Перевод: с латинского на английский

с английского на латинский

to which not even the gods are superior

  • 1 supero

    sŭpĕro, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. and a. [id.].
    I.
    Neutr., to go over, to rise above, overtop, surmount.
    A.
    Lit. (very rare; syn. transcendo): maximo saltu superabit gravidus armatis equus, surmounted, leaped the wall, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Trag. v. 97 Vahl.):

    sol superabat ex mari,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 41:

    ripis superat mihi atque abundat pectus laetitia meum,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 6:

    jugo superans,

    passing over the summit, Verg. A. 11, 514:

    superat agger ad auras,

    Stat. Th. 4, 458:

    (angues) superant capite et cervicibus altis,

    Verg. A. 2, 219. —
    B.
    Trop. (freq. and class.).
    1.
    To have the upper hand or superiority, to be superior, to overcome, surpass (syn. vinco):

    denique nostra superat manus,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 80:

    quā (sc. virtute) nostri milites facile superabant,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14; 1, 40:

    numero militum,

    Liv. 29, 30, 8; cf.:

    numero hostis, virtute Romanus superat,

    id. 9, 32, 7:

    tantum superantibus malis,

    id. 3, 16, 4:

    sorte,

    id. 38, 36, 10:

    victor, superans animis,

    Verg. A. 5, 473:

    hostes equitatu superare,

    Nep. Ages. 3, 6:

    unde salo superant venti,

    Prop. 3, 5 (4, 4), 29:

    superat sententia Sabini,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 31:

    si superaverit morbus,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 1, 3.—
    2.
    To exceed, be in excess, be superfluous; to be abundant, to abound (syn. supersum):

    in quo et deesse aliquam partem et superare mendosum est,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 83:

    pecunia superabat? at egebas,

    id. Or. 67, 224:

    uter igitur est divitior? cui deest an cui superat?

    id. Par. 6, 3, 49:

    quis tolerare potest, illis divitias superare, nobis rem familiarem etiam ad necessaria deesse?

    Sall. C. 20, 11:

    cui quamquam virtus, gloria... superabant,

    id. J. 64, 1:

    quae Jugurthae fesso superaverant,

    had been too much for, id. ib. 70, 2:

    de eo quod ipsis superat,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 15, 42:

    Quinto delegabo, si quid aeri meo alieno superabit et emptionibus,

    id. Att. 13, 46, 3:

    superabat umor in arvis,

    Lucr. 5, 804:

    superante multitudine,

    Liv. 3, 5:

    cum otium superat,

    id. 3, 17:

    num tibi superat superbia?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 86:

    gentis superant tibi laudes,

    Tib. 4, 1, 28:

    dum superat gregibus juventas,

    Verg. G. 3, 63:

    si superant fetus,

    id. ib. 1, 189: quam facile tunc sit omnia impedire et quam hoc Caesari superet, non te fallit, perh. how exceedingly easy it would have been, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 5, 3 dub.—
    3.
    To be left over, to remain, survive (syn. supersum):

    quae superaverint animalia capta, immolant,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 17:

    quod superaret pecuniae,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 195: quae arma superabunt, Pompon. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, § 4; Plaut. Truc. 5, 49:

    nihil ex raptis commeatibus superabat,

    Liv. 22, 40, 8:

    pepulerunt jam paucos superantes,

    id. 22, 49, 5:

    si de quincunce remota est Uncia, quid superat?

    Hor. A. P. 328:

    sex superant versus,

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 57:

    pars quae sola mei superabit corporis, ossa,

    Tib. 3, 2, 17; Plaut. Truc. prol. 20:

    superet modo Mantua nobis,

    Verg. E. 9, 27: uter eorum vitā superarit, whichever survives, Caes. B. G. 6, 19:

    quae superaverint animalia,

    id. ib. 6, 17:

    quid puer Ascanius? superatne et vescitur aurā?

    Verg. A. 3, 339:

    captae superavimus urbi,

    id. ib. 2, 643; Liv. 29, 7, 7:

    quid igitur superat, quod purgemus?

    id. 45, 24, 1.—
    II.
    Act., to go or pass over, rise above; to mount, ascend; to surmount, overtop.
    A.
    Lit.
    1.
    In gen.: in altisono Caeli clipeo temo superat Stellas, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 73 Müll. (Vahl. Enn. p. 119, om. stellas):

    tempestas summas ripas fluminis superavit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 48:

    ventosum aequor,

    Ov. Ib. 591:

    fluvium,

    Luc. 4, 150:

    mare,

    Sen. Oet. 128:

    pedibus salsas lacunas,

    Lucr. 3, 1031:

    munitiones,

    Liv. 5, 8, 10:

    quas (Alpes) nullā dum viā superatas,

    id. 5, 34, 6; 21, 26, 4; 21, 30, 5; 21, 38, 1;

    23, 45, 3: Tauro monte superato,

    id. 35, 13, 4:

    montes,

    Verg. G. 3, 270:

    Alpes cursu,

    Luc. 1, 183:

    immensa montium juga,

    Plin. Pan. 81, 1:

    Caucasum,

    Curt. 7, 3, 22:

    hoc jugum,

    Verg. A. 6, 676:

    fossas,

    id. ib. 9, 314:

    summi fastigia tecti Ascensu,

    id. ib. 2, 303; cf.:

    caprae gravido superant vix ubere limen,

    id. G. 3, 317:

    retia saltu (vulpes),

    Ov. M. 7, 767:

    tantum itineris,

    to traverse, pass over, Tac. Agr. 33: regionem castrorum, to go past or beyond, Caes. B. C. 1, 69; cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43:

    insidias circa ipsum iter locatas,

    Liv. 2, 50, 6:

    collocatur in eo turris tabulatorum quae superaret fontis fastigium,

    but so as to overtop, command, Hirt. B. G. 8, 41:

    superat (Parnassus) cacumine nubes,

    Ov. M. 1, 317.—
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    Naut. t. t., to sail by or past a place, a promontory, etc.; to double or weather a point, etc.; promontorium, Lucil. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 244; Auct. B. Afr. 62, 3; Liv. 26, 26, 1; 30, 25, 6; 31, 23, 3; Tac. A. 15, 46 et saep.:

    Euboeam,

    Nep. Them. 3, 3:

    cursu Isthmon,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 11, 5:

    intima Regna Liburnorum et fontem Timavi,

    Verg. A. 1, 244 Serv.— Poet., transf.: musarum scopulos, Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 223 Vahl.).—
    b.
    To rise above, exceed in height:

    ut alibi umbilico tenus aqua esset, alibi genua vix superaret,

    Liv. 36, 45, 9; cf.: posterior partes superat mensura priores, i. e. exceeds in size, Ov. M. 15, 378.—
    B.
    Trop., to surpass, excel, exceed, outdo, outstrip in any quality, in value, etc.
    1.
    In gen.:

    non potest quaestus consistere, si eum sumptus superat,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 74:

    ne sumptus fructum superet,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 53:

    qui omnes homines supero atque antideo cruciabilitatibus animi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 3:

    virtute, laude, dignitate,

    Cic. Planc. 2, 6 sq.:

    aut ingenio aut fortunā aut dignitate superari,

    id. Lael. 3, 11:

    omnes homines constantiā et gravitate,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 16:

    doctrinā Graecia nos et omni litterarum genere superabat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 1, 3:

    auctoritatis pondere et utilitatis ubertate,

    id. de Or. 1, 44, 195; Hirt. B. G. 8, prooem. §

    4: aliquem nobilitate,

    Ov. P. 3, 2, 56:

    Phoebum superare canendo,

    Verg. E. 5, 9:

    omnes scelere,

    Liv. 29, 8:

    aliquem dignitate vitae,

    Nep. Alcib. 11, 2:

    aliquem ingenio, id. Dion, 4, 1: duritiā ferrum,

    Ov. H. 2, 137:

    vel cursu superare canem vel viribus aprum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 51:

    omnes in ceteris artibus,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 2:

    summam spem civium incredibili virtute,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 11:

    non dubitabam, quin hanc epistulam multi nuntii, fama denique esset ipsa tua celeritate superatura,

    will outstrip, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1.—
    2.
    In partic., in milit. lang., to overcome, subdue, conquer, vanquish (syn. debello):

    victis hostibus, quos nemo posse superari ratu'st,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 24:

    armatos ac victores,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    maximas nationes,

    id. ib. 3, 28;

    2, 24: quos integros superavissent,

    id. B. C. 2, 5:

    bello superatos esse Arvernos et Rutenos a Q. Fabio Maximo,

    id. B. G. 1, 45:

    si Helvetios superaverint Romani,

    id. ib. 1, 17:

    Massilienses bis proelio navali superati,

    id. B. C. 2, 22:

    clam ferro incautum superat,

    Verg. A. 1, 350:

    bello superatus,

    Ov. M. 12, 364:

    Asiam bello,

    Nep. Ages. 4, 3:

    tota insula in unā urbe superata est,

    Flor. 2, 6.—
    b.
    Transf., in gen.: quem (C. Curium) nemo ferro potuit superare nec auro, Enn. ap. Cic. Rep. 3, 3, 6 (Ann. v. 220 Vahl.):

    in quo (genere officii) etiam si multi mecum contendent, omnes facile superabo,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    si erum videt superare amorem,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 1, 7:

    hanc (orationem) assidua ac diligens scriptura superabit,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 150: si meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit, id. Cat. 4, 11, 23:

    injurias fortunae facile veterum philosophorum praeceptis superabat,

    id. Fin. 4, 7, 17:

    pareatur necessitati, quam ne dii quidem superant,

    which even the gods are not above, not superior to, Liv. 9, 4, 16:

    casus omnes,

    Verg. A. 11, 244:

    superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est,

    id. ib. 5, 710:

    labores,

    id. ib. 3, 368:

    difficultates omnes,

    Vell. 2, 120, 4:

    cum incedendi nimietate jam superarer,

    Amm. 19, 8, 6.—Hence, sŭpĕrans, antis, P. a.
    * A.
    Rising high, prominent, high, lofty:

    mons superantissimus,

    Sol. 2 med.
    * B.
    Prevailing, predominant:

    superantior ignis,

    Lucr. 5, 394.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > supero

  • 2 iūrō

        iūrō āvī, ātus, āre    [2 ius], to swear, take an oath: si aram tenens iuraret: ex animi tui sententiā, without reservation: Boeotum in crasso iurares aëre natum, H.: falsum, swear falsely: vere: testari deos per quos iuravisset, S.: per Iovem, by Jupiter: aedilis, qui pro se iuraret, in his stead, L.: idem omnis exercitus in se quisque iurat, i. e. each soldier individually, L.: Numquam ducturum uxorem, T.: se eum non deserturum, Cs.: verissimum ius iurandum.—With in and acc, to swear to observe, swear allegiance, vow obedience, adopt under oath: in legem: in leges, L.: in haec verba iurat ipse, takes this form of oath, Cs.: cur in certa verba iurent: in haec verba iures postulo, in this form of words, L.: in verba magistri, echo the sentiments, H.—To swear by, attest, call to witness: Terram, Mare, Sidera, V.: Iovem lapidem: quaevis tibi numina, O.: Samothracum aras, Iu.: Iurandae tuum per nomen arae, H.: dis iuranda palus, the Styx, by which the gods swear, O.—To swear to, attest by an oath: morbum, to the fact of sickness: id (nomen) iurare in litem, swear to a debt.—With person. obj., to swear, bind by an oath, cause to swear (only perf pass.): iudici demonstrandum est, quid iuratus sit: lex, in quam iurati sitis: iuratus se eum interempturum, L.— To conspire: In me, O.: in facinus, O.—In the phrase: iurare calumniam, to swear that an accusation is not malicious, L.

    Latin-English dictionary > iūrō

  • 3 communicarius

    communicaria, communicarium ADJ
    days on which all gods were sacrificed to together? (w/dies)

    Latin-English dictionary > communicarius

  • 4 juro

    jūro, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. and a., and jūror, ātus, 1, v. dep. [2. jus], to swear, to take an oath.
    I.
    In gen., absol.:

    cui si aram tenens juraret, crederet nemo,

    Cic. Fl. 36, 90:

    cum ille mihi nihil, nisi ut jurarem, permitteret,

    id. Fam. 5, 2, 7:

    cum enim faciles sint nonnulli hominum ad jurandum,

    Dig. 28, 7, 8:

    posteaquam juratum est, denegatur actio,

    ib. 12, 2, 9:

    ex animi tui sententia jurāris,

    Cic. Off. 3, 29, 108.— With inf., Sil. 2, 3, 51; Claud. B. Get. 81; Dig. 12, 2, 13, § 5.—With nom. and inf., poet., Prop. 3, 4, 40.—With acc. and inf.:

    jurat, se eum non deserturum,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 13:

    se non reversurum,

    id. ib. 3, 87:

    jurarem... me et ardere studio veri reperiendi,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 65:

    nisi victores se redituros jurant,

    Liv. 2, 45:

    Boeotum in crasso jurares aëre natum,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 244:

    falsum,

    to swear falsely, Cic. Off. 3, 29, 108:

    vere,

    to swear truly, id. Fam. 5, 2, 7:

    jurarem per Jovem,

    by Jupiter, id. Ac. 2, 20, 65:

    per supremi regis regnum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 211; Verg. A. 9, 300:

    per solis radios,

    Juv. 13, 78; 6, 16.—Also with simple acc. of the being or object sworn by (mostly poet.):

    Terram, Mare, Sidera,

    Verg. A. 12, 197; 6, 324:

    quomodo tibi placebit Jovem lapidem jurare, cum scias?

    Cic. Fam. 7, 12, 2:

    quaevis tibi numina,

    Ov. H. 16, 319:

    Samothracum aras,

    Juv. 3, 144.—Hence also pass.:

    dis juranda palus,

    the Styx, by which the gods swear, Ov. M. 2, 46; cf.:

    Stygias juravimus undas,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    Junonis numina,

    Tib. 4, 13, 15:

    caput,

    Sil. 8, 106.— Rarely with acc. of the fact sworn to:

    morbum,

    i. e. to swear to the fact of sickness, Cic. Att. 1, 1, 1; cf.:

    jurata pacta,

    Sil. 2, 274:

    ex mei animi sententia,

    with sincerity, without reservation, Liv. 22, 53, 10; so,

    ex nostri animi sententia,

    Quint. 8, 5, 1; cf. Liv. 43, 15, 8; Gell. 4, 20, 3: alicui aliquid, [p. 1019] to vow or promise to one, Stat. Th. 4, 396:

    sacramenta deis,

    Sil. 10, 448:

    alicui jurare,

    to swear allegiance to, Plin. Pan. 68, 4: in verba, to swear with certain words, i. e. to take a prescribed form of oath:

    Petreius in haec verba jurat,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 76:

    cur in certa verba jurent,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 45, 132:

    milites in verba P. Scipionis jurarunt,

    Liv. 28, 29; 7, 5; 6, 22:

    in haec verba jures postulo,

    in this form of words, id. 22, 53, 12:

    in verba magistri,

    to echo his sentiments, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 14:

    in verba ejus,

    Suet. Galb. 16:

    in verba Vitellii,

    id. Oth. 8: idem deinceps omnis exercitus in se quisque jurat, i. e. each soldier took the oath separately;

    whereas the usual practice was that one man uttered the entire oath, and the others only added, idem in me,

    Liv. 2, 45, 14:

    in litem,

    to make oath respecting the matter in dispute, to appraise under oath, Cic. Rosc. Com. 1, 4; Dig. 4, 3, 18; 8, 5, 7 al.:

    in nomen alicujus,

    to swear allegiance to one, Suet. Claud. 10:

    in legem,

    to swear to observe a law, Cic. Sest. 16, 37:

    verissimum pulcherrimumque jusjurandum,

    to take an oath, id. Fam. 5, 2, 7:

    sacramenta,

    Sil. 10, 447; cf.:

    sceleri jurato nefando sacramenta,

    Luc. 4, 228.—With de and abl.:

    de sua persona,

    in one's own behalf, Dig. 44, 5, 1, § 3:

    de calumnia,

    to clear one's self of calumny under oath, ib. 12, 2, 16; 2, 8, 8, § 5.— Pass. impers.:

    scis, tibi ubique jurari,

    Plin. Pan. 68: ne in acta sua juraretur, Suet Tib. 26.—
    (β).
    Dep. form, Plaut. Pers. 3, 2, 2; cf. id. Rud. 5, 3, 16:

    judici demonstrandum est, quid juratus sit, quid sequi debeat,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 43, 126:

    ex lege, in quam jurati sitis,

    id. ib. 2, 45, 121:

    juratus se eum sua manu interempturum,

    Liv. 32, 22, 7.—
    II.
    In partic., to conspire (cf. conjuro); with inf.: jurarunt inter se barbaros necare, Cato ap. Plin. 29, 1, 7, § 14:

    in me jurarunt somnus, ventusque, fidesque,

    Ov. H. 10, 117:

    in facinus,

    id. M. 1, 242.—Hence, jūrātus, a, um, P. a.
    A.
    Pass.
    1.
    Called upon or taken to witness in an oath:

    numina,

    Ov. H. 2, 25.—
    2.
    Under an oath, bound by an oath:

    Regulus juratus missus est ad senatum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 3, 26, 99:

    quamvis jurato metuam tibi credere testi,

    Juv. 5, 5.—
    B.
    Act., having sworn, that has sworn:

    nam injurato scio plus credet mihi quam jurato tibi,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 281; id. As. 1, 1, 8:

    haec, quae juratus in maxima contione dixi,

    Cic. Sull. 11:

    in eadem arma,

    Ov. M. 13, 50.— Sup.: juratissimi auctores, the most trustworthy, Plin. H. N. praef. § 22. — Adv.: jūrātō, with an oath, under oath (post-class.):

    promittere,

    Dig. 2, 8, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > juro

  • 5 medius

    mĕdĭus, a, um, adj. [Sanscr. madhya, the same; Gr. mesos; Angl. - Sax. midd; Germ. Mitte; cf. dimidius, meridies (medi-), etc.], that is in the middle or midst, mid, middle (class.).
    I.
    Adj.
    A.
    Lit.:

    terra complexa medium mundi locum,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 18; cf. id. ib. 6, 17, 17:

    medium mundi locum petere,

    id. Tusc. 5, 24, 69:

    versus aeque prima, et media, et extrema pars attenditur,

    id. de Or. 3, 50, 192:

    ultimum, proximum, medium tempus,

    id. Prov. Cons. 18, 43:

    in foro medio,

    in the midst of the forum, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 6; cf.:

    medio foro,

    in the open forum, Suet. Claud. 18 al.:

    in solio medius consedit,

    sat in the middle, Ov. F. 3, 359; Verg. A. 7, 169:

    considit scopulo medius,

    id. G. 4, 436:

    concilio medius sedebat,

    Ov. M. 10, 144:

    ignes,

    Verg. A. 12, 201:

    medio tempore,

    in the meantime, meanwhile, Suet. Caes. 76: vinum novum, vetus, medium, i. e. neither old nor new, Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 31, 14:

    cum plenus fluctu medius foret alveus,

    full to the middle, Juv. 12, 30.—With dat.:

    Peloponnesii Megaram, mediam Corintho Athenisque urbem, condidere,

    midway between Corinth and Athens, Vell. 1, 2, 4.—With abl.:

    si medius Polluce et Castore ponar,

    between, Ov. Am. 2, 16, 13.—With inter:

    cum inter bellum et pacem medium nihil sit,

    there is no medium, no middle course between, Cic. Phil. 8, 1, 4:

    inter quos numeros duo medii inveniuntur (sc. numeri),

    Mart. Cap. 7, § 737.—With gen.:

    locus medius regionum earum,

    half-way between, Caes. B. G. 4, 19:

    locus medius juguli summique lacerti,

    between, Ov. M. 6, 409; 5, 564:

    et medius juvenum ibat,

    id. F. 5, 67:

    medius silentūm,

    Stat. Th. 4, 683.—With ex:

    medius ex tribus,

    Sall. J. 11, 3:

    medium arripere aliquem,

    to seize one by the middle, around the body, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 18:

    juvenem medium complectitur,

    Liv. 23, 9, 9:

    Alcides medium tenuit,

    held him fast by the middle, Luc. 4, 652:

    medium ostendere unguem,

    to point with the middle finger, Juv. 10, 53.—
    2.
    Transf., half (ante- and postclass.):

    hieme demunt cibum medium,

    half their food, Varr. R. R. 3, 7, 9:

    scrupulum croci,

    Pall. Jan. 18: aurum... Italicis totum, medium provincialibus reddidit, Capitol. Anton. Pius, 4 fin.
    B.
    Trop., of the middle, not very great or small, middling, medial, moderate.
    1.
    Of age:

    aetatis mediae vir,

    of middle age, Phaedr. 2, 2, 3.—
    2.
    Of plans, purposes, etc.:

    nihil medium, nec spem nec curam, sed immensa omnia volventes animo,

    Liv. 2, 49, 5:

    medium quiddam tenere,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 9, 9.—
    3.
    Of intellect:

    eloquentiā medius,

    middling, tolerable, Vell. 2, 29, 2:

    ingenium,

    moderate, Tac. H. 1, 49.—
    4.
    Undetermined, undecided:

    medios esse,

    i. e. neutral, Cic. Att. 10, 8, 4:

    medium se gerere,

    Liv. 2, 27:

    se dubium mediumque partibus praestitit,

    Vell. 2, 21, 1; cf.:

    responsum,

    indefinite, ambiguous, Liv. 39, 39: vocabula, that can be taken in a good or bad sense, ambiguous, Gell. 12, 9, 1. —
    5.
    Indifferent, not imperative: officium, a duty which is not distinctly enjoined by the moral law, but is sustained by preponderant reasoning:

    medium officium id esse dicunt (Graeci) quod cur factum sit, ratio probabilis reddi possit,

    Cic. Off. 1, 3, 8; cf.:

    ex quo intellegitur, officium medium quiddam esse, quod neque in bonis ponatur neque in contrariis,

    id. Fin. 3, 17, 58; cf.

    sqq. and Madv. ad loc.: artes,

    which in themselves are neither good nor bad, indifferent, Quint. 2, 20, 1.—
    6.
    Intermediate:

    medium erat in Anco ingenium, et Numae et Romuli memor,

    of a middle kind, resembling each in some degree, Liv. 1, 32, 4:

    nihil habet ista res (actoris) medium, sed aut lacrimas meretur aut risum,

    Quint. 6, 1, 45:

    ille jam paene medius adfectus est ex amoribus et desideriis amicorum,

    Quint. 6, 2, 17.—Hence, as subst.: mĕdĭus, i, m., one who stands or comes between, a mediator:

    medium sese offert,

    as a mediator, Verg. A. 7, 536:

    pacator mediusque Syphax,

    Sil. 16, 222:

    pacis eras mediusque belli,

    arbiter, Hor. C. 2, 19, 28; cf.:

    nunc mediis subeant irrita verba deis,

    oaths in which the gods were called upon to be mediators, Ov. R. Am. 678.—
    7.
    Central, with ex or in:

    ex factione media consul,

    fully committed to it, Sall. H. 3, 61, 8;

    so (nearly = intimus), viros fortīs et magnanimos eosdem bonos et simplicīs... esse volumus: quae sunt ex media laude justititiae,

    these qualities are clearly among those which make uprightness praiseworthy, Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63:

    partitiones oratoriae, quae e media illa nostra Academia effloruerunt,

    id. Part. Or. 40, 139:

    ingressio e media philosophia repetita est,

    id. Or. 3, 11; id. Leg. 2, 21, 53:

    in medio maerore et dolore,

    id. Tusc. 4, 29, 63; id. Q. Fr. 2, 15, 1:

    in media dimicatione,

    the hottest of the fight, Suet. Aug. 10; cf.:

    in medio ardore certaminis,

    Curt. 8, 4, 27:

    in media solitudine,

    the most profound, Sen. Brev. Vit. 12, 2:

    in mediis divitiis,

    in abundant wealth, id. Vit. Beat. 26, 1:

    in medio robore virium,

    Liv. 28, 35, 6:

    in medio ardore belli,

    id. 24, 45, 4:

    in media reipublicae luce,

    the full blaze of public life, Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    media inter pocula,

    Juv. 8, 217.—Hence,
    II.
    Subst.: mĕdĭum, ii, n., the middle, midst.
    A.
    Lit.
    1.
    Of space (very rare in Cic.):

    in medio aedium sedens,

    Liv. 1, 57, 9:

    maris,

    id. 31, 45, 11; for which, without in, medio aedium eburneis sellis sedere, id. 5, 41, 2:

    medio viae ponere,

    id. 37, 13, 10:

    in agmine in primis modo, modo in postremis, saepe in medio adesse,

    Sall. J. 45, 2; for which, without in, medio sextam legionem constituit, Tac. A. 13, 38:

    medio montium porrigitur planities,

    id. ib. 1, 64:

    medio stans hostia ad aras,

    Verg. G. 3, 486:

    medio tutissimus ibis,

    Ov. M. 2, 137:

    in medium geminos immani pondere caestus Projecit,

    Verg. A. 5, 401:

    in medium sarcinas coniciunt,

    Liv. 10, 36, 1; 13:

    equitatus consulem in medium acceptum, armis protegens, in castra reduxit,

    id. 21, 46, 9.— Trop.:

    tamquam arbiter honorarius medium ferire voluisse,

    to cut through the middle, Cic. Fat. 17, 39:

    intacta invidiā media sunt, ad summa ferme tendit,

    Liv. 45, 35.—
    2.
    Of time:

    diei,

    Liv. 27, 48:

    medio temporis,

    in the meantime, meanwhile, Tac. A. 13, 28; cf.:

    nec longum in medio tempus, cum,

    the interval, Verg. A. 9, 395; Ov. M. 4, 167; Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 13.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    The midst of all, the presence of all, the public, the community (class.):

    in medio omnibus palma est posita, qui artem tractant musicam,

    lies open to all, Ter. Phorm. prol. 16:

    tabulae sunt in medio,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 104:

    rem totam in medio ponere,

    publicly, id. ib. 2, 1, 11, §

    29: ponam in medio sententias philosophorum,

    id. N. D. 1, 6, 13:

    dicendi ratio in medio posita,

    lies open to all, id. de Or. 1, 3, 12:

    rem in medium proferre,

    to publish, make known, id. Fam. 15, 27, 6: vocare in medium, before the public, before a public tribunal:

    rem in medium vocare coeperunt,

    id. Clu. 28, 77:

    in medio relinquere,

    to leave it to the public, leave it undecided, id. Cael. 20, 48; Sall. C. 19, 16: pellere e medio, to expel, reject, Enn. ap. Cic. Mur. 14, 30 (Ann. v. 272 Vahl.); Cic. Off. 3, 8, 37:

    cum jacentia verba sustulimus e medio,

    adopt words from the people, common words, id. de Or. 3, 45, 177; cf.: munda sed e medio consuetaque verba puellae Scribite, Ov. A. A. 3, 479: tollere de medio, to do away with, abolish:

    litteras,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 71, § 176: tollere de medio, to put out of the way, cut off, destroy:

    hominem,

    id. Rosc. Am. 7, 20:

    de medio removere,

    to put out of sight, id. ib. 8, 23: e medio excedere or abire, to leave the world, to die:

    e medio excessit,

    she is dead, Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 74:

    ea mortem obiit, e medio abiit,

    id. ib. 5, 8, 30:

    tollite lumen e medio,

    Juv. 9, 106: recedere de medio, to go away, retire, withdraw:

    cur te mihi offers? recede de medio,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 112:

    in medio esse,

    to be present, Ter. Ad. 3, 5, 32:

    in medium venire or procedere,

    to appear, come forward, show one's self in public, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 71, § 175: in medium, before the public, for the public, for the community:

    communes utilitates in medium afferre,

    id. Off. 1, 7, 22:

    consulere in medium,

    to care for the public good, for the good of all, Verg. A. 11, 335;

    so opp. separantem suas res a publicis,

    Liv. 24, 22, 14 sq.; 26, 12, 7:

    quaerere,

    to make acquisitions for the use of all, Verg. G. 1, 127: cedere, to fall or devolve to the community, Tac. H. 4, 64:

    conferre laudem,

    i. e. so that all may have a share of it, Liv. 6, 6:

    dare,

    to communicate for the use of all, Ov. M. 15, 66:

    in medium conferre, in gaming,

    to put down, put in the pool, Suet. Aug. 71: in medio, for sub dio, in the open air:

    scorpios fugari posse, si aliqui ex eis urantur in medio,

    Pall. 1, 35, 12.—
    2.
    A half (ante-class. and post-Aug.):

    scillae medium conterunt cum aqua,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7:

    scrobem ad medium completo,

    Col. Arb. 4, 5.—Hence,
    III.
    Adv.: mĕdĭē, in the middle, in a middling degree, moderately, tolerably (except once in Tac. only post-class.):

    qui noluerant medie,

    kept quiet, remained neutral, Tac. H. 1, 19:

    nec plane optimi, nec oppido deterrimi sunt, sed quasi medie morati,

    App. Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 22, 23; Eutr. 7, 13; Lact. 6, 15 fin.:

    ortus medie humilis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 20.—
    2.
    Indefinitely, Ambros. in Luc. 8, 17, 34.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > medius

  • 6 Styx

    Styx, ygis and ygos, f., = Stux.
    I.
    A fountain in Arcadia, the icy-cold water of which caused death, Plin. 2, 103, 106, § 231; Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 1; Vitr. 8, 3, 16; Just. 12, 14, 7; Curt. 10, 10, 17.—
    II.
    In mythology, a river in the infernal regions, by which the gods swore, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 43; Verg. G. 4, 480; Ov. M. 12, 322; id. A. A. 1, 635; Sil. 13, 570; Stat. Th. 8, 30; id. Achill. 1, 269 al.— Hence, poet., the infernal regions, the lower world, Verg. G. 1, 243; Ov. M. 10, 13; id. P. 4, 8, 60; id. Tr. 5, 2, 74; Mart. 4, 60, 4; and for poison:

    miscuit undis Styga Sidoniis,

    Sen. Oedip. 163.—Hence,
    1.
    Stygĭus, a, um, adj., of or belonging to the Styx, Stygian; and poet., of or belonging to the lower world, infernal:

    palus,

    Verg. A. 6, 323:

    aquae,

    id. ib. 6, 374:

    torrens,

    Ov. M. 3, 290:

    cymba,

    i. e. of Charon, Verg. G. 4, 506; so,

    carina,

    id. A. 6, 391:

    Juppiter,

    i. e. Pluto, id. ib. 4, 638; cf. id. ib. 6, 252:

    frater,

    id. ib. 9, 104:

    Juno,

    i.e. Proserpine, Stat. Th. 4, 526:

    canes,

    Luc. 6, 733:

    manes,

    Val. Fl. 1, 730:

    umbrae,

    Ov. M. 1, 139.—Hence, poet., deadly, fatal, pernicious, awful, etc.:

    vis,

    Verg. A. 5, 855; cf.

    nox,

    i. e. death, Ov. M. 3, 695:

    bubo,

    id. ib. 15, 791 et saep.—
    * 2.
    Stygĭālis, e, adj., Stygian:

    sacra,

    Verg. Cir. 373.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Styx

  • 7 surdus

    surdus, a, um, adj. [Sanscr. svar, heavy; svaras, weight; cf. O. H. Germ. swārida, weight], deaf.
    I.
    Lit.:

    ne mi ut surdo verbera auris,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 204; id. Cas. 3, 3, 12:

    si surdus sit, varietates vocum noscere possit?

    Cic. Div. 2, 3, 9:

    utinam aut hic surdus aut haec muta facta sit,

    Ter. And. 3, 1, 5.— Sup., stone-deaf, Mart. Cap. 9, § 926; Aug. Ep. 39.—Prov.: surdo narrare, canere, etc., preach to deaf ears, talk to the wind:

    nae ille haud scit, quam mihi nunc surdo narret fabulam,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 10:

    cantabant surdo,

    Prop. 4 (5), 8, 47; cf.:

    non canimus surdis,

    Verg. E. 10, 8; and:

    quae (praecepta) vereor, ne vana surdis auribus cecinerim,

    Liv. 40, 8, 10; 3, 70, 7; Tib. 4, 14, 2:

    narrare asello Fabellam surdo,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 200; cf.:

    suadere surdis, quid sit opus facto,

    Lucr. 5, 1050.—
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Deaf to any thing, i. e. not listening, unwilling to hear, inattentive, regardless, insensible, inexorable; also, not understanding, not apprehending:

    orando surdas jam aures reddideras mihi,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 89; so,

    aures,

    Liv. 24, 32, 6; cf. Prop. 2, 16 (3, 8), 48; id. 2, 20 (3, 13), 13:

    non surdus judex,

    Cic. Font. 11, 25 (7, 15):

    ad mea munera surdus,

    Ov. H. 7, 27:

    per numquam surdos in tua vota deos,

    id. P. 2, 8, 28:

    surdae ad omnia solacia aures,

    Liv. 9, 7, 3:

    surdae ad fortia consilia Vitellio aures,

    Tac. H. 3, 67 init.:

    surdus adversus aliquid,

    Aug. Serm. 50, 13:

    surdus sum,

    I will not hear, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 24:

    surdas clamare ad undas,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 531:

    litora,

    Prop. 4 (5), 11, 6.—Hence, poet. transf.:

    vota,

    i. e. to which the gods are deaf, to which they will not hearken, Pers. 6, 28:

    surdaeque adhibent solatia menti,

    Ov. M. 9, 654:

    tuas lacrimas litora surda bibent,

    Prop. 4 (5), 11, 6:

    leges rem surdam, inexorabilem esse,

    Liv. 2, 3:

    surda tellus,

    not susceptible of cultivation, Plin. 18, 3, 4, § 21:

    surdus timori,

    not capable of fear, Sil. 11, 354:

    tuis lacrimis,

    Mart. 10, 13, 8:

    in alicujus sermone,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 40, 116.— Comp.:

    scopulis surdior Icari Voces audit adhuc integer (i. e. castus),

    Hor. C. 3, 7, 21:

    surdior illa freto surgente,

    Ov. M. 14, 711:

    surdior aequoribus,

    id. ib. 13, 804:

    non saxa surdiora navitis,

    Hor. Epod. 17, 54.—
    (β).
    With gen.:

    Mars genitor, votorum haud surde meorum,

    Sil. 10, 554:

    pactorum,

    id. 1, 692:

    veritatis,

    Col. 3, 10, 18.—
    B.
    Of things that give out a dull, indistinct sound, dull-sounding (very rare):

    theatrum,

    Varr. L. L. 9, § 58 Müll.:

    locus,

    Vitr. 3, 3:

    loca,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 576:

    vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 32:

    surdum quiddam et barbarum,

    id. 12, 10, 28.—
    C.
    Pass., that is not heard, noiseless, silent, still, mute, dumb ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    lyra,

    Prop. 4 (5), 5, 58:

    buccina,

    Juv. 7, 71:

    plectra,

    Stat. S. 1, 4, 19:

    non erit officii gratia surda tui,

    unsung, Ov. P. 2, 6, 31; cf.

    fama,

    Sil. 6, 75:

    surdum et ignobile opus,

    Stat. Th. 4, 359:

    nomen parentum,

    Sil. 8, 248:

    herbae,

    Plin. 22, 2, 3, § 5:

    quos diri conscia facti mens surdo verbere caedit,

    secret, Juv. 13, 194:

    ictus,

    Plin. 19, 1, 4, § 20.—
    D.
    Of odor, appearance, meaning, etc., faint, dim, dull, indistinct, stupid:

    spirant cinnama surdum,

    Pers. 6, 36:

    colos,

    Plin. 37, 5, 18, § 67:

    hebes unitate surdā color,

    id. 37, 5, 20, § 76:

    discrimen figurarum,

    id. 35, 2, 2, § 4:

    materia,

    id. 13, 15, 30, § 98:

    res surdae ac sensu carentes,

    id. 20, prooem. § 1; so id. 24, 1, 1, § 3; 27, 13, 120, § 146.—Hence, * adv.: surdē, faintly, imperfectly, indistinctly: surde audire, Afran. ap. Charis. p. 194 P. (Com. Fragm. v. 348 Rib.).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > surdus

  • 8 superior

        superior ius,    gen. ōris, comp. of superus.

    Latin-English dictionary > superior

  • 9 Respondeat superior

    Let the superior answer (a supervisor must take responsibility for the quality of a subordinate's work)

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Respondeat superior

  • 10 superior

    sŭpĕrĭor, ōris, v. superus.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > superior

  • 11 superior

    above, upper, high.

    Latin-English dictionary of medieval > superior

  • 12 superō

        superō āvī, ātus, āre    [superus], to go over, rise above, overtop, surmount, transcend: capite et cervicibus, V.: has (turrīs) altitudo puppium ex barbaris navibus superabat, Cs.: ut aqua genua vix superaret, L.: Posterior partīs superat mensura priores, O.— To go over, rise above, mount, ascend, surmount, overtop: ardua montis Per deserta iugo superans, passing over the summit, V.: (tempestas) summas ripas fluminis superavit, Cs.: munitiones, L.: montīs, V.: Caucasum, Cu.: tantum itineris, traverse, Ta.: regionem castrorum, go beyond, Cs.: insidias circa ipsum iter locatas, L.: superant (Parnasi) cacumina nubes, O.— To sail by, pass, double, weather: promunturium, L.: Euboeam, N.: cursu Isthmon, O.: Regna Liburnorum, V.—Poet.: musarum scopulos, Enn. ap. C.— To exceed, be in excess, overrun, be abundant, abound: in quo superare mendosum est: quae Iugurthae fesso superaverant, had been too much for, S.: superante multitudine, L.: superat gregibus dum iuventas, V.: uter igitur est divitior, cui deest an cui superat?— To be left over, remain, survive: quae superaverunt animalia capta, immolant, Cs.: quod superaret pecuniae: nihil ex raptis commeatibus superabat, L.: si de quincunce remota est Uncia, quid superat? H.: vitā, survive, Cs.: Quid puer Ascanius? superatne? V.: quid igitur superat, quod purgemus? L.—In war, to be victorious, overcome, subdue, conquer, vanquish: superavit postea Cinna cum Mario: maximas nationes, Cs.: exercitūs regios: navali praelio superati, Cs.: ferro incautum, V.: bello Asiam, N.— To extend beyond: clamor superat inde castra hostium, L.—Fig., to have the upper hand, be superior, excel, overcome, surpass: numero hostis, virtute Romanus superat, L.: superans animis, i. e. exulting, V.: hostes equitatu superare, N.: superat sententia Sabini, Cs.— To surpass, excel, exceed, outdo, outstrip, transcend: quaerit, quā se virtute Plancius superarit: doctrinā Graecia nos superabat: Phoebum canendo, V.: Duritiā ferrum, O.: cursu canem, H.: non dubitabam, quin hanc epistulam fama esset celeritate superatura, will outstrip. —To master, overcome, suppress, defeat, subdue, surmount: hanc (orationem) diligens scriptura superabit: necessitas quam ne dii quidem superant, to which not even the gods are superior, L.: superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est, V.
    * * *
    superare, superavi, superatus V
    overcome, conquer; survive; outdo; surpass, be above, have the upper hand

    Latin-English dictionary > superō

  • 13 adeo

    1.
    ăd-ĕo, ĭī, and rarely īvi, ĭtum (arch. adirier for adiri, Enn. Rib. Trag. p. 59), 4, v. n. and a. (acc. to Paul. ex Fest. should be accented a/deo; v. Fest. s. v. adeo, p. 19 Müll.; cf. the foll. word), to go to or approach a person or thing (syn.: accedo, aggredior, advenio, appeto).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., constr.
    (α).
    With ad (very freq.): sed tibi cautim est adeundum ad virum, Att. ap. Non. 512, 10:

    neque eum ad me adire neque me magni pendere visu'st,

    Plaut. Cur. 2, 2, 12:

    adeamne ad eam?

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; id. Eun. 3, 5, 30: aut ad consules aut ad te aut ad Brutum adissent, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 208, 5:

    ad M. Bibulum adierunt, id. Fragm. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: ad aedis nostras nusquam adiit,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 24:

    adibam ad istum fundum,

    Cic. Caec. 29 —
    (β).
    With in: priusquam Romam atque in horum conventum adiretis, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11, § 26 ed. Halm.—Esp.: adire in jus, to go to law:

    cum ad praetorem in jus adissemus,

    Cic. Verr. 4, § 147; id. Att. 11, 24; Caes. B. C. 1, 87, and in the Plebiscit. de Thermens. lin. 42: QVO DE EA RE IN IOVS ADITVM ERIT, cf. Dirks., Versuche S. p. 193.—
    (γ).
    Absol.:

    adeunt, consistunt, copulantur dexteras,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 38:

    eccum video: adibo,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 5.—
    (δ).
    With acc.:

    ne Stygeos adeam non libera manes,

    Ov. M. 13, 465:

    voces aetherias adiere domos,

    Sil. 6, 253:

    castrorum vias,

    Tac. A. 2, 13:

    municipia,

    id. ib. 39:

    provinciam,

    Suet. Aug. 47:

    non poterant adire eum,

    Vulg. Luc. 8, 19:

    Graios sales carmine patrio,

    to attain to, Verg. Cat. 11, 62; so with latter supine:

    planioribus aditu locis,

    places easier to approach, Liv. 1, 33.—With local adv.:

    quoquam,

    Sall. J. 14:

    huc,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 60.—
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To approach one for the purpose of addressing, asking aid, consulting, and the like, to address, apply to, consult (diff. from aggredior, q. v.). —Constr. with ad or oftener with acc.; hence also pass.:

    quanto satius est, adire blandis verbis atque exquaerere, sintne illa, etc.,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 35:

    aliquot me adierunt,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 2:

    adii te heri de filia,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 9: cum pacem peto, cum placo, cum adeo, et cum appello meam, Lucil. ap. Non. 237, 28:

    ad me adire quosdam memini, qui dicerent,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10:

    coram adire et alloqui,

    Tac. H. 4, 65.— Pass.:

    aditus consul idem illud responsum retulit,

    when applied to, Liv. 37, 6 fin.:

    neque praetores adiri possent,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5.—Hence: adire aliquem per epistulam, to address one in writing, by a letter:

    per epistulam, aut per nuntium, quasi regem, adiri eum aiunt,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 9 and 10; cf. Tac. A. 4, 39; id. H. 1, 9.—So also: adire deos, aras, deorum sedes, etc., to approach the gods, their altars, etc., as a suppliant (cf.:

    acced. ad aras,

    Lucr. 5, 1199): quoi me ostendam? quod templum adeam? Att. ap. Non. 281, 6:

    ut essent simulacra, quae venerantes deos ipsos se adire crederent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 27:

    adii Dominum et deprecatus sum,

    Vulg. Sap. 8, 21:

    aras,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 1:

    sedes deorum,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39:

    libros Sibyllinos,

    to consult the Sibylline Books, Liv. 34, 55; cf. Tac. A. 1, 76:

    oracula,

    Verg. A. 7, 82.—
    2.
    To go to a thing in order to examine it, to visit:

    oppida castellaque munita,

    Sall. J. 94:

    hiberna,

    Tac. H. 1, 52.—
    3.
    To come up to one in a hostile manner, to assail, attack:

    aliquem: nunc prior adito tu, ego in insidiis hic ero,

    Ter. Ph. 1, 4, 52:

    nec quisquam ex agmine tanto audet adire virum,

    Verg. A. 5, 379:

    Servilius obvia adire arma jubetur,

    Sil. 9, 272.
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    To go to the performance of any act, to enter upon, to undertake, set about, undergo, submit to (cf.: accedo, aggredior, and adorior).—With ad or the acc. (class.):

    nunc eam rem vult, scio, mecum adire ad pactionem,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 25:

    tum primum nos ad causas et privatas et publicas adire coepimus,

    Cic. Brut. 90:

    adii causas oratorum, id. Fragm. Scaur. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: adire ad rem publicam,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 24, 70:

    ad extremum periculum,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7.—With acc.:

    periculum capitis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38:

    laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis,

    id. Off. 1, 19:

    in adeundis periculis,

    id. ib. 24; cf.:

    adeundae inimicitiae, subeundae saepe pro re publica tempestates,

    id. Sest. 66, 139: ut vitae periculum aditurus videretur, Auct. B. G. 8, 48: maximos labores et summa pericula. Nep. Timol. 5:

    omnem fortunam,

    Liv. 25, 10:

    dedecus,

    Tac. A. 1, 39:

    servitutem voluntariam,

    id. G. 24:

    invidiam,

    id. A. 4, 70:

    gaudia,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39.—Hence of an inheritance, t. t., to enter on:

    cum ipse hereditatem patris non adisses,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 16; so id. Arch. 5; Suet. Aug. 8 and Dig.;

    hence also: adire nomen,

    to assume the name bequeathed by will, Vell. 2, 60.—
    B.
    Adire manum alicui, prov., to deceive one, to make sport of (the origin of this phrase is unc.; Acidalius conjectures that it arose from some artifice practised in wrestling, Wagner ad Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 8):

    eo pacto avarae Veneri pulcre adii manum,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 11; so id. Aul. 2, 8, 8; id. Cas. 5, 2, 54; id. Pers. 5, 2, 18.
    2.
    ăd-ĕō̆, adv. [cf. quoad and adhuc] (acc. to Festus, it should be accented adéo, v. the preced. word; but this distinction is merely a later invention of the grammarians; [p. 33] cf. Gell. 7, 7).
    I.
    In the ante-class. per.,
    A.
    To designate the limit of space or time, with reference to the distance passed through; hence often accompanied by usque (cf. ad), to this, thus far, so far, as far.
    1.
    Of space:

    surculum artito usque adeo, quo praeacueris,

    fit in the scion as far as you have sharpened it, Cato, R. R. 40, 3.— Hence: res adeo rediit, the affair has gone so far (viz., in deterioration, “cum aliquid pejus exspectatione contigit,” Don. ad Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 5):

    postremo adeo res rediit: adulescentulus saepe eadem et graviter audiendo victus est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 61; cf. id. Ph. 1, 2, 5.—
    2.
    Of time, so long ( as), so long ( till), strengthened by usque, and with dum, donec, following, and in Cic. with quoad:

    merces vectatum undique adeo dum, quae tum haberet, peperisset bona,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 76; 3, 4, 72; id. Am. 1, 2, 10 al.:

    nusquam destitit instare, suadere, orare, usque adeo donec perpulit,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 36; Cato, R. R. 67; id. ib. 76:

    atque hoc scitis omnes usque adeo hominem in periculo fuisse, quoad scitum sit Sestium vivere,

    Cic. Sest. 38, 82.—
    B.
    For the purpose of equalizing two things in comparison, followed by ut: in the same degree or measure or proportion... in which; or so very, so much, so, to such a degree... as (only in comic poets), Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 38:

    adeon hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum?

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 10.—Also followed by quasi, when the comparison relates to similarity:

    gaudere adeo coepit, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias,

    in the same manner as those rejoice who desire marriage, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 12.—
    C.
    (Only in the comic poets) = ad haec, praeterea, moreover, besides, too: ibi tibi adeo lectus dabitur, ubi tu haud somnum capias ( beside the other annoyances), a bed, too, shall be given you there, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 80.—Hence also with etiam:

    adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio,

    besides too, id. Most. 3, 1, 101.—
    D.
    (Only in the comic poets.) Adeo ut, for this purpose that, to the end that:

    id ego continuo huic dabo, adeo me ut hic emittat manu,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 32:

    id adeo te oratum advenio, ut, etc.,

    id. Aul. 4, 10, 9:

    adeo ut tu meam sententiam jam jam poscere possis, faciam, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 26 (where Wagner now reads at ut):

    atque adeo ut scire possis, factum ego tecum hoc divido,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 15. (These passages are so interpreted by Hand, I. p. 138; others regard adeo here = quin immo.)—
    E.
    In narration, in order to put one person in strong contrast with another. It may be denoted by a stronger emphasis upon the word to be made conspicuous, or by yet, on the contrary, etc.:

    jam ille illuc ad erum cum advenerit, narrabit, etc.: ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 4 sq.; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 8 al.
    II.
    To the Latin of every period belongs the use of this word,
    A.
    To give emphasis to an idea in comparison, so, so much, so very, with verbs, adjectives, and substantives:

    adeo ut spectare postea omnīs oderit,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 65:

    neminem quidem adeo infatuare potuit, ut ei nummum ullum crederet,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 32, 3 Weiss.:

    et voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil supra,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 92:

    nemo adeo ferus est, ut, etc.,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 39.—With usque:

    adeo ego illum cogam usque, ut mendicet meus pater,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 10:

    usque adeo turbatur,

    even so much, so continually, Verg. E. 1, 12; Curt. 10, 1, 42; Luc. 1, 366.—In questions:

    adeone me fuisse fungum, ut qui illi crederem?

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49:

    adeone hospes hujus urbis, adeone ignarus es disciplinae consuetudinisque nostrae, ut haec nescias?

    Cic. Rab. 10, 28; so id. Phil. 2, 7, 15; id. Fam. 9, 10; Liv. 2, 7, 10; 5, 6, 4.—With a negative in both clauses, also with quin in the last:

    non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona exempla prodiderit,

    Tac. H. 1, 3; so Suet. Oth. 9:

    verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui, quin, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 13.—

    Sometimes the concluding clause is to be supplied from the first: quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem?... non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, viz.,

    that we know not the Trojans and their history, Verg. A. 1, 565:

    adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars?

    Juv. 6, 59.—Hence (post-Cic.): adeo non ut... adeo nihil ut... so little that, so far from that... (in reference to which, it should be noticed that in Latin the negative is blended with the verb in one idea, which is qualified by adeo) = tantum abest ut: haec dicta adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint, these words left them all so unmoved that, etc., or had so little effect, etc., Liv. 3, 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret, who restrained his anger so little that, etc. (for, qui non—tenuit iram adeo, ut), id. 8, 7, 5; so 5, 45, 4; Vell. 2, 66, 4: Curt. 3, 12, 22.—Also with contra in the concluding clause:

    apud hostes Afri et Carthaginienses adeo non sustinebant, ut contra etiam pedem referrent,

    Liv. 30, 34, 5. —
    B.
    Adeo is placed enclitically after its word, like quidem, certe, and the Gr. ge, even, indeed, just, precisely. So,
    1.
    Most freq. with pronouns, in order to render prominent something before said, or foll., or otherwise known (cf. in Gr. egôge, suge, autos ge, etc., Viger. ed. Herm. 489, vi. and Zeun.): argentariis male credi qui aiunt, nugas praedicant: nam et bene et male credi dico; id adeo hodie ego expertus sum, just this (touto ge), Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 1; so id. Aul. 2, 4, 10; 4, 2, 15; id. Am. 1, 1, 98; 1, 2, 6; id. Ep. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 31; 5, 2, 40; id. Poen. 1, 2, 57: plerique homines, quos, cum nihil refert, pudet;

    ubi pudendum'st ibi eos deserit pudor, is adeo tu es,

    you are just such a one, id. Ep. 2, 1, 2:

    cui tu obsecutus, facis huic adeo injuriam,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 68: tute adeo jam ejus verba audies, you yourself shall hear what he has to say (suge akousêi), Ter. And. 3, 3, 27: Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse jucundius: hanc adeo habebo gratiam illi, i. e. hanc, quae maxima est, gratiam (tautên ge tên charin), Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16:

    haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt,

    even this, Verg. A. 11, 275.—It is often to be translated by the intensive and, and just, etc. (so esp. in Cic. and the histt.): id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that (touto ge skopeite), Cic. Caec. 30, 87:

    id adeo ex ipso senatus consulto cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, 143; cf. id. Clu. 30, 80:

    ad hoc quicumque aliarum atque senatus partium erant, conturbari remp., quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat,

    And just this evil, Sall. C. 37, 11; so 37, 2; id. J. 68, 3; Liv. 2, 29, 9; 4, 2, 2: id adeo manifestum erit, si cognoverimus, etc., and this, precisely this, will be evident, if, etc., Quint. 2, 16, 18 Spald.—It is rarely used with ille:

    ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 6.—Sometimes with the rel. pron.: quas adeo haud quisquam liber umquam tetigit, Plaut: Poen. 1, 2, 57; Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37. —With interrog. pron.:

    Quis adeo tam Latinae linguae ignarus est, quin, etc.,

    Gell. 7, 17.—Adeo is joined with the pers. pron. when the discourse passes from one person to another, and attention is to be particularly directed to the latter: Juppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes inspicis, and thou especially, and chiefly thou, Enn. ap. Prob.:

    teque adeo decus hoc aevi inibit,

    Verg. E. 4, 11; id. G. 1, 24: teque, Neptune, invoco, vosque adeo venti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73;

    and without the copulative: vos adeo... item ego vos virgis circumvinciam,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 25.— Ego adeo often stands for ego quidem, equidem (egôge):

    tum libertatem Chrysalo largibere: ego adeo numquam accipiam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 30; so id. Mil. 4, 4, 55; id. Truc. 4, 3, 73:

    ego adeo hanc primus inveni viam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 16:

    nec me adeo fallit,

    Verg. A. 4, 96.—Ipse adeo (autos ge), for the sake of emphasis:

    atque hercle ipsum adeo contuor,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 24:

    ipsum adeo praesto video cum Davo,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 4:

    ipse adeo senis ductor Rhoeteus ibat pulsibus,

    Sil. 14, 487.—
    2.
    With the conditional conjj. si, nisi, etc. (Gr. ei ge), if indeed, if truly:

    nihili est autem suum qui officium facere immemor est, nisi adeo monitus,

    unless, indeed, he is reminded of it, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 2: Si. Num illi molestae quippiam hae sunt nuptiae? Da. Nihil Hercle: aut si adeo, bidui est aut tridui haec sollicitudo, and if, indeed, etc. (not if also, for also is implied in aut), Ter. And. 2, 6, 7.—
    3.
    With adverbs: nunc adeo (nun ge), Plaut. As. 3, 1, 29; id. Mil. 2, 2, 4; id. Merc. 2, 2, 57; id. Men. 1, 2, 11; id. Ps. 1, 2, 52; id. Rud. 3, 4, 23; Ter. And. 4, 5, 26; Verg. A. 9, 156: jam adeo (dê ge), id. ib. 5, 268; Sil. 1, 20; 12, 534; Val. Fl. 3, 70. umquam adeo, Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 23:

    inde adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1:

    hinc adeo,

    Verg. E. 9, 59: sic adeo (houtôs ge), id. A. 4, 533; Sil. 12, 646:

    vix adeo,

    Verg. A. 6, 498:

    non adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 57; Verg. A. 11, 436. —
    4.
    With adjectives = vel, indeed, even, very, fully:

    quot adeo cenae, quas deflevi, mortuae!

    how very many suppers, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 59: quotque adeo fuerint, qui temnere superbum... Lucil. ap. Non. 180, 2: nullumne malorum finem adeo poenaeque dabis (adeo separated from nullum by poet. license)? wilt thou make no end at all to calamity and punishment? Val. Fl. 4, 63:

    trīs adeo incertos caeca caligine soles erramus,

    three whole days we wander about, Verg. A. 3, 203; 7, 629.—And with comp. or the adv. magis, multo, etc.:

    quae futura et quae facta, eloquar: multo adeo melius quam illi, cum sim Juppiter,

    very much better, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 3; so id. Truc. 2, 1, 5:

    magis adeo id facilitate quam aliā ullā culpā meā, contigit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15.—
    5.
    With the conjj. sive, aut, vel, in order to annex a more important thought, or to make a correction, or indeed, or rather, or even only:

    sive qui ipsi ambīssent, seu per internuntium, sive adeo aediles perfidiose quoi duint,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 71:

    si hercle scivissem, sive adeo joculo dixisset mihi, se illam amare,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 33; so id. Truc. 4, 3, 1; id. Men. 5, 2, 74; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 9: nam si te tegeret pudor, sive adeo cor sapientia imbutum foret, Pacuv. ap. Non. 521, 10:

    mihi adeunda est ratio, quā ad Apronii quaestum, sive adeo, quā ad istius ingentem immanemque praedam possim pervenire,

    or rather, Cic. Verr 2, 3, 46, 110; Verg. A. 11, 369; so, atque adeo:

    ego princeps in adjutoribus atque adeo secundus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 9.—
    6.
    With the imperative, for emphasis, like tandem, modo, dum, the Germ. so, and the Gr. ge (cf. L. and S.), now, I pray:

    propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab janua,

    Ter. And. 4, 4, 20 (cf. xullabete g auton, Soph. Phil. 1003).—
    C.
    Like admodum or nimis, to give emphasis to an idea (for the most part only in comic poets, and never except with the positive of the adj.; cf. Consent. 2023 P.), indeed, truly, so very, so entirely:

    nam me ejus spero fratrem propemodum jam repperisse adulescentem adeo nobilem,

    so very noble, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123:

    nec sum adeo informis,

    nor am I so very ugly, Verg. E. 2, 25:

    nam Caii Luciique casu non adeo fractus,

    Suet. Aug. 65:

    et merito adeo,

    and with perfect right, Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 42:

    etiam num credis te ignorarier aut tua facta adeo,

    do you, then, think that they are ignorant of you or your conduct entirely? id. Ph. 5, 8, 38.—
    D.
    To denote what exceeds expectation, even: quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse optimam dijudicat, quamque adeo cives Thebani rumificant probam, and whom even the Thebans (who are always ready to speak evil of others) declare to be an honest woman, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 44.— Hence also it denotes something added to the rest of the sentence, besides, too, over and above, usually in the connection: -que adeo (rare, and never in prose; cf.

    adhuc, I.): quin te Di omnes perdant qui me hodie oculis vidisti tuis, meque adeo scelestum,

    and me too, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 122; cf. id. 4, 2, 32:

    haec adeo tibi me, ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia jussit,

    Verg. A. 7, 427.
    III.
    After Caesar and Cicero (the only instance of this use adduced from Cicero's works, Off. 1, 11, 36, being found in a passage rejected by the best critics, as B. and K.).
    A.
    For adding an important and satisfactory reason to an assertion, and then it always stands at the beginning of the clause, indeed, for:

    cum Hanno perorāsset, nemini omnium cum eo certare necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat: the idea is,

    Hanno's speech, though so powerful, was ineffectual, and did not need a reply; for all the senators belonged to the party of Hannibal, Liv. 21, 11, 1; so id. 2, 27, 3; 2, 28, 2; 8, 37, 2; Tac. Ann. 1, 50, 81; Juv. 3, 274; 14, 233.—Also for introducing a parenthesis: sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita [p. 34] ingenia esse) ni subinde auro... principum animi concilientur, Liv. 21, 20, 8; so id. 9, 26, 17; 3, 4, 2; Tac. A. 2, 28.—
    B.
    When to a specific fact a general consideration is added as a reason for it, so, thus (in Livy very often):

    haud dubius, facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore: adeo non fortuna modo, sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat,

    thus not only fortune, but sagacity, was on the side of the barbarians, Liv. 5, 38, 4:

    adeo ex parvis saepe magnarum momenta rerum pendent,

    id. 27, 9, 1; so id. 4, 31, 5; 21, 33, 6; 28, 19; Quint. 1, 12, 7; Curt. 10, 2, 11; Tac. Agr. 1:

    adeo in teneris consuescere multum est,

    Verg. G. 2, 272.—
    C.
    In advancing from one thought to another more important = immo, rather, indeed, nay: nulla umquam res publica ubi tantus paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit: adeo, quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, Liv. praef. 11; so Gell. 11, 7; Symm. Ep. 1, 30, 37.—
    D.
    With a negative after ne—quidem or quoque, so much the more or less, much less than, still less (post-Aug.):

    hujus totius temporis fortunam ne deflere quidem satis quisquam digne potuit: adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest,

    still less can one describe: it by words, Vell. 2, 67, 1:

    ne tecta quidem urbis, adeo publicum consilium numquam adiit,

    still less, Tac. A. 6, 15; so id. H. 3, 64; Curt. 7, 5, 35:

    favore militum anxius et superbia viri aequalium quoque, adeo superiorum intolerantis,

    who could not endure his equals even, much less his superiors, Tac. H. 4, 80.—So in gen., after any negative: quaelibet enim ex iis artibus in paucos libros contrahi solet: adeo infinito spatio ac traditione opus non est, so much the less is there need, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 16; Plin. 17, 12, 35, § 179; Tac. H. 3, 39.—(The assumption of a causal signif. of adeo = ideo, propterea, rests upon false readings. For in Cael. Cic. Fam. 8, 15 we should read ideo, B. and K., and in Liv. 24, 32, 6, ad ea, Weiss.).—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 135-155.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adeo

  • 14 animus

    ănĭmus, i, m. [a Graeco-Italic form of anemos = wind (as ego, lego, of ego, lego); cf. Sanscr. an = to breathe, anas = breath, anilas = wind; Goth. uz-ana = exspiro; Erse, anal = breath; Germ. Unst = a storm (so, sometimes); but Curt. does not extend the connection to AФ, aêmi = to blow; a modification of animus—by making which the Romans took a step in advance of the Greeks, who used hê psuchê for both these ideas—is anima, which has the physical meaning of anemos, so that Cic. was theoretically right, but historically wrong, when he said, ipse animus ab anima dictus est, Tusc. 1, 9, 19; after the same analogy we have from psuchô = to breathe, blow, psuchê = breath, life, soul; from pneô = to breathe, pneuma = air, breath, life, in class. Greek, and = spirit, a spiritual being, in Hellenistic Greek; from spiro = to breathe, blow, spiritus = breath, breeze, energy, high spirit, and poet. and post-Aug. = soul, mind; the Engl. ghost = Germ. Geist may be comp. with Germ. giessen and cheô, to pour, and for this interchange of the ideas of gases and liquids, cf. Sol. 22: insula adspiratur freto Gallico, is flowed upon, washed, by the Gallic Strait; the Sanscr. atman = breath, soul, with which comp. aytmê = breath; Germ. Odem = breath, and Athem = breath, soul, with which group Curt. connects auô, aêmi; the Heb. = breath, life, soul; and = breath, wind, life, spirit, soul or mind].
    I.
    In a general sense, the rational soul in man (in opp. to the body, corpus, and to the physical life, anima), hê psuchê:

    humanus animus decerptus ex mente divina,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 13, 38:

    Corpus animum praegravat, Atque affixit humo divinae particulam aurae,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 77:

    credo deos immortales sparsisse animos in corpora humana, ut essent qui terras tuerentur etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 21, 77:

    eas res tueor animi non corporis viribus,

    id. ib. 11, 38; so id. Off. 1, 23, 79:

    quae (res) vel infirmis corporibus animo tamen administratur,

    id. Sen. 6, 15; id. Off. 1, 29, 102:

    omnes animi cruciatus et corporis,

    id. Cat. 4, 5, 10:

    levantes Corpus et animum,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 141:

    formam et figuram animi magis quam corporis complecti,

    Tac. Agr. 46; id. H. 1, 22:

    animi validus et corpore ingens,

    id. A. 15, 53:

    Aristides primus animum pinxit et sensus hominis expressit, quae vocantur Graece ethe, item perturbationes,

    first painted the soul, put a soul into his figures, Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 98 (cf.:

    animosa signa,

    life-like statues, Prop. 4, 8, 9): si nihil esset in eo (animo), nisi id, ut per eum viveremus, i. e. were it mere anima, Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 56:

    Singularis est quaedam natura atque vis animi, sejuncta ab his usitatis notisque naturis, i. e. the four material elements,

    id. ib. 1, 27, 66: Neque nos corpora sumus. Cum igitur nosce te dicit, hoc dicit, nosce animum tuum, id. ib. 1, 22, 52:

    In quo igitur loco est (animus)? Credo equidem in capite,

    id. ib. 1, 29, 70:

    corpora nostra, terreno principiorum genere confecta, ardore animi concalescunt,

    derive their heat from the fiery nature of the soul, id. ib. 1, 18, 42:

    Non valet tantum animus, ut se ipsum ipse videat: at, ut oculus, sic animus, se non videns alia cernit,

    id. ib. 1, 27, 67: foramina illa ( the senses), quae patent ad animum a corpore, callidissimo artificio natura fabricata est, id. ib. 1, 20, 47: dum peregre est animus sine corpore velox, independently of the body, i. e. the mind roaming in thought, Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 13:

    discessus animi a corpore,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18; 1, 30, 72:

    cum nihil erit praeter animum,

    when there shall be nothing but the soul, when the soul shall be disembodied, id. ib. 1, 20, 47; so,

    animus vacans corpore,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 50; and:

    animus sine corpore,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 51:

    sine mente animoque nequit residere per artus pars ulla animai,

    Lucr. 3, 398 (for the pleonasm here, v. infra, II. A. 1.):

    Reliquorum sententiae spem adferunt posse animos, cum e corporibus excesserint in caelum pervenire,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    permanere animos arbitramur consensu nationum omnium,

    id. ib. 1, 16, 36:

    Pherecydes primus dixit animos esse hominum sempiternos,

    id. ib. 1, 16, 38:

    Quod ni ita se haberet, ut animi immortales essent, haud etc.,

    id. Sen. 23, 82: immortalitas animorum, id. ib. 21, 78; id. Tusc. 1, 11, 24; 1, 14, 30:

    aeternitas animorum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 39; 1, 22, 50 (for the plur. animorum, in this phrase, cf. Cic. Sen. 23, 84); for the atheistic notions about the soul, v. Lucr. bk. iii.—
    II.
    In a more restricted sense, the mind as thinking, feeling, willing, the intellect, the sensibility, and the will, acc. to the almost universally received division of the mental powers since the time of Kant (Diog. Laert. 8, 30, says that Pythagoras divided hê psuchê into ho nous, hai phrenes, and ho thumos; and that man had ho nous and ho thumos in common with other animals, but he alone had hai phrenes. Here ho nous and ho thumos must denote the understanding and the sensibility, and hai phrenes, the reason. Plutarch de Placit. 4, 21, says that the Stoics called the supreme faculty of the mind (to hêgemonikon tês psuchês) ho logismos, reason. Cic. sometimes speaks of a twofold division; as, Est animus in partes tributus duas, quarum altera rationis est particeps, altera expers (i. e. to logistikon and to alogon of Plato; cf. Tert. Anim. 16), i. e. the reason or intellect and the sensibility, Tusc. 2, 21, 47; so id. Off. 1, 28, 101; 1, 36, 132; id. Tusc 4, 5, 10; and again of a threefold; as, Plato triplicem finxit animum, cujus principatum, id est rationem in capite sicut in arce posuit, et duas partes ( the two other parts) ei parere voluit, iram et cupiditatem, quas locis disclusit; iram in pectore, cupiditatem subter praecordia locavit, i. e. the reason or intellect, and the sensibility here resolved into desire and aversion, id. ib. 1, 10, 20; so id. Ac. 2, 39, 124. The will, hê boulêsis, voluntas, arbitrium, seems to have been sometimes merged in the sensibility, ho thumos, animus, animi, sensus, and sometimes identified with the intellect or reason, ho nous, ho logismos, mens, ratio).
    A.
    1.. The general power of perception and thought, the reason, intellect, mind (syn.: mens, ratio, ingenium), ho nous:

    cogito cum meo animo,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 13; so Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 55:

    cum animis vestris cogitare,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24:

    recordari cum animo,

    id. Clu. 25, 70;

    and without cum: animo meditari,

    Nep. Ages. 4, 1; cf. id. Ham. 4, 2:

    cogitare volvereque animo,

    Suet. Vesp. 5:

    animo cogitare,

    Vulg. Eccli. 37, 9:

    statuere apud animum,

    Liv. 34, 2:

    proposui in animo meo,

    Vulg. Eccli. 1, 12:

    nisi me animus fallit, hi sunt, etc.,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 23:

    in dubio est animus,

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 31; id. ib. prol. 1; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 29:

    animum ad se ipsum advocamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 31, 75:

    lumen animi, ingenii consiliique tui,

    id. Rep. 6, 12 al. —

    For the sake of rhet. fulness, animus often has a synonym joined with it: Mens et animus et consilium et sententia civitatis posita est in legibus,

    Cic. Clu. 146:

    magnam cui mentem animumque Delius inspirat vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 11:

    complecti animo et cogitatione,

    Cic. Off. 1, 32, 117; id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    animis et cogitatione comprehendere,

    id. Fl. 27, 66:

    cum omnia ratione animoque lustraris,

    id. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    animorum ingeniorumque naturale quoddam quasi pabulum consideratio naturae,

    id. Ac. 2, 41, 127.—Hence the expressions: agitatio animi, attentio, contentio; animi adversio; applicatio animi; judicium, opinio animorum, etc. (v. these vv.); and animum advertere, adjungere, adplicare, adpellere, inducere, etc. (v. these vv.).—
    2.
    Of particular faculties of mind, the memory:

    etiam nunc mihi Scripta illa dicta sunt in animo Chrysidis,

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 46:

    An imprimi, quasi ceram, animum putamus etc. (an idea of Aristotle's),

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 25, 61:

    ex animo effluere,

    id. de Or. 2, 74, 300: omnia fert aetas, animum quoque;

    ... Nunc oblita mihi tot carmina,

    Verg. E. 9, 51.—
    3.
    Consciousness (physically considered) or the vital power, on which consciousness depends ( = conscientia, q. v. II. A., or anima, q. v. II. E.):

    vae miserae mihi. Animo malest: aquam velim,

    I'm fainting, my wits are going, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 6; id. Curc. 2, 3, 33:

    reliquit animus Sextium gravibus acceptis vulneribus,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 38:

    Una eademque via sanguis animusque sequuntur,

    Verg. A. 10, 487:

    animusque reliquit euntem,

    Ov. M. 10, 459:

    nisi si timor abstulit omnem Sensum animumque,

    id. ib. 14, 177:

    linqui deinde animo et submitti genu coepit,

    Curt. 4, 6, 20: repente animo linqui solebat, Suet. Caes. 45:

    ad recreandos defectos animo puleio,

    Plin. 20, 14, 54, § 152.—
    4.
    The conscience, in mal. part. (v. conscientia, II. B. 2. b.):

    cum conscius ipse animus se remordet,

    Lucr. 4, 1135:

    quos conscius animus exagitabat,

    Sall. C. 14, 3:

    suae malae cogitationes conscientiaeque animi terrent,

    Cic. Sex. Rosc. 67.—
    5.
    In Plaut. very freq., and once also in Cic., meton. for judicium, sententia, opinion, judgment; mostly meo quidem animo or meo animo, according to my mind, in my opinion, Plaut. Men. 1, 3, 17:

    e meo quidem animo aliquanto facias rectius, si, etc.,

    id. Aul. 3, 6, 3:

    meo quidem animo, hic tibi hodie evenit bonus,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 69; so id. Aul. 3, 5, 4; id. Curc. 4, 2, 28; id. Bacch. 3, 2, 10; id. Ep. 1, 2, 8; id. Poen. 1, 2, 23; id. Rud. 4, 4, 94; Cic. Sest. 22:

    edepol lenones meo animo novisti,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 19:

    nisi, ut meus est animus, fieri non posse arbitror,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 5 (cf.:

    EX MEI ANIMI SENTENTIA,

    Inscr. Orell. 3665:

    ex animi tui sententia,

    Cic. Off. 3, 29, 108).—
    6.
    The imagination, the fancy (for which Cic. often uses cogitatio, as Ac. 2, 15, 48):

    cerno animo sepultam patriam, miseros atque insepultos acervos civium,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 6, 11:

    fingere animo jubebat aliquem etc.,

    id. Sen. 12, 41: Fingite animis;

    litterae enim sunt cogitationes nostrae, et quae volunt, sic intuentur, ut ea cernimus, quae videmus,

    id. Mil. 29, 79:

    Nihil animo videre poterant,

    id. Tusc. 1, 16, 38.—
    B.
    The power of feeling, the sensibility, the heart, the feelings, affections, inclinations, disposition, passions (either honorable or base; syn.: sensus, adfectus, pectus, cor), ho thumos.
    1.
    a.. In gen., heart, soul, spirit, feeling, inclination, affection, passion: Medea, animo aegra, amore saevo saucia, Enn. ap. Auct. ad Her. 2, 22 (cf. Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 36:

    animo hercle homo suo est miser): tu si animum vicisti potius quam animus te, est quod gaudeas, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 27 -29:

    harum scelera et lacrumae confictae dolis Redducunt animum aegrotum ad misericordiam,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 27:

    Quo gemitu conversi animi (sunt),

    Verg. A. 2, 73:

    Hoc fletu concussi animi,

    id. ib. 9, 498;

    4, 310: animum offendere,

    Cic. Lig. 4; id. Deiot. 33; so Vulg. Gen. 26, 35.—Mens and animus are often conjoined and contrasted, mind and heart (cf. the Homeric kata phrena kai kata thumon, in mind and heart): mentem atque animum delectat suum, entertains his mind and delights his heart, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10:

    Satin tu sanus mentis aut animi tui?

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 53:

    mala mens, malus animus,

    bad mind, bad heart, Ter. And. 1, 1, 137:

    animum et mentem meam ipsa cogitatione hominum excellentium conformabam,

    Cic. Arch. 6, 14:

    Nec vero corpori soli subveniendum est, sed menti atque animo multo magis,

    id. Sen. 11, 36:

    ut omnium mentes animosque perturbaret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 39; 1, 21:

    Istuc mens animusque fert,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 8:

    Stare Socrates dicitur tamquam quodam recessu mentis atque animi facto a corpore,

    Gell. 2, 1; 15, 2, 7.—

    And very rarely with this order inverted: Jam vero animum ipsum mentemque hominis, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 147:

    mente animoque nobiscum agunt,

    Tac. G. 29:

    quem nobis animum, quas mentes imprecentur,

    id. H. 1, 84;

    and sometimes pleon. without such distinction: in primis regina quietum Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam,

    a quiet mind and kindly heart, Verg. A. 1, 304; so,

    pravitas animi atque ingenii,

    Vell. 2, 112, 7 (for mens et animus, etc., in the sense of thought, used as a pleonasm, v. supra, II. A. 1.):

    Verum animus ubi semel se cupiditate devinxit mala, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 34:

    animus perturbatus et incitatus nec cohibere se potest, nec quo loco vult insistere,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 18, 41:

    animum comprimit,

    id. ib. 2, 22, 53:

    animus alius ad alia vitia propensior,

    id. ib. 4, 37, 81; id. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1:

    sed quid ego hic animo lamentor,

    Enn. Ann. 6, 40:

    tremere animo,

    Cic. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4:

    ingentes animo concipit iras,

    Ov. M. 1, 166:

    exsultare animo,

    id. ib. 6, 514.—So often ex animo, from the heart, from the bottom of one's heart, deeply, truly, sincerely:

    Paulum interesse censes ex animo omnia facias an de industria?

    from your heart or with some design, Ter. And. 4, 4, 55; id. Ad. 1, 1, 47:

    nisi quod tibi bene ex animo volo,

    id. Heaut. 5, 2, 6: verbum [p. 124] ex animo dicere, id. Eun. 1, 2, 95:

    sive ex animo id fit sive simulate,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 67, 168:

    majore studio magisve ex animo petere non possum,

    id. Fam. 11, 22:

    ex animo vereque diligi,

    id. ib. 9, 6, 2:

    ex animo dolere,

    Hor. A. P. 432:

    quae (gentes) dederunt terram meam sibi cum gaudio et toto corde et ex animo,

    Vulg. Ezech. 36, 5; ib. Eph. 6, 6; ib. 1 Pet. 5, 3.—And with gen.
    (α).
    With verbs:

    Quid illam miseram animi excrucias?

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 76; 4, 6, 65:

    Antipho me excruciat animi,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 10:

    discrucior animi,

    id. Ad. 4, 4, 1:

    in spe pendebit animi,

    id. Heaut. 4, 4, 5: juvenemque animi miserata repressit, pitying him in her heart, thumôi phileousa te kêdomenê te (Hom. Il. 1, 196), Verg. A. 10, 686.—
    (β).
    With adjj.:

    aeger animi,

    Liv. 1, 58; 2, 36; 6, 10; Curt. 4, 3, 11; Tac. H. 3, 58:

    infelix animi,

    Verg. A. 4, 529:

    felix animi,

    Juv. 14, 159:

    victus animi,

    Verg. G. 4, 491:

    ferox animi,

    Tac. A. 1, 32:

    promptus animi,

    id. H. 2, 23:

    praestans animi,

    Verg. A. 12, 19:

    ingens animi,

    Tac. A. 1, 69 (for this gen. v. Ramsh. Gr. p. 323; Key, § 935; Wagner ad Plaut. Aul. v. 105; Draeger, Hist. Synt. I. p. 443).—
    b.
    Meton., disposition, character (so, often ingenium): nimis paene animo es Molli, Pac. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 49:

    animo audaci proripit sese,

    Pac. Trag. Rel. p. 109 Rib.:

    petulans protervo, iracundo animo,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 3, 1; id. Truc. 4, 3, 1:

    ubi te vidi animo esse omisso (omisso = neglegenti, Don.),

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 9; Cic. Fam. 2. 17 fin.:

    promptus animus vester,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 9, 2: animis estis simplicibus et mansuetis nimium creditis unicuique, Auct. ad Her. 4, 37:

    eorum animi molles et aetate fluxi dolis haud difficulter capiebantur,

    Sall. C. 14, 5:

    Hecabe, Non oblita animorum, annorum oblita suorum,

    Ov. M. 13, 550:

    Nihil est tam angusti animi tamque parvi, quam amare divitias,

    Cic. Off. 1, 20, 68:

    sordidus atque animi parvi,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 10; Vell. 2, 25, 3:

    Drusus animi fluxioris erat,

    Suet. Tib. 52.—
    2.
    In particular, some one specific emotion, inclination, or passion (honorable or base; in this signif., in the poets and prose writers, very freq. in the plur.). —
    a.
    Courage, spirit:

    ibi nostris animus additus est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 94; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 31; id. And. 2, 1, 33:

    deficiens animo maesto cum corde jacebat,

    Lucr. 6, 1232:

    virtute atque animo resistere,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 8:

    fac animo magno fortique sis,

    id. ib. 6, 14 fin.:

    Cassio animus accessit, et Parthis timor injectus est,

    id. Att. 5, 20, 3:

    nostris animus augetur,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 70:

    mihi in dies magis animus accenditur,

    Sall. C. 20, 6; Cic. Att. 5, 18; Liv. 8, 19; 44, 29:

    Nunc demum redit animus,

    Tac. Agr. 3:

    bellica Pallas adest, Datque animos,

    Ov. M. 5, 47:

    pares annis animisque,

    id. ib. 7, 558:

    cecidere illis animique manusque,

    id. ib. 7, 347 (cf.:

    tela viris animusque cadunt,

    id. F. 3, 225) et saep.—Hence, bono animo esse or uti, to be of good courage, Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5: Am. Bono animo es. So. Scin quam bono animo sim? Plaut. Am. 22, 39:

    In re mala animo si bono utare, adjuvat,

    id. Capt. 2, 1, 9:

    bono animo fac sis,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 5, 1:

    quin tu animo bono es,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 4:

    quare bono animo es,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18; so Vulg. 2 Macc. 11, 26; ib. Act. 18, 25;

    so also, satis animi,

    sufficient courage, Ov. M. 3, 559.—Also for hope:

    magnus mihi animus est, hodiernum diem initium libertatis fore,

    Tac. Agr, 30.— Trop., of the violent, stormy motion of the winds of AEolus:

    Aeolus mollitque animos et temperat iras,

    Verg. A. 1, 57.—Of a top:

    dant animos plagae,

    give it new force, quicker motion, Verg. A. 7, 383.—

    Of spirit in discourse: in Asinio Pollione et consilii et animi satis,

    Quint. 10, 1, 113. —
    b.
    Haughtiness, arrogance, pride: quae civitas est in Asia, quae unius tribuni militum animos ac spiritus capere possit? can bear the arrogance and pride, etc., Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 66:

    jam insolentiam noratis hominis: noratis animos ejus ac spiritus tribunicios,

    id. Clu. 39, 109; so id. Caecin. 11 al.; Ov. Tr. 5, 8, 3 (cf.:

    quia paululum vobis accessit pecuniae, Sublati animi sunt,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 56).—
    c.
    Violent passion, vehemence, wrath:

    animum vincere, iracundiam cohibere, etc.,

    Cic. Marcell. 3:

    animum rege, qui nisi paret Imperat,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 62:

    qui dominatur animo suo,

    Vulg. Prov. 16, 32.—So often in plur.; cf hoi thumoi: ego meos animos violentos meamque iram ex pectore jam promam, Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 43:

    vince animos iramque tuam,

    Ov. H. 3, 85; id. M. 8, 583; Prop. 1, 5, 12:

    Parce tuis animis, vita, nocere tibi,

    id. 2, 5, 18:

    Sic longius aevum Destruit ingentes animos,

    Luc. 8, 28:

    coeunt sine more, sine arte, Tantum animis iraque,

    Stat. Th. 11, 525 al. —
    d.
    Moderation, patience, calmness, contentedness, in the phrase aequus animus, an even mind:

    si est animus aequos tibi,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 10; id. Rud. 2, 3, 71; Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 145; and often in the abl., aequo animo, with even mind, patiently, etc.:

    aequo animo ferre,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 23; Cic. Tusc. 1, 39, 93; id. Sen. 23, 84; Nep. Dion. 6, 4; Liv. 5, 39:

    aequo animo esse,

    Vulg. 3 Reg. 21, 7; ib. Judith, 7, 23: Aequo animo est? of merry heart (Gr. euthumei), ib. Jac. 5, 13:

    animis aequis remittere,

    Cic. Clu. 2, 6:

    aequiore animo successorem opperiri,

    Suet. Tib. 25:

    haud aequioribus animis audire,

    Liv. 23, 22: sapientissimus quisque aequissimo animo moritur; stultissimus iniquissimo. Cic. Sen. 23, 83; so id. Tusc. 1, 45, 109; Sall. C. 3, 2; Suet. Aug. 56:

    iniquo animo,

    Att. Trag. Rel. p. 150 Rib.; Cic. Tusc. 2, 2, 5; Quint. 11, 1, 66.—
    e.
    Agreeable feeling, pleasure, delight:

    cubat amans animo obsequens,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 134:

    indulgent animis, et nulla quid utile cura est,

    Ov. M. 7, 566; so, esp. freq.: animi causa (in Plaut. once animi gratia), for the sake of amusement, diversion (cf.:

    haec (animalia) alunt animi voluptatisque causa,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 12):

    Post animi causa mihi navem faciam,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 27; so id. Trin. 2, 2, 53; id. Ep. 1, 1, 43:

    liberare fidicinam animi gratia,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 90:

    qui illud animi causa fecerit, hunc praedae causa quid facturum putabis?

    Cic. Phil. 7, 6:

    habet animi causa rus amoenum et suburbanum,

    id. Rosc. Am. 46 Matth.; cf. id. ib. § 134, and Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 17, 56; Cic. Fam. 7, 2:

    Romanos in illis munitionibus animine causa cotidie exerceri putatis?

    Caes. B. G. 7, 77; Plin. praef. 17 Sill.—
    f.
    Disposition toward any one:

    hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1 fin.:

    meus animus erit in te semper, quem tu esse vis,

    id. ib. 5, 18 fin.:

    qui, quo animo inter nos simus, ignorant,

    id. ib. 3, 6; so id. ib. 4, 15;

    5, 2: In quo in primis quo quisque animo, studio, benevolentia fecerit, ponderandum est,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod (Allobroges) nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    to be well disposed, Caes. B. G. 1, 6 fin. —In the pregn. signif. of kind, friendly feeling, affection, kindness, liberality:

    animum fidemque praetorianorum erga se expertus est,

    Suet. Oth. 8:

    Nec non aurumque animusque Latino est,

    Verg. A. 12, 23.—Hence, meton., of a person who is loved, my heart, my soul:

    salve, anime mi,

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 3:

    da, meus ocellus, mea rosa, mi anime, da, mea voluptas,

    id. As. 3, 3, 74; so id. ib. 5, 2, 90; id. Curc. 1, 3, 9; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 48; id. Most. 1, 4, 23; id. Men. 1, 3, 1; id. Mil. 4, 8, 20; id. Rud. 4, 8, 1; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 15 et saep. —
    C.
    The power of willing, the will, inclination, desire, purpose, design, intention (syn.: voluntas, arbitrium, mens, consilium, propositum), hê boulêsis:

    qui rem publicam animo certo adjuverit,

    Att. Trag Rel. p. 182 Rib.:

    pro inperio tuo meum animum tibi servitutem servire aequom censui,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 23:

    Ex animique voluntate id procedere primum,

    goes forth at first from the inclination of the soul, Lucr. 2, 270; so,

    pro animi mei voluntate,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 8 (v. Manut. ad h.l.):

    teneo, quid animi vostri super hac re siet,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 58; 1, 1, 187:

    Nam si semel tuom animum ille intellexerit, Prius proditurum te etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 69:

    Prius quam tuom ut sese habeat animum ad nuptias perspexerit,

    id. And. 2, 3, 4:

    Sin aliter animus voster est, ego etc.,

    id. Ad. 3, 4, 46:

    Quid mi istaec narras? an quia non audisti, de hac re animus meus ut sit?

    id. Hec. 5, 2, 19:

    qui ab auro gazaque regia manus, oculos, animum cohibere possit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 66:

    istum exheredare in animo habebat,

    id. Rosc. Am. 18, 52: nobis crat in animo Ciceronem ad Caesarem mittere, we had it in mind to send, etc., id. Fam. 14, 11; Serv. ad Cic. ib. 4, 12:

    hostes in foro constiterunt, hoc animo, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    insurrexerunt uno animo in Paulum,

    with one mind, Vulg. Act. 18, 12; 19, 29: persequi Jugurtham animus ardebat, Sall. J. 39, 5 Gerlach (others, animo, as Dietsch); so id. de Rep. Ord. 1, 8: in nova fert an mus mutatas dicere formas, my mind inclines to tell of, etc., Ov. M. 1, 1.—Hence, est animus alicui, with inf., to have a mind for something, to aim at, etc.:

    omnibus unum Opprimere est animus,

    Ov. M. 5, 150:

    Sacra Jovi Stygio perficere est animus,

    Verg. A. 4, 639:

    Fuerat animus conjuratis corpus occisi in Tiberim trahere,

    Suet. Caes. 82 fin.; id. Oth. 6; cf. id. Calig. 56.—So, aliquid alicui in animo est, with inf., Tac. G. 3.—So, inducere in animum or animum, to resolve upon doing something; v. induco.—
    D.
    Trop., of the principle of life and activity in irrational objects, as in Engl. the word mind is used.
    1.
    Of brutes:

    in bestiis, quarum animi sunt rationis expertes,

    whose minds, Cic. Tusc. 1, 33, 80:

    Sunt bestiae, in quibus etiam animorum aliqua ex parte motus quosdam videmus,

    id. Fin. 5, 14, 38:

    ut non inscite illud dictum videatur in sue, animum illi pecudi datum pro sale, ne putisceret,

    id. ib. 5, 13, 38, ubi v. Madv.:

    (apes Ingentes animos angusto in pectore versant,

    Verg. G. 4, 83:

    Illiusque animos, qui multos perdidit unus, Sumite serpentis,

    Ov. M. 3, 544:

    cum pecudes pro regionis caelique statu et habitum corporis et ingenium animi et pili colorem gerant,

    Col. 6, 1, 1:

    Umbria (boves progenerat) vastos nec minus probabiles animis quam corporibus,

    id. 6, 1, 2 si equum ipsum nudum et solum corpus ejus et animum contemplamur, App. de Deo Socr. 23 (so sometimes mens:

    iniquae mentis asellus,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 20).—
    2.
    Of plants:

    haec quoque Exuerint silvestrem animum, i. e. naturam, ingenium,

    their wild nature, Verg. G. 2, 51.—
    III.
    Transf. Of God or the gods, as we say, the Divine Mind, the Mind of God:

    certe et deum ipsum et divinum animum corpore liberatum cogitatione complecti possumus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 22, 51 (so mens, of God, id. ib. 1, 22, 66; id. Ac. 2, 41, 126):

    Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

    Verg. A. 1, 11.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > animus

  • 15 as

    as, assis, m. (nom. assis, Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 1, 1, 9, and Schol. ad Pers. 2, 59; old form assārĭus, ii, m.; and in the gen. plur. assariūm, Varr. L. L. 8, § 71 Müll.; Charis. p. 58 P.) [heis, Dor. ais, Tarent. as, Hinter].
    I.
    In gen., unity, a unit; as a standard for different coins, weight, measure, etc. (in Vitr. 3, 1, p. 61 Rode, perfectus numerus, the perfect number, fundamental number), acc. to the duodecimal system, divided into 12 parts, or uncias, with the following particular designations: uncia = 1s./12 duodecima (sc. pars) sextans = 2/12 = 1s./6 sexta quadrans = 3/12 = 1s./4 quarta, also teruncius or triuncis triens = 4/12 = 1s./3 tertia or quincunx = 5s./12 sextans cum quadrante semissis s. semis = 6/12 = 1s./2 dimidia septunx = 7s./12 quadrans cum triente bessis s. bes = 8/12 = 2/3, for beis s. binae partes assis. dodrans = 9/12 = 3s./4 terni quadrantes dextans s. decunx = 10/12 = 5s./6 quini sextantes deunx = 11s./12 undecim unciaeThe uncia was again divided into smaller parts: semuncia = 1/2 uncia = 1/24 assis. duella = 1/3 uncia = 1/36 assis. sicilicus (-um) = 1/4 uncia = 1/48 assis. sextula = 1/6 uncia = 1/72 assis. drachma = 1/8 uncia = 1/96 assis. hemisecla = 1/12 uncia = 1/144 assis. scripulum = 1/24 uncia = 1/288 assis.The multiples of the as received the following designations: dupondius = 2 asses. tripondius s. tressis = 3 asses. (quadressis) = 4 asses. quinquessis = 5 asses. sexis (only in the connection decussissexis in Vitr. 1. c.) = 6 asses. septissis = 7 asses. octussis = 8 asses. nonussis (novissis?) = 9 asses. decussis = 10 asses. bicessis = 20 asses. tricessis = 30 asses, and so on to centussis = 100 asses. (Cf. Varr. L. L. 5, § 169 sq. Müll.)
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    1.. As a copper coin, the as was, acc. to the ancient custom of weighing money, originally a pound (asses librales or aes grave), of the value of about 8 8 d. /89, or 16 2/3 cents, and was uncoined (aes rude) until Servius Tullius stamped it with the figures of animals (hence pecunia, from pecus); cf. Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 9; Plin. 33, 3, 13, § 42 sqq. In the first Punic war, on account of the scarcity of money, the as was reduced to a sixth part of its original weight, i. e. two ounces; hence asses sextantarii (of the value of about 1 103 d. /297, or 2.8 cents), and the state gained five sixths. In the second Punic war, and the dictatorship of Fabius, the as was again reduced one half, to one ounce; hence asses unciales, about equal to 200 d. /297, or 1.4 cents. Finally, the Lex Papiria (A.U.C. 563, B.C. 191) reduced the as to half an ounce; hence asses semiunciales = 100 d. /297, or 7.9 1/3 mills, which continued as a standard even under the emperors. In all these reductions, however, the names of coins remained, independent of the weight of the as: uncia, sextans, quadrans, etc.; cf. Grotef. Gr. II. p. 253 sq.—From the small value of the as after the last reduction, the following phrases arose: quod non opus est, asse carum est, Cato ap. Sen. Ep. 94:

    Quod (sc. pondus auri) si comminuas, vilem redigatur ad assem,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 43:

    viatica ad assem Perdiderat,

    to the last farthing, id. Ep. 2, 2, 27:

    ad assem impendium reddere,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 15:

    rumores Omnes unius aestimemus assis,

    Cat. 5, 3:

    Non assis facis?

    id. 42, 13.—Hence,
    2.
    The proverbs,
    a.
    Assem habeas, assem valeas, your worth is estimated by your possessions, Petr. 77, 6:

    crumena plena assium,

    Gell. 20, 1.—
    b.
    Assem elephanto dare, to give something (as a petition, and the like) with trembling to a superior (a metaphor derived from trained elephants, which, after playing their parts, were accustomed to take pay for themselves, which was given them with fear by the multitude; cf. Plin. 8, 5, 5, § 14), Augustus ap. Quint. 6, 3, 59, and Macr. S. 2, 4; Varr. ap. Non. p. 531, 10 sq.—
    B.
    In inheritances and other money matters, where a division was made, the as, with its parts, was used to designate the portions. Thus haeres ex asse, sole heir; haeres ex semisse, he who receives one half of the inheritance; haeres ex dodrante, he who receives three fourths; and so, haeres ex besse, triente, quadrante, sextante, etc.;

    ex semiunciā, ex sextulā, ex duabus sextulis, etc.,

    Dig. 28, 5, 50; 34, 9, 2; Suet. Caes. 83; Cic. Caecin. 6 et saep.:

    Nerva constituit, ut tu ex triente socius esses, ego ex besse,

    Dig. 17, 2, 76:

    bessem fundi emere ab aliquo,

    ib. 26, 21, 2, § 39:

    quadrans et semissis fundi,

    ib. 6, 1, 8 al.;

    hence, in assem, in asse, or ex asse,

    in all, entirely, completely, Dig. 36, 45:

    vendere fundum in assem,

    ib. 20, 6, 9; so Col. 3, 3, 8 and 9:

    in asse,

    id. 2, 12, 7:

    sic in asse flunt octo menses et dies decem,

    id. 2, 12, 7:

    ex asse aut ex parte possidere,

    Dig. 2, 8, 15; Sid. Ep. 2, 1; 6, 12; 8, 6 al.—
    C.
    As a measure of extent.
    a.
    An acre, acc. to the same divisions as above, from scripulum to the as, Col. 5, 1, 9 sq.:

    proscindere semissem, iterare assem,

    Plin. 18, 19, 49, § 178.—
    b.
    A foot, Col. 5, 3.—
    D.
    Of weight, a pound, acc. to the same division; cf.

    Fann. Pond. 41: In haec solide sexta face assis eat,

    Ov. Med. Fac. 60.← Mathematicians (v. Vitr. l. c.) called the number 6 perfectus numerus (since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6), and formed, accordingly, the following terminology: 1 = sextans, as a dice-number. unio. 2 = triens.......... binio. 3 = semissis.......... ternio. 4 = bessis (dimoiros)..... quaternio. 5 = quintarius....... quinio. 6 = perfectus numerus.... senio. 7 = ephektos, sex adjecto asse = 6 + 1. 8 = adtertiarius, sex adjectā tertiā = 6 + 2 (epitritos). 9 = sesquialter, sex adjectā dimidiā = 6 + 3 (hêmiolios). 10 = bes alter, sex duabus partibus additis = 6 + 4 (epidimoiros). 11 = adquintarius, sex quinque partibus additis = 6 + 5 (epipentamoiros). 12 = duplio (diplasiôn).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > as

  • 16 at

    at or ast, conj. [Curtius connects the Sanscr. ati, ultra, nimis, the Gr. eti, the Lat. et, and at in atavus; Vanicek connects with these at, atque, and atqui. Thus the original idea of addition is prominent in eti, et, and atque; and the idea of opposition in at and atqui, which agree with at-ar in meaning as well as in form. After the same analogy, the Gr. pleon, more, has become plên, but; and the Lat. magis has passed into the same meaning in the Fr. mais and the Ital. mai. The confusion in MSS. between at, ac, and et, and between atque and atqui, was prob. caused as much by their connection in idea as in form] (it was sometimes, for the sake of euphony, written ad; cf. Quint. 12, 10; 12, 32; 1, 7, 5; Charis. p. 203 P., where, instead of at conjunctionem esse, ad vero praepositionem, the reading should be, ad conjunctionem esse, at vero praepositionem, Fr.; v. the pass. in its connection; cf. also Vel. Long. p. 2230 P.; Cassiod. p. 2287 P.; Mar. Vict. p. 2458 P. The form ast is found in the old laws; it occurs once in Trag. Rel., but never in Com. Rel. nor in Lucil.; at is found in Plautus about 280 times, and ast about 10 times; in Ter. at about 100 times, and ast once; in Hor. at 60 times, ast 3 times; in Verg. at 168 times, ast 16; in Juv. at 17 times, ast 7; Catull., Tibull., and Prop. use only at, and Pers. (Jahn) only ast; in prose, Cic. uses [p. 186] ast in his epistles. It joins to a previous thought a new one, either antithetical or simply different, and especially an objection; while sed denotes a direct opposition; and autem marks a transition, and denotes at once a connection and an opposition).
    I.
    In adding a diff., but not entirely opp. thought, a qualification, restriction, etc., moreover, but, yet; sometimes an emphasized (but never merely copulative) and.
    A.
    In gen.: SEI PARENTEM PVER VERBERIT AST OLE PLORASSIT PVER DIVEIS PARENTOM SACER ESTO, if the son strike his father, and the father complain, let the son, etc., Lex Serv. Tullii ap. Fest. s. v. plorare, p. 230 Müll.; Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 24: Philosophari est mihi necesse, at paucis, but only in a few words, Enn., Trag. Rel. p. 65 Rib.:

    DIVOS ET EOS QVI CAELESTES, SEMPER HABITI COLVNTO... AST OLLA PROPTER QVAE etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 19; 3, 4, 11: hinc Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam Solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcer in alto Quaerit Aventino, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 83 Vahl.); Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 22:

    si ego hic peribo, ast ille, ut dixit, non redit,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 25:

    paret Amor dictis carae genetricis. At Venus Ascanio placidam per membra quietem Inrigat,

    Verg. A. 1, 691:

    (Aeneas) finem dedit ore loquendi. At, Phoebi nondum patiens, immanis in antro Bacchatur vates,

    id. ib. 6, 77; 11, 709 sq.: quo (odore) totum nati corpus perduxit;

    at illi Dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura,

    id. G. 4, 416; so id. ib. 4, 460; 4, 513; id. A. 3, 259; 3, 675; 7, 81; 8, 241; 9, 793; Prop. 4, 4, 15; 4, 7, 11; Luc. 3, 664; 4, 36 al.—Also in prose (chiefly post-Aug.):

    una (navis) cum Nasidianis profugit: at ex reliquis una praemissa Massiliam, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7:

    ubi facta sunt, in unum omnia miscentur. At pastilli haec ratio est, etc.,

    Cels. 5, 17; 6, 18:

    quamquam insideret urbem proprius miles, tres urbanae, novem praetoriae cohortes Etruriā ferme Umbriāque delectae aut vetere Latio et coloniis antiquitus Romanis. At apud idonea provinciarum sociae triremes etc.,

    Tac. A. 4, 5; 4, 6:

    negavit aliā se condicione adlecturum, quam si pateretur ascribi albo, extortum sibi a matre. At illa commota etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 51; id. Calig. 15; 44; id. Vesp. 5; id. Dom. 4; id. Galb. 7 al.—In the enumeration of particulars:

    Cum alio cantat, at tamen alii suo dat digito litteras, Naev., Com. Rel. p. 20 Rib.: dant alios aliae (silvae) fetus: dant utile lignum Navigiis pinos... At myrtus validis hastilibus et bona bello Cornus,

    Verg. G. 2, 447:

    Nam neque tum stellis acies obtunsa videtur... At nebulae magis etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 401; 3, 87; id. A. 7, 691:

    Hic altā Sicyone, ast hic Amydone relictā, Hic Andro, etc.,

    Juv. 3, 69.— The Vulg. often uses at as a mere continuative, where even et or atque might stand: sciscitabur ab iis ubi Christus nasceretur. At illi dixerunt ei: In etc., Matt. 2, 5; 4, 20; 8, 32; 14, 29; 15, 34 et persaep.—In transition,
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To a new narration, like the Gr. de; so the commencement of the fourth book of the Æneid: At regina gravi jam dudum saucia curā, etc. (the third book closes with the narrative of Æneas); so the beginning of the third book of the Thebaid of Statius: At non Aoniae moderator perfidus aulae, etc.; Verg. A. 4, 504; 5, 35; 5, 545; 5, 700; 5, 779; 6, 679; 7, 5; 8, 370; 8, 608; 9, 503; 10, 689; 11, 597; 12, 134 et saep.—Also in the postAug. histt. and other prose writers; so after speaking of the Ubii etc., Tac. says: At in Chaucis coeptavere seditionem praesidium agitantes etc., A. 1, 38; so ib. 4, 13; 12, 62; 14, 23 et saep.—
    2.
    To a wonderful, terrible, unexpected, or exciting occurrence or circumstance:

    clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit, etc.... At gemini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones Effugiunt,

    Verg. A. 2, 225; 3, 225:

    Lacte madens illic suberat Pan ilicis umbrae, Et facta agresti lignea falce Pales etc. At quā Velabri regio patet etc.,

    Tib. 2, 5, 33; Verg. G. 4, 471:

    consurgit Turnus in ensem et ferit. Exclamant Troes trepidique Latini, Arrectaeque amborum acies. At perfidus ensis Frangitur in medio,

    id. A. 12, 731; 10, 763:

    adusque Supremum tempus, ne se penuria victūs Opprimeret metuebat. At hunc liberta securi divisit medium,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 99: Magnus quanto mucrone minatur Noctibus hibernis et sidera terret Orion. At sonipes habitus etc., Stat. S. 1, 1, 46.—
    3.
    To a passionate appeal, etc., in which case the antecedent clause is not expressed, but must be considered as existing in the mind of the speaker; cf. in Gr. alla su, su de.
    a.
    In passing to an interrogation, exhortation, request:

    At, scelesta, viden ut ne id quidem me dignum esse existumat?

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 23; id. Aul. 1, 1, 8:

    At qui nummos tristis inuncat?

    Lucil. 15, 21 Müll.: Me. Sauream non novi. Li. At nosce sane, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 58: Ca. Non adest. Ps. At tu cita, id. Ps. 1, 1, 30:

    satis habeo, at quaeso hercle etiam vide,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 53 (Ritschl, sat habeo. Sed):

    at unum hoc quaeso... Ut, etc.,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 89:

    at tu, qui laetus rides mala nostra caveto Mox tibi,

    Tib. 1, 2, 87:

    Hunc ut Peleus vidit, At inferias, juvenum gratissime Crantor, Accipe, ait,

    Ov. M. 12, 367:

    at tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arenae Ossibus et capiti inhumato Particulam dare,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 23.—In prose:

    at vide quid succenseat,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 24, 2:

    itaque pulsus ego civitate non sum, quae nulla erat: at vide, quam ista tui latrocinii tela contempserim,

    id. Part. Or. 4, 1, 28; id. Dom. 44; App. M. 6, p. 179, 18.—
    b.
    In expressions of passion, astonishment, indignation, pain, etc.:

    At ut scelesta sola secum murmurat,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 13: Sc. Nunc quidem domi certost: certa res est Nunc nostrum opservare ostium, [ubi] ubist. Pa. At, Sceledre, quaeso, Ut etc., id. Mil. 2, 4, 46:

    At o deorum quidquid in caelo regit Terras et humanum genus, Quid iste fert tumultus?

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1:

    At tibi quanta domus rutila testudine fulgens, etc.,

    Stat. S. 2, 4, 11.—In prose:

    horum omnium studium una mater oppugnat: at quae mater?

    Cic. Clu. 70; id. Verr. 2, 2, 45:

    at per deos immortales! quid est, quod de hoc dici possit,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 46:

    institui senatores, qui omnia indicum responsa perscriberent. At quos viros!

    id. Sull. 42; id. Deiot. 19, 33:

    tangit et ira deos: at non impune feremus,

    Ov. M. 8, 279; 10, 724:

    at tibi Colchorum, memini, regina vacavi,

    id. H. 12, 1.—
    c.
    In indignant imprecations:

    At te di omnes cum consilio, Calve, mactāssint malo! Pomp., Com. Rel. p. 245 Rib.: At te Juppiter diique omnes perdant!

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 37:

    At te di deaeque faxint cum isto odio, Laches,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 59:

    At te di perdant,

    id. Eun. 3, 1, 41:

    At tibi di dignum factis exitium duint,

    id. And. 4, 1, 42:

    At vobis male sit,

    Cat. 3, 13:

    At tibi, pro scelere, exclamat, pro talibus ausis Di... persolvant grates dignas et praemia reddant Debita!

    Verg. A. 2, 535.—In prose:

    At vos, ait, devota capita, respiciant di perjuriorum vindices,

    Just. 14, 4, 10.—
    d.
    Rarely of friendly inclination, disposition:

    At tibi di bene faciant omnes,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 18:

    At tibi di semper, adulescens, quisquis es, faciant bene,

    id. Men. 5, 7, 32:

    At tu, Catulle, destinatus obdura,

    Cat. 8, 19.—
    e.
    In entreaty:

    At vos, o superi, miserescite regis,

    Verg. A. 8, 572:

    at tu, pater deūm hominumque, hinc saltem arce hostes,

    Liv. 1, 12.—
    II.
    In adding an entirely opposite thought, but, but indeed, but on the other hand, on the contrary, etc. (the strictly class. signif. of the word).
    A.
    In gen.: at differentiam rerum significat: ut cum dicimus, Scipio est bellator, at M. Cato orator, Paul. ex Fest. p. 11 Müll.: splendet saepe, ast idem nimbis interdum nigret, Att., Trag. Rel. p. 170 Rib.: So. Mentire nunc. Me. At jam faciam, ut verum dicas dicere, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 189: So. Per Jovem juro med etc. Me. At ego per Mercurium juro, tibi etc., id. ib. 1, 1, 280:

    Atque oppido hercle bene velle illud visus sum, Ast non habere quoi commendarem caprum,

    id. Merc. 2, 1, 22:

    fecit idem Themistocles... at idem Pericles non fecit,

    Cic. Att. 7, 11, 3:

    non placet M. Antonio consulatus meus, at placuit P. Servilio,

    id. Phil. 2, 5, 12:

    majores nostri Tusculanos Aequos... in civitatem etiam acceperunt, at Karthaginem et Numantiam funditus sustulerunt,

    id. Off. 1, 11, 35: brevis a naturā nobis vita data est;

    at memoria bene redditae vitae sempiterna,

    id. Phil. 14, 12, 32; id. Cat. 2, 2, 3; id. Leg. 2, 18:

    crebras a nobis litteras exspecta, ast plures etiam ipse mittito,

    id. Att. 1, 16 fin.: Rejectis pilis comminus gladiis pugnatum est. At Germani phalange factā impetus gladiorum exceperunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 52:

    Postquam Caesar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri verbo alius alii varie adsentiebantur. At M. Porcius Cato hujusce modi orationem habuit,

    Sall. C. 52, 1:

    hac iter Elysium nobis, at laeva... ad impia Tartara mittit,

    Verg. A. 6, 542: T. Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi... M. At nos hinc alii sitientīs ibimus Afros, id. E. 1, 65: Dam. Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella... Men. At mihi sese offert ultro meus ignis Amyntas, id. ib. 3, 66; 7, 35; 7, 55; id. G. 1, 219; 1, 242; 1, 370; 2, 151; 2, 184; 3, 331; 4, 18; 4, 180; id. A. 2, 35; 2, 687; 3, 424; 5, 264;

    6, 489: Ast ego nutrici non mando vota,

    Pers. 2, 39:

    ast illi tremat etc.,

    id. 6, 74:

    Ast vocat officium,

    id. 6, 27:

    At Jesus audiens ait,

    Vulg. Matt. 9, 12; 9, 22; 12, 3; 12, 48 et persaep.—
    a.
    In order to strengthen a contrast, sometimes (esp. in Plaut. and Ter.) with contra, e contrario, potius, etiam, vero.
    (α).
    With contra:

    Summis nitere opibus, at ego contra ut dissimilis siem,

    Lucil. 26, 19 Müll.:

    Ergo quod magnumst aeque leviusque videtur... At contra gravius etc.,

    Lucr. 1, 366; so id. 1, 570; 1, 1087; 2, 235: L. Opimius ejectus est e patriā: At contra bis Catilina absolutus est, Cic. Pis. 95; id. Verr. 5, 66; id. Sex. Rosc. 131; id. Quinct. 75:

    At tibi contra Evenit, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 27:

    (Cornutus) taedio curarum mortem in se festinavit: at contra reus nihil infracto animo, etc.,

    Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    With e contrario: apud nos mercenarii scribae existimantur;

    at apud illos e contrario nemo ad id officium admittitur, nisi, etc.,

    Nep. Eum. 1, 5:

    in locis siccis partibus sulcorum imis disponenda sunt semina, ut tamquam in alveolis maneant. At uliginosis e contrario in summo porcae dorso collocanda, etc.,

    Col. 11, 3, 44.—
    (γ).
    With potius:

    at satius fuerat eam viro dare nuptum potius,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 44:

    at potius serves nostram, tua munera, vitam,

    Ov. H. 3, 149.—
    (δ).
    With etiam: At etiam, furcifer, Male loqui mi audes? but do you even? etc., Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 31; id. Trin. 4, 2, 151; id. Rud. 3, 4, 6:

    At etiam cubat cuculus. Surge, amator, i domum,

    but he is yet abed, id. As. 5, 2, 73; so id. Capt. 2, 3, 98; id. Mil. 4, 4, 6:

    Exi foras, sceleste. At etiam restitas, Fugitive!

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 1; 5, 6, 10: Proinde aut exeant, aut quiescant, etc.... at etiam sunt, Quirites, qui dicant, a me in exsilium ejectum esse Catilinam, on the contrary, there are indeed people who say. etc., Cic. Cat. 2, 6, 12; id. Phil. 2, 30, 76; id. Quinct. 56; id. Verr. 5, 77; id. Dom. 70 al.—
    (ε).
    With vero, but certainly:

    At vero aut honoribus aucti aut etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 36, 87; id. Off. 2, 20, 70; 2, 23, 80; id. Fin. 1, 10, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 17 al.—
    (ζ).
    With certe:

    Numquam ego te, vitā frater amabilior, Aspiciam posthac. At certe semper amabo,

    Cat. 65, 11; 66, 25. —
    (η).
    So, quidem—at (very rare) = quidem —autem, Cic. Off. 1, 22, 75.—
    b.
    Ironically: Th. Quid valeam? Ly. At tu aegrota, si lubet, per me aetatem quidem, Plaut. Curc. 4, 3, 22:

    at, credo, mea numina tandem Fessa jacent,

    Verg. A. 7, 297; 7, 363; Ov. H. 1, 44.—
    B.
    Very freq. in adding an objection, from one's own mind or another's, against an assertion previously made, but, on the contrary, in opposition to this; sometimes, but one may say, it may be objected, and the like:

    Piscium magnam atque altilium vim interfecisti. At nego,

    Lucil. 28, 43 Müll.:

    Quid tandem te impedit? Mosne majorum? At persaepe etiam privati in hac re publicā perniciosos cives morte multārunt. An leges, quae de civium Romanorum supplicio rogatae sunt? At numquam in hac urbe etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 11, 28:

    Appellandi tempus non erat? At tecum plus annum vixit. In Galliā agi non potuit? At et in provinciā jus dicebatur et etc.,

    id. Quinct. 41:

    Male judicavit populus. At judicavit. Non debuit. At potuit. Non fero. At multi clarissimi cives tulerunt,

    id. Planc. 11:

    sunt, quos signa, quos caelatum argentum delectant. At sumus, inquiunt, civitatis principes,

    id. Part. Or. 5, 2, 36; id. Fin. 4, 25, 71; id. Verr. 2, 2 fin.:

    quid porro quaerendum est? Factumne sit? At constat: A quo? At patet,

    id. Mil. 6, 15; id. Phil. 2, 9: convivium vicinorum cotidie compleo, quod ad multam noctem, quam maxime possumus, vario sermone producimus. At non est voluptatum tanta quasi titillatio in senibus. Credo: sed ne desideratio quidem, [p. 187] id. Sen. 14, 47:

    multo magnus orator praestat minutis imperatoribus. At prodest plus imperator. Quis negat?

    id. Brut. 73, 256; id. Div. 2, 29, 62; 2, 31, 67; 2, 32, 69 al.:

    Maxime Juppiter! At in se Pro quaestu sumptum facit hic,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 18 al. — In this case freq. strengthened,
    a.
    By pol, edepol, hercule: At pol ego neque florem neque flocces volo mihi, Caecil., Com. Rel. p. 67 Rib.: So. Non edepol volo profecto. Me. At pol profecto ingratiis, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 215; so id. As. 2, 2, 34; 4, 2, 14; id. Capt. 3, 4, 64; id. Cas. 2, 3, 15; id. Cist. 4, 2, 70; id. Trin. 2, 4, 73: Ha. Gaudio ero vobis. Ad. At edepol nos voluptati tibi, id. Poen. 5, 4, 61; 3, 1, 68:

    At hercule aliquot annos populus Romanus maximā parte imperii caruit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 54; id. Sex. Rosc. 50:

    at hercle in eā controversiā, quae de Argis est, superior sum,

    Liv. 34, 31:

    At, Hercule, reliquis omnibus etc.,

    Plin. 7, 50, 51, § 169:

    At, hercules, Diodorus et in morbo etc.,

    id. 29, 6, 39, § 142:

    At hercule Germanicum Druso ortum etc.,

    Tac. A. 1, 3; 1, 17; 1, 26;

    3, 54: At, hercules, si conscius fuissem etc.,

    Curt. 6, 10, 20 al. —
    b.
    By enim, which introduces a reason for the objection implied in at, but certainly, but surely, but indeed, etc., alla gar: At enim tu nimis spisse incedis, Naev., Com. Rel. p. 16 Rib.; Turp. id. p. 93: at enim nimis hic longo sermone utimur;

    Diem conficimus,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 78:

    At enim istoc nil est magis etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 21:

    At enim vereor, inquit Crassus, ne haec etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 49, 188:

    cum dixisset Sophocles, O puerum pulchrum, Pericle. At enim praetorem, Sophocle, decet non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes habere, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 40, 144 Beier; so id. Mur. 35, 74; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52 al.:

    at enim inter hos ipsos existunt graves controversiae,

    id. Quinct. 1; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51; 20, 60; id. Phil. 2, 2, 3; id. Ac. 2, 17, 52:

    At enim cur a me potissimum hoc praesidium petiverunt?

    id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 15:

    At enim quis reprehendet, quod in parricidas rei publicae decretum erit?

    Sall. C. 51, 25 Kritz:

    At enim quid ita solus ego circum curam ago?

    Liv. 6, 15; 34, 32:

    At enim eo foedere, quod etc.,

    id. 21, 18; 34, 31; 39, 37: At enim nova nobis in fratrum filias conjugia;

    sed etc.,

    Tac. A. 12, 6.—
    c.
    By tamen: Jam id peccatum primum magnum, magnum, at humanum tamen, Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 53: Hi secretis sermonibus... conveniunt;

    nam publice civitas talibus inceptis abhorrebat. At tamen interfuere quidam etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 55:

    At certe tamen, inquiunt, quod etc.,

    Cat. 10, 14.—
    C.
    With a preced. negative, sometimes no antithesis is appended by at, but it is indicated that if what has been said is not true, yet at least something else is true, but yet; sometimes with tamen, but yet; or certe, but at least, yet at least:

    Nolo victumas: at minimis me extis placare volo,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 95:

    Si tibi non cordi fuerant conubia nostra,... At tamen in vostras potuisti ducere sedes,

    Cat. 64, 158 sq.:

    Non cognoscebantur foris, at domi: non ab alienis, at a suis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 11, 56:

    Liceat haec nobis, si oblivisci non possumus, at tacere,

    id. Fl. 25, 61:

    Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi,

    Verg. A. 1, 543; so id. ib. 4, 615, and 6, 406. —With certe:

    Haec erant... quorum cognitio studiosis juvenibus si non magnam utilitatem adferet, at certe, quod magis petimus, bonam voluntatem,

    Quint. 12, 11, 31; Cels. 2, 15; Suet. Calig. 12, al.—
    D.
    The antithesis is sometimes not so much in the clause appended by at, as in the persons or things introduced in it; so,
    (α).
    Esp. freq. in conditional clauses with si, si non, si minus, etiam si, etc.; cf. Herm. ad Viger. 241: Si ego hic peribo, ast ille, ut dixit, non redit; At erit mi hoc factum mortuo memorabile, if I perish here, but he does not return, yet etc., Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 26; id. Bacch. 2, 3, 131:

    si ego digna hac contumeliā Sum maxime, at tu indignus qui faceres tamen,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 25:

    Si tu oblitus es, at di meminerunt,

    Cat. 30, 11:

    si non eo die, at postridie,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 1:

    si non paulo, at aliquanto (post petīsses),

    Cic. Quinct. 40; 97; id. Mil. 93 al.:

    quanta tempestas invidiae nobis, si minus in praesens, at in posteritatem impendeat,

    id. Cat. 1, 22; id. Verr. 5, 69; id. Clu. 15: qui non possit, etiam si sine ullā suspitione, at non sine argumento male dicere, id. Cael. 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With etsi:

    ei, etsi nequāquam parem illius ingenio, at pro nostro tamen studio meritam gratiam referamus,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 4, 14; Tac. Or. 19.—
    (γ).
    With quod si:

    Quod si nihil cum potentiore juris humani relinquitur inopi, at ego ad deos confugiam,

    Liv. 9, 1; Tac. A. 1, 67.—
    E.
    At, like autem and de, sometimes serves simply to introduce an explanation: cum Sic mutilus miniteris. At illi foeda cicatrix etc., now an ugly scar etc., Hor. S. 1, 5, 60. —
    F.
    And also like de in Hom. and Hdt., it sometimes introduces an apodosis,
    a.
    With si: Bellona, si hobie nobis victoriam duis, ast ego templum tibi voveo, if to-day thou bestow victory, then I etc., ean—de, Liv. 10, 19.—
    b.
    With quoniam: Nunc, quoniam tuum insanabile ingenium est, at tu tuo supplicio doce etc., since your disposition is past cure, at least etc., epei—de, Liv. 1, 28.
    A.
    At is sometimes repeated at the beginning of several clauses,
    a.
    In opposition each to the preceding clause: Soph. Tu quidem haut etiam octoginta's pondo. Paegn. At confidentiā Militia illa militatur multo magis quam pondere. At ego hanc operam perdo, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 47 sq.:

    Si ego hic peribo, ast ille, ut dixit, non redit: At erit mi hoc factum mortuo memorabile,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 25 sq.; id. As. 5, 2, 6 sqq. (Cic., in Quir. 7 and 10, opposes at to sed, and Tac., in A. 12, 6, sed to at).—
    b.
    In opposition to some common clause preceding:

    At etiam asto? At etiam cesso foribus facere hisce assulas?

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 20: Quid tum esse existimas judicatum? Certe gratīs judicāsse. At condemnārat; at causam totam non audierat;

    at in contionibus etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 113:

    Sit flagitiorum omnium princeps: at est bonus imperator, at felix,

    id. Verr. 5, 4; id. Sest. 47; id. Fragm. B. 16, 5 B. and K.: Nefarius Hippias Pisistrati filius arma contra patriam ferens;

    at Sulla, at Marius, at Cinna recte, imo jure fortasse,

    id. Att. 9, 10, 3: At non formosa est, at non bene culta puella;

    At, puto, non votis saepe petita meis?

    Ov. Am. 3, 7, 1 sq. Merk.:

    At quam sunt similes, at quam formosus uterque!

    id. F. 2, 395: rideri possit eo quod Rusticius tonso toga defluit: at est bonus ut melior vir Non alius quisquam; at tibi amicus;

    at ingenium ingens Inculto latet hoc sub corpore,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 30 sqq. (cf. sed—

    sed,

    Cat. 64, 141; Juv. 5, 61; 8, 149; and a similar use of alla in Hellenistic Greek, as alla—alla, 2 Cor. 2, 17: alla—alla —alla, 1 Cor. 6, 11).—
    B.
    Though regularly occupying the first place in its clause or sentence, it sometimes stands second (cf. atque fin.):

    Saepius at si me, Lycida formose, revisas,

    Verg. E. 7, 67; id. G. 3, 331:

    Tutior at quanto merx est in classe secundā,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 47:

    Mentior at si quid, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 8, 37:

    Gramineis ast inde toris discumbitur,

    Val. Fl. 8, 255:

    Major at inde etc.,

    Stat. Th. 4, 116.—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 417-451; Wagner, Quaest. XXXVII. ad Verg. IV. pp. 581- 585.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > at

  • 17 bonae

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonae

  • 18 bonus

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonus

  • 19 contra

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra

  • 20 contra dicta

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra dicta

См. также в других словарях:

  • The Death Gate Cycle — is a seven part series (heptalogy) of fantasy novels written by Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman. The main conflict is between two powerful races, the Sartan and the Patryns, which branched off from humans following a nuclear/anti matter holocaust …   Wikipedia

  • The Highest Good —     The Highest Good     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Highest Good      We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the sake of which they always act , says Plato (Republic, I, vi). His disciple… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • The Satanic Bible — Infobox Book name = The Satanic Bible title orig = translator = image caption = author = Anton LaVey illustrator = cover artist = country = United States language = English series = genre = Non fiction, Satanism, Philosophy publisher = release… …   Wikipedia

  • The Rain God — Infobox Book | name = The Rain God: A Desert Tale title orig = translator = image caption = author = Arturo Islas illustrator = cover artist = country = language = series = genre = publisher = Alexandrian pub date = 1984 english pub date = media… …   Wikipedia

  • The Mote in God's Eye —   …   Wikipedia

  • The Tomorrow People — is a children s science fiction television series, devised by Roger Price which first ran between 1973 and 1979. The show was re imagined between 1992 and 1995, this time with Roger Price as executive producer. A third incarnation that ran… …   Wikipedia

  • The Antichrist (book) — The Antichrist   Cover of the 2005 Cosimo edition …   Wikipedia

  • The Keys to the Kingdom — Not to be confused with The Keys of the Kingdom. The Keys to the Kingdom Scholastic Inc. Covers for Mister Monday, Grim Tuesday, Drowned Wednesday and Sir Thursday …   Wikipedia

  • The Culture — is a fictional interstellar anarchist, socialist, and utopian[1][2] society created by the Scottish writer Iain M. Banks which features in a number of science fiction novels and works of short fiction by him, collectively called the Culture… …   Wikipedia

  • The Kindly Ones (Littell novel) — The Kindly Ones   …   Wikipedia

  • The Hasheesh Eater — is an autobiographical book by Fitz Hugh Ludlow describing the author s altered states of consciousness and philosophical flights of fancy while he was using a cannabis extract. First published in 1857, The Hasheesh Eater went through four… …   Wikipedia


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»

Мы используем куки для наилучшего представления нашего сайта. Продолжая использовать данный сайт, вы соглашаетесь с этим.