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to go through military exercises

  • 1 decurro

    dē-curro, cŭcurri or curri (cf.:

    decucurrit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 21; Tac. A. 2, 7; Suet. Ner. 11:

    decucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 19, 7; Petr. 64, 3:

    decucurrerat,

    Liv. 1, 12:

    decucurrisse,

    id. 25, 17; also,

    decurrerunt,

    id. 26, 51; 38, 8:

    decurrēre,

    Verg. A. 4, 153; 11, 189:

    decurrisset,

    Liv. 33, 26), cursum, 3, v. n. and (with homogeneous objects, viam, spatium, trop. aetatem, etc.) a., to run down from a higher point; to flow, move, sail, swim down; to run over, run through, traverse (class. and very freq.). —
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.
    (α).
    Neutr.:

    de tribunali decurrit,

    Liv. 4, 50: Laocoon ardens [p. 524] summa decurrit ab arcs, Verg. A. 2, 41; cf.:

    ab agro Lanuvino,

    Hor. Od. 3, 27, 3; for which merely with the abl.:

    altā decurrens arce,

    Verg. A. 11, 490; cf.:

    jugis,

    id. ib. 4, 153:

    Caesar ad cohortandos milites decucurrit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 21; Suet. Ner. 11:

    ad naves decurrunt,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 28, 3; cf.:

    ad mare,

    Liv. 41, 2:

    ego puto te bellissime cum quaestore Mescinio decursurum (viz., on board ship),

    Cic. Fam. 16, 4, 3; cf.:

    tuto mari,

    to sail, Ov. M. 9, 591:

    celeri cymbā,

    id. F. 6, 77:

    pedibus siccis super summa aequora,

    id. M. 14, 50:

    piscis ad hamum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 74:

    monte decurrens velut amnis,

    id. Od. 4, 2, 5; Liv. 38, 13; Ov. M. 3, 569:

    uti naves decurrerent,

    should sail, Tac. A. 15, 43:

    in insulam quamdam decurrentes,

    sailing to, Vulg. Act. 27, 16:

    amnis Iomanes in Gangen per Palibothros decurrit,

    Plin. 6, 19, 22, § 69:

    in mare,

    Liv. 21, 26.— Pass. impers.:

    nunc video calcem, ad quam cum sit decursum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 8, 15:

    quo decursum prope jam siet,

    Lucr. 2, 962.—
    (β).
    Act.:

    septingenta milia passuum vis esse decursa biduo?

    run through, Cic. Quint. 21, 81:

    decurso spatio ad carceres,

    id. Sen. 23, 83; cf.

    , with the accessory idea of completion: nec vero velim quasi decurso spatio ad carceres a calce revocari,

    id. de Sen. 23, 83; and:

    decursa novissima meta,

    Ov. M. 10, 597: vada salsa puppi, Catull. 64, 6.—
    2.
    Transf., of the stars ( poet.), to accomplish their course: stellaeque per vacuum solitae noctis decurrere tempus, Lucan. 1, 531; cf.

    lampas,

    id. 10, 501. —
    B.
    Esp., milit. t. t., to go through military exercises or manœuvres, to advance rapidly, to charge, skirmish, etc.:

    pedites decurrendo signa sequi et servare ordines docuit,

    while performing evolutions, Liv. 24, 48; cf. id. 23, 35; 26, 51; 40, 6 al.:

    ex montibus in vallem,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 2, 4; cf.:

    ex omnibus partibus,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    ex superiore loco,

    Liv. 6, 33:

    ex Capitolio in hostem,

    id. 9, 4:

    ab arce,

    id. 1, 12:

    inde (sc. a Janiculo),

    id. 2, 10 et saep.:

    incredibili celeritate ad flumen,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 19, 7.— Pass. impers.:

    quinto (die) iterum in armis de cursum est,

    Liv. 26, 51.—
    2.
    Transf., to walk or run in armor, in celebrating some festival (usually in funeral games):

    (in funere Gracchi tradunt) armatum exercitum decucurrisse cum tripudiis Hispanorum,

    Liv. 25, 17:

    ter circum rogos, cincti fulgentibus armis, decurrēre,

    Verg. A. 11, 189; Tac. A. 2, 7; Suet. Claud. 1 (v. decursio). —
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    In gen.
    (α).
    Neutr.:

    quin proclivius hic iras decurrat ad acreis,

    Lucr. 3, 312; 4, 706; 5, 1262: quibus generibus per totas quaestiones decurrimus, go over or through, Quint. 9, 2, 48; cf. id. 10, 3, 17; Plin. 7, 16, 15, § 72:

    omnium eo sententiae decurrerunt, ut, pax, etc.,

    come to, Liv. 38, 8:

    ides se non illuc decurrere, quod,

    Tac. A. 4, 40:

    ad Philotam,

    Curt. 7, 1, 28:

    ad consulendum te,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 96.— Pass. impers.:

    decurritur ad leniorem sententiam,

    they come to, Liv. 6, 19; Quint. 6, 1, 2:

    sermo extra calcem decurrens,

    Amm. 21, 1, 14:

    postremo eo decursum est, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 26, 18; so id. 22, 31; 31, 20; Tac. A. 3, 59.—
    (β).
    Act., to run or pass through:

    decurso aetatis spatio,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 14;

    and so of one's course of life,

    id. Merc. 3, 2, 4; Ter. Ad. 5, 4, 6; Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 33; cf.:

    lumen vitae,

    Lucr. 3, 1042: noctis iter, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, p. 6 Müll. (v. 347 Ribb.):

    vitam,

    Prop. 2, 15, 41; Phaedr. 4, 1, 2;

    aetatem (with agere),

    Cic. Quint. 31 fin.: tuque ades inceptumque unā decurre laborem (the fig. is that of sailing in a vessel; cf.

    soon after: pelagoque volans da vela patenti),

    Verg. G. 2, 39 Heyne:

    ista, quae abs te breviter de arte decursa sunt,

    treated, discussed, Cic. de Or. 1, 32, 148; cf.:

    equos pugnasque virum decurrere versu,

    to sing, Stat. Silv. 5, 3, 149: prius... quam mea tot laudes decurrere carmina possint, Auct. Paneg. in Pis. 198.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Pregn.: ad aliquid, to betake one's self to, have recourse to:

    ad haec extrema et inimicissima jura tam cupide decurrebas, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Quint. 15; so,

    ad istam hortationem,

    id. Caecin. 33, 65:

    ad medicamenta,

    Cels. 6, 18, 3:

    ad oraculum,

    Just. 16, 3:

    ad miseras preces,

    Hor. Od. 3, 29, 59:

    Haemonias ad artes,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 99; cf.:

    assuetas ad artes (Circe),

    id. Rem. Am. 287. Rarely to persons:

    ad Alexandri exercitum,

    Just. 14, 2.— Pass. impers.:

    decurritur ad illud extremum atque ultimum S. C.... DENT OPERAM CONSVLES, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 5, 3.—
    2.
    Of the heavenly bodies, to set, move downwards:

    qua sol decurrit meridies nuncupatur,

    Mel. 1, 1, 1; Manil. 1, 505.—With acc., to traverse, Tibull. 4, 1, 160.—
    3.
    In the rhetor. lang. of Quint., said of speech, to run on, Quint. 9, 4, 55 sq.; 11, 1, 6; 12, 9, 2 al.—
    4.
    Proverb., to run through, i. e. to leave off:

    quadrigae meae decucurrerunt (sc. ex quo podagricus factus sum),

    i. e. my former cheerfulness is at an end, is gone, Petr. 64, 3.—So, haec (vitia) aetate sunt decursa, laid aside, Coel. in Cic. Fam. 8, 13.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > decurro

  • 2 Per varios usus artem experientia fecit

    Through different exercises practice has brought skill. (Manilius)

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Per varios usus artem experientia fecit

  • 3 auspicor

    auspĭcor, ātus, 1, v. dep. [from auspex, as auguror from augur], to take the auspices.
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    (Gracchus) cum pomerium transiret, auspicari esset oblitus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11:

    tripudio auspicari,

    id. Div. 1, 35, 77; 2, 36, 77:

    Fabio auspicanti aves non addixere,

    Liv. 27, 16, 15; 4, 6, 3; 6, 41, 5 sq. al.—
    B.
    Esp., aliquid or absol., also with inf., to make a beginning, for the sake of a good omen, to begin, enter upon (first freq. after the Aug. per.):

    ipsis Kal. Januariis auspicandi causā omne genus operis instaurant,

    Col. 11, 2, 98:

    auspicandi gratiā tribunal ingredi,

    Tac. A. 4, 36:

    non auspicandi causā, sed studendi,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 8:

    auspicatus est et jurisdictionem,

    Suet. Ner. 7:

    auspicabar in Virginem (aquam) desilire,

    Sen. Ep. 83, 5.—
    II.
    In gen., to begin, enter upon a thing:

    auspicari culturarum officia,

    Col. 11, 2, 3; 3, 1, 1:

    homo a suppliciis vitam auspicatur,

    Plin. 7, prooem. §

    3: militiam,

    Suet. Aug. 38:

    cantare,

    id. Ner. 22.— Trop.:

    senatorium per militiam auspicantes gradum,

    attaining, receiving it through military services, Sen. Ep. 47, 10.
    a.
    Act. access. form auspĭco, āre, to take the auspices:

    praetor advenit, auspicat auspicium prosperum,

    Naev. 4, 2 (Non. p 468, 28):

    (magistratus) publicae [rei] cum auspicant, Caecil. ap. Non. l. l. (Com. Rel. p. 66 Rib.): auspicetis: cras est communis dies, Atta, ib. (Com. Rel. p. 161 Rib.): Non hodie isti rei auspicavi,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 12:

    mustelam,

    to receive, accept as an augury, id. Stich. 3, 2, 46:

    super aliquā re,

    Gell. 3, 2. —
    b.
    Pass.
    (α).
    Abl. absol.: auspĭcātō, after taking the auspices:

    Romulus non solum auspicato urbem condidisse, sed ipse etiam optimus augur fuisse traditur,

    Cic. Div. 1, 2, 3:

    Nihil fere quondam majoris rei nisi auspicato ne privatim quidem gerebatur,

    id. ib. 1, 16, 28:

    qui et consul rogari et augur et auspicato,

    id. N. D. 2, 4, 11; id. Div. 2, 36, 72; 2, 36, 77:

    plebeius magistratus nullus auspicato creatur,

    Liv. 6, 41, 5 sq.; 5, 38; 1, 36;

    28, 28: Hunc (senatum) auspicato a parente et conditore urbis nostrae institutum,

    Tac. H. 1, 84; 3, 72 al.—
    (β).
    auspĭcātus, a, um, part., consecrated by auguries:

    auspicato in loco,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4:

    non auspicatos contudit impetus Nostros,

    Hor. C. 3, 6, 10:

    auspicata comitia,

    Liv. 26, 2, 2 al. —
    (γ).
    Acc. to auspicor, II., begun:

    in bello male auspicato,

    Just. 4, 5. —
    (δ).
    auspĭcātus, a, um, as P. a., fortunate, favorable, lucky, prosperous, auspicious:

    cum Liviam auspicatis rei publicae ominibus duxisset uxorem,

    Vell. 2, 79, 2.— Comp.:

    Venus auspicatior,

    Cat. 45, 26:

    arbor,

    Plin. 13, 22, 38, § 118.— Sup.:

    auspicatissimum exordium,

    Quint. 10, 1, 85; Plin. Ep. 10, 28, 2:

    initium,

    Tac. G. 11.— Adv.: auspĭcātō, under a good omen, auspiciously:

    ut ingrediare auspicato,

    at a for tunate moment, in a lucky hour, Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 57:

    Haud auspicato huc me appuli,

    Ter. And. 4, 5, 12:

    qui auspicato a Chelidone surrexisset,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 40, 144.— Comp. auspicatius:

    auspicatius mutare nomen,

    Plin. 3, 11, 16, § 105:

    gigni,

    id. 7, 9, 7, § 47.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > auspicor

  • 4 clavator

    clāvātor, ōris, m. [clava], one who carries clubs or foils, used in military exercises, a cudgel-bearer, Plaut. Rud. 3, 5, 25; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 62, 9 Müll.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > clavator

  • 5 amplector

        amplector exus, ī, dep.    [am- + plecto], to twine around, encircle, encompass, embrace: manibus saxa, to grasp, L.: ansas acantho, V.: urbes muro, H.: illam in somnis, T.: me: Nox tellurem amplectitur alis, overshadows, V.—Fig., of the mind, to embrace, understand, comprehend, see through: omnia consilio.—In speech, to comprehend in discussion, discuss particularly, handle, treat: quod (argumentum) verbis: res per scripturam: cuncta meis versibus, V.—To sum up, treat summarily: omnis oratores: omnia communiter, L.— To comprehend under a name: alqd virtutis nomine.—To embrace with love, esteem, value, honor, cling to: quem (filium) mihi videtur amplecti res p.: amore possessiones: hoc se amplectitur uno, piques himself on, H.: rem p. nimium (of one who robs the treasury).—Of military operations, to cover, occupy: quindecim milia passuum circuitu, Cs.: Brigantium partem victoriā, Ta.
    * * *
    amplecti, amplexus sum V DEP
    surround, encircle, embrace, clasp; esteem; cherish; surround, include, grasp

    Latin-English dictionary > amplector

  • 6 intercessor

        intercessor ōris, m    [1 CAD-], one who interposes, a mediator, surety: intercessorem quaerere: isto intercessore legati non adierunt, through his interference: rei malae.—An interferer, protester, adversary, preventer: stultitia intercessoris (of a tribune who exercises his veto): legis, L.
    * * *
    mediator; one who vetoes

    Latin-English dictionary > intercessor

  • 7 trāiciō (trāiic-) and trānsiciō

        trāiciō (trāiic-) and trānsiciō (trānsiic-), iēcī, iectus, ere    [trans + iacio], to throw across, cause to cross, cause to go across, put over, transfer, throw over, shoot across: neque ullum interim telum traiciebatur, Cs.: quae Concava traiecto cumba rudente vehat (te), O.: adreptum vexillum trans vallum hostium traiecit, L.: volucrem traiecto in fune columbam suspendit, V.: per ardentīs acervos celeri membra pede, O.—Of military or naval forces, to cause to cross, transport, ship across, lead over, ship over, transfer: equitatum, Cs.: omnibus ferme suis trans Rhodanum traiectis, L.: classem in Italiam, L.: eodem magnam partem fortunarum, N.: ut praedatum milites trans flumen per occasiones aliis atque aliis locis traicerent, L.: classis Punica in Sardiniam traiecta, L.: equitum magnam partem flumen traiecit, Cs.: si se Alpīs Antonius traiecerit: quos in Africam secum traiceret, L.: ad Achillam sese ex regiā, Cs.— To pass through, make a way through, break through: pars equitum mediam traiecit aciem, L.— To strike through, stab through, pierce, penetrate, transfix, transpierce: unum ex multitudine, Cs.: scorpione ab latere dextro traiectus, Cs.: cuspide serpentem, O.: ferro pectus, L.: cava tempora ferro, V.: terga sagitta, O.— To cross, pass, go over, cross over: ad Aethaliam insulam, L.: in Africam, L.: Samum, L.: Hiberos veteres traiecisse, Ta.: murum iaculo: traiecto amni, L.: ratibus Trebiam, L.: utribus amnem, Cu.: medium aetherio cursu axem, V.: postquam cernant Rhodanum traiectum, L.—Fig., to transfer, cause to pass: ex illius invidiā aliquid in te traicere: arbitrium litis in omnes, O.: in cor Traiecto lateris capitisve dolore, having thrown itself, H.— To overstep: fati litora, Pr.—In rhet., to transpose: verba.

    Latin-English dictionary > trāiciō (trāiic-) and trānsiciō

  • 8 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 9 adjutor

    1.
    adjūtor, ātus, 1, v. dep., i. q. adjuto, and also ante-class. (found in Pac., Afran., and Lucil.): adjutamini et defendite, Pac. ap. Non. 74, 2; Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 89; Pac. ap. Non. 477, 26: me adjutamini, Afran. ib.: magna adjutatus diu, Lucil. ib.
    2.
    adjūtor, ōris, m. [adjuvo], one who helps, a helper, assistant, aider, promoter (class. through all periods).
    I.
    In gen.:

    hic adjutor meus et monitor et praemonstrator,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 2:

    ejus iracundiae,

    id. Ad. 1, 1, 66:

    ad hanc rem adjutorem dari,

    id. Phorm. 3, 3, 26:

    adjutores ad me restituendum multi fuerunt,

    Cic. Quint. 9:

    in psaltria hac emunda,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 9:

    honoris,

    Cic. Fl. 1:

    ad praedam,

    id. Rose. Am. 2, 6; so id. de Or. 1, 59; id. Tusc. 1, 12:

    tibi venit adjutor,

    id. N. D. 1, 7:

    L. ille Torquatus auctor exstitit,

    id. Sull. 34; id. Off. 2, 15; 3, 33; id. Fin. 5, 30; id. Att. 8, 3; 9, 12; Caes. B. C. 1, 7; Sall. J. 82; Liv. 29, 1, 18:

    nolite dubitare libertatem consule adjutore defendere,

    with the aid of the consul, Cic. Leg. Agr. 16;

    and so often,

    id. Verr. 1, 155; id. Font. 44; id. Clu. 36; id. Mur. 84.—
    II.
    Esp., a common name of a military or civil officer, an aid, adjutant, assistant, deputy, secretary, etc.:

    comites et adjutores negotiorum publicorum,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 3:

    dato adjutore Pharnabazo,

    Nep. Con. 4; so id. Chabr. 2; Liv. 33, 43; Suet. Aug. 39; id. Tib. 63; id. Calig. 26:

    rhetorum (i. e. hypodidascali),

    Quint. 2, 5, 3; Gell. 13, 9; and in the inscriptions in Orell. 3462, 3200 al.; under the emperors an officer of court, minister (v. Vell. 2, 127; cf. Suet. Calig. 26); usu. with ab and the word indicative of the office (v. ab fin.):

    adjutor a rationibus, Orell. Inscr. 32: a sacris,

    ib. 2847:

    a commentariis ornamentorum,

    ib. 2892.— Also with gen.:

    adjutor cornicularii,

    ib. 3517:

    haruspicum imperatoris,

    ib. 3420 al. —In scenic language, adjutor is the one who, by his part, sustains or assists the hero of the piece (prôtagônistês), to which the class. passage, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, refers; cf. Heind. ad Hor. S. 1, 9, 46:

    in scena postquam solus constitit sine apparatu, nullis adjutoribus,

    with no subordinate actors, Phaedr. 5, 5, 14; Suet. Gramm. 18; Val. Max. 2, 4, no. 4.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adjutor

  • 10 agger

    agger, ĕris, m. [ad-gero].
    I.
    Things brought to a place in order to form an elevation above a surface or plain, as rubbish, stone, earth, sand, brushwood, materials for a rampart, etc. (in the histt., esp. Cæs., freq.; sometimes in the poets): ab opere revocandi milites, qui paulo longius aggeris petendi causā processerant, Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    aggere paludem explere,

    id. ib. 7, 58; cf. id. ib. 7, 86:

    longius erat agger petendus,

    id. B. C. 1, 42; 2, 15 al.:

    superjecto aggere terreno,

    Suet. Calig. 19; cf. id. ib. 37:

    implere cavernas aggere,

    Curt. 8, 10, 27:

    fossas aggere complent,

    Verg. A. 9, 567: avis e medio aggere exit, from the midst of the pile of wood, Ov. M. 12, 524.— But far oftener,
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    The pile formed by masses of rubbish, stone, earth, brushwood, etc., collected together; acc. to its destination, a dam, dike, mole, pier; a hillock, mound, wall, bulwark, rampart, etc.; esp. freq. in the histt. of artificial elevations for military purposes: tertium militare sepimentum est fossa et terreus agger, a clay or mud wall, Varr. R. R. 1, 14, 2: aggeribus niveis ( with snow-drifts) informis Terra, Verg. G. 3, 354:

    atque ipsis proelia miscent Aggeribus murorum, pleon. for muris,

    id. A. 10, 24; cf. id. ib. 10, 144:

    ut cocto tolleret aggere opus, of the walls of Babylon,

    Prop. 4, 10, 22.— A dike of earth for the protection of a harbor (Ital. molo), Vitr. 5, 12, 122; Ov. M. 14, 445; 15, 690.— A causeway through a swamp:

    aggeres umido paludum et fallacibus campis imponere,

    Tac. A. 1, 61.— A heap or pile of arms:

    agger armorum,

    Tac. H. 2, 70.— Poet., for mountains:

    aggeres Alpini,

    Verg. A. 6, 830; so,

    Thessalici aggeres,

    i. e. Pelion, Ossa, Olympus, Sen. Herc. Oet. 168.— A funeral pile of wood, Ov. M. 9, 234, and Sen. Herc. Fur. 1216.— A heap of ashes:

    ab alto aggere,

    Luc. 5, 524 Weber.— A high wave of the sea:

    ab alto Aggere dejecit pelagi,

    Luc. 5, 674:

    consurgit ingens pontus in vastum aggerem,

    Sen. Hippol. 1015 (cf.:

    mons aquae,

    Verg. A. 1, 105).—
    B.
    In milit. lang.
    1.
    A mound erected before the walls of a besieged city, for the purpose of sustaining the battering engines, and which was gradually advanced to the town; cf. Smith's Dict. Antiq., and Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 2, 12:

    aggere, vineis, turribus oppidum oppugnare,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 4; id. Att. 5, 20:

    esset agger oppugnandae Italiae Graecia,

    id. Phil. 10, 9:

    celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, aggere jacto turribusque constitutis, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 12:

    jacere,

    to throw up, Sall. J. 37, 4; so Vulg. Isa. 29, 3:

    aggerem exstruere,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 30:

    instruere,

    id. ib. 8, 41:

    promovere ad urbem,

    to bring near to the city, Liv. 5, 7.— Hence, poet.: stellatis axibus agger Erigitur, geminasque aequantis moenia turres Accipit, a mound is built provided with wheels (for moving it forwards), Luc. 3, 455; imitated by Sil. 13, 109.—Since such aggeres consisted principally of wood, they could be easily set on fire, Caes. B. C. 2, 14: horae momento simul aggerem ac vineas incendium hausit, Liv 5, 7.— Trop.:

    Graecia esset vel receptaculum pulso Antonio, vel agger oppugnandae Italiae,

    rampart, mound, Cic. Phil. 10, 4: Agger Tarquini, the mound raised by Tarquinius Superbus for the defence of the eastern part of the city of Rome, in the neighborhood of the present Porta S. Lorenzo, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 67; cf. id. 36, 15, 24, n. 2, * Hor. S. 1, 8, 15; Juv. 5, 153; so id. 8, 43; Quint. 12, 10, 74.—Suet. uses agger for the Tarpeian rock: quoad praecipitaretur ex aggere, Calig. 27.—
    2.
    The mound raised for the protection of a camp before the trench (fossa), and from earth dug from it, which was secured by a stockade (vallum), consisting of sharpened stakes (valli); cf.

    Hab. Syn. 68, and Smith's Dict. Antiq.: in litore sedes, Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit,

    Verg. A. 7, 159; Plin. 15, 14, 14, § 47.—
    3.
    The tribunal, in a camp, formed of turf, from which the general addressed his soldiers:

    stetit aggere saltus Cespitis, intrepidus vultum meruitque timeri,

    Luc. 5, 317:

    vix eā turre senex, cum ductor ab aggere coepit,

    Stat. Th. 7, 374; cf. Tac. A. 1, 18 Lips.—
    4.
    A military or public road, commonly graded by embankments of earth (in the class. per. only in Verg. and Tac., and always in connection with viae, agger alone belonging only to later Lat.):

    viae deprensus in aggere serpens,

    Verg. A. 5, 273:

    Aurelius agger, i. e. via Aurelia,

    Rutil. Itiner. 39:

    aggerem viae tres praetoriae cohortes obtinuere,

    Tac. H. 2, 24 and 42; 3, 21 and 23.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > agger

  • 11 beneficium

    bĕnĕfĭcĭum (better than bĕnĭfĭcĭ-um), ii, n. [beneficus].
    I.
    A benefaction, kindness, favor, benefit, service, euergetêma (sunt qui ita distinguunt, quaedam beneficia esse, quaedam officia, quaedam ministeria. Beneficium esse, quod alienus det:

    alienus est, qui potuit sine reprehensione cessare: officium esse filii, uxoris et earum personarum, quas necessitudo suscitat et ferre opem jubet: ministerium esse servi, quem condicio sua eo loco posuit, ut nihil eorum, quae praestat, imputet superiori,

    Sen. Ben.3, 18, 1);—(in prose freq.; in poetry, for metrical reasons, only in play-writers; most freq. in Ter.).
    A.
    In gen.:

    nullum beneficium esse duco id, quod, quoi facias, non placet,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 12:

    beneficium accipere,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    pro maleficio beneficium reddere,

    id. Phorm. 2, 2, 22:

    immemor beneficii,

    id. And. 1, 1, 17:

    cupio aliquos parere amicos beneficio meo,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 69:

    beneficium verbis initum re comprobare,

    id. And. 5, 1, 5:

    nec enim si tuam ob causam cuiquam commodes, beneficium illud habendum est, sed feneratio,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117; id. Off. 2. 20, 70:

    beneficio adligari: beneficio victus esse,

    Cic. Planc. 33, 81; cf.:

    Jugurtham beneficiis vincere,

    Sall. J. 9, 3:

    collocare,

    Cic. Off. 1, 15, 49 al.; 2, 20, 69:

    dare,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 48; id. Fam. 13, 8, 3' deferre, id. Off. 1, 15, 49: conferre in aliquem, [p. 232] id. ib. 1, 14, 45: quia magna mihi debebat beneficia, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 12, 1:

    in republicā multo praestat benefici quam malefici immemorem esse,

    Sall. J. 31, 28:

    senatus et populus Romanus benefici et injuriae memor esse solet,

    id. ib. 104, 5; Petr. 126, 4:

    in iis (hominibus) beneficio ac maleficio abstineri aecum censent,

    Liv. 5, 3, 8:

    immortali memoriā retinere beneficia,

    Nep. Att. 11, 5 al. —Of the favor of the people in giving their vote:

    quidquid hoc beneficio populi Romani atque hac potestate praetoriā possum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 69, and 71.—
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    Beneficio, through favor, by the help, aid, support, mediation:

    beneficio tuo salvus,

    thanks to you, Cic. Fam. 11, 22, 1; 13, 35, 1:

    nostri consulatūs beneficio,

    by means of, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 6:

    servari beneficio Caesaris,

    Vell. 2, 71, 1:

    hoc beneficio,

    by this means, Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 14:

    sortium beneficio,

    by the lucky turn of, Caes. B. G. 1, 53 Herz.:

    longissimae aetatis,

    Quint. 3, 1, 9:

    ingenii,

    id. 2, 11, 2; 5, 10, 121:

    eloquentiae,

    Tac. Or. 8 al.; cf.: fortunae beneficium, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 4, 2.—
    (β).
    In gen., by the agency of:

    quod beneficio ejus contingit,

    Dig. 39, 2, 40, § 1:

    beneficio furis,

    ib. 47, 2, 46 pr.—
    2.
    Alicujus beneficii facere (habere, etc.), to make dependent on one ' s bounty or favor (post-Aug.):

    commeatus a senatu peti solitos benefici sui fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 23:

    ut munus imperii beneficii sui faceret,

    Just. 13, 4, 9; cf.:

    adeo quidem dominis servi beneficia possunt dare, ut ipsos saepe beneficii sui fecerint,

    Sen. Ben. 3, 18, 4:

    sed nihil habebimus nisi beneficii alieni?

    Quint. 10, 4, 6.—
    II.
    Transf. to political life.
    A.
    A distinction, support, favor, promotion (esp. freq. after the Aug. per.):

    coöptatio collegiorum ad populi beneficium transferebatur,

    Cic. Lael. 25, 96; id. Phil. 2, 36, 91:

    quibus omnia populi Romani beneficia dormientibus deferuntur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 70, § 180:

    in beneficiis ad aerarium delatus,

    among those recommended to favor, id. Arch. 5, 11 Halm. ad loc.; id. Fam. 7, 5, 3:

    cum suo magno beneficio esset,

    under great obligation to his recommendation, id. Phil. 8, 6 Wernsd.; Flor. 4, 2, 92; cf. Suet. Tit. 8.—So,
    2.
    Esp. freq. of military promotions (whence beneficiarius, q. v.):

    quod scribis de beneficiis, scito a me et tribunos militaris et praefectos... delatos esse,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 7:

    ut tribuni militum... quae antea dictatorum et consulum ferme fuerant beneficia,

    Liv. 9, 30, 3:

    beneficia gratuita esse populi Romani,

    id. 45, 42, 11; Hirt. B. Afr. 54, 5:

    per beneficia Nymphidii,

    promoted, advanced through the favor of Nymphidius, Tac. H. 1, 25; 4, 48 Lips.:

    beneficii sui centuriones,

    i. e. his creatures, Suet. Tib. 12:

    Liber beneficiorum or Beneficium,

    the book in which the public lands that were bestowed were designated, Hyg. Limit. Const. p. 193 Goes.; Arcad. ib. p. 260.—So, SERVVS. A. COMMENTARIIS. BENEFICIORVM., Inscr. Grut. 578, 1.—
    B.
    A privilege, right (post-Aug.):

    anulorum,

    Dig. 48, 7, 42:

    religionis,

    ib. 3, 3, 18:

    militaris,

    ib. 29, 1, 3.—Hence, liberorum, a release from the office of judge, received in consequence of having a certain number of children, Suet. Claud. 15; Dig. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    C.
    Personified, as a god:

    duos omnino (deos credere), Poenam et Beneficium,

    Plin. 2, 7, 5, § 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > beneficium

  • 12 benificium

    bĕnĕfĭcĭum (better than bĕnĭfĭcĭ-um), ii, n. [beneficus].
    I.
    A benefaction, kindness, favor, benefit, service, euergetêma (sunt qui ita distinguunt, quaedam beneficia esse, quaedam officia, quaedam ministeria. Beneficium esse, quod alienus det:

    alienus est, qui potuit sine reprehensione cessare: officium esse filii, uxoris et earum personarum, quas necessitudo suscitat et ferre opem jubet: ministerium esse servi, quem condicio sua eo loco posuit, ut nihil eorum, quae praestat, imputet superiori,

    Sen. Ben.3, 18, 1);—(in prose freq.; in poetry, for metrical reasons, only in play-writers; most freq. in Ter.).
    A.
    In gen.:

    nullum beneficium esse duco id, quod, quoi facias, non placet,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 12:

    beneficium accipere,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    pro maleficio beneficium reddere,

    id. Phorm. 2, 2, 22:

    immemor beneficii,

    id. And. 1, 1, 17:

    cupio aliquos parere amicos beneficio meo,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 69:

    beneficium verbis initum re comprobare,

    id. And. 5, 1, 5:

    nec enim si tuam ob causam cuiquam commodes, beneficium illud habendum est, sed feneratio,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117; id. Off. 2. 20, 70:

    beneficio adligari: beneficio victus esse,

    Cic. Planc. 33, 81; cf.:

    Jugurtham beneficiis vincere,

    Sall. J. 9, 3:

    collocare,

    Cic. Off. 1, 15, 49 al.; 2, 20, 69:

    dare,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 48; id. Fam. 13, 8, 3' deferre, id. Off. 1, 15, 49: conferre in aliquem, [p. 232] id. ib. 1, 14, 45: quia magna mihi debebat beneficia, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 12, 1:

    in republicā multo praestat benefici quam malefici immemorem esse,

    Sall. J. 31, 28:

    senatus et populus Romanus benefici et injuriae memor esse solet,

    id. ib. 104, 5; Petr. 126, 4:

    in iis (hominibus) beneficio ac maleficio abstineri aecum censent,

    Liv. 5, 3, 8:

    immortali memoriā retinere beneficia,

    Nep. Att. 11, 5 al. —Of the favor of the people in giving their vote:

    quidquid hoc beneficio populi Romani atque hac potestate praetoriā possum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 69, and 71.—
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    Beneficio, through favor, by the help, aid, support, mediation:

    beneficio tuo salvus,

    thanks to you, Cic. Fam. 11, 22, 1; 13, 35, 1:

    nostri consulatūs beneficio,

    by means of, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 6:

    servari beneficio Caesaris,

    Vell. 2, 71, 1:

    hoc beneficio,

    by this means, Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 14:

    sortium beneficio,

    by the lucky turn of, Caes. B. G. 1, 53 Herz.:

    longissimae aetatis,

    Quint. 3, 1, 9:

    ingenii,

    id. 2, 11, 2; 5, 10, 121:

    eloquentiae,

    Tac. Or. 8 al.; cf.: fortunae beneficium, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 4, 2.—
    (β).
    In gen., by the agency of:

    quod beneficio ejus contingit,

    Dig. 39, 2, 40, § 1:

    beneficio furis,

    ib. 47, 2, 46 pr.—
    2.
    Alicujus beneficii facere (habere, etc.), to make dependent on one ' s bounty or favor (post-Aug.):

    commeatus a senatu peti solitos benefici sui fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 23:

    ut munus imperii beneficii sui faceret,

    Just. 13, 4, 9; cf.:

    adeo quidem dominis servi beneficia possunt dare, ut ipsos saepe beneficii sui fecerint,

    Sen. Ben. 3, 18, 4:

    sed nihil habebimus nisi beneficii alieni?

    Quint. 10, 4, 6.—
    II.
    Transf. to political life.
    A.
    A distinction, support, favor, promotion (esp. freq. after the Aug. per.):

    coöptatio collegiorum ad populi beneficium transferebatur,

    Cic. Lael. 25, 96; id. Phil. 2, 36, 91:

    quibus omnia populi Romani beneficia dormientibus deferuntur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 70, § 180:

    in beneficiis ad aerarium delatus,

    among those recommended to favor, id. Arch. 5, 11 Halm. ad loc.; id. Fam. 7, 5, 3:

    cum suo magno beneficio esset,

    under great obligation to his recommendation, id. Phil. 8, 6 Wernsd.; Flor. 4, 2, 92; cf. Suet. Tit. 8.—So,
    2.
    Esp. freq. of military promotions (whence beneficiarius, q. v.):

    quod scribis de beneficiis, scito a me et tribunos militaris et praefectos... delatos esse,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 7:

    ut tribuni militum... quae antea dictatorum et consulum ferme fuerant beneficia,

    Liv. 9, 30, 3:

    beneficia gratuita esse populi Romani,

    id. 45, 42, 11; Hirt. B. Afr. 54, 5:

    per beneficia Nymphidii,

    promoted, advanced through the favor of Nymphidius, Tac. H. 1, 25; 4, 48 Lips.:

    beneficii sui centuriones,

    i. e. his creatures, Suet. Tib. 12:

    Liber beneficiorum or Beneficium,

    the book in which the public lands that were bestowed were designated, Hyg. Limit. Const. p. 193 Goes.; Arcad. ib. p. 260.—So, SERVVS. A. COMMENTARIIS. BENEFICIORVM., Inscr. Grut. 578, 1.—
    B.
    A privilege, right (post-Aug.):

    anulorum,

    Dig. 48, 7, 42:

    religionis,

    ib. 3, 3, 18:

    militaris,

    ib. 29, 1, 3.—Hence, liberorum, a release from the office of judge, received in consequence of having a certain number of children, Suet. Claud. 15; Dig. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    C.
    Personified, as a god:

    duos omnino (deos credere), Poenam et Beneficium,

    Plin. 2, 7, 5, § 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > benificium

  • 13 peculium

    pĕcūlĭum, ii, n. [pecus], lit., property in cattle; hence, as in early times all property consisted of cattle, in gen., property.
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    peculi sui prodigi (servi),

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 19:

    cupiditas peculii,

    Cic. Par. 5, 2 fin.:

    cura peculi,

    Verg. E. 1, 33 Serv.; Hor. A. P. 330.—
    B.
    In partic., private property.
    1.
    What the master of the house saves and lays by, money laid by, savings, Dig. 32, 1, 77.—
    2.
    What a wife owns as her independent property, and over which her husband has no control, a private purse, paraphernalia, Dig. 23, 3, 9, § 3.—
    3.
    That which is given by a father or master to his son, daughter, or slave, as his or her private property:

    frugi sum, nec potest peculium enumerari,

    Plaut. As. 2, 4, 91:

    adimere servis peculium,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 17; 1, 17, 5:

    filii,

    Liv. 2, 41; cf. Sen. Ep. 11, 1:

    Juliam uxorem peculio concesso a patre praebitisque annuis, fraudavit,

    Suet. Tib. 50:

    cultis augere peculia servis,

    fees, Juv. 3, 189.—
    4.
    Castrense, the private property of a son acquired by military service, with the consent of his father (profecticium), or by inheritance through his mother (adventicium); then called quasi castrense, Dig. 49, 17, 5 sqq.; Paul. Sent. 3, 4; cf. Dig. 37, 6, 1.—
    5.
    = membrum virile, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 92; id. Most. 1, 3, 96; Petr. S. 8; Lampr. Elag. 9; cf. peculiatus.—
    II.
    Trop., that which belongs to one's self, one's own. —Of a letter:

    sine ullo ad me peculio veniet?

    without any thing for myself, Sen. Ep. 12, 9.—Of the people of lsrael:

    erunt mihi, in die quā ego facio, in peculium,

    Vulg. Mal. 3, 17.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > peculium

  • 14 relatio

    rĕlātĭo, ōnis, f. [refero], a carrying back, bringing back. *
    I.
    Lit.: membranae ut juvant aciem, ita crebrā relatione, quoad intinguntur calami, morantur manum, through the frequent carrying of the [p. 1555] hand back to the inkstand, i.e. by often stopping to dip the pen in the ink, Quint. 10, 3, 31.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    In law t. t., a throwing back, retorting:

    relatio criminis, est cum ideo jure factum dicitur, quod aliquis ante injuriā lacessierit,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15; so Dig. 48, 1, 5:

    jurisjurandi,

    ib. 12, 2, 34 fin.
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    A returning, repaying:

    gratiae,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 11; id. Ep. 74, 13.—
    2.
    In publicists' lang., a report; a proposition, motion:

    ecquis audivit non modo actionem aliquam aut relationem, sed vocem omnino aut querellam tuam?

    Cic. Pis. 13, 29:

    relatio illa salutaris,

    id. ib. 7, 14; Liv. 3, 39:

    relationem approbare,

    id. 32, 22:

    incipere,

    Tac. A. 5, 4; 13, 26:

    mutare,

    id. ib. 14, 49:

    egredi,

    id. ib. 2, 38:

    postulare in aliquid,

    id. ib. 13, 49:

    relationi intercedere,

    id. ib. 1, 13 al.: jus quartae relationis, the right accorded to the emperor, without being consul, of making communications in the Senate (this right was simply jus relationis;

    tertiae, quartae, etc., denote the number of subjects he might introduce at each meeting, which varied at different periods),

    Capitol. Pert. 5; Vop. Prob. 12 fin. — Hence,
    b.
    Transf., in gen., a report, narration, relation (only post-Aug.):

    dictorum,

    Quint. 2, 7, 4; cf. id. 9, 2, 59:

    causarum,

    id. 6, 3, 77:

    meritorum,

    id. 4, 1, 13:

    rerum ab Scythis gestarum,

    Just. 2, 1, 1:

    gentium,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 6.—

    Of military reports to the general-in-chief or emperor: addens quaedam relationibus supervacua, quas subinde dimittebat ad principem,

    Amm. 14, 7, 10; 20, 4, 7; 28, 1, 10. —
    3.
    A rhetorical figure mentioned by Cicero, of the nature of which Quintilian was ignorant, Cic. de Or. 3, 54, 207; Quint. 9, 3, 97: epanaphora est relatio; quotiens per singula membra eadem pars orationis repetitur, hoc modo: Verres calumniatores apponebat, Verres de causā cognoscebat;

    Verres pronunciabat?

    i. e. the repetition of a word for rhetorical effect, Mart. Cap. 5, § 534 init.; cf. Quint. 9, 1, 33. —
    4.
    In philos. and gram. lang., reference, regard, respect, relation:

    illud quoque est ex relatione ad aliquid,

    Quint. 8, 4, 21:

    relatione factā non ad id,

    Dig. 1, 1, 11.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > relatio

  • 15 terebra

    tĕrē̆bra, ae, f. ( neutr. collat. form tĕrē̆brum, Hier. in Isa. 12, 44, 12 al.) [tero].
    I.
    An instrument for boring, a borer, an auger, gimlet, Cato, R. R. 41, 3; Col. 4, 29, 15 sq.; Plin. 7, 56, 57, § 198; 17, 15, 25, § 116; 37, 13, 76, § 200.—
    II.
    As a surgical [p. 1858] instrument, a trephine, Cels. 8, 3.—
    III.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > terebra

  • 16 Turbo

    1.
    turbo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. ( fut. perf. turbassit, for turbaverit, Cic. Leg. 3, 4; al. turbassitur) [turba], to disturb, agitate, confuse, disorder; to throw into disorder or confusion (freq. and class.; syn.: confundo, misceo, agito).
    I.
    Lit.:

    ventorum vi agitari atque turbari mare,

    Cic. Clu. 49, 138:

    aequora ventis,

    Lucr. 2, 1:

    hibernum mare,

    Hor. Epod. 15, 8; Ov. M. 7, 154; 14, 545 al.:

    eversae turbant convivia mensae,

    id. ib. 12, 222; cf. in a poet. transf.:

    ancipiti quoniam bello turbatur utrimque,

    Lucr. 6, 377:

    ne comae turbarentur, quas componi vetuit,

    Quint. 11, 3, 148:

    ne turbet toga mota capillos,

    Ov. Am. 3, 2, 75:

    capillos,

    id. M. 8, 859; id. Am. 3, 14, 33; cf.

    in a Greek construction: turbata capillos,

    id. M. 4, 474:

    ceram,

    the seal, Quint. 12, 8, 13:

    uvae recentes alvum turbant,

    Plin. 23, 1, 6, § 10.— Absol.:

    instat, turbatque ruitque,

    Ov. M. 12, 134.—Reflex.:

    cum mare turbaret (sc. se),

    Varr. R. R. 3, 17, 7 Schneid. ad loc. (al. turbaretur).—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Milit. t. t., to throw into disorder, break the line of battle, disorganize:

    equitatus turbaverat ordines,

    Liv. 3, 70, 9:

    aciem peditum,

    id. 30, 18, 10.— Absol.:

    equites eruptione factā in agmen modice primo impetu turbavere,

    Liv. 38, 13, 12:

    turbantibus invicem copiis,

    Flor. 4, 2, 49:

    hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, sistet,

    Verg. A. 6, 857.—
    2.
    Of water, to trouble, make thick or turbid:

    lacus,

    Ov. M. 6, 364:

    fons quem nulla volucris turbarat,

    id. ib. 3, 410:

    flumen imbre,

    id. ib. 13, 889:

    limo aquam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 60:

    aquas lacrimis,

    Ov. M. 3, 475; cf.:

    pulvis sputo turbatus,

    Petr. 131.—
    II.
    Trop.:

    non modo illa permiscuit, sed etiam delectum atque ordinem turbavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 50, § 123:

    qui omnia inflma summis paria fecit, turbavit, miscuit,

    id. Leg. 3, 9, 19:

    Aristoteles quoque multa turbat, a magistro Platone non dissentiens,

    id. N. D. 1, 13, 33:

    quantas res turbo!

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 2, 1:

    quas meus filius turbas turbet,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 1; cf.:

    quae meus filius turbavit,

    id. ib. 5, 1, 5; id. Cas. 5, 2, 6:

    ne quid ille turbet vide,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 24:

    haec, quae in re publicā turbantur,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 3:

    cum dies alicui nobilium dicta novis semper certaminibus contiones turbaret,

    Liv. 3, 66, 2: ne incertā prole auspicia turbarentur, id. 4, 6, 2:

    milites nihil in commune turbantes,

    Tac. H. 1, 85:

    turbantur (testes),

    Quint. 5, 7, 11; cf. id. 4, 5, 6; 5, 14, 29; 10, 7, 6:

    spem pacis,

    Liv. 2, 16, 5.— Absol.: Ph. Ea nos perturbat. Pa. Dum ne reducam, turbent porro, quam velint, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 12 (cf. I. B. 1. supra):

    repente turbare Fortuna coepit,

    Tac. A. 4, 1:

    si una alterave civitas turbet,

    id. ib. 3, 47: M. Servilius postquam, ut coeperat, omnibus in rebus turbarat, i. e. had deranged all his affairs, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 2.— Impers. pass.:

    nescio quid absente nobis turbatum'st domi,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7:

    totis Usque adeo turbatur agris,

    Verg. E. 1, 12:

    si in Hispaniā turbatum esset,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 57.—Hence, turbātus, a, um, P. a., troubled, disturbed, disordered, agitated, excited.
    A.
    Lit.:

    turbatius mare ingressus,

    more stormy, Suet. Calig. 23:

    turbatius caelum,

    id. Tib. 69.—
    B.
    Trop.:

    hostes inopinato malo turbati,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12:

    oculis simul ac mente turbatus,

    Liv. 7, 26, 5:

    turbatus religione simul ac periculo,

    Suet. Ner. 19; cf.:

    turbatus animi,

    Sil. 14, 678:

    placare voluntates turbatas,

    Cic. Planc. 4, 11: seditionibus omnia turbata sunt, Sall. Or. Phil. contr. Lepid. 1:

    turbata cum Romanis pax,

    Just. 18, 2, 10:

    omnia soluta, turbata atque etiam in contrarium versa,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 7; cf.:

    quae si confusa, turbata, permixta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 9, 5, 3.—Hence, adv.: turbātē, confusedly, disorderly:

    aguntur omnia raptim atque turbate,

    in confusion, Caes. B. C. 1, 5, 1.
    2.
    turbo, ĭnis, m. (collat. form tur-ben, ĭnis, n., Tib. 1, 5, 3; id. ap. Charis. p. 118 P.; gen. turbonis, Caes. ib.) [1. turbo], that which spins or twirls round (cf. vertex).
    I.
    A whirlwind, hurricane, tornado: ventus circumactus et eundem ambiens locum et se ipse vertigine concitans turbo est. Qui si pugnacior est ac diutius volutatur, inflammatur, et efficit, quem prêstêra Graeci vocant:

    hic est igneus turbo,

    Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 3:

    falsum est faces et trabes turbine exprimi,

    id. ib. 7, 5, 1; 2, 22, 2; id. Ep. 109, 18:

    procellae, turbines,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 51; cf.: saevi exsistunt turbines, Pac. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 39, 157 (Trag. Rel. p. 111 Rib.); Enn. ap. Schol. Vat. ad Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 4 (Ann. v. 553 Vahl.):

    venti vis rapido percurrens turbine campos,

    Lucr. 1, 273; cf. id. 1, 279; 1, 294; 5, 217; Ov. M. 6, 310:

    senatus decrevit, ut Minerva, quam turbo dejecerat, restitueretur,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 25, 1:

    turbo aut subita tempestas,

    id. Cael. 32, 79:

    pulvis collectus turbine,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 31:

    venti rotanti turbine portant,

    Lucr. 1, 294:

    ita turbine nigro Ferret hiemps,

    Verg. G. 1, 320:

    venti ruunt et terras turbine perflant,

    id. A. 1, 83:

    accendi turbine quodam aëris,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 4, 1.—In apposition with ventus:

    exoritur ventus turbo,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 47:

    circumstabant navem turbines venti,

    id. Trin. 4, 1, 16.—
    B.
    Trop., whirlwind, storm, etc.:

    qui in maximis turbinibus ac fluctibus rei publicae navem gubernassem,

    Cic. Pis. 9, 20:

    tu, procella patriae, turbo ac tempestas pacis atque otii,

    id. Dom. 53, 137:

    ego te in medio versantem turbine leti Eripui,

    Cat. 64, 149:

    cum illi soli essent duo rei publicae turbines,

    Cic. Sest. 11, 25:

    miserae mentis,

    Ov. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    miserarum rerum,

    id. M. 7, 614:

    nescio quo miserae turbine mentis agor,

    id. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    Gradivi,

    i. e. tumult of war, Sil. 11, 101:

    virtutem turbine nullo Fortuna excutiet tibi,

    Luc. 2, 243:

    horum mala, turbo quīs rerum imminet,

    Sen. Agam. 196.—
    II.
    Lit., a spinning-top, whipping-top, Verg. A. 7, 378 sq.; Tib. 1, 5, 3.—
    B.
    Transf., of things that have the shape or whirling motion of a top, as a reel, whirl, spindle, etc., Cic. Fat. 18, 42; Varr. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 449; Hor. Epod. 17, 7; Cat. 64, 315; Ov. M. 1, 336; Plin. 2, 10, 7, § 47; 9, 36, 61, § 130; 27, 4, 5, § 14; 36, 13, 19, § 90; 37, 4, 15, § 56.—
    III.
    A whirling motion, a whirl, twirl, twist, rotation, revolution, a round, circle (mostly poet.):

    cum caeli turbine ferri,

    Lucr. 5, 624:

    lunae,

    id. 5, 632:

    ignium,

    id. 6, 640; cf. Verg. A. 3, 573:

    teli (contorti),

    id. ib. 6, 594; cf. id. ib. 11, 284; Luc. 3, 465; Sil. 4, 542:

    saxi,

    whirling force, circular hurling, Verg. A. 12, 531:

    serpentis,

    i. e. the coiling, Sil. 3, 191:

    Aegaeus,

    whirlpool, vortex, Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 287; so, rapax, Stat [p. 1918] Th. 4, 813:

    verterit hunc (servum in emancipatione) dominus, momento turbinis exit Marcus Dama,

    i. e. of whirling round, Pers. 5, 78: militiae turbine factus eques, i. e. through the round of military gradation or promotion, Ov. Am. 3, 15, 6:

    vulgi,

    i. e. a throng, crowd, Claud. II. Cons. Stil. 200.
    3.
    Turbo, ōnis, m., the name of a gladiator, Hor. S. 2, 3, 310.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Turbo

  • 17 turbo

    1.
    turbo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. ( fut. perf. turbassit, for turbaverit, Cic. Leg. 3, 4; al. turbassitur) [turba], to disturb, agitate, confuse, disorder; to throw into disorder or confusion (freq. and class.; syn.: confundo, misceo, agito).
    I.
    Lit.:

    ventorum vi agitari atque turbari mare,

    Cic. Clu. 49, 138:

    aequora ventis,

    Lucr. 2, 1:

    hibernum mare,

    Hor. Epod. 15, 8; Ov. M. 7, 154; 14, 545 al.:

    eversae turbant convivia mensae,

    id. ib. 12, 222; cf. in a poet. transf.:

    ancipiti quoniam bello turbatur utrimque,

    Lucr. 6, 377:

    ne comae turbarentur, quas componi vetuit,

    Quint. 11, 3, 148:

    ne turbet toga mota capillos,

    Ov. Am. 3, 2, 75:

    capillos,

    id. M. 8, 859; id. Am. 3, 14, 33; cf.

    in a Greek construction: turbata capillos,

    id. M. 4, 474:

    ceram,

    the seal, Quint. 12, 8, 13:

    uvae recentes alvum turbant,

    Plin. 23, 1, 6, § 10.— Absol.:

    instat, turbatque ruitque,

    Ov. M. 12, 134.—Reflex.:

    cum mare turbaret (sc. se),

    Varr. R. R. 3, 17, 7 Schneid. ad loc. (al. turbaretur).—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Milit. t. t., to throw into disorder, break the line of battle, disorganize:

    equitatus turbaverat ordines,

    Liv. 3, 70, 9:

    aciem peditum,

    id. 30, 18, 10.— Absol.:

    equites eruptione factā in agmen modice primo impetu turbavere,

    Liv. 38, 13, 12:

    turbantibus invicem copiis,

    Flor. 4, 2, 49:

    hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, sistet,

    Verg. A. 6, 857.—
    2.
    Of water, to trouble, make thick or turbid:

    lacus,

    Ov. M. 6, 364:

    fons quem nulla volucris turbarat,

    id. ib. 3, 410:

    flumen imbre,

    id. ib. 13, 889:

    limo aquam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 60:

    aquas lacrimis,

    Ov. M. 3, 475; cf.:

    pulvis sputo turbatus,

    Petr. 131.—
    II.
    Trop.:

    non modo illa permiscuit, sed etiam delectum atque ordinem turbavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 50, § 123:

    qui omnia inflma summis paria fecit, turbavit, miscuit,

    id. Leg. 3, 9, 19:

    Aristoteles quoque multa turbat, a magistro Platone non dissentiens,

    id. N. D. 1, 13, 33:

    quantas res turbo!

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 2, 1:

    quas meus filius turbas turbet,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 1; cf.:

    quae meus filius turbavit,

    id. ib. 5, 1, 5; id. Cas. 5, 2, 6:

    ne quid ille turbet vide,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 24:

    haec, quae in re publicā turbantur,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 3:

    cum dies alicui nobilium dicta novis semper certaminibus contiones turbaret,

    Liv. 3, 66, 2: ne incertā prole auspicia turbarentur, id. 4, 6, 2:

    milites nihil in commune turbantes,

    Tac. H. 1, 85:

    turbantur (testes),

    Quint. 5, 7, 11; cf. id. 4, 5, 6; 5, 14, 29; 10, 7, 6:

    spem pacis,

    Liv. 2, 16, 5.— Absol.: Ph. Ea nos perturbat. Pa. Dum ne reducam, turbent porro, quam velint, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 12 (cf. I. B. 1. supra):

    repente turbare Fortuna coepit,

    Tac. A. 4, 1:

    si una alterave civitas turbet,

    id. ib. 3, 47: M. Servilius postquam, ut coeperat, omnibus in rebus turbarat, i. e. had deranged all his affairs, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 2.— Impers. pass.:

    nescio quid absente nobis turbatum'st domi,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7:

    totis Usque adeo turbatur agris,

    Verg. E. 1, 12:

    si in Hispaniā turbatum esset,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 57.—Hence, turbātus, a, um, P. a., troubled, disturbed, disordered, agitated, excited.
    A.
    Lit.:

    turbatius mare ingressus,

    more stormy, Suet. Calig. 23:

    turbatius caelum,

    id. Tib. 69.—
    B.
    Trop.:

    hostes inopinato malo turbati,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12:

    oculis simul ac mente turbatus,

    Liv. 7, 26, 5:

    turbatus religione simul ac periculo,

    Suet. Ner. 19; cf.:

    turbatus animi,

    Sil. 14, 678:

    placare voluntates turbatas,

    Cic. Planc. 4, 11: seditionibus omnia turbata sunt, Sall. Or. Phil. contr. Lepid. 1:

    turbata cum Romanis pax,

    Just. 18, 2, 10:

    omnia soluta, turbata atque etiam in contrarium versa,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 7; cf.:

    quae si confusa, turbata, permixta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 9, 5, 3.—Hence, adv.: turbātē, confusedly, disorderly:

    aguntur omnia raptim atque turbate,

    in confusion, Caes. B. C. 1, 5, 1.
    2.
    turbo, ĭnis, m. (collat. form tur-ben, ĭnis, n., Tib. 1, 5, 3; id. ap. Charis. p. 118 P.; gen. turbonis, Caes. ib.) [1. turbo], that which spins or twirls round (cf. vertex).
    I.
    A whirlwind, hurricane, tornado: ventus circumactus et eundem ambiens locum et se ipse vertigine concitans turbo est. Qui si pugnacior est ac diutius volutatur, inflammatur, et efficit, quem prêstêra Graeci vocant:

    hic est igneus turbo,

    Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 3:

    falsum est faces et trabes turbine exprimi,

    id. ib. 7, 5, 1; 2, 22, 2; id. Ep. 109, 18:

    procellae, turbines,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 51; cf.: saevi exsistunt turbines, Pac. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 39, 157 (Trag. Rel. p. 111 Rib.); Enn. ap. Schol. Vat. ad Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 4 (Ann. v. 553 Vahl.):

    venti vis rapido percurrens turbine campos,

    Lucr. 1, 273; cf. id. 1, 279; 1, 294; 5, 217; Ov. M. 6, 310:

    senatus decrevit, ut Minerva, quam turbo dejecerat, restitueretur,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 25, 1:

    turbo aut subita tempestas,

    id. Cael. 32, 79:

    pulvis collectus turbine,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 31:

    venti rotanti turbine portant,

    Lucr. 1, 294:

    ita turbine nigro Ferret hiemps,

    Verg. G. 1, 320:

    venti ruunt et terras turbine perflant,

    id. A. 1, 83:

    accendi turbine quodam aëris,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 4, 1.—In apposition with ventus:

    exoritur ventus turbo,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 47:

    circumstabant navem turbines venti,

    id. Trin. 4, 1, 16.—
    B.
    Trop., whirlwind, storm, etc.:

    qui in maximis turbinibus ac fluctibus rei publicae navem gubernassem,

    Cic. Pis. 9, 20:

    tu, procella patriae, turbo ac tempestas pacis atque otii,

    id. Dom. 53, 137:

    ego te in medio versantem turbine leti Eripui,

    Cat. 64, 149:

    cum illi soli essent duo rei publicae turbines,

    Cic. Sest. 11, 25:

    miserae mentis,

    Ov. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    miserarum rerum,

    id. M. 7, 614:

    nescio quo miserae turbine mentis agor,

    id. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    Gradivi,

    i. e. tumult of war, Sil. 11, 101:

    virtutem turbine nullo Fortuna excutiet tibi,

    Luc. 2, 243:

    horum mala, turbo quīs rerum imminet,

    Sen. Agam. 196.—
    II.
    Lit., a spinning-top, whipping-top, Verg. A. 7, 378 sq.; Tib. 1, 5, 3.—
    B.
    Transf., of things that have the shape or whirling motion of a top, as a reel, whirl, spindle, etc., Cic. Fat. 18, 42; Varr. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 449; Hor. Epod. 17, 7; Cat. 64, 315; Ov. M. 1, 336; Plin. 2, 10, 7, § 47; 9, 36, 61, § 130; 27, 4, 5, § 14; 36, 13, 19, § 90; 37, 4, 15, § 56.—
    III.
    A whirling motion, a whirl, twirl, twist, rotation, revolution, a round, circle (mostly poet.):

    cum caeli turbine ferri,

    Lucr. 5, 624:

    lunae,

    id. 5, 632:

    ignium,

    id. 6, 640; cf. Verg. A. 3, 573:

    teli (contorti),

    id. ib. 6, 594; cf. id. ib. 11, 284; Luc. 3, 465; Sil. 4, 542:

    saxi,

    whirling force, circular hurling, Verg. A. 12, 531:

    serpentis,

    i. e. the coiling, Sil. 3, 191:

    Aegaeus,

    whirlpool, vortex, Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 287; so, rapax, Stat [p. 1918] Th. 4, 813:

    verterit hunc (servum in emancipatione) dominus, momento turbinis exit Marcus Dama,

    i. e. of whirling round, Pers. 5, 78: militiae turbine factus eques, i. e. through the round of military gradation or promotion, Ov. Am. 3, 15, 6:

    vulgi,

    i. e. a throng, crowd, Claud. II. Cons. Stil. 200.
    3.
    Turbo, ōnis, m., the name of a gladiator, Hor. S. 2, 3, 310.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > turbo

  • 18 ā

       ā    (before consonants), ab (before vowels, h, and some consonants, esp. l, n, r, s), abs (usu. only before t and q, esp. freq. before the pron. te), old af, praep. with abl., denoting separation or departure (opp. ad).    I. Lit., in space, from, away from, out of.    A. With motion: ab urbe proficisci, Cs.: a supero mari Flaminia (est via), leads: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun: usque a mari supero Romam proficisci, all the way from; with names of cities and small islands, or with domo, home (for the simple abl; of motion, away from, not out of, a place); hence, of raising a siege, of the march of soldiers, the setting out of a fleet, etc.: oppidum ab Aeneā fugiente a Troiā conditum: ab Alesiā, Cs.: profectus ab Orico cum classe, Cs.; with names of persons or with pronouns: cum a vobis discessero: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, i. e. from his house, T.; (praegn.): a rege munera repudiare, from, sent by, N.—    B. Without motion.    1. Of separation or distance: abesse a domo paulisper maluit: tum Brutus ab Romā aberat, S.: hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat, Cs.: a foro longe abesse: procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt, Cs.: cum esset bellum tam prope a Siciliā; so with numerals to express distance: ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo, eight miles distant, Cs.: ab milibus passuum minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off, Cs.; so rarely with substantives: quod tanta machinatio ab tanto spatio instrueretur, so far away, Cs.—    2. To denote a side or direction, etc., at, on, in: ab sinistrā parte nudatis castris, on the left, Cs.: ab eā parte, quā, etc., on that side, S.: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, Cs.: ab decumanā portā castra munita, at the main entrance, Cs.: crepuit hinc a Glycerio ostium, of the house of G., T.: (cornua) ab labris argento circumcludunt, on the edges, Cs.; hence, a fronte, in the van; a latere, on the flank; a tergo, in the rear, behind; a dextro cornu, on the right wing; a medio spatio, half way.—    II. Fig.    A. Of time.    1. Of a point of time, after: Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus, immediately after, Cs.: ab eo magistratu, after this office, S.: recens a volnere Dido, fresh from her wound, V.: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine, i. e. after leaving, L.: ab his, i. e. after these words, hereupon, O.: ab simili <*>ade domo profugus, i. e. after and in consequence of, L.—    2. Of a period of time, from, since, after: ab hora tertiā bibebatur, from the third hour: ab Sullā et Pompeio consulibus, since the consulship of: ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumum annum, since, S.: augures omnes usque ab Romulo, since the time of: iam inde ab infelici pugnā ceciderant animi, from (and in consequence of), L.; hence, ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first: ab integro, anew, afresh: ab... ad, from (a time)... to: cum ab horā septimā ad vesperum pugnatum sit, Cs.; with nouns or adjectives denoting a time of life: iam inde a pueritiā, T.: a pueritiā: a pueris: iam inde ab incunabulis, L.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, L.: ab parvulis, Cs.—    B. In other relations.    1. To denote separation, deterring, intermitting, distinction, difference, etc., from: quo discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem: propius abesse ab ortu: alter ab illo, next after him, V.: Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus, next in rank to, H.: impotentia animi a temperantiā dissidens: alieno a te animo fuit, estranged; so with adjj. denoting free, strange, pure, etc.: res familiaris casta a cruore civili: purum ab humano cultu solum, L.: (opoidum) vacuum ab defensoribus, Cs.: alqm pudicum servare ab omni facto, etc., II.; with substt.: impunitas ab iudicio: ab armis quies dabatur, L.; or verbs: haec a custodiis loca vacabant, Cs.—    2. To denote the agent, by: qui (Mars) saepe spoliantem iam evertit et perculit ab abiecto, by the agency of: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro: si quid ei a Caesare gravius accidisset, at Caesar's hands, Cs.: vetus umor ab igne percaluit solis, under, O.: a populo P. imperia perferre, Cs.: equo lassus ab indomito, H.: volgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus? by whose hands and upon whose orders? factus ab arte decor, artificial, O.: destitutus ab spe, L.; (for the sake of the metre): correptus ab ignibus, O.; (poet. with abl. of means or instr.): intumuit venter ab undā, O.—Ab with abl. of agent for the dat., to avoid ambiguity, or for emphasis: quibus (civibus) est a vobis consulendum: te a me nostrae consuetudinis monendum esse puto.—    3. To denote source, origin, extraction, from, of: Turnus ab Ariciā, L.: si ego me a M. Tullio esse dicerem: oriundi ab Sabinis, L.: dulces a fontibus undae, V.—With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping (cf. a parte), from, on the part of: a quo quidem genere, iudices, ego numquam timui: nec ab Romanis vobis ulla est spes, you can expect nothing from the Romans, L.; (ellipt.): haec a servorum bello pericula, threatened by: quem metus a praetore Romano stimulabat, fear of what the praetor might do, L.—With verbs of paying, etc., solvere, persolvere, dare (pecuniam) ab aliquo, to pay through, by a draft on, etc.: se praetor dedit, a quaestore numeravit, quaestor a mensā publicā, by an order on the quaestor: ei legat pecuniam a filio, to be paid by his son: scribe decem (milia) a Nerio, pay by a draft on Nerius, H.; cognoscere ab aliquā re, to know or learn by means of something (but ab aliquo, from some one): id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse, Cs.; in giving an etymology: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, L.—Rarely with verbs of beginning and repeating: coepere a fame mala, L.: a se suisque orsus, Ta.—    4. With verbs of freeing from, defending, protecting, from, against: ut a proeliis quietem habuerant, L.: provincia a calamitate est defendenda: sustinere se a lapsu, L.—    5. With verbs and adjectives, to define the respect in which, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of: orba ab optimatibus contio: mons vastus ab naturā et humano cultu, S.: ne ab re sint omissiores, too neglectful of money or property, T.: posse a facundiā, in the matter of eloquence, T.; cf. with laborare, for the simple abl, in, for want of: laborare ab re frumentariā, Cs.—    6. In stating a motive, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: patres ab honore appellati, L.: inops tum urbs ab longinquā obsidione, L.—    7. Indicating a part of the whole, of, out of: scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto, Cs.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).—    8. Marking that to which anything belongs: qui sunt ab eā disciplinā: nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt.—    9. Of a side or party: vide ne hoc totum sit a me, makes for my view: vir ab innocentiā clementissimus, in favor of.—10. In late prose, of an office: ab epistulis, a secretary, Ta. Note. Ab is not repeated with a following pron interrog. or relat.: Arsinoën, Stratum, Naupactum... fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc. It is often separated from the word which it governs: a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo: a minus bono, S.: a satis miti principio, L.—The poets join a and que, making āque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.): aque Chao, V.: aque mero, O.—In composition, ab- stands before vowels, and h, b, d, i consonant, l, n, r, s; abs- before c, q, t; b is dropped, leaving as- before p; ā- is found in āfuī, āfore ( inf fut. of absum); and au- in auferō, aufugiō.
    * * *
    I
    Ah!; (distress/regret/pity, appeal/entreaty, surprise/joy, objection/contempt)
    II
    by (agent), from (departure, cause, remote origin/time); after (reference)
    III
    ante, abb. a.

    in calendar expression a. d. = ante diem -- before the day

    Latin-English dictionary > ā

  • 19 ab-rumpō

        ab-rumpō rūpī, ruptus, ere,    to break off, break away, tear, rend, burst, sever: angues crinibus, O.: sua quaeque puppes abrumpunt vincula ripis, break off their hawsers from the bank, V.: ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes, from the rent clouds, V.: abruptis procellis, by the sudden outbreak of storms, V.: ad terras abrupto sidere nimbus It, i. e. breaks through the sky, V.—Fig.: (legio Martia) se prima latrocinio Antoni abrupit, first freed itself: vitam, to break the thread of life, V.: fas, to violate, V.: medium sermonem, to interrupt, V.: omnibus inter victoriam mortemve abruptis, since all but victory or death was excluded, L.: dissimulationem, to throw off the mask, Ta.

    Latin-English dictionary > ab-rumpō

  • 20 āctus

        āctus ūs, m    [1 AG-], a driving, impulse, setting in motion: actu inflectit feram: Fertur magno mons actu, with a mighty impulse, V. — Meton., a right of way, right to drive through, C.—Esp., a recital, delivery: fabellarum, L.: carminum, expressive gestures, L.—A part of a play, act: modo, in quocumque fuerit actu, probetur<*> primo actu placeo, T.: hic restat actus, i. e. this crowning achievement: cognoscere in actu (opp. legere), i. e. to see done, O.
    * * *
    act, performance (of play), delivery; action, deed; series/sequence; progress; right of way/road for cattle; path, cart-track; land measure (120 ft.)

    Latin-English dictionary > āctus

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