov. M. 7, 711:

    fletus,

    id. ib. 14, 835:

    lacrimas,

    id. F. 1, 367; 480; 6, 154:

    minas,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 60:

    opus,

    id. H. 16 (17), 266; id. M. 3, 153:

    labores,

    id. ib. 5, 490:

    furorem,

    Stat. Th. 5, 663:

    furialem impetum,

    Sen. Med. 157; id. Agam. 203:

    pace tamen sisti bellum placet,

    Ov. M. 14, 803:

    antequam summa dies spectacula sistat,

    id. F. 4, 387:

    sitim sistere,

    to allay, id. P. 3, 1, 18:

    nec primo in limine sistit conatus scelerum,

    suppresses, Stat. S. 5, 2, 86:

    ruinas,

    to stop destruction, Plin. Pan. 50, 4:

    ventum,

    to ward off, turn the wind, id. Ep. 2, 17, 17;

    (motus terrae) non ante quadraginta dies sistuntur, = desinunt,

    Plin. 2, 82, 84, § 198.—
    5.
    Sistere with intra = to confine, keep within:

    transgresso jam Alpes Caecina, quem sisti intra Gallias posse speraverant,

    Tac. H. 2, 11:

    dum populatio lucem intra sisteretur,

    provided the raids were confined to day-time, id. A. 4, 48. —
    C.
    Impers. and trop., to arrest or avoid an impending misfortune, or to stand, i. e. to endure; generally in the form sisti non potest (more rarely: sisti potest) = it cannot be endured, a disaster cannot be avoided or met (once in Plaut.; freq. in Liv.; sometimes in Tac.; cf., in gen., Brix ad Plaut. Trin. 720; Drak. ad Liv. 3, 16, 4; Weissenb. ad Liv. 2, 29, 8; Gronov. ad Liv. 4, 12, 6; Beneke ad Just. 11, 1, 6).
    1.
    Without a subject, res or a noun of general import being understood:

    quid ego nunc agam, nisi ut clipeum ad dorsum accommodem, etc.? Non sisti potest,

    it is intolerable, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 94:

    totam plebem aere alieno demersam esse, nec sisti posse nisi omnibus consulatur,

    Liv. 2, 29, 8:

    si domestica seditio adiciatur, sisti non posse,

    the situation will be desperate, id. 45, 19, 3:

    si quem similem priore anno dedissent, non potuisse sisti,

    id. 3, 9, 8:

    vixque concordiā sisti videbatur,

    that the crisis could scarcely be met, even by harmonious action, id. 3, 16, 4:

    qualicunque urbis statu, manente disciplinā militari sisti potuisse,

    these evils were endurable, id. 2, 44, 10: exercitum gravi morbo affectari, nec sisti potuisse ni, etc., it would have ended in disaster, if not, etc., id. 29, 10, 1:

    qui omnes populi si pariter deficiant, sisti nullo modo posse,

    Just. 11, 1, 6 Gronov. ad loc.; cf. Liv. 3, 20, 8 supra, II. A. 1.— Rarely with a subject-clause understood: nec jam sisti poterat, and it was no longer tolerable, i. e. that Nero should disgrace himself, etc., Tac. A. 14, 14.—
    2.
    Rarely with quin, to prevent etc. (pregn., implying also the stopping of something; cf.

    supra, III. B. 1.): neque sisti potuit quin et palatium et domus et cuncta circum haurirentur (igni),

    Tac. A. 15, 39.—Hence, stătus, a, um, P. a., as attribute of nouns, occurs in several conventional phrases, as relics of archaic usage.
    A.
    Status (condictusve) dies cum hoste, in the XII. Tables, = a day of trial fixed by the judge or agreed upon with the adversary;

    esp., a peregrinus (= hostis),

    Cic. Off. 1, 12, 37. It presupposes a phrase, diem sistere, prob.=vadimonium sistere (v. supra, I. C. 2.). Such an appointment was an excuse from the most important public duties, even for soldiers from joining the army, Cinc. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 4.—

    Hence, transf.: si status condictus cum hoste intercedit dies, tamen est eundum quo imperant,

    i. e. under all circumstances we must go, Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 5.—
    B.
    In certain phrases, appointed, fixed, regular (cf. statutus, with which it is often confounded in MSS.):

    status dies: tres in anno statos dies habere quibus, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 13, 8:

    stato loco statisque diebus,

    id. 42, 32, 2; so id. 5, 52, 2; 27, 23 fin.:

    stato lustri die,

    Sen. Troad. 781:

    status sacrificii dies,

    Flor. 1, 3, 16:

    statum tempus, statā vice, etc.: lunae defectio statis temporibus fit,

    Liv. 44, 37 init.; so id. 28, 6, 10:

    stato tempore,

    Tac. A. 12, 13; id. H. 4, 81; Plin. 11, 37, 65, § 173:

    stata tempora (partus),

    Stat. Achill. 2, 673:

    adeo in illā plagā mundus statas vices temporum mutat,

    Curt. 8, 19, 13; so id. 9, 9, 9; 5, 1, 23; so, feriae, etc.: feriae statae appellabantur quod certo statutoque die observarentur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 69 Lind.:

    stata quinquennia,

    Stat. S. 5, 3, 113:

    stata sacra or sacrificia: stata sacrificia sunt quae certis diebus fieri debent,

    Fest. p. 264 Lind.:

    proficiscuntur Aeniam ad statum sacrificium,

    Liv. 40, 4, 9; 23, 35, 3; 5, 46, 2; 39, 13, 8; Cic. Mil. 17, 45:

    solemne et statum sacrificium (al. statutum),

    id. Tusc. 1, 47, 113; so Liv. 23, 35, 3:

    stata sacra,

    Ov. F. 2, 528; Stat. Th. 1, 666:

    stata foedera,

    id. ib. 11, 380:

    status flatus,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28:

    stati cursus siderum,

    Plin. 18, 29, 69, § 291 (different: statae stellae = fixed stars, Censor. D. N. 8, belonging to II. 2. supra): statae febres, intermittent fevers, returning regularly, Plin. 28, 27, 28, § 107.—
    C.
    Moderate, average, normal:

    inter enim pulcherrimam feminam et deformissimam media forma quaedam est, quae et a nimio pulcritudinis periculo et a summo deformitatis odio vacat, qualis a Q. Ennio perquam eleganti vocabulo stata dicitur...Ennius autem eas fere feminas ait incolumi pudicitia esse quae statā formā forent,

    Gell. 5, 11, 12 -14 (v. Enn. Trag. p. 133 Vahl.).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > sisto

  • 11 cum or (earlier) quom (not quum)

        cum or (earlier) quom (not quum) conj.    [1 CA-].    I. Prop., of time (cum temporale), constr. with indic. in an independent assertion; with subj. in a subordinate statement.—Fixing a point of time, when, at the time when: Lacrumo, quom in mentem venit, now that, T.: auditis, cum ea breviter dicuntur: eo cum venio: Postera cum lustrabat terras dies, V.: cum contionem habuit: cum proxime Romae fui: cum Italia vexata est: cum stellas fugarat dies, V.: quom non potest haberi, cupis, T.: tempus cum pater iacebat: eo tempore, cum necesse erat: memini noctis illius, cum pollicebar: tunc, cum adempta sunt arma, L.: etiam tum, cum verisimile erit, latratote, not until: cum peroraro, tum requiratis: cum signum dedero, tum invadite, L.: sese, cum opus esset, signum daturum, Cs.: sua bona, cum causae dicendae data facultas sit, tum se experturum, L. — Fixing or defining a period of time, when, while, during the time that, as, as long as, after: Alium esse censes nunc me, atque olim quom dabam? T.: risum vix tenebam, cum comparabas, etc.: tum, cum illum exterminari volebam, putabam, etc.: Hasdrubal, cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphaeum erat, L.—Of repeated action, when, whenever, at times when, as often as, always... when, if: omnes, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus, T.: cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi: Cum furit... Profuit aestūs avertere, V.: cum cogniti sunt, retinent caritatem: cum rosam viderat, tum incipere ver arbitrabatur, never until.—In clauses stating a fact, the point or period of time fixed by the main sentence (cum inversum), when, at the time when, and at this time, and meanwhile, and yet: longe iam abieram, quom sensi, T.: dies nondum decem intercesserant, cum filius necatur: Vix ea fatus erat, cum scindit se nubes, V.: multum diei processerat, cum etiamtum eventus in incerto erat, S.: nondum lucebat, cum scitum est: iamque hoc facere apparabant, cum matres procurrerunt, Cs.: Et iam phalanx ibat... flammas cum puppis Extulerat, V.: anni sunt octo, cum interea invenitis, etc.: cum interim milites domum obsidere coeperunt: nondum centum anni sunt, cum lata lex est.—Describing a time by natural events, when, while, as soon as: ipsi, cum iam dilucesceret, deducuntur: cum lux adpropinquaret.—In narration, describing the occasion or circumstances of an action (cum historicum), when, on the occasion that, under the circumstances that, while, after.—With imperf: Magistratus quom ibi adesset, occeptast agi, T.: Marius, cum secaretur, vetuit se adligari: Caesar cum ab hoste non amplius abesset... legati revertuntur, Cs.: heri, cum vos non adessetis: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, ‘cita,’ inquit, etc., L.: Socrates, cum XXX tyranni essent, pedem portā non extulit, as long as: vidi, Cum tu terga dares, O.: is cum interrogaretur... respondit.—With maxime, just as, precisely when: Caesar, cum maxime furor arderet Antoni, exercitum comparavit: cum maxime agmen explicaretur, adoriuntur, L. — With perf: hic pagus, cum domo exisset, Cassium interfecerat, Cs.: cum domos vacuas fecissent, iunguntur nuptiis, L.: cum fanum expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas. — Of repeated occasions, when, whenever, on every occasion that, as often as.—With imperf: dispersos, cum longius procederent, adoriebatur, Cs.: saepe, cum aliquem videret, etc., on seeing, N.: numquam est conspectus, cum veniret. — With pluperf: Cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae effugiebant, Cs.: qui cum in convivium venisset: quantum obfuit multis, cum fecissent, etc.—Describing a time named in the principal sentence, when, such that, in which: Si ullum fuit tempus quom ego fuerim, etc., T.: fuit antea tempus, cum Galli superarent, Cs.: vigesimo anno, cum tot praetores in provinciā fuissent: eodem anno, cum omnia infida essent, L.: biduum supererat, cum frumentum metiri oporteret, in which, Cs.: fuit cum arbitrarer, etc.: audivi cum diceret, etc.—    II. Meton., of identical actions, when, in that, by the fact that: Qui quom hunc accusant, Naevium accusant, T.: quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis: quod cum facit, iudicat, etc.: senatum intueri videor, cum te videor, L.: loco ille motus est, cum ex urbe est depulsus: quod cum dederis, illud dederis, ut, etc.: illa scelera, cum eius domum evertisti (which you committed) in uprooting: purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur.—In hypothesis, assuming a fact, when, if: ad cuius fidem confugiet, cum per eius fidem laeditur, etc.—Contrary to fact, when, if, if at such a time: haec neque cum ego dicerem, neque cum tu negares, magni momenti nostra esset oratio: quod esset iudicium, cum tres... adsedissent?—Explaining a feeling, etc., that, because, for: Dis habeo gratiam, Quom adfuerunt liberae, T.: gratulor tibi, cum tantum vales. — As connective, correl. with tum, while, when; cum... tum, as... so, both... and, and besides, while... especially: Quom id mihi placebat, tum omnes bona dicere, T.: cum omnes eo convenerant, tum navium quod ubique fuerat coëgerant, Cs.: qui cum multa providit, tum quod te consulem non vidit: movit patres cum causa, tum auctor, L.—In the adverb. phrase cum maxime, with ellips. of predicate, in the highest degree, most: hanc Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus, as much as ever, T.: ea, quae fiunt cum maxime, i. e. at this very moment: sed cum maxime tamen hoc significabat, precisely this: quae multos iam annos, et nunc cum maxime, cupit.—    III. Praegn., giving a cause or reason (cum causale), when, since, because, inasmuch as, seeing that, in that, in view of the fact that: haud invito sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom... intellego, T.: Deos quaeso ut sit superstes, Quom veritust facere, etc., T.: an pater familiarissimis suscensuit, cum Sullam laudarent? for praising: quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.: cum longinqua instet militia, commeatum do, L.: cum tanta multitudo tela conicerent, potestas erat, etc., Cs.: cum esset egens, coepit, etc.: Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, obsides imperat, Cs.—So often nunc cum, now that, since in fact: nunc vero cum sit unus Pompeius.—Often with praesertim, especially since, more than all when: nam puerum non tollent... Praesertim quom sit, etc., T.: cum praesertim vos aliam miseritis.—With quippe, since evidently, since of course: nihil est virtute amabilius... quippe cum propter virtutem diligamus, etc. — In contrasts, when, while, whereas, while on the contrary, and yet (cum adversativum): finem faciam dicundi, quom ipse finem non facit? T.: quo tandem ore mentionem facitis... cum fateamini, etc.: cum maximis eum rebus liberares... culpam relinquebas: simulat se confiteri, cum interea aliud machinetur.—In concessions, when, although, notwithstanding (cum concessivum): nil quom est, nil defit tamen, T.: pecuniam facere cum posset, non statuit: cum aquae vim vehat ingentem (Druentia), non tamen navium patiens est, L.: patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, ingulastis: quam causam dixerat, cum annos ad quinquaginta natus esset?

    Latin-English dictionary > cum or (earlier) quom (not quum)

  • 12 impraesentiārum (inpr-)

        impraesentiārum (inpr-) adv.,    for the present, under present circumstances, now: bellum componere, N.: quid conduceret, Ta.

    Latin-English dictionary > impraesentiārum (inpr-)

  • 13 in

       in    [old indu], prep. with acc. or abl.    I. With acc., in space, with verbs implying entrance, into, to: in Epirum venire: in flumen deicere: in Ubios legatos mittere, Cs.: Thalam pervenit, in oppidum magnum, S.—Fig.: in memoriam reducere: in animum inducere, L.: dicam quod mi in mentemst, T.—With verbs of motion, up to, to, into, down to: in caelum ascendere: in aram confugitis ad deum, up to the altar: vas in manūs sumere, into his hands: se in manūs Romanis tradidisse, L.—With verbs of rest or placing, in: adesse in senatum iussit: Minucius in custodiam habitus, thrown into prison and kept there, L.: propinquas suas nuptum in alias civitates conlocasse, Cs.—Of direction or local relation, towards, in front of, over against: in orientem Germaniae obtenditur, Ta.: coram in os te laudare, T.: castra movet in Arvernos versus, towards, Cs.: in Galliam versus movere, S.—In time, into, till, for: dormiet in lucem, till broad day, H.: in multum diei, L.: e somno, quem in diem extrahunt, Ta.: indutias in triginta annos impetraverunt, for thirty years, L.: in omne tempus, forever: hominem invitavit in posterum diem, for the following day.— In adverbial expressions with words of time: sancit in posterum, ne quis, etc., hereafter: res dilata est in posterum, to a later day: et in praesentia hi et in futurum metum ceperunt, L.: in perpetuum fore: non in tempus aliquod, sed in aeternum, L.: ex raptis in diem commeatibus, for immediate use, L.: fundum emere in diem, i. e. a fixed day of payment, N.: in dies singulos, each succeeding day: in dies, day by day, L.: nos in diem vivimus, for the moment: in diem et horam, every day, H.: in horas, hourly, H.—Of reference, in relation to, about, respecting, towards, against: id, quod est in philosophos dictum, concerning: carmen, quod in eum scripsisset: in liberos nostros indulgentia: impietates in deos, against: in dominum quaeri, as a witness against: invehi in Thebanos, N.: hominis definitio una in omnīs valet, applies to: in obsequium pronus, H.: in utrumque paratus, V.: in incertum, ne, etc., in view of the uncertainty, whether, L.—Of purpose, for, with a view to: haec civitas mulieri in redimiculum praebeat: Regium in praesidium missa legio, as a garrison, L.: in gratiam sociorum, to gratify, L.: Quos audere in proelia vidi, V.: praemia, in quorum spem pugnarent, L.: in spem pacis solutis animis, L.: Ingrata misero vita ducenda est in hoc, ut, etc., H.: satis in usum, for immediate wants, L. —Of result, to, unto, so as to produce: in familiae luctum nupsit: Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, V.: commutari ex veris in falsa. —In the phrases, in tantum, so far, so greatly: nec In tantum spe tollet avos, V.: in tantum suam felicitatem enituisse, L.—In rem esse, to be useful, avail: si in rem est Bacchidis, T.: imperat, quae in rem sunt, L.: in rem fore credens universos adpellare, S.—Of manner, according to, after: ille in eam sententiam versus, to this effect: in utramque partem disputat, on both sides: cives servilem in modum cruciati, like slaves: vaticinantis in modum canere, L.: virtutem in maius celebrare, S.: in hanc formulam iudicia: sc. in haec verba factum, L.: in universum, in general, L.: in universum aestimanti, upon a general view, Ta.—Of distribution, into, for, according to: Gallia divisa est in partīs trīs, Cs.: describebat censores binos in singulas civitates, i. e. for each state: sextantibus conlatis in capita, a head, L.—Praegn.: in eorum potestatem portum futurum intellegebant. would fall: in potestatem Locrensium esse, L.    II. With abl., of space, in, within: in cerebro animi esse sedem: quae res in nostris castris gererentur, Cs.: in foro palam Syracusis: (caedes) in viā facta: nupta in domo, L.: copias in castris continent, Cs.: in tuā sedeculā sedere: Heri coīmus in Piraeo, T.: navis et in Caietā parata.—Of position, on, upon, over, among, before, in, under: in equo sedens, on horseback: in eo flumine pons erat, over, Cs.: multā te in rosā urget, H.: Caesaris in barbaris erat nomen obscurius, among, Cs.: in Brutiis praeesse, L.: in manu poculum tenens: est in manibus oratio: gloria in oculis sita, S.: populari in oculis eius agros, under, L.—In, with, wearing, under, clad, covered: in veste candidā, L.: in lugubri veste, Cu.: homines in catenis Romam mittere, L.: in violā aut in rosā, garlanded: legiones in armis, Cs.—Of a multitude or number, in, among, of: In his poëta hic nomen profitetur suom, T.: sapientissimus in septem: eum in tuis habere: iustissimus unus in Teucris, V.—Of writings, in: in populorum institutis aut legibus: in Timaeo dicit: perscribit in litteris, hostīs ab se discessisse, Cs.: in Thucydide orbem modo orationis desidero, in the style of.—Fig., of mind or character, in: in animo habere: quanta auctoritas fuit in Metello!: in omni animante est summum aliquid.—In phrases, with manibus or manu, at hand, under control, within reach: quamcunque rem habent in manibus: neque mihi in manu fuit Iugurtha qualis foret, in my power, S.: cum tantum belli in manibus esset, on their hands, L.: quorum epistulas in manu teneo.—With loco: in eo loco, in that state, in such a condition: in eo enim loco res sunt nostrae, ut, etc., L.: quo in loco res esset, cognoscere, Cs.: quod ipse, si in eodem loco esset, facturus fuerit, L.—In eo esse ut, etc., to be in such a condition, etc.: cum in eo esset, ut, etc., the situation was such, L.—Of time, in, during, in the course of, within: in tempore hoc, T.: in tali tempore, L.: in diebus paucis, T.: Tam in brevi spatio, T.: in omni aetate: in totā vitā inconstans.—In, while, during: fit, ut distrahatur in deliberando animus: in dividendo partem in genere numerare: in agris vastandis, in laying waste, Cs.: cum in immolandā Iphigeniā tristis Calchas esset.—In phrases, in tempore, in time, at the right time, seasonably: ipsum video in tempore huc se recipere, T.: spreta in tempore gloria interdum cumulatior redit, L.—In praesentiā, at present, now, for the moment, under existing circumstances: sic enim mihi in praesentiā occurrit: id quod unum maxime in praesentiā desiderabatur, L.—In praesenti, for the present: haec ad te in praesenti scripsi, ut, etc.: talenta centum in praesenti, down, L.—Of condition or occupation, in, subject to, affected by, experiencing, engaged in, involved in: magno in aere alieno: torpescentne dextrae in amentiā illā? L.: diem in laetitiā degere, T.: civitas, quae tibi in amore fuit, beloved: in invidiā esse, L.: quod in summis tuis occupationibus voluisti, etc., when engrossed by: in eo magistratu pari diligentiā se praebuit, N.: esse in vitio, in the wrong: hoc est in vitio, perhorrescere, etc., is wrong.—In the case of, in relation to: numcubi meam Benignitatem sensisti in te claudier? in your case (i. e. towards you), T.: facere in eo, cuius, etc., in the case of the man, Cs.: in furibus aerari, S.: Achilles talis in hoste fuit, V.: in hoc homine saepe a me quaeris, etc., in the case of.— In phrases, with summā, in all, in a word, in fine: in omni summā me ad pacem converto.—With neut. sing. of an adj. (expressing more abstractly the quality): cum exitūs haud in facili essent (i. e. haud faciles), L.: in obscuro vitam habere, S.: in dubio esse, L.: in integro esse: in tuto esse, L.: in aequo esse, L.: in aperto esse, S.: in promisco esse, L.: in incerto haberi, S.    III. In composition, in retains its n before vowels, and before h, c, d, f, g, consonant i, n, q, s, t, v, usually also before l and r, and very frequently before m, b, p. But the n is usually assimilated before m, b, p, and often before l, r.
    * * *
    I
    in, on, at (space); in accordance with/regard to/the case of; within (time)
    II
    into; about, in the mist of; according to, after (manner); for; to, among

    Latin-English dictionary > in

  • 14 nātus (gnā-)

        nātus (gnā-) adj.    [P. of nascor], born, made, destined, designed, intended, produced by nature, fit: huic natus rei, ferundis miseriis, T.: non sibi soli: loca insidiis, L.: vir ad omnia summa: canor mulcendas natus ad aurīs, O.: in vanos tumultūs gens, L.: Nos fruges consumere nati, H.: animal tolerare labores, O.: nati in usum laetitiae scyphi, H.: dira in periuria linguae, O.: adversus Romanos hostis, L.: animal propter convivia, Iu. — Plur n. as subst: terrā nata, productions of.— Constituted by nature: non scripta sed nata lex: ita natus locus est, L.: versūs male, H.—In the phrases, pro re natā, or (old) e re natā, under present circumstances, as matters are: ut in iis pro re natā non incommode possint esse: E re natā melius fieri haud potuit, T.—With a phrase expressing time, old, of the age of: eques annos prope XC natus: Cato annos octoginta natus excessit e vitā, at the age of.—With maior or minor: annos natast sedecim, Non maior, T.: minor quinque et viginti annis natus, N.: homo annos maior quadraginta, over forty years old: liberi maiores quam quindecim annos, L.—With plus or amplius: annos sexaginta natus es aut plus, T.: non amplius novem annos natus, N.—As subst m., a son: crudelis, V.: caritas, quae est inter natos et parentes, children: Cum pecore et gnatis, H.

    Latin-English dictionary > nātus (gnā-)

  • 15 praesentia

        praesentia ae, f    [praesens], a being at hand, presence: eorum praesentiam vitare: (Nemea) celebrare praesentiā suā, L.: urget praesentia Turni, V.: animi, presence of mind, Cs.: deorum praesentiae.— Impression, efficacy, effect: veri, O.—In the phrase, in praesentiā, at the present time, at the moment, just now, for the present, under present circumstances: hoc video in praesentiā opus esse: in praesentiā hostem rapmis prohibere, Cs.: in praesentiā reponere odium, to conceal for the time, Ta.: quod in praesentiā vestimentorum fuit, at hand, N.
    * * *
    present time; presence

    Latin-English dictionary > praesentia

  • 16 tempus

        tempus ōris, n    a portion of time, time, period, season, interval: tempus diei, daytime, T.: extremum diei: omni tempore anni: maturius paulo, quam tempus anni postulabat, Cs.: abiit illud tempus: tempus duorum mensum petere, L.: longo post tempore, interval, V.: tempus pacis an belli: matutina tempora, morning hours.—A time, point of time, occasion, opportunity, leisure: neque ut celari posset, tempus spatium ullum dabat, T.: nisi tempus et spatium datum sit: egeo tempore: eo tempore, quo, etc., L.: id temporis, at that time: alienum tempus est mihi tecum expostulandi: edendi, H.: datum ad consultandum, L.: certis temporibus: superioribus temporibus.—Time, duration: tempus est... pars quaedam aeternitatis, etc.: Tempore ruricolae patiens fit taurus aratri, i. e. gradually, O.—The time, fit season, appointed time, right occasion, proper period, opportunity: tempus habes tale, quale nemo habuit umquam: addubitavit, an consurgendi iam triariis tempus esset, L.: moriendi: tempore igitur ipso se ostenderunt, cum, etc., at the nick of time: tempus est, ad id quod instituimus accedere, it is the right time: nunc corpora curare tempus est, L. Tempus abire tibist, H.: suo tempore, at a fitting time.—A time, position, state, condition, times, circumstances: in hoc tempore, under present circumstances: in tali tempore, L.: incidunt saepe tempora, cum ea, etc.: libri de temporibus meis: cedere tempori, to yield to circumstances: secundis Temporibus dubiisque, H.: haud sane temporum homo, Cu.—In the phrase, temporis causā, with regard to circumstances, under momentary influence, out of courtesy, insincerely: temporis causā nobis adsentiri: nec dico temporis causā.—A time, need, emergency, extremity: quid a me cuiusque tempus poscat: neque poëtae tempori meo defuerunt: summo rei p. tempore: pro tempore atque periculo exercitum conparare, S.: O saepe mecum tempus in ultimum Deducte, to the last extremity, H.: temporis gratiā, to meet the emergency, Cu.—In rhythm or metre, time, measure, quantity: qui (trochaeus) temporibus et intervallis est par iambo: Tempora certa modique, H.—Esp., in phrases with praepp.—Ad tempus, at the right time, in time, punctually: ad tempus redire: ad tempus venire, L.—For some time, for the time being, for a while, for the moment: quae (perturbatio animi) plerumque brevis est et ad tempus: dux ad tempus lectus, L.—Ante tempus, before the right time, prematurely, too soon: ante tempus mori: ante tempus domo digressus, S.—Ex tempore, instantaneously, off hand, on the spur of the moment, extempore: versūs fundere ex tempore.—According to circumstances: consilium ex tempore capere: haec melius ex re et ex tempore constitues.—In tempore, at the right time, opportunely, in time: in ipso tempore eccum ipsum, in the nick of time, T.—In tempus, for a time, temporarily: scena in tempus structa, Ta.—Pro tempore, as the time permits, according to circumstances: consilium pro tempore capere, Cs.: te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus, V.
    * * *
    I II
    time, condition, right time; season, occasion; necessity

    Latin-English dictionary > tempus

  • 17 equus

    ĕquus, i ( gen. plur. equūm, Verg. G. 2, 542; Stat. Th. 4, 409 al.), m. [Sanscr. acvas; Gr. hippos (ikkos); cf. Epŏna; root, ak-, to be sharp or swift; cf. Gr. akros, ôkus; Lat. acus, ocior], a horse, steed, charger.
    I.
    Prop.
    A.
    In gen. (cf.:

    caballus, canterius, mannus),

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7; Col. 6, 27 sq.; Plin. 8, 42, 64, § 154 sq.; Pall. Mart. 13; Enn. ap. Cic. de Sen. 5, 14 (Ann. v. 441 ed. Vahlen); Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 39; id. Men. 5, 2, 109; Cic. Rep. 1, 43; 1, 7, 9 et saep.:

    equus = equa,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 11.—Offered as a sacrifice to Mars, Paul. ex Fest. p. 81, 16, and p. 178, 24 sq. Müll.; cf. Prop. 4 (5), 1, 20; and v. October: EQVO PVBLICO ORNATVS, EXORNATVS, HONORATVS, etc.; or, ellipt., EQVO PVBLICO, very often [p. 654] in inscriptions; v. Inscr. Momms. 73; 459; 445; 1952; 2456;

    2865 al.—In another sense: equi publici,

    post-horses, Amm. 14, 6.—Equo vehi, advehi, ire, desilire, equum conscendere, flectere, in equum ascendere, equo citato, concitato, etc., see under these verbs.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Of cavalry, in the phrase, equis virisque (viri = pedites; cf. eques and vir), adverb., with horse and foot, i. e. with might and main, with tooth and nail, Liv. 5, 37; Flor. 2, 7, 8;

    also: equis, viris,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 7, 21; id. Fam. 9, 7; cf. Nep. Hamilc. 4;

    and in the order, viris equisque,

    Cic. Off. 3, 33.—
    2.
    Transf., of race-horses:

    ego cursu corrigam tarditatem tum equis, tum vero, quoniam scribis poëma ab eo nostrum probari, quadrigis poeticis,

    i. e. in prose and poetry, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 15, a (see the passage in connection).—
    C.
    Transf.
    1.
    In plur. (like hippoi in Homer), a chariot, Verg. A. 9, 777.—
    2.
    The wind, Cat. 66, 54; Val. Fl. 1, 611.—
    3.
    In mal. part., Hor. S. 2, 7, 50; Petr. 24, 4; App. M. 2, p. 122; Mart. 11, 104, 14.—
    D.
    Prov.: equi donati dentes non inspiciuntur, we don't look a gift horse in the mouth, Hier. Ep. ad Ephes. prooem.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    Equus bipes, a sea-horse, Verg. G. 4, 389;

    Auct. Pervig. Ven. 10: fluviatilis,

    a river-horse, hippopotamus, Plin. 8, 21, 30, § 73.—
    B.
    Equus ligneus, like the Homeric halos hippos, a ship, Plaut. Rud. 1, 5, 10.—
    C.
    The Trojan horse, Verg. A. 2, 112 sq.; Hyg. Fab. 108; Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 12; Prop. 3 (4), 1, 25; Hor. C. 4, 6, 13 al.—
    * 2.
    Trop., of a secret conspiracy, Cic. Mur. 37, 78.—
    D.
    A battering-ram, because shaped like a horse;

    afterwards called aries,

    Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 202.—
    E.
    The constellation Pegasus, Cic. N. D. 2, 43, 111 sq.; Col. 11, 2, 31; Hyg. Astr. 2, 18; 3, 17.—
    F.
    Equus Trojanus, the title of a play of Livius Andronicus, Cic. Fam. 7, 1, 2 al.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > equus

  • 18 igitur

    ĭgĭtur, conj. [pronom. stem i- of is; suffix -ha (-dha); Gr. -tha; Sanscr. -iha, here; -tur, = -tus (Sanscr. -tas), as in penitus, antiquitus, etc., from thence], introduces an inference or deduction, then, therefore, thereupon, accordingly, in these circumstances (in class. prose usu. placed after the first word of the clause; cf. below, III.; syn.: itaque, ergo; cf.: eo, ideo, idcirco, propterea; quamobrem, quare, etc.).
    I.
    In gen. (rare):

    SI. IN. IVS. VOCAT. NI. IT. ANTESTATOR. IGITVR EM. CAPITO, Fragm. XII. Tab.: mox magis, cum otium mihi et tibi erit, igitur tecum loquar,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 39:

    quando habebo, igitur rationem mearum fabricarum dabo,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 177; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 17:

    cetera consimili mentis ratione peragrans, Invenies igitur multarum semina rerum Corpore celare, etc.,

    Lucr. 2, 677.—
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Pleon., with tum, deinde, or demum, then at length, then certainly, then first:

    ubi emeritum'st stipendium, igitur tum Specimen cernitur, quo eveniat aedificatio,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 51:

    tum igitur tibi aquae erit cupido,

    id. Trin. 3, 2, 50:

    igitur tum accedam hunc, quando quid agam invenero,

    id. Most. 3, 1, 159:

    post id igitur deinde faciam palam,

    id. Stich. 1, 2, 29:

    miserumst opus, igitur demum fodere puteum, ubi sitis fauces tenet,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 32:

    igitur demum omnes scient quae facta,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 11; 1, 1, 145:

    post igitur demum faciam ut res flat palam,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 16:

    demum igitur, quom seis jam senex, tum in otium te conloces, etc.,

    id. Merc. 3, 2, 9.—
    B.
    In drawing a logical conclusion (but not with et, atque, que; v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 540), therefore, accordingly, consequently: St. Ligna hic apud nos nulla sunt. Co. Sunt asseres. St. Sunt pol. Co. Sunt igitur ligna, Plaut. Aul. 2, 6, 8:

    si enim est aliquid in rerum natura, quod hominis mens, quod ratio, quod vis, quod potestas humana efficere non possit, est certe id, quod illud efficit, homine melius. Atqui res caelestes omnesque eae, quarum est ordo sempiternus, ab homine confici non possunt. Est igitur id, quo illa conficiuntur, homine melius,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 6, 16: quid ergo haec ab illa conclusione differt, Si mentiris, mentiris;

    mentiris autem, mentiris igitur?

    id. Ac. 2, 30, 96; id. Tusc. 4, 17, 40: quodsi melius geruntur, quae consilio, quam quae sine consilio administrantur;

    nihil autem omnium rerum melius quam omnis mundus administratur: consilio igitur mundus administratur, Quint 5, 14, 9: quod cum ita sit, certe nec secerni nec dividi nec discerpi nec distrahi potest, ne interire quidem igitur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; cf. id. ib. 1, 34, 82; 1, 36, 88: sequitur, ut nihil paeniteat, nihil desit, nihil obstet: ergo omnia profluenter, absolute, prospere;

    igitur beate,

    id. ib. 5, 18, 53; so,

    corresp. with ergo,

    id. Lael. 14 fin., and 15 init.:

    atqui falsum quod est, id percipi non potest, ut vobismet ipsis placet. Si igitur memoria perceptarum comprehensarumque rerum est: omnia, etc.,

    id. Fin. 2, 33, 106.—
    C.
    In consecutive interrogations, then:

    dolor igitur, id est summum malum, metuetur semper, etiam si non aderit: jam enim adesse poterit. Qui potest igitur habitare in beata vita summi mali metus?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 92; cf.:

    utrum igitur hactenus satis est?

    id. Top. 4, 25:

    in quo igitur loco est? credo equidem in capite,

    id. Tusc. 1, 29, 70:

    ubi igitur locus fuit errori deorum?

    id. N. D. 3, 31, 76:

    possumusne igitur in Antonii latrocinio aeque esse tuti?

    id. Phil. 12, 12, 27; cf.:

    totiesne igitur sententiam mutas?

    id. Att. 8, 14, 2:

    cur has igitur sibi tam graves leges imposuerit, cum? etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23.—In ironical or sarcastic interrog. clauses:

    igitur hocine est amare? arare mavelim quam sic amare,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 20:

    dicet aliquis: Haec igitur est tua disciplina? sic tu instituis adulescentes?

    Cic. Cael. 17, 39; id. Fam. 9, 10, 2:

    id indigne ferens ille: Hunc igitur, regem agnoscimus, inquit?

    Curt. 6, 11, 23:

    quin igitur ulciscimur Graeciam et urbi faces subdimus?

    id. 5, 7, 4; cf. id. 10, 6, 23.—
    D.
    In resuming an interrupted thought:

    cum Q. Metellus L. F. causam de pecuniis repetundis diceret, ille, ille vir, cui patriae salus dulcior quam conspectus fuit, qui de civitate decedere quam de sententia maluit: hoc igitur causam dicente, cum, etc.,

    Cic. Balb. 5, 11; id. Off. 1, 2, 6; id. Tusc. 1, 13, 30; id. Brut. 48, 177 al.—Esp. after a parenthesis: recta effectio (katorthôsin enim ita appello, quoniam rectum factum katorthôma) recta igitur effectio crescendi accessionem nullam habet, Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 45; 2, 22, 74:

    scripsi etiam (nam etiam ab orationibus dijungo me fere, etc.) scripsi igitur Aristotelio more, etc.,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    tu enim sapienter (nunc demum enim rescribo iis litteris, quas mihi misisti convento Antonio Tiburi) sapienter igitur, quod manus dedisti, etc.,

    id. Att. 16, 3, 1:

    rerum autem cognitiones (quas vel comprehensiones vel perceptiones appellemus licet) has igitur ipsas propter se asciscendas arbitramur,

    id. Fin. 3, 5, 18; 2, 33, 107; 4, 14, 38; Sall. C. 54 init.; Curt. 3, 2, 2; Nep. Thras. 4, 3.—
    E.
    In emphatically repeating a word or thought:

    quae mihi omnia grata sunt, de L. Mescinio gratissimum... id igitur—puto enim etiam atque etiam mihi dicendum esse—velim existimes mihi te fecisse gratissimum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 28 a, 1:

    ea vis, ea igitur ipsa, quae, etc.,

    id. Mil. 31, 84.—
    F.
    In returning to or summing up a preceding train of thought, I say then, so then, as I was saying, in short: ut cum videmus speciem primum candoremque caeli;

    deinde conversionis celeritatem tantam, quantam, etc.... tum vicissitudines dierum ac noctium... tum globum terrae eminentem e mari... tum multitudinem pecudum... hominemque ipsum... atque hominis utilitati agros omnes ac maria parentia: haec igitur et alia innumerabilia cum cernimus, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 28, 70; id. Cat. 4, 11, 23; id. Fam. 13, 1, 3; id. de Or. 2, 25, 105 al.—
    G.
    To introduce a special amplification of a thought previously introduced in general terms, then:

    de hominibus dici non necesse est. Tribus igitur modis video, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 66; id. Brut. 32, 122:

    quoniam pluribus modis accipi solet, non equidem in omnes eam particulas secabo, sed maxime necessarias attingam. Est igitur unum genus, etc.,

    Quint. 8, 3, 63:

    ut igitur ante meridiem discesserunt, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 5, 17:

    sit igitur (ut supra significavi) divisio rerum plurium in singulas, partitio singularum in partes discretus ordo,

    Quint. 7, 1. 1:

    prima est igitur amplificandi vel minuendi species,

    id. 8, 4, 1 (v. also III. A. below).—
    III.
    Position.
    A.
    Sometimes igitur begins a sentence (in Cic. only in sense last described, II. E. above; freq. in Sall., Tac., Curt., and Liv.;

    v. Zumpt, Gram. § 357): nunc juris principia videamus. Igitur doctissimis viris proficisci placuit a lege, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18:

    igitur his genus, aetas, eloquentia prope aequalia fuere,

    Sall. C. 54, 1; 46, 3; Quint. 1, 1, 1: de quo, quia nunc primum oblatus est, pauca repetam:

    nam et ipse pars Romanarum cladium erit. Igitur matre libertina ortus, etc.,

    Tac. A. 15, 72; 1, 31.—
    B.
    Igitur is sometimes placed after several words:

    referamus nos igitur ad eum quem volumus incohandum,

    Cic. Or. 9, 33:

    eamne rationem igitur sequare?

    id. Fin. 2, 23, 76:

    quid dicis igitur?

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 12; cf.:

    quid me igitur mones?

    id. Div. 2, 64, 132:

    paria sunt igitur,

    id. Fin. 4, 27, 75; cf.:

    videndum est igitur,

    id. Off. 1, 14, 43:

    hujus quoque igitur criminis, te accusante, mentio nulla fiet,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 10, 32:

    huic homini parcetis igitur?

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 32, § 81:

    in hominem dicendum est igitur,

    id. Fl. 10, 23:

    hi autem non sunt: ne Nymphae quidem deae igitur?

    id. N. D. 3, 17, 43; cf.:

    ne in animo quidem igitur sensus remanet,

    id. Tusc. 1, 34, 82:

    ille mihi videtur igitur vere augurari,

    id. Div. 1, 15, 27:

    quae est melior igitur in hominum genere natura?

    id. Tusc. 1, 14, 32:

    quid tibi negoti est meae domi igitur?

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 63.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > igitur

  • 19 impraesentiarum

    impraesentĭārum ( inpr-), adv. [contr. from in praesentia rerum], at present, for the present, under present circumstances, now (in the vulg. lang.; post-class. and not infrequent; syn.: pro temporibus, in praesentia, hodie): si quem socium impraesentiarum dixerit, * Cato, R. R. 144, 4: multa, quae impraesentiarum bona videntur, C. Fann. ap. Prisc. p. 960 P.:

    impraesentiarum hoc interdicere non alienum fuit,

    Auct. Her. 2, 11, 16 (al. in praesenti); *Tac. A. 4, 59; * Nep. Hann. 6:

    atque adeo hic sit impraesentiarum,

    App. de Deo Socr. p. 48, 6:

    idcirco supersedebo impraesentiarum in his rebus orationem occupare,

    id. ib. 49, 30:

    ut omitteret coepta impraesentiarum, quae tutius postea capesseret,

    id. ib. 52, 22:

    id geo cum alias tum etiam nunc impraesentiarum usu experior,

    id. Flor. p. 359, 30:

    cui Varrones vel Atacinus vel Terentius Plinii vel avunculus vel Secundus compositi impraesentiarum rusticabuntur,

    at the present time, Sid. Ep. 4, 3. Vid. Hand, Turs. III. p. 234 sq.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > impraesentiarum

  • 20 jam

    jam, adv. [for diam, collat. form of diem, cf. pri-dem, du-dum, Corss. Ausspr. I. p. 213; II. p. 850; but acc. to Curt. Gr. Etym. 398, 620; locat. form from pronom. stem ja].
    I.
    Of time, denoting a point or moment of time as coinciding with that of the action, etc., described.
    A.
    Of present time.
    1.
    As opp. to past or future, at this time, now, just now, at present, i. e. while I speak or write this.
    a.
    Jam alone:

    jamne autem, ut soles, deludis?

    Plaut. Aul. 5, 11:

    jam satis credis sobrium esse me,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 36:

    saltus reficit jam roscida luna,

    Verg. G. 3, 337:

    jam tenebris et sole cadente,

    id. ib. 3, 401:

    jamque dies, ni fallor, adest,

    id. A. 5, 49:

    jam advesperascit,

    Ter. And. 3, 4, 2:

    reddere qui voces jam scit puer,

    Hor. A. P. 158: stabat modo consularis, modo septemvir epulonum;

    jam neutrum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 12:

    jam melior, jam, diva, precor,

    Verg. A. 12, 179:

    Hem, scio jam quod vis dicere,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 36:

    in ea (consuetudine) quaedam sunt jura ipsa jam certa propter vetustatem,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 22, 67:

    jam tempus agi,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    surgere jam tempus,

    Cat. 62, 3.—
    b.
    Strengthened.
    (α).
    By repetition: jam jam, jam jamque (nearly = nunc), at this very time, precisely now:

    jam jam intellego, Crasse, quod dicas,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 90:

    jam jam minime miror te otium perturbare,

    id. Phil. 2, 34, 87:

    jam jam dolet quod egi, jam jamque paenitet,

    Cat. 63, 73:

    jam jam linquo acies,

    Verg. A. 12, 875:

    jam jamque video bellum,

    Cic. Att. 16, 9 fin.:

    at illum ruere nuntiant et jam jamque adesse,

    id. ib. 7, 20, 1; cf.:

    jam mihi, jam possim contentus vivere parvo,

    Tib. 1, 1, 25 (7).—
    (β).
    By nunc: jam nunc, just now, at this very time, as things now are:

    jam nunc irata non es,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 65:

    dux, jam nunc locatus in urbe,

    Liv. 22, 38, 9; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 127:

    quae cum cogito, jam nunc timeo quidnam, etc.,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 13, 42:

    deliberationis ejus tempus ita jam nunc statui posse, etc.,

    Liv. 31, 32, 3:

    ipsa Venus laetos jam nunc migravit in agros,

    Tib. 2, 3, 3:

    nec jam nunc regina loquor,

    Val. Fl. 8, 47; so,

    nunc jam (nunciam): secede huc nunciam,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 23:

    audi nunciam,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 29:

    i nunciam,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 21: nunc jam sum expeditus, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 12, 5:

    nunc jam nobis vobisque consulatus patet,

    Liv. 7, 32, 14.—
    (γ).
    By tum:

    jam tum opifices funguntur munere,

    Plin. 11, 21, 24, § 74; Verg. G. 2, 405; id. A. 1, 18.—
    (δ).
    By pridem, v. jampridem.—
    2.
    In contrast with the time at which something was expected.
    a.
    Of that which occurs sooner, already, so soon:

    quies (animos) aut jam exhaustos aut mox exhauriendos, renovavit,

    Liv. 21, 21, 7:

    gravitate valetudinis, qua tamen jam paululum videor levari,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 2, 1; 3, 8, 16:

    jamne ibis,

    are you going so soon, Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 86; id. Rud. 2, 7, 26.—
    b.
    Of that which occurs later, at last, now, only now:

    ohe jam desine deos uxor gratulando obtundere,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 8:

    postulo, Dave, ut redeat jam in viam,

    id. And. 1, 2, 19:

    jamque sero diei subducit ex acie legionem faciendis castris,

    Tac. A. 2, 21:

    jam sanguinis alti vis sibi fecit iter,

    Luc. 2, 214.—Tandem or aliquando is often added:

    jam tandem ades ilico,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 39:

    putamus enim utile esse te aliquando jam rem transigere,

    Cic. Att. 1, 4, 1:

    jam tandem Italiae fugientis prendimus oras,

    Verg. A. 6, 61; Liv. 22, 12, 10.—
    3.
    As continued from the past, already, by this time, ere now, till now, hitherto:

    et apud Graecos quidem jam anni prope quadrigenti sunt, etc.,

    Cic. Or. 51, 171:

    obsolevit jam ista oratio,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 17, 52:

    nondum feminam aequavimus gloriā, et jam nos laudis satietas cepit?

    Curt. 9, 6, 23.—With numerals and words specifying time:

    jam biennium est, cum mecum coepit rem gerere,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 35; so,

    plus jam anno,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 14:

    sunt duo menses jam,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 8:

    qui septingentos jam annos vivunt, etc.,

    id. Fl. 26, 63:

    annum jam tertium et vicesimum regnat,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 3, 7; id. Fin. 2, 29, 94.—
    4.
    With imperatives, to express haste or impatience, like Engl. now, now, straightway, at once:

    quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? Jam parce sepulto,

    Verg. A. 3, 41:

    sed jam age, carpe viam,

    id. ib. 6, 629:

    et jam tu... illum adspice contra,

    id. ib. 11, 373.—So in impetuous or passionate questions (freq. in Plaut.):

    Jam tu autem nobis praeturam geris?

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 23; cf. id. Aul. 5, 11; id. Bacch. 2, 2, 25.—
    5.
    Jam... jam, at one time... at another, now... now, at this time... at that:

    jamque eadem digitis jam pectine pulsat eburno,

    Verg. A. 647:

    jamque hos cursu, jam praeterit illos,

    id. ib. 4, 157:

    qui jam contento, jam laxo fune laborat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 20:

    jam vino quaerens, jam somno fallere curas,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 114:

    jam secundae, jam adversae res, ita erudierant, etc.,

    Liv. 30, 30; Tib. 1, 2, 49; Ov. M. 1, 111.—
    B.
    Of past time.
    1.
    In the time just past, but now, a moment ago, a little while ago, just:

    videamus nunc quam sint praeclare illa his, quae jam posui, consequentia,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 7, 26:

    Arsinoë et jam dicta Memphis,

    Plin. 5, 9, 11, § 61:

    insulae praeter jam dictas,

    id. 3, 26, 30, § 151:

    hiems jam praecipitaverat,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 25, 1:

    domum quam tu jam exaedificatam habebas,

    Cic. Att. 1, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Like English now, by this time, already.
    a.
    Alone:

    jam advesperascebat,

    Liv. 39, 50:

    Hannibalem movisse ex hibernis, et jam Alpes transire,

    id. 27, 39:

    et jam fama volans... domos et moenia complet,

    Verg. A. 11, 139; 12, 582; Caes. B. G. 1, 11; 6, 6:

    jamque rubescebat Aurora,

    Verg. A. 3, 521; 10, 260:

    ut semel inclinavit pugna, jam intolerabilis Romana vis erat,

    Liv. 6, 32:

    cum decimum jam diem graviter ex intestinis laborarem,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 26, 1.—
    b.
    Strengthened.
    (α).
    Jam jamque, Verg. A. 8, 708.—
    (β).
    By tum, as early as that:

    se jam tum gessisse pro cive,

    Cic. Arch. 5, 11; Liv. 29, 1; Verg. 7, 738; Tac. Agr. 45.—
    (γ).
    By tunc (post-Aug.;

    once in Cic.),

    Suet. Aug. 89; id. Ner. 7; Tac. H. 4, 50; Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 3 dub.—
    3.
    Of a time succeeding another time referred to, from that time, thenceforth, thereafter (esp. with a or ab, when it is often = Eng. even, very):

    qui aequom esse censent nos jam a pueris nasci senes,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 2:

    quae me maxime sicuti jam a prima adolescentia delectarunt,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 67:

    benevolentia quae mihi jam a pueritia tua cognita est,

    id. ib. 4, 7, 1:

    dederas enim jam ab adolescentia documenta,

    id. Mil. 8, 22: jam ab illo tempore, cum, etc., from the very time when, etc., id. Fam. 2, 16, 9; cf.:

    urgerent philosophorum greges jam ab illo fonte et capite Socrate,

    id. de Or. 1, 10, 42. —So with ex:

    jam ex quo ipse accepisset regnum,

    ever since, Liv. 42, 11, 8.—
    C.
    Of future time.
    1.
    In the time immediately approaching, forthwith, straightway, directly, presently:

    occlude sis fores ambobus pessulis: jam ego hic ero,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 25:

    ille jam hic aderit,

    id. Ep. 2, 2, 72: omitte;

    jam adero,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 26; cf. id. ib. 4, 6, 1; id. And. 1, 2, 9; 4, 4, 38: bono animo es;

    jam argentum ad eam deferes, quod ei es pollicitus,

    id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18:

    facere id ut paratum jam sit,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 76:

    jam fuerit, neque post unquam revocare licebit,

    Lucr. 3, 927:

    jam faciam quod voltis,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 16:

    jam enim aderunt consules ad suas Nonas,

    Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2.—
    2.
    In the time immediately succeeding another time referred to, forthwith, at once, straightway, then:

    nunc ubi me illic non videbit, jam huc recurret,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 10:

    accede ad ignem... jam calesces,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 5:

    nisi puerum tollis, jam ego hunc in mediam viam provolvam,

    id. And. 4, 4, 38:

    de quibus jam dicendi locus erit, cum de senioribus pauca dixero,

    Cic. Brut. 25, 96:

    agedum, dictatorem creemus. Jam hic centicescet furor,

    Liv. 2, 29, 11:

    aperi, inquit, jam scies,

    Petr. 16, 2; cf. Verg. A. 1, 272.—
    3.
    Representing as present an impending event, now, already, presently (mostly poet.):

    jam te premet nox,

    Hor. C. 1, 4, 16:

    jam veniet mors, jam subrepet iners aetas,

    Tib. 1, 1, 70:

    jam mare turbari trabibus videbis, jam fervere litora flammis,

    Verg. A. 4, 566; 6, 676:

    alius Latio jam partus Achilles,

    id. ib. 6, 89:

    hic magnae jam locus urbis erit,

    Tib. 2, 5, 55.—
    D.
    With negatives, denoting cessation of previous condition: jam non, no more, no longer:

    quem odisse jam non potestis,

    Cic. Clu. 10, 29; Ov. M. 4, 382:

    non jam,

    not any more, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 3:

    nihil jam,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 21.—
    E.
    With comparatives:

    ad mitiora jam ingenia,

    which had become milder, Liv. 27. 39:

    ad ferociores jam gentes,

    which then were less civilized, id. 21, 60:

    una jam potior sententia,

    Stat. Th. 2, 368.
    II.
    In other relations.
    A.
    To denote that something will certainly, properly, or easily occur, under certain circumstances.
    1.
    In a conclusion, to emphasize its relation to the condition, then surely, then:

    si cogites, remittas jam me onerare injuriis,

    Ter. And. 5, 1, 6: si quis voluerit animi sui [p. 1012] notionem evolvere, jam se ipse doceat, eum virum bonum esse, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 76:

    si hoc dixissem, jam mihi consuli jure optimo senatus vim intulisset,

    id. Cat. 1, 8, 21; id. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Brut. 17, 68:

    si jubeat eo dirigi, jam in portu fore omnem classem,

    Liv. 29, 27, 8.—
    2.
    In a consequence, to show that it is conceived as immediate, now, then, therefore: satis est tibi in te, satis in legibus;

    jam contemni non poteris,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 26, 84:

    jam hoc non potest in te non honorifice esse dictum,

    id. Fam. 5, 2, 2; id. Leg. 2, 24, 60; id. Clu. 16, 46:

    nec hanc solam Romani meretricem colunt... Jam quanta ista immortalitas putanda est,

    Lact. 1, 20, 5:

    Quae cum ita sint, ego jam hinc praedico,

    Liv. 40, 36, 14: conspecta et ex muris ea multitudo erat;

    jamque etiam legionariae cohortes sequebantur,

    id. 10, 43, 1.—
    B.
    In transitions.
    1.
    To a new subject, now, moreover, again, once more then:

    jam de artificiis et quaestibus... haec fere accepimus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 42, 150; Verg. G. 2, 57:

    jam jura legitima ex legibus cognosci oportebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 22, 68:

    jam illud senatus consultum, quod eo die factum est, etc.,

    id. Fam. 5, 2, 4:

    jam Saliare Numae carmen qui laudat,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 86. —So with vero:

    jam vero motus animi, sollicitudines aegritudinesque oblivione leniuntur,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 38, 110:

    jam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest par oratio inveniri?

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 11, 29; 14, 41; id. Off. 3, 13 init. —With at enim:

    at enim jam dicetis virtutem non posse constitui, si ea, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 40 init.
    2.
    In enumerations:

    et aures... itemque nares... jam gustatus... tactus autem,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 56, 141.—So sometimes repeatedly, at one time... at another... at another, jam... jam... jam:

    jam medici, jam apparatus cibi, jam in hoc solum importatum instrumentum balinei nullius non succurrit valetudini,

    Vell. 2, 114, 2; cf. Flor. 2, 17, 8, and I. A. 5. supra.—
    C.
    For emphasis.
    1.
    After non modo... sed ( = adeo), now, even, I may say:

    non cum senatu modo, sed jam cum diis bellum gerere,

    Liv. 21, 63, 6.—
    2.
    Pressing the strict sense of a word or clause, now, precisely, indeed:

    (Hieronymum) quem jam cur Peripateticum appellem, nescio,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 5, 14:

    hoc quidem haud molestum est jam, quod collus collari caret,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 107:

    loquor enim jam non de sapientium, sed de communibus amicitiis,

    Cic. Lael. 21, 77:

    te quoque jam, Thais, ita me di bene ament, amo,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 43:

    imitatio morum alienorum... jam inter leniores affectus numerari potest,

    Quint. 9, 2, 58:

    reliqua jam aequitatis sunt,

    id. 7, 1, 62:

    cetera jam fabulosa,

    Tac. G. 46:

    desine: jam venio moriturus,

    Verg. A. 10, 881.—So esp. with et: et jam (cf. etiam), and indeed, and in fact, et lenitas illa Graecorum et verborum comprehensio, et jam artifex, ut ita dicam, stilus, Cic. Brut. 25, 96:

    pulchriora etiam Polycleti et jam plane perfecta,

    id. ib. 18, 70:

    Pompeium et hortari et orare et jam liberius accusare non desistimus,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3; Quint. Decl. 5, 3; Luc. 8, 659; cf.

    jamque,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 6, 9; so,

    jam et: nec deerat Ptolemaeus, jam et sceleris instinctor,

    Tac. H. 1, 23; 1, 22;

    and, ac jam: ac jam, ut omnia contra opinionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 9: jam ergo, in very fact:

    jam ergo aliquis condemnavit,

    Cic. Clu. 41, 113.—
    3.
    In climax, even, indeed, really:

    opus Paniceis, opus Placentinis quoque... jam maritumi omnes milites opus sunt mihi,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 59:

    jam illa quae natura, non litteris, assecuti sunt, neque cum Graecia neque ulla cum gente sunt conferenda,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 1, 2:

    jam in opere quis par Romano miles?

    Liv. 9, 19, 8; Quint. 12, 1, 45; Cic. Rep. 1, 5; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 83.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > jam

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