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to assume a false character

  • 1 aliēnus

        aliēnus    [alius].    I. Adj. with comp. and sup, of another, belonging to another, not one's own, foreign, alien, strange: res: puer, the child of another, T.: mos, T.: menses, of other climes, V.: pecuniae: in alienis finibus decertare, Cs.: salus, of others, Cs.: alienis manibus, by the hands of others, L.: insolens in re alienā, in dealing with other men's property: mālis ridens alienis, i. e. a forced laugh, H.: mulier, another man's wife: alieni viri sermones, of another woman's husband, L.: vestigia viri alieni, one not my husband, L.: volnus, intended for another, V.: alienam personam ferre, to assume a false character, L.: cornua, i. e. those of a stag, O.: alieno Marte pugnare (equites), i. e. on foot, L.: aes alienum, another's money, i. e. debt: aes alienum alienis nominibus, debts contracted on the security of others, S.: recte facere alieno metu, fear of another, T.: crevit ex metu alieno audacia, another's fear, L.: sacerdotium genti haud alienum, foreign to, L. — Alien from, not related, not allied, not friendly, strange: ab nostrā familiā, T.: omnia alienissimis crediderunt, to utter strangers, Cs.: ne a litteris quidem alienus, not unversed in.—Strange, unsuitable, incongruous, inadequate, inconsistent, unseasonable, different from: dignitatis alicuius: neque aliena consili (domus), not inconvenient for consultation, S.: illi causae: alienum maiestate suā: aliena huius existimatione suspicio: domus magis his aliena malis, freer from, H.: alienum a vitā meā, T.: a dignitate: non alienum esse videtur, proponere, etc., Cs.: non alienum videtur,... docere, N. — Averse, hostile, unfriendly, unfavorable to: (Caesar) a me: voluntates, unfriendliness: mens, hostility, S.: alieno a te animo: a causā nobilitatis, opposed to: a Murenā nullā re alienus, in nc respect unfriendly: alienum suis rationibus, dangerous to his plans, S.: alieno esse animo in Caesarem, Cs.: alieno loco proelium committunt, unfavorable, Cs.: alienissimo sibi loco conflixit, N. —Of time, unfitting, inconvenient, unfavorable, unseasonable: ad iudicium corrumpendum tempus: ad committendum proelium alienum esse tempus, Cs.: alieno tempore defendisse: alienore aetate, at a less suitable age, T.—Of the mind, estranged, disordered: illis aliena mens erat, qui, etc., S.—    II. Substt.:
    * * *
    I
    aliena -um, alienior -or -us, alienissimus -a -um ADJ
    foreign; unconnected; another's; contrary; unworthy; averse, hostile; mad
    II
    foreigner; outsider; stranger to the family; person/slave of another house

    Latin-English dictionary > aliēnus

  • 2 histrionia

    histrĭōnĭa, ae, f. (sc. ars) [id.], the art of stage-playing, dramatic art:

    facere histrioniam,

    to assume the character of an actor, Plaut. Am. prol. 90; Macr. S. 2, 10, 12:

    exercere,

    Petr. Fr. 10.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > histrionia

  • 3 character

    branded/impressed letter/mark/etc; marking instrument; stamp, character, style

    Latin-English dictionary > character

  • 4 character

    chăracter, ēris, m., = charaktêr.
    I.
    An instrument for branding or marking, etc.: character est ferrum coloratum, quo notae pecudibus inuruntur, charaktêr autem Graece, Latine forma dicitur, Isid. Orig. 20, 16, 7.—
    II.
    Usu., the mark or sign burned or imprinted.
    A.
    Prop. (esp. upon animals):

    quadrupedia charactere signare,

    Col. 11, 2, 14; Pall. Jan. 16:

    characterem infigere alicui,

    Aug. Contr. Cresc. 1, 30.—
    B.
    Trop., a characteristic, mark, character, style, etc. (only ante- and postclass.):

    Luciliano charactere libelli,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 17; Serv. ad Verg. E. 3, 1; Diom. p. 481 P. (cf. Cic. Or. 39, 134; id. Q. Fr. 2, 15 (16), 5; and Gell. 7, 14, 1, in which passages it is written as Greek).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > character

  • 5 false

    false, adv., v. fallo, P. a. fin. 2.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > false

  • 6 agō

        agō ēgī, āctus (old inf pass. agier), ere    [1 AG-], to put in motion, move, lead, drive, tend, conduct: bos Romam acta, L.: capellas, V.: pecus visere montīs, H.: ante se Thyum, N.: in exsilium, L.: Iris nubibus acta, borne on, V.: alqm in crucem, to crucify: Illum aget Fama, will carry, H.: quo hinc te agis? whither are you going? T.: se primus agebat, strode in front, V.: capellas potum, V.—Prov.: agas asellum, i. e. if you can't afford an ox, drive an ass. — Pass., to go, march: quo multitudo agebatur, L.: citius agi vellet agmen, march on quicker, L.: raptim agmine acto, L.— Esp., to drive away, carry off, steal, rob, plunder: pecoris praedas, S.; freq. with ferre, to rob, plunder: ferre agere plebem plebisque res, L.: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, L.—To chase, pursue, hunt: apros, V.: cervum, V. — Fig.: dum haec crimina agam ostiatim, track out from house to house: ceteros ruerem, agerem, T.: palantīs Troas, V.—To move, press, push forward, advance, bring up: multa undique portari atque agi, Cs.: vineis ad oppidum actis, pushed forward, Cs.: moles, Cu.: cloaca maxima sub terram agenda, to be carried under ground, L.: cuniculos ad aerarium, drive: per glaebas radicibus actis, O.: pluma in cutem radices egerit, struck deep root, O.: vera gloria radices agit: tellus Fissa agit rimas, opens in fissures, O.: in litus navīs, beached, L.: navem, to steer, H.: currūs, to drive, O.: per agmen limitem ferro, V.: vias, make way, V.: (sol) amicum Tempus agens, bringing the welcome hour (of sunset), H.—To throw out, stir up: spumas ore, V.: spumas in ore: se laetus ad auras Palmes agit, shoots up into the air, V.—Animam agere, to expire: nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus; cf. et gestum et animam ageres, i. e. exert yourself in gesturing and risk your life. — Fig., to lead, direct, guide: (poëmata), animum auditoris, H.— To move, impel, excite, urge, prompt, induce, rouse, drive: quae te Mens agit in facinus? O.: ad illa te, H.: eum praecipitem: viros spe praedae diversos agit, leads astray, S.: bonitas, quae nullis casibus agitur, N.: quemcunque inscitia veri Caecum agit, blinds, H.: quibus actus fatis, V.: seu te discus agit, occupies, H.: nos exquirere terras, V.: desertas quaerere terras agimur, V. — To pursue for harm, persecute, disturb, vex, attack, assail: reginam stimulis, V.: agentia verba Lycamben, H.: diris agam vos, H.: quam deus ultor agebat, O.—To pursue, carry on, think, reflect, deliberate, treat, represent, exhibit, exercise, practise, act, perform, deliver, pronounce: nihil, to be idle: omnia per nos, in person: agendi tempus, a time for action: industria in agendo: apud primos agebat, fought in the van, S.: quae continua bella agimus, are busy with, L.: (pes) natus rebus agendis, the metre appropriate to dramatic action, H.: Quid nunc agimus? what shall we do now? T.: quid agam, habeo, i. e. I know what to do, T.: quid agitur? how are you? T.: quid agis, dulcissime rerum? i. e. how are you? H.: vereor, quid agat Ino, what is to become of: quid agis? what do you mean? nihil agis, it is of no use, T.: nihil agis, dolor, quamvis, etc.: cupis abire, sed nihil agis, usque tenebo, you cannot succeed, H.: ubi blanditiis agitur nihil, O.—Esp., hoc or id agere, to give attention to, mind, heed: hocine agis, an non? are you attending? T.: id quod et agunt et moliuntur, their purpose and aim: qui id egerunt, ut gentem conlocarent, etc., aimed at this: sin autem id actum est, ut, etc., if it was their aim: summā vi agendum esse, ut, etc., L.: certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur, it was planned, N.: Hoc age, ne, etc., take care, H.: alias res agis, you are not listening, T.: aliud agens ac nihil eius modi cogitans, bent on other plans: animadverti eum alias res agere, paid no attention: vides, quam alias res agamus, are otherwise occupied: populum aliud nunc agere, i. e. are indifferent.—To perform, do, transact: ne quid negligenter: suum negotium, attend to his own business: neque satis constabat, quid agerent, what they were at, Cs.: agentibus divina humanaque consulibus, busy with auspices and affairs, L.: per litteras agere, quae cogitas, carry on, N.: (bellum) cum feminis, Cu.: conventum, to hold an assize: ad conventūs agendos, to preside at, Cs.: census actus eo anno, taken, L.— Of public transactions, to manage, transact, do, discuss, speak, deliberate: quae (res) inter eos agi coeptae, negotiations begun, Cs.: de condicionibus pacis, treat, L.: quorum de poenā agebatur, L.— Hence, agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people on a law or measure (cf. agere ad populum, to propose, bring before the people): cum populo de re p.—Of a speaker or writer, to treat, discuss, narrate: id quod agas, your subject: bella per quartum iam volumen, L.: haec dum agit, during this speech, H.—In law, to plead, prosecute, advocate: lege agito, go to law, T.: causam apud iudices: aliter causam agi, to be argued on other grounds: cum de bonis et de caede agatur, in a cause relating to, etc.: tamquam ex syngraphā agere cum populo, to litigate: ex sponso egit: agere lege in hereditatem, sue for: crimen, to press an accusation: partis lenitatis et misericordiae, to plead the cause of mercy: ii per quos agitur, the counsel: causas, i. e. to practise law: me agente, while I am counsel: ii apud quos agitur, the judges; hence, of a judge: rem agere, to hear: reos, to prosecute, L.: alqm furti, to accuse of theft. —Pass., to be in suit, be in question, be at stake: non capitis eius res agitur, sed pecuniae, T.: aguntur iniuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum.—To represent, act, perform, of an orator: cum dignitate.—Of an actor: fabulam, T.: partīs, to assume a part, T.: Ballionem, the character of: gestum agere in scena, appear as actors: canticum, L. — Fig.: lenem mitemque senatorem, act the part of, L.: noluit hodie agere Roscius: cum egerunt, when they have finished acting: triumphum, to triumph, O.: de classe populi R. triumphum, over, etc.: ex Volscis et ex Etruriā, over, etc., L.: noctu vigilias, keep watch: alta silentia, to be buried in silence, O.: arbitria victoriae, to exercise a conqueror's prerogative, Cu.: paenitentiam, to repent, Cu.: oblivia, to forget, O.: gratias (poet. grates) agere, to give thanks, thank: maximas tibi gratias: alcui gratias quod fecisset, etc., Cs.: grates parenti, O. — Of time, to spend, pass, use, live through: cum dis aevom: securum aevom, H.: dies festos, celebrate: ruri vitam, L.: otia, V.: quartum annum ago et octogesimum, in my eightyfourth year: ver magnus agebat orbis, was experiencing, V.— Pass: mensis agitur hic septimus, postquam, etc., going on seven months since, T.: bene acta vita, well spent: tunc principium anni agebatur, L.: melior pars acta (est) diei, is past, V. — Absol, to live, pass time, be: civitas laeta agere, rejoiced, S.—Meton., to treat, deal, confer, talk with: quae (patria) tecum sic agit, pleads: haec inter se dubiis de rebus, V.: Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut, etc., tried to persuade C., N.: agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit, L.—With bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with, treat or use well or ill: praeclare cum eis: facile est bene agere cum eis.— Pass impers., to go well or ill with one, be well or badly off: intelleget secum esse actum pessime: in quibus praeclare agitur, si, etc., who are well off, if, etc.—Poet.: Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur, will be treated, V.— Pass, to be at stake, be at hazard, be concerned, be in peril: quasi mea res minor agatur quam tua, T.: in quibus eorum caput agatur: ibi rem frumentariam agi cernentes, L.: si sua res ageretur, if his interests were involved: agitur pars tertia mundi, is at risk, O.: non agitur de vectigalibus, S.—Praegn., to finish, complete, only pass: actā re ad fidem pronius est, after it is done, L.: iucundi acti labores, past: ad impediendam rem actam, an accomplished fact, L.— Prov.: actum, aiunt, ne agas, i. e. don't waste your efforts, T.: acta agimus: Actum est, it is all over, all is lost, T.: iam de Servio actum rati, L.: acta haec res est, is lost, T.: tantā mobilitate sese Numidae agunt, behave, S.: ferocius agunt equites, L.: quod nullo studio agebant, because they were careless, Cs.: cum simulatione agi timoris iubet, Cs.—Imper. as interj, come now, well, up: age, da veniam filio, T.: en age, rumpe moras, V.: agite dum, L.: age porro, tu, cur, etc.? age vero, considerate, etc.: age, age, iam ducat: dabo, good, T.: age, sit ita factum.
    * * *
    agere, egi, actus V
    drive, urge, conduct; spend (time w/cum); thank (w/gratias); deliver (speech)

    Latin-English dictionary > agō

  • 7 calumnia

        calumnia ae, f    trickery, artifice, chicanery, cunning: cum omni calumniā senatūs auctoritas impediretur: triumphare calumniā paucorum, S.: res extracta variis calumniis.—A pretence, evasion, subterfuge: in istā calumniā delitescere: ne qua calumnia adhibeatur.—A misrepresentation, false statement, fallacy, cavil: effugere alicuius calumniam.—A false accusation, malicious charge, false prosecution: de templis spoliatis, L.: causam calumniae reperire: ab alquo per calumniam alqd petere.—A perversion of justice, bad faith in an action at law: personam calumniae civitati inponere, the character of a malicious prosecutor: calumniae accusationem relinquere.—A conviction for malicious prosecution: calumniam effugere: calumniam fictis eludere iocis, Ph.: calumniam in eum iurare, to swear that the prosecution is in good faith, L.
    * * *
    I
    charge; accusation
    II
    sophistry, sham; false accusation/claim/statement/pretenses/objection; quibble

    Latin-English dictionary > calumnia

  • 8 faciō

        faciō fēcī (old fut perf. faxo; subj. faxim), factus, ere; imper. fac (old, face); pass. fīō, fierī; pass imper. fī    [2 FAC-], to make, construct, fashion, frame, build, erect, produce, compose: Lectulos faciundos dedit, T.: navīs: candelabrum factum e gemmis: de marmore signum, O.: pontem in Arare, Cs.: (fanum) a civitatibus factum, founded, L.: duumviri ad aedem faciendam, L.: statuam faciendam locare: (valvae) ad cludendum factae: comoedias, T.: sermonem: epigramma: verbum, speak: carmina, Iu.: scutis ex cortice factis, Cs.: auri pondera facti, wrought, V.—Of actions, to do, perform, make, carry on, execute: Opus, T.: officium, T.: Si tibi quid feci quod placeat, T.: proelium, join, Cs.: iter, Cs.: clamores: clamor fit: eruptiones ex oppido, Cs.: gradum: imperata, Cs.: promissum, fulfil: iudicium: deditionem, S.: fac periclum in litteris, put (him) to the test, T.: me advorsum omnia, oppose me in everything, T.: omnia amici causā: multa crudeliter, N.: initium, begin: praeter aetatem Facere, work too hard for your years, T.: perfacile factu esse, conata perficere, Cs.— To make, produce, cause, occasion, bring about, bring to pass: turbam, T.: ignem ex lignis: iniuriam, Cs.: causas morae, S.: ducis admirationem, excite, L.: luxuriae modum, impose, S.: fugam ex ripā fecit (i. e. fugavit), L.: somnum, induce, Iu.: metum insidiarum, excite, L.: silentio facto, L.: ne qua eius adventūs significatio fiat, become known, Cs.: faciam ut intellegatis: facito, ut sciam: putasne te posse facere, ut, etc.?: fieri potest, ut recte quis sentiat, it may happen: ita fit, ut adsint, it happens: faciendum mihi est, ut exponam, is incumbent: me Facit ut te moneam, compels, T.: facere non possum, quin mittam, etc., I cannot forbear: di faxint ne sit alter (cui, etc.): fac ne quid aliud cures, take care: domi adsitis, facite, T.: ita fac cupidus sis, ut, etc., be sure: iam faxo scies, T.: nulla res magis talīs oratores videri facit, quales, etc. (i. e. ut viderentur): hoc me Flere facit, O.— To make, acquire, obtain, gather, accumulate, gain, take, receive, incur, suffer: rem, T.: praedam, Cs.: pecuniam: stipendia, earn, S.: corhortīs, form, Cs.: corpus, grow fat, Ph.: viam sibi, force, L.: alqm suum, win as a friend, T.: terram suam, i. e. conquer, Cs.: vitae iacturam, Cs.: naufragium: damnum.— To make, render, grant, give, impart, confer: arbitria, H.: potestatem dicendi: sibi iure iurando fidem, give assurance, Cs.: Romanis animum, inspire, L.: copiam pugnandi militibus, L.: audientiam orationi: cui si libido Fecerit auspicium, i. e. if the whim seize him, H.: cognomen colli, L.: mihi medicinam, administer: nobis otia, V.: alcui dolorem: desiderium decemviros creandi, L.— To celebrate, conduct, give, perform, represent: cenas: res divinas: sacra pro civibus: cui (Iunoni), make offerings: vitulā pro frugibus, make sacrifice, V.: cum pro populo fieret: ut fieret, edere, L. — To practise, follow: naviculariam: mercaturas.— To make, depict, represent, assert, say, pretend: in libro se exeuntem e senatu: pugnam ex auro, V.: me unum ex iis feci, qui, etc., pretended to be: ex industriā factus ad imitationem stultitiae, L.: inpendere apud inferos saxum Tantalo: Fecerat et fetam Procubuisse lupam, V.: facio me alias res agere, make as if.—To suppose, assume, grant, admit (only imper. with obj clause): fac audisse (Glauciam): fac ita esse: fac (me) velle, V.— To make, constitute, choose, appoint, render: senatum firmiorem vestrā auctoritate: heredem filiam: exercitum sibi fidum, S.: iter factum conruptius imbri, H.: hi consules facti sunt: ex coriis utres fierent, S.: Candida de nigris, O.: si ille factus esset, had been chosen (consul): alqm certiorem facere, inform ; see certus: ne hoc quidem sibi reliqui facit, ut, etc., does not leave himself so much character.—Pass., to become, be turned into, be made: fit Aurum ingens coluber, V.: sua cuique deus fit dira cupido? V.— To put in possession of, subject to, refer to: omnia quae mulieris fuerunt, viri fiunt: omnem oram Romanae dicionis fecit, L.: dicionis alienae facti, L.— To value, esteem, regard, appraise, prize: parum id facio, S.: te maxumi, T.: quos plurimi faciunt: voluptatem minimi: dolorem nihili: istuc Aequi bonique facio, am content with, T.— To do (resuming the meaning of another verb): cessas ire ac facere, i. e. do as I say, T.: oppidani bellum parare: idem nostri facere, S.: ‘evolve eius librum’—‘Feci mehercule:’ bestiae simile quiddam faciunt (i. e. patiuntur): aut facere aut non promisse, Ct.: Sicuti fieri consuevit, to happen, S.— To do, act, deal, conduct oneself: Facere contra huic aegre, T.: tuis dignum factis feceris, will act like yourself, T.: bene: adroganter, Cs.: per malitiam, with malice: aliter, S.: facere quam dicere malle, act, S.: mature facto opus est, prompt action, S. — To act, take part, take sides: idem plebes facit, S.: idem sentire et secum facere Sullam: cum veritas cum hoc faciat, is on his side: nihilo magis ab adversariis quam a nobis: eae res contra nos faciunt: adversus quos fecerint, N.— To arrange, adjust, set: Vela, spread, V.: pedem, brace, V.— To be fit, be useful, make, serve, answer, do: Ad talem formam non facit iste locus, O.: ad scelus omne, O.: Stemmata quid faciunt? avail, Iu.
    * * *
    I
    facere, additional forms V
    do, make; create; acquire; cause, bring about, fashion; compose; accomplish
    II
    facere, feci, factus V
    do, make; create; acquire; cause, bring about, fashion; compose; accomplish

    Latin-English dictionary > faciō

  • 9 fingō

        fingō finxī, fictus, ere    [FIG-], to touch, handle, stroke, touch gently: corpora linguā, V.: manūs manibus, O.— To form, fashion, frame, shape, mould, model, make: hominem: ab aliquo deo <*>cti: alqd e cerā: homullus ex argillā fictus: pocula de humo, O.: fingendi ars, statuary: imagines marmore, Ta.— To set to rights, arrange, adorn, dress, trim: crinem, V.: fingi curā mulierum, Ph.: vitem putando, V.—Of the countenance, to alter, change, put on, feign: voltum, Cs.: voltūs hominum fingit scelus, i. e. makes men change countenance, T.—Fig., to form, fashion, make, mould, give character to, compose: animos: ex alquā re me, shape my course: ea (verba) sicut ceram ad nostrum arbitrium: voltum, compose, O.: lingua wocem fingit, forms: Carmina, H.: finxit te natura ad virtutes magnum hominem: me pusilli animi, H.: mea minora, i. e. disparage, H.— To form by instruction, instruct, teach, train: mire filium, i. e. cause to play his part, T.: voce paternā Fingeris ad rectum, H.: equum docilem Ire viam, H.— To form mentally, represent in thought, imagine, conceive, think, suppose, express, sketch out: animis imaginem condicionis meae: ex suā naturā ceteros, conceive: utilitatum causā amicitias: in summo oratore fingendo, depicting: ex suā naturā ceteros, judge: me astutiorem: ne finge, do not think it, V.: finge, aliquem nunc fieri sapientem, suppose: interfecti aliqui sunt, finge a nobis, assume, L.— To contrive, devise, invent, feign, pretend: fallacias, T.: causas ne det, T.: verba, i. e. talk deceitfully, S.: (crimina) in istum: non visa, H.: dolorem in hoc casu, Iu.: malum civem Roscium fuisse.
    * * *
    I
    fingere, finxi, fictus V TRANS
    mold, form, shape; create, invent; produce; imagine; compose; devise, contrive; adapt, transform into; modify (appearence/character/behavior); groom; make up (story/excuse); pretend, pose; forge, counterfeit; act insincerely
    II
    fingere, fixi, finctus V TRANS
    mold, form, shape; create, invent; produce; imagine; compose; devise, contrive; adapt, transform into; modify (appearence/character/behavior); groom; make up (story/excuse); pretend, pose; forge, counterfeit; act insincerely

    Latin-English dictionary > fingō

  • 10 gerō

        gerō gessī, gestus, ere    [GES-], to bear about, bear, carry, wear, have, hold, sustain: vestem, N.: ferarum pelles, Ta.: anguīs inmixtos crinibus, O.: in capite galeam, N.: spolia ducis, L.: dextrā sceptrum, V.: Virginis os habitumque, V.: cornua matres Gesserunt, i. e. became cows, O.: tempora tecta pelle, O.: squalentem barbam gerens, with, V.: distentius uber, H.: Seu tu querelas sive geris iocos (of a jar), contain, H.— To bear, carry, bring: saxa in muros, L.: cum pro se quisque (terram) gereret, L.— To bear, bring forth, produce: arbores, O.: mālos, V.: quos gerit India lucos, V.: Terra viros gerit, O.—Fig., to bear, have, keep, entertain, cherish, experience: pro noxiis iras, T.: fortem animum, S.: mixtum gaudio animum, L.: Ante annos animum, V.: personam, support a character: Mores, O.: aliquod nomenque decusque, V.: veteres inimicitias cum Caesare, Cs.: de amicitiā gerendā libri: in Romanos odium, L.: aliter atque animo gerebat, respondit, i. e. with dissimulation, S.— To exhibit, display, assume: in adversis voltum secundae fortunae, L.: prae se quandam utilitatem.— To carry out, administer, manage, regulate, rule, govern, conduct, carry on, wage, transact, accomplish, do, perform: rem p.: res p. egregie gesta est, L.: magistratum: terrā rem, i. e. to be in command, L.: se et exercitum more maiorum, S.: male rem, manage business: dum ea geruntur, meanwhile, Cs.: dum haec Romae geruntur, happen, S.: etsi res bene gesta est, the war, Enn. ap. C.: in conspectu Caesaris res gerebatur, the action, Cs.: occasio rei bene gerendae, for a successful blow, Cs.: gladio comminus rem gerit, fights, Cs.: gestis aequanda pericula rebus, exploits, Iu.: a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit, public affairs: quid negoti geritur?: bello gesto, L.: auctores in gerendo probabiles: a spe gerendi abesse: intus Digna geri, off the stage, H.: geram tibi morem, gratify: gerere mihi morem, please myself, T.: ut homost, ita morem geras, every man to his humor, T.: ut utrique a me mos gestus esse videatur.—With se, to bear, act, behave, deport oneself: nos summissius: truculentius se quam ceteri: se turpissime: me in hoc magistratu: ita nos, ut, etc.: se medium gerere, remain neutral, L.: pro colonis se gerere, claim to be, L.: se pro cive: Dis te minorem, i. e. revere, H.: meque vosque in omnibus rebus iuxta, treat you as myself, S.: nec tecum talia gessi, treat you thus, V.
    * * *
    gerere, gessi, gestus V
    bear, carry, wear; carry on; manage, govern; (se gerere = to conduct oneself)

    Latin-English dictionary > gerō

  • 11 levis

        levis e, adj. with comp. and sup.    [2 LEG-]. —Of weight, light, not heavy: terra, light soil, V.: levis armaturae Numidae, light-armed, Cs.: miles, L.: nudi, aut sagulo leves, lightly clad, Ta.: Per levīs populos, shades, O.: virgāque levem coerces Aureā turbam, H.—Of digestion, light, easy to digest: malvae, H.—Of motion, light, swift, quick, fleet, nimble, rapid: venti, O.: pollex, O.: ad motūs leviores, N.: Messapus cursu, V.: Quaere modos leviore plectro, gayer, H.: hora, fleeting, O.— Slight, trifling, small: Ignis, O.: tactus, gentle, O.: querellae, O.—Fig., without weight, of no consequence, light, trifling, unimportant, inconsiderable, trivial, slight, little, petty: labores, T.: haec leviora fortasse: verba: auditio, unfounded report, Cs.: cui res et pecunia levissima fuit, insignificant: proelium, skirmish, Cs.: leviore de causā, Cs.: praecordia levibus flagrantia causis, Iu.: versūs, H.: Flebis levis, neglected, H.: rati, leviorem futurum apud patres reum, L.— Easy, light: non est leve Observare, no easy matter, Iu.: quidquid levius putaris, easier, Iu.: leviora tolli Pergama, H.—Of character, light, light-minded, capricious, fickle, inconstant, untrustworthy, false: mulieres sunt levi sententiā, T.: homo: tu levior cortice, H.: iudices: quid levius aut turpius, Cs.: auctor, L.: spes, empty, H.— Light, not severe, mild, gentle, pleasant: alquos leviore nomine appellare: audire leviora, milder reproaches, H.: eo, quod levissimum videbatur, decursum est, mildest, L.: Sithoniis non levis Euhius, i. e. hostile, H.
    * * *
    leve, levior -or -us, levissimus -a -um ADJ
    light, thin, trivial, trifling, slight; gentle; fickle, capricious; nimble; smooth; slippery, polished, plain; free from coarse hair/harsh sounds

    Latin-English dictionary > levis

  • 12 mentior

        mentior ītus, īrī, dep.    [1 MAN-], to invent, assert falsely, lie, cheat, deceive, pretend: Si quicquam invenies me mentitum, T.: Hoc iuvat, non mentior, H.: plurimis de rebus: ne ioco quidem, N.: ille, satum quo te mentiris, pretend, V.: certam me sum mentitus habere Horam, quae, etc., O.—Of things, to deceive, impose upon: frons, oculi, voltus persaepe mentiuntur: in quibus nihil umquam vetustas mentita sit.— To lie about, assert falsely, make a false promise about, feign, counterfeit, imitate: tantam rem, devise such a falsehood, S.: auspicium, L.: titulum Lyciscae, assume falsely, Iu.: ita mentitur (sc. Homerus), fables, H.— Fig.: Spem mentita seges, disappointed, H.: Nec varios discet mentiri lana colores, to assume, V.
    * * *
    mentiri, mentitus sum V DEP
    lie, deceive, invent; imitate; feign; pretend; speak falsely about

    Latin-English dictionary > mentior

  • 13 persōna

        persōna ae, f    [per+SON-], a mask, false face (usu. of clay or bark, covering the head; worn by actors): tragica, Ph.: pallens, Iu.: mulier videtur, Non persona loqui, i. e. no man disguised, Iu.— An assumed character, part: parasiti, T.: potestatis, affectation, Ta.— A part, character: aliena: personam in re p. tueri principis: persona, quam mihi tempus et res p. imposuit: petitoris personam capere: gravissimam personam sustinere: in Maeandri personā esse expressam speciem civitatis.— A person, personage, character: ut mea persona semper aliquid videretur habere populare: induxi senem disputantem, quia nulla videbatur aptior persona: Laeli: altera, sed secunda, second chief personage, N.: ut rerum, ut personarum dignitates ferunt: foedior omni Crimine persona est, the character you have to describe, Iu.
    * * *
    mask; character; personality

    Latin-English dictionary > persōna

  • 14 histronia

    dramatic art; assume character of actor

    Latin-English dictionary > histronia

  • 15 ad

    ad, prep. with acc. (from the fourth century after Christ written also at; Etrusc. suf. -a; Osc. az; Umbr. and Old Lat. ar, as [p. 27] in Eug. Tab., in S. C. de Bacch., as arveho for adveho; arfuerunt, arfuisse, for adfuerunt, etc.; arbiter for adbiter; so, ar me advenias, Plant. Truc. 2, 2, 17; cf. Prisc. 559 P.; Vel. Long. 2232 P.; Fabretti, Glos. Ital. col. 5) [cf. Sanscr. adhi; Goth. and Eng. at; Celt. pref. ar, as armor, i.e. ad mare; Rom. a].
    I.
    As antith. to ab (as in to ex), in a progressive order of relation, ad denotes, first, the direction toward an object; then the reaching of or attaining to it; and finally, the being at or near it.
    A.
    In space.
    1.
    Direction toward, to, toward, and first,
    a.
    Horizontally:

    fugere ad puppim colles campique videntur,

    the hills and fields appear to fly toward the ship, Lucr. 4, 390: meridie umbrae cadunt ad septentrionem, ortu vero ad occasum, to or toward the north and west, Plin. 2, 13, and so often of the geog. position of a place in reference to the points of compass, with the verbs jacere, vergere, spectare, etc.:

    Asia jacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad septentriones et aquiionem,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Mull.;

    and in Plin. very freq.: Creta ad austrum... ad septentrionem versa, 4, 20: ad Atticam vergente, 4, 21 al.—Also trop.: animus alius ad alia vitia propensior,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 81.—
    b.
    In a direction upwards (esp. in the poets, very freq.): manusque sursum ad caelum sustulit, Naev. ap. Non. 116, 30 (B. Pun. p. 13, ed. Vahl.): manus ad caeli templa tendebam lacrimans, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 50 ed. Vahl.); cf.:

    duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,

    Verg. A. 1, 93: molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum vomit, Att. ap. Prisc. 1325 P.: clamor ad caelum volvendus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 104 Mull. (Ann. v. 520 ed. Vahl.) (cf. with this: tollitur in caelum clamor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, or Ann. v. 422):

    ad caelumque ferat flammai fulgura rursum, of Aetna,

    Lucr. 1, 725; cf. id. 2, 191; 2, 325: sidera sola micant;

    ad quae sua bracchia tendens, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 188:

    altitudo pertingit ad caelum,

    Vulg. Dan. 4, 17.—
    c.
    Also in the direction downwards (for the usu. in):

    tardiore semper ad terras omnium quae geruntur in caelo effectu cadente quam visu,

    Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216.
    2.
    The point or goal at which any thing arrives.
    a.
    Without reference to the space traversed in passing, to, toward (the most common use of this prep.): cum stupro redire ad suos popularis, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 317 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 14 ed. Vahl.):

    ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videatur potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12: ad terras decidat aether, Lucan. 2, 58. —Hence,
    (α).
    With verbs which designate going, coming, moving, bearing, bringing near, adapting, taking, receiving, calling, exciting, admonishing, etc., when the verb is compounded with ad the prep. is not always repeated, but the constr. with the dat. or acc. employed; cf. Rudd. II. pp. 154, 175 n. (In the ante-class. per., and even in Cic., ad is generally repeated with most verbs, as, ad eos accedit, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 8:

    ad Sullam adire,

    id. ib. 25:

    ad se adferre,

    id. Verr. 4, 50:

    reticulum ad naris sibi admovebat,

    id. ib. 5, 27:

    ad laborem adhortantur,

    id. de Sen. 14:

    T. Vectium ad se arcessit,

    id. Verr. 5, 114; but the poets of the Aug. per., and the historians, esp. Tac., prefer the dative; also, when the compound verb contains merely the idea of approach, the constr. with ad and the acc. is employed; but when it designates increase, that with the dat. is more usual: accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; but, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province.)—
    (β).
    Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.):

    oratus sum venire ad te huc,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 1, 12: spectatores plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum, id. Stich. fin.:

    eamus ad me,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64:

    ancillas traduce huc ad vos,

    id. Heaut. 4, 4, 22:

    transeundumst tibi ad Menedemum,

    id. 4, 4, 17: intro nos vocat ad sese, tenet intus apud se, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 86 P.:

    te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias,

    Cic. Att. 3, 3; 16, 10 al.—
    (γ).
    Ad, with the name of a deity in the gen., is elliptical for ad templum or aedem (cf.:

    Thespiadas, quae ad aedem Felicitatis sunt,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 4; id. Phil. 2, 35:

    in aedem Veneris,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 120;

    in aedem Concordiae,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 9, 21;

    2, 6, 12): ad Dianae,

    to the temple of, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43:

    ad Opis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 14:

    ad Castoris,

    id. Quint. 17:

    ad Juturnae,

    id. Clu. 101:

    ad Vestae,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 35 al.: cf. Rudd. II. p. 41, n. 4, and p. 334.—
    (δ).
    With verbs which denote a giving, sending, informing, submitting, etc., it is used for the simple dat. (Rudd. II. p. 175): litteras dare ad aliquem, to send or write one a letter; and: litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one; hence Cic. never says, like Caesar and Sall., alicui scribere, which strictly means, to write for one (as a receipt, etc.), but always mittere, scribere, perscribere ad aliquem:

    postea ad pistores dabo,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 119:

    praecipe quae ad patrem vis nuntiari,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 109:

    in servitutem pauperem ad divitem dare,

    Ter. Ph. 4, 3, 48:

    nam ad me Publ. Valerius scripsit,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 2 med.:

    de meis rebus ad Lollium perscripsi,

    id. ib. 5, 3:

    velim domum ad te scribas, ut mihi tui libri pateant,

    id. Att. 4, 14; cf. id. ib. 4, 16:

    ad primam (sc. epistulam) tibi hoc scribo,

    in answer to your first, id. ib. 3, 15, 2:

    ad Q. Fulvium Cons. Hirpini et Lucani dediderunt sese,

    Liv. 27, 15, 1; cf. id. 28, 22, 5.—Hence the phrase: mittere or scribere librum ad aliquem, to dedicate a book to one (Greek, prosphônein):

    has res ad te scriptas, Luci, misimus, Aeli,

    Lucil. Sat. 1, ap. Auct. Her. 4, 12:

    quae institueram, ad te mittam,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5: ego interea admonitu tuo perfeci sane argutulos libros ad Varronem;

    and soon after: mihi explices velim, maneasne in sententia, ut mittam ad eum quae scripsi,

    Cic. Att. 13, 18; cf. ib. 16; Plin. 1, 19.—So in titles of books: M. Tullii Ciceronis ad Marcum Brutum Orator; M. T. Cic. ad Q. Fratrem Dialogi tres de Oratore, etc.—In the titles of odes and epigrams ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.
    (ε).
    With names of towns after verbs of motion, ad is used in answer to the question Whither? instead of the simple acc.; but commonly with this difference, that ad denotes to the vicinity of, the neighborhood of:

    miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post ad Tarentum,

    Cic. de Sen. 4, 10; id. Fam. 3, 81:

    ad Veios,

    Liv. 5, 19; 14, 18; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 7; id. B. C. 3, 40 al.—Ad is regularly used when the proper name has an appellative in apposition to it:

    ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt,

    Sall. J. 81, 2; so Curt. 3, 1, 22; 4, 9, 9;

    or when it is joined with usque,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 87; id. Deiot, 7, 19.— (When an adjective is added, the simple acc. is used poet., as well as with ad:

    magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas,

    Prop. 3, 21, 1; the simple acc., Ov. H. 2, 83: doctas jam nunc eat, inquit, Athenas).—
    (ζ).
    With verbs which imply a hostile movement toward, or protection in respect to any thing, against = adversus:

    nonne ad senem aliquam fabricam fingit?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 34:

    Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras,

    Prop. 3, 19, 9: neque quo pacto fallam, nec quem dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, old poet in Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73:

    Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5; 7, 70:

    ipse ad hostem vehitur,

    Nep. Dat. 4, 5; id. Dion. 5, 4: Romulus ad regem impetus facit (a phrase in which in is commonly found), Liv. 1, 5, 7, and 44, 3, 10:

    aliquem ad hostem ducere,

    Tac. A. 2, 52:

    clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt,

    Verg. A. 2, 443:

    munio me ad haec tempora,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 18:

    ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65; 7, 41;

    so with nouns: medicamentum ad aquam intercutem,

    Cic. Off. 3, 24:

    remedium ad tertianam,

    Petr. Sat. 18:

    munimen ad imbris,

    Verg. G. 2, 352:

    farina cum melle ad tussim siccam efficasissima est,

    Plin. 20, 22, 89, § 243:

    ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces,

    Liv. 1, 9; 1, 19 (in these two passages ad may have the force of apud, Hand).—
    (η).
    The repetition of ad to denote the direction to a place and to a person present in it is rare:

    nunc tu abi ad forum ad herum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 100; cf.:

    vocatis classico ad concilium militibus ad tribunos,

    Liv. 5 47.—(The distinction between ad and in is given by Diom. 409 P., thus: in forum ire est in ipsum forum intrare; ad forum autem ire, in locum foro proximum; ut in tribunal et ad tribunal venire non unum est; quia ad tribunal venit litigator, in tribunal vero praetor aut judex; cf. also Sen. Ep. 73, 14, deus ad homines venit, immo, quod propius est, in homines venit.)—
    b.
    The terminus, with ref. to the space traversed, to, even to, with or without usque, Quint. 10, 7, 16: ingurgitavit usque ad imum gutturem, Naev. ap. Non. 207, 20 (Rib. Com. Rel. p. 30): dictator pervehitur usque ad oppidum, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 16 ed. Vahl.):

    via pejor ad usque Baii moenia,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 96; 1, 1, 97:

    rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa,

    Lucr. 1, 355; 1, 969:

    cum sudor ad imos Manaret talos,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 10:

    ut quantum posset, agmen ad mare extenderet,

    Curt. 3, 9, 10:

    laeva pars ad pectus est nuda,

    id. 6, 5, 27 al. —Hence the Plinian expression, petere aliquid (usque) ad aliquem, to seek something everywhere, even with one:

    ut ad Aethiopas usque peteretur,

    Plin. 36, 6, 9, § 51 (where Jan now reads ab Aethiopia); so,

    vestis ad Seras peti,

    id. 12, 1, 1.— Trop.:

    si quid poscam, usque ad ravim poscam,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 5, 10:

    deverberasse usque ad necem,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 13;

    without usque: hic ad incitas redactus,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 136; 4, 2, 52; id. Poen. 4, 2, 85; illud ad incitas cum redit atque internecionem, Lucil. ap. Non. 123, 20:

    virgis ad necem caedi,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; so Hor. S. 1, 2, 42; Liv. 24, 38, 9; Tac. A. 11, 37; Suet. Ner. 26; id. Dom. 8 al.
    3.
    Nearness or proximity in gen. = apud, near to, by, at, close by (in anteclass. per. very freq.; not rare later, esp. in the historians): pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pedum, trains are suspended at each foot, Enn. ap. Non. 149, 33 (Ann. v. 363 ed. Vahl.):

    ut in servitute hic ad suum maneat patrem,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 98;

    3, 5, 41: sol quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium,

    stands like a creditor continually at the door, id. Most. 3, 2, 81 (cf. with same force, Att. ap. Non. 522, 25;

    apud ipsum astas): ad foris adsistere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 66; id. Arch. 24:

    astiterunt ad januam,

    Vulg. Act. 10, 17:

    non adest ad exercitum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 6; cf. ib. prol. 133:

    aderant ad spectaculum istud,

    Vulg. Luc. 23, 48: has (testas) e fenestris in caput Deiciunt, qui prope ad ostium adspiraverunt, Lucil. ap. Non. 288, 31:

    et nec opinanti Mors ad caput adstitit,

    Lucr. 3, 959:

    quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset,

    at hand, Liv. 9, 19, 6:

    haec arma habere ad manum,

    Quint. 12, 5, 1:

    dominum esse ad villam,

    Cic. Sull. 20; so id. Verr. 2, 21:

    errantem ad flumina,

    Verg. E. 6, 64; Tib. 1, 10, 38; Plin. 7, 2, § 12; Vitr. 7, 14; 7, 12; and ellipt. (cf. supra, 2. g):

    pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret!

    Cic. Phil. 1, 17.—Even of persons:

    qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat (for apud),

    Caes. B. G. 6, 38; so id. ib. 1, 31; 3, 9; 5, 53; 7, 5; id. B. C. 3, 60:

    ad inferos poenas parricidii luent,

    among, Cic. Phil. 14, 13:

    neque segnius ad hostes bellum apparatur,

    Liv. 7, 7, 4: pugna ad Trebiam, ad Trasimenum, ad Cannas, etc., for which Liv. also uses the gen.:

    si Trasimeni quam Trebiae, si Cannarum quam Trasimeni pugna nobilior esset, 23, 43, 4.—Sometimes used to form the name of a place, although written separately, e. g. ad Murcim,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 154:

    villa ad Gallinas, a villa on the Flaminian Way,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 37: ad urbem esse (of generals), to remain outside the city (Rome) until permission was given for a triumph:

    “Esse ad urbem dicebantur, qui cum potestate provinciali aut nuper e provincia revertissent, aut nondum in provinciam profecti essent... solebant autem, qui ob res in provincia gestas triumphum peterent, extra urbem exspectare, donec, lege lata, triumphantes urbem introire possent,”

    Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 8.—So sometimes with names of towns and verbs of rest:

    pons, qui erat ad Genavam,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    ad Tibur mortem patri minatus est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 4, 10:

    conchas ad Caietam legunt,

    id. Or. 2, 6:

    ad forum esse,

    to be at the market, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 136; id. Most. 3, 2, 158; cf. Ter. Ph. 4, 2, 8; id. And. 1, 5, 19.—Hence, adverb., ad dextram (sc. manum, partem), ad laevam, ad sinistram, to the right, to the left, or on the right, on the left:

    ad dextram,

    Att. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 225; Plaut. Poen. 3, 4, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44; Cic. Univ. 13; Caes. B. C. 1, 69:

    ad laevam,

    Enn. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 51; Att. ib. p. 217: ad sinistram, Ter. [p. 28] Ad. 4, 2, 43 al.:

    ad dextram... ad laevam,

    Liv. 40, 6;

    and with an ordinal number: cum plebes ad tertium milliarium consedisset,

    at the third milestone, Cic. Brut. 14, 54, esp. freq. with lapis:

    sepultus ad quintum lapidem,

    Nep. Att. 22, 4; so Liv. 3, 69 al.; Tac. H. 3, 18; 4, 60 (with apud, Ann. 1, 45; 3, 45; 15, 60) al.; cf. Rudd. II. p. 287.
    B.
    In time, analogous to the relations given in A.
    1.
    Direction toward, i. e. approach to a definite point of time, about, toward:

    domum reductus ad vesperum,

    toward evening, Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    cum ad hiemem me ex Cilicia recepissem,

    toward winter, id. Fam. 3, 7.—
    2.
    The limit or boundary to which a space of time extends, with and without usque, till, until, to, even to, up to:

    ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 53:

    philosophia jacuit usque ad hanc aetatem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. de Sen. 14:

    quid si hic manebo potius ad meridiem,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 55; so id. Men. 5, 7, 33; id. Ps. 1, 5, 116; id. As. 2, 1, 5:

    ad multam noctem,

    Cic. de Sen. 14:

    Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fecit,

    id. ib. 2; cf. id. Rep. 1, 1:

    Alexandream se proficisci velle dixit (Aratus) remque integram ad reditum suum jussit esse,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82:

    bestiae ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus,

    id. Lael. 8; so id. de Sen. 6; id. Somn. Sc. 1 al. —And with ab or ab-usque, to desig. the whole period of time passed away:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8:

    usque ab aurora ad hoc diei,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 8.—
    3.
    Coincidence with a point of time, at, on, in, by:

    praesto fuit ad horam destinatam,

    at the appointed hour, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22:

    admonuit ut pecuniam ad diem solverent,

    on the day of payment, id. Att. 16, 16 A:

    nostra ad diem dictam fient,

    id. Fam. 16, 10, 4; cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 5: ad lucem denique arte et graviter dormitare coepisse, at (not toward) daybreak, id. Div. 1, 28, 59; so id. Att. 1, 3, 2; 1, 4, 3; id. Fin. 2, 31, 103; id. Brut. 97, 313:

    ad id tempus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 24; Sall. J. 70, 5; Tac. A. 15, 60; Suet. Aug. 87; Domit. 17, 21 al.
    C.
    The relations of number.
    1.
    An approximation to a sum designated, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. Gr. epi, pros with acc. and the Fr. pres de, a peu pres, presque) = circiter (Hand, Turs. I. p. 102):

    ad quadraginta eam posse emi minas,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 111:

    nummorum Philippum ad tria milia,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 115; sometimes with quasi added:

    quasi ad quadraginta minas,

    as it were about, id. Most. 3, 1, 95; so Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 93:

    sane frequentes fuimus omnino ad ducentos,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1:

    cum annos ad quadraginta natus esset,

    id. Clu. 40, 110:

    ad hominum milia decem,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 4:

    oppida numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos,

    id. ib. 1, 5.—In the histt. and post-Aug. authors ad is added adverbially in this sense (contrary to Gr. usage, by which amphi, peri, and eis with numerals retain their power as prepositions): ad binum milium numero utrinque sauciis factis, Sisenn. ap. Non. 80, 4:

    occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 33:

    ad duorum milium numero ceciderunt,

    id. B. C. 3, 53:

    ad duo milia et trecenti occisi,

    Liv. 10, 17, 8; so id. 27, 12, 16; Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Rudd. II. p. 334.—
    2.
    The terminus, the limit, to, unto, even to, a designated number (rare):

    ranam luridam conicere in aquam usque quo ad tertiam partem decoxeris,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26; cf. App. Herb. 41:

    aedem Junonis ad partem dimidiam detegit,

    even to the half, Liv. 42, 3, 2:

    miles (viaticum) ad assem perdiderat,

    to a farthing, to the last farthing, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 27; Plin. Ep. 1, 15:

    quid ad denarium solveretur,

    Cic. Quint. 4.—The phrase omnes ad unum or ad unum omnes, or simply ad unum, means lit. all to one, i. e. all together, all without exception; Gr. hoi kath hena pantes (therefore the gender of unum is changed according to that of omnes): praetor omnes extra castra, ut stercus, foras ejecit ad unum, Lucil. ap. Non. 394, 22:

    de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt,

    Cic. Lael. 23:

    ad unum omnes cum ipso duce occisi sunt,

    Curt. 4, 1, 22 al.:

    naves Rhodias afflixit ita, ut ad unam omnes constratae eliderentur,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 27; onerariae omnes ad unam a nobis sunt exceptae, Cic. Fam. 12, 14 (cf. in Gr. hoi kath hena; in Hebr., Exod. 14, 28).— Ad unum without omnes:

    ego eam sententiam dixi, cui sunt assensi ad unum,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 16:

    Juppiter omnipotens si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos,

    Verg. A. 5, 687.
    D.
    In the manifold relations of one object to another.
    1.
    That in respect of or in regard to which a thing avails, happens, or is true or important, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in.
    a.
    With verbs:

    ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,

    in respect to all other things we grow wiser by age, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 45:

    numquam ita quisquam bene ad vitam fuat,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 1:

    nil ibi libatum de toto corpore (mortui) cernas ad speciem, nil ad pondus,

    that nothing is lost in form or weight, Lucr. 3, 214; cf. id. 5, 570; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 58; id. Mur. 13, 29: illi regi Cyro subest, ad immutandi animi licentiam, crudelissimus ille Phalaris, in that Cyrus, in regard to the liberty of changing his disposition (i. e. not in reality, but inasmuch as he is at liberty to lay aside his good character, and assume that of a tyrant), there is concealed another cruel Phalaris, Cic. Rep. 1, 28:

    nil est ad nos,

    is nothing to us, concerns us not, Lucr. 3, 830; 3, 845:

    nil ad me attinet,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 54:

    nihil ad rem pertinet,

    Cic. Caecin. 58;

    and in the same sense elliptically: nihil ad Epicurum,

    id. Fin. 1, 2, 5; id. Pis. 68:

    Quid ad praetorem?

    id. Verr. 1, 116 (this usage is not to be confounded with that under 4.).—
    b.
    With adjectives:

    ad has res perspicax,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    virum ad cetera egregium,

    Liv. 37, 7, 15:

    auxiliaribus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 25:

    ejus frater aliquantum ad rem est avidior,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51; cf. id. And. 1, 2, 21; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    ut sit potior, qui prior ad dandum est,

    id. Phorm. 3, 2, 48:

    difficilis (res) ad credendum,

    Lucr. 2, 1027:

    ad rationem sollertiamque praestantior,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 62; so id. Leg. 2, 13, 33; id. Fin. 2, 20, 63; id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; id. Font. 15; id. Cat. 1, 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 25, 113; 1, 32, 146; 2, 49, 200; id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; Liv. 9, 16, 13; Tac. A. 12, 54 al.—
    c.
    With nouns:

    prius quam tuum, ut sese habeat, animum ad nuptias perspexerit,

    before he knew your feeling in regard to the marriage, Ter. And. 2, 3, 4 (cf. Gr. hopôs echei tis pros ti):

    mentis ad omnia caecitas,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11:

    magna vis est fortunae in utramque partem vel ad secundas res vel ad adversas,

    id. Off. 2, 6; so id. Par. 1:

    ad cetera paene gemelli,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 3.—So with acc. of gerund instead of the gen. from the same vb.:

    facultas ad scribendum, instead of scribendi,

    Cic. Font. 6;

    facultas ad agendum,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 1, 2: cf. Rudd. II. p. 245.—
    d.
    In gramm.: nomina ad aliquid dicta, nouns used in relation to something, i. e. which derive their significance from their relation to another object: quae non possunt intellegi sola, ut pater, mater;

    jungunt enim sibi et illa propter quae intelleguntur,

    Charis. 129 P.; cf. Prisc. 580 ib.—
    2.
    With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., both prop. and fig., according to, agreeably to, after (Gr. kata, pros):

    columnas ad perpendiculum exigere,

    Cic. Mur. 77:

    taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 12: facta sunt ad certam formam. Lucr. 2, 379:

    ad amussim non est numerus,

    Varr. 2, 1, 26:

    ad imaginem facere,

    Vulg. Gen. 1, 26:

    ad cursus lunae describit annum,

    Liv. 1, 19:

    omnia ad diem facta sunt,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5:

    Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant,

    id. B. C. 3, 48; Vulg. Gen. 1, 26; id. Jac. 3, 9:

    ad aequos flexus,

    at equal angles, Lucr. 4, 323: quasi ad tornum levantur, to or by the lathe, id. 4, 361:

    turres ad altitudiem valli,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 42; Liv. 39, 6:

    ad eandem crassitudinem structi,

    id. 44, 11:

    ad speciem cancellorum scenicorum,

    with the appearance of, like, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 8:

    stagnum maris instar, circumseptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem,

    Suet. Ner. 31:

    lascivum pecus ludens ad cantum,

    Liv. Andron. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 1:

    canere ad tibiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 2: canere ad tibicinem, id. ib. 1, 2 (cf.:

    in numerum ludere,

    Verg. E. 6, 28; id. G. 4, 175):

    quod ad Aristophanis lucernam lucubravi,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 9 Mull.: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (v. unguis), Hor. A. P. 294:

    ad unguem factus homo,

    a perfect gentleman, id. S. 1, 5, 32 (cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 86):

    ad istorum normam sapientes,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 18; id. Mur. 3:

    Cyrus non ad historiae fidem scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    exercemur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: so,

    ad simulacrum,

    Liv. 40, 6:

    ad Punica ingenia,

    id. 21, 22:

    ad L. Crassi eloquentiam,

    Cic. Var. Fragm. 8:

    omnia fient ad verum,

    Juv. 6, 324:

    quid aut ad naturam aut contra sit,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 9, 30:

    ad hunc modum institutus est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 31; 3, 13:

    ad eundem istunc modum,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 70:

    quem ad modum, q. v.: ad istam faciem est morbus, qui me macerat,

    of that kind, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 73; id. Merc. 2, 3, 90; cf.

    91: cujus ad arbitrium copia materiai cogitur,

    Lucr. 2, 281:

    ad eorum arbitrium et nutum totos se fingunt,

    to their will and pleasure, Cic. Or. 8, 24; id. Quint. 71:

    ad P. Lentuli auctoritatem Roma contendit,

    id. Rab. Post. 21:

    aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 51:

    rebus ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26:

    rem ad illorum libidinem judicarunt,

    id. Font. 36:

    ad vulgi opinionem,

    id. Off. 3, 21.—So in later Lat. with instar:

    ad instar castrorum,

    Just. 36, 3, 2:

    scoparum,

    App. M. 9, p. 232:

    speculi,

    id. ib. 2, p. 118: ad hoc instar mundi, id. de Mundo, p. 72.—Sometimes, but very rarely, ad is used absol. in this sense (so also very rarely kata with acc., Xen. Hell. 2, 3; Luc. Dial. Deor. 8): convertier ad nos, as we (are turned), Lucr. 4, 317:

    ad navis feratur,

    like ships, id. 4, 897 Munro. —With noun:

    ad specus angustiac vallium,

    like caves, Caes. B. C. 3, 49.—Hence,
    3.
    With an object which is the cause or reason, in conformity to which, from which, or for which, any thing is or is done.
    a.
    The moving cause, according to, at, on, in consequence of:

    cetera pars animae paret et ad numen mentis momenque movetur,

    Lucr. 3, 144:

    ad horum preces in Boeotiam duxit,

    on their entreaty, Liv. 42, 67, 12: ad ea Caesar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit, in consequence of or upon this, he, etc., Tac. Ann. 12, 37.—
    b.
    The final cause, or the object, end, or aim, for the attainment of which any thing,
    (α).
    is done,
    (β).
    is designed, or,
    (γ).
    is fitted or adapted (very freq.), to, for, in order to.
    (α).
    Seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. p. 175 P. (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 80):

    venimus coctum ad nuptias,

    in order to cook for the wedding, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 15:

    omnis ad perniciem instructa domus,

    id. Bacch. 3, 1, 6; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 41; Liv. 1, 54:

    cum fingis falsas causas ad discordiam,

    in order to produce dissension, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71:

    quantam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 72:

    utrum ille, qui postulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos socios diripiendasque provincias, quos voluerunt, legatos eduxerint,

    Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 57:

    ego vitam quoad putabo tua interesse, aut ad spem servandam esse, retinebo,

    for hope, id. Q. Fr. 1, 4; id. Fam. 5, 17:

    haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant,

    Sall. C. 13, 4:

    ad speciem atque ad usurpationem vetustatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 12, 31; Suet. Caes. 67:

    paucis ad speciem tabernaculis relictis,

    for appearance, Caes. B. C. 2, 35; so id. ib. 2, 41; id. B. G. 1, 51.—
    (β).
    Aut equos alere aut canes ad venandum. Ter. And. 1, 1, 30:

    ingenio egregie ad miseriam natus sum,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 11;

    (in the same sense: in rem,

    Hor. C. 1, 27, 1, and the dat., Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 6):

    ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 40:

    ad frena leones,

    Verg. A. 10, 253:

    delecto ad naves milite,

    marines, Liv. 22, 19 Weissenb.:

    servos ad remum,

    rowers, id. 34, 6; and:

    servos ad militiam emendos,

    id. 22, 61, 2:

    comparasti ad lecticam homines,

    Cat. 10, 16:

    Lygdamus ad cyathos,

    Prop. 4, 8, 37; cf.:

    puer ad cyathum statuetur,

    Hor. C. 1, 29, 8.—
    (γ).
    Quae oportet Signa esse [p. 29] ad salutem, omnia huic osse video, everything indicative of prosperity I see in him, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2:

    haec sunt ad virtutem omnia,

    id. Heaut. 1, 2, 33:

    causa ad objurgandum,

    id. And. 1, 1, 123:

    argumentum ad scribendum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 7 (in both examples instead of the gen. of gerund., cf. Rudd. II. p. 245):

    vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,

    Cato R. R. 125:

    nulla res tantum ad dicendum proficit, quantum scriptio,

    Cic. Brut. 24:

    reliquis rebus, quae sunt ad incendia,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101 al. —So with the adjectives idoneus, utilis, aptus, instead of the dat.:

    homines ad hanc rem idoneos,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 6:

    calcei habiles et apti ad pedem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231:

    orator aptus tamen ad dicendum,

    id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5:

    sus est ad vescendum hominibus apta,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 160:

    homo ad nullam rem utilis,

    id. Off. 3, 6:

    ad segetes ingeniosus ager,

    Ov. F. 4, 684.—(Upon the connection of ad with the gerund. v. Zumpt, § 666; Rudd. II. p. 261.)—
    4.
    Comparison (since that with which a thing is compared is considered as an object to which the thing compared is brought near for the sake of comparison), to, compared to or with, in comparison with:

    ad sapientiam hujus ille (Thales) nimius nugator fuit,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 25; id. Trin. 3, 2, 100:

    ne comparandus hic quidem ad illum'st,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14; 2, 3, 69:

    terra ad universi caeli complexum,

    compared with the whole extent of the heavens, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40:

    homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido,

    Liv. 22, 22, 15:

    at nihil ad nostram hanc,

    nothing in comparison with, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 70; so Cic. Deiot. 8, 24; and id. de Or. 2, 6, 25.
    E.
    Adverbial phrases with ad.
    1.
    Ad omnia, withal, to crown all:

    ingentem vim peditum equitumque venire: ex India elephantos: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 32, 4.—
    2.
    Ad hoc and ad haec (in the historians, esp. from the time of Livy, and in authors after the Aug. per.), = praeterea, insuper, moreover, besides, in addition, epi toutois:

    nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, etc.: praeterea omnes undique parricidae, etc.: ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat: postremo omnes, quos, etc.,

    Sall. C. 14, 2 and 3:

    his opinionibus inflato animo, ad hoc vitio quoque ingenii vehemens,

    Liv. 6, 11, 6; 42, 1, 1; Tac. H. 1, 6; Suet. Aug. 22 al.—
    3.
    Ad id quod, beside that (very rare):

    ad id quod sua sponte satis conlectum animorum erat, indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur,

    Liv. 3, 62, 1; so 44, 37, 12.—
    4.
    Ad tempus.
    a.
    At a definite, fixed time, Cic. Att. 13, 45; Liv. 38, 25, 3.—
    b.
    At a fit, appropriate time, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 141; Liv. 1, 7, 13.—
    c.
    For some time, for a short time, Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; id. Lael. 15, 53; Liv. 21, 25, 14.—
    d.
    According to circumstances, Cic. Planc. 30, 74; id. Cael. 6, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9.—
    5.
    Ad praesens (for the most part only in post-Aug. writers).
    a.
    For the moment, for a short time, Cic. Fam. 12, 8; Plin. 8, 22, 34; Tac. A. 4, 21.—
    b.
    At present, now, Tac. A. 16, 5; id. H. 1, 44.—So, ad praesentiam, Tac. A. 11, 8.—
    6.
    Ad locum, on the spot:

    ut ad locum miles esset paratus,

    Liv. 27, 27, 2.—
    7.
    Ad verbum, word for word, literally, Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; id. de Or. 1, 34, 157; id. Ac. 2, 44, 135 al.—
    8.
    Ad summam.
    a.
    On the whole, generally, in general, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3; id. Att. 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71.—
    b.
    In a word, in short, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106. —
    9.
    Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum.
    a.
    At the end, finally, at last.
    (α).
    Of place, at the extremity, extreme point, top, etc.:

    missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, unde ferrum exstabat,

    Liv. 21, 8, 10.—
    (β).
    Of time = telos de, at last, finally:

    ibi ad postremum cedit miles,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 52; so id. Poen. 4, 2, 22; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 7, 53; Liv. 30, 15, 4 al.— Hence,
    (γ).
    of order, finally, lastly, = denique: inventa componere; tum ornare oratione; post memoria sepire;

    ad extremum agere cum dignitate,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142.—
    b.
    In Liv., to the last degree, quite: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, 23, 2, 3; cf.:

    consilii scelerati, sed non ad ultimum dementis,

    id. 28, 28, 8.—
    10.
    Quem ad finem? To what limit? How far? Cic. Cat. 1, 1; id. Verr. 5, 75.—
    11.
    Quem ad modum, v. sub h. v.
    a.
    Ad (v. ab, ex, in, etc.) is not repeated like some other prepositions with interrog. and relative pronouns, after nouns or demonstrative pronouns:

    traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. Quas? corporis credo,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37 (ubi v. Kuhner).—
    b.
    Ad is sometimes placed after its substantive:

    quam ad,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 39:

    senatus, quos ad soleret, referendum censuit,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4:

    ripam ad Araxis,

    Tac. Ann. 12, 51;

    or between subst. and adj.: augendam ad invidiam,

    id. ib. 12, 8.—
    c.
    The compound adque for et ad (like exque, eque, and, poet., aque) is denied by Moser, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, p. 248, and he reads instead of ad humanitatem adque mansuetudinem of the MSS., hum. atque mans. But adque, in acc. with later usage, is restored by Hand in App. M. 10, p. 247, adque haec omnia oboediebam for atque; and in Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 9, utroque vorsum rectum'st ingenium meum, ad se adque illum, is now read, ad te atque ad illum (Fleck., Brix).
    II.
    In composition.
    A.
    Form. According to the usual orthography, the d of the ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before b, d, h, m, v: adbibo, adduco, adhibeo, admoveo, advenio; it is assimilated to c, f, g, l, n, p, r, s, t: accipio, affigo, aggero, allabor, annumero, appello, arripio, assumo, attineo; before g and s it sometimes disappears: agnosco, aspicio, asto: and before qu it passes into c: acquiro, acquiesco.—But later philologists, supported by old inscriptions and good MSS., have mostly adopted the following forms: ad before j, h, b, d, f, m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes, but less well, before q; ag and also ad before g; a before gn, sp, sc, st; ad and also al before l; ad rather than an before n; ap and sometimes ad before p; ad and also ar before r; ad and also as before s; at and sometimes ad before t. In this work the old orthography has commonly been retained for the sake of convenient reference, but the better form in any case is indicated.—
    B.
    Signif. In English up often denotes approach, and in many instances will give the force of ad as a prefix both in its local and in its figurative sense.
    1.
    Local.
    a.
    To, toward: affero, accurro, accipio ( to one's self).—
    b.
    At, by: astare, adesse.—
    c.
    On, upon, against: accumbo, attero.—
    d.
    Up (cf. de- = down, as in deicio, decido): attollo, ascendo, adsurgo.—
    2.
    Fig.
    a.
    To: adjudico, adsentior.—
    b.
    At or on: admiror, adludo.—
    c.
    Denoting conformity to, or comparison with: affiguro, adaequo.—
    d.
    Denoting addition, increase (cf. ab, de, and ex as prefixes to denote privation): addoceo, adposco.—
    e.
    Hence, denoting intensity: adamo, adimpleo, aduro, and perhaps agnosco.—
    f.
    Denoting the coming to an act or state, and hence commencement: addubito, addormio, adquiesco, adlubesco, advesperascit. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 74-134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ad

  • 16 adeo

    1.
    ăd-ĕo, ĭī, and rarely īvi, ĭtum (arch. adirier for adiri, Enn. Rib. Trag. p. 59), 4, v. n. and a. (acc. to Paul. ex Fest. should be accented a/deo; v. Fest. s. v. adeo, p. 19 Müll.; cf. the foll. word), to go to or approach a person or thing (syn.: accedo, aggredior, advenio, appeto).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., constr.
    (α).
    With ad (very freq.): sed tibi cautim est adeundum ad virum, Att. ap. Non. 512, 10:

    neque eum ad me adire neque me magni pendere visu'st,

    Plaut. Cur. 2, 2, 12:

    adeamne ad eam?

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; id. Eun. 3, 5, 30: aut ad consules aut ad te aut ad Brutum adissent, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 208, 5:

    ad M. Bibulum adierunt, id. Fragm. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: ad aedis nostras nusquam adiit,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 24:

    adibam ad istum fundum,

    Cic. Caec. 29 —
    (β).
    With in: priusquam Romam atque in horum conventum adiretis, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 11, § 26 ed. Halm.—Esp.: adire in jus, to go to law:

    cum ad praetorem in jus adissemus,

    Cic. Verr. 4, § 147; id. Att. 11, 24; Caes. B. C. 1, 87, and in the Plebiscit. de Thermens. lin. 42: QVO DE EA RE IN IOVS ADITVM ERIT, cf. Dirks., Versuche S. p. 193.—
    (γ).
    Absol.:

    adeunt, consistunt, copulantur dexteras,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 38:

    eccum video: adibo,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 5.—
    (δ).
    With acc.:

    ne Stygeos adeam non libera manes,

    Ov. M. 13, 465:

    voces aetherias adiere domos,

    Sil. 6, 253:

    castrorum vias,

    Tac. A. 2, 13:

    municipia,

    id. ib. 39:

    provinciam,

    Suet. Aug. 47:

    non poterant adire eum,

    Vulg. Luc. 8, 19:

    Graios sales carmine patrio,

    to attain to, Verg. Cat. 11, 62; so with latter supine:

    planioribus aditu locis,

    places easier to approach, Liv. 1, 33.—With local adv.:

    quoquam,

    Sall. J. 14:

    huc,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 60.—
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To approach one for the purpose of addressing, asking aid, consulting, and the like, to address, apply to, consult (diff. from aggredior, q. v.). —Constr. with ad or oftener with acc.; hence also pass.:

    quanto satius est, adire blandis verbis atque exquaerere, sintne illa, etc.,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 35:

    aliquot me adierunt,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 2:

    adii te heri de filia,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 9: cum pacem peto, cum placo, cum adeo, et cum appello meam, Lucil. ap. Non. 237, 28:

    ad me adire quosdam memini, qui dicerent,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10:

    coram adire et alloqui,

    Tac. H. 4, 65.— Pass.:

    aditus consul idem illud responsum retulit,

    when applied to, Liv. 37, 6 fin.:

    neque praetores adiri possent,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5.—Hence: adire aliquem per epistulam, to address one in writing, by a letter:

    per epistulam, aut per nuntium, quasi regem, adiri eum aiunt,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 9 and 10; cf. Tac. A. 4, 39; id. H. 1, 9.—So also: adire deos, aras, deorum sedes, etc., to approach the gods, their altars, etc., as a suppliant (cf.:

    acced. ad aras,

    Lucr. 5, 1199): quoi me ostendam? quod templum adeam? Att. ap. Non. 281, 6:

    ut essent simulacra, quae venerantes deos ipsos se adire crederent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 27:

    adii Dominum et deprecatus sum,

    Vulg. Sap. 8, 21:

    aras,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 1:

    sedes deorum,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39:

    libros Sibyllinos,

    to consult the Sibylline Books, Liv. 34, 55; cf. Tac. A. 1, 76:

    oracula,

    Verg. A. 7, 82.—
    2.
    To go to a thing in order to examine it, to visit:

    oppida castellaque munita,

    Sall. J. 94:

    hiberna,

    Tac. H. 1, 52.—
    3.
    To come up to one in a hostile manner, to assail, attack:

    aliquem: nunc prior adito tu, ego in insidiis hic ero,

    Ter. Ph. 1, 4, 52:

    nec quisquam ex agmine tanto audet adire virum,

    Verg. A. 5, 379:

    Servilius obvia adire arma jubetur,

    Sil. 9, 272.
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    To go to the performance of any act, to enter upon, to undertake, set about, undergo, submit to (cf.: accedo, aggredior, and adorior).—With ad or the acc. (class.):

    nunc eam rem vult, scio, mecum adire ad pactionem,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 25:

    tum primum nos ad causas et privatas et publicas adire coepimus,

    Cic. Brut. 90:

    adii causas oratorum, id. Fragm. Scaur. ap. Arus. p. 213 Lind.: adire ad rem publicam,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 24, 70:

    ad extremum periculum,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7.—With acc.:

    periculum capitis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38:

    laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis,

    id. Off. 1, 19:

    in adeundis periculis,

    id. ib. 24; cf.:

    adeundae inimicitiae, subeundae saepe pro re publica tempestates,

    id. Sest. 66, 139: ut vitae periculum aditurus videretur, Auct. B. G. 8, 48: maximos labores et summa pericula. Nep. Timol. 5:

    omnem fortunam,

    Liv. 25, 10:

    dedecus,

    Tac. A. 1, 39:

    servitutem voluntariam,

    id. G. 24:

    invidiam,

    id. A. 4, 70:

    gaudia,

    Tib. 1, 5, 39.—Hence of an inheritance, t. t., to enter on:

    cum ipse hereditatem patris non adisses,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 16; so id. Arch. 5; Suet. Aug. 8 and Dig.;

    hence also: adire nomen,

    to assume the name bequeathed by will, Vell. 2, 60.—
    B.
    Adire manum alicui, prov., to deceive one, to make sport of (the origin of this phrase is unc.; Acidalius conjectures that it arose from some artifice practised in wrestling, Wagner ad Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 8):

    eo pacto avarae Veneri pulcre adii manum,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 11; so id. Aul. 2, 8, 8; id. Cas. 5, 2, 54; id. Pers. 5, 2, 18.
    2.
    ăd-ĕō̆, adv. [cf. quoad and adhuc] (acc. to Festus, it should be accented adéo, v. the preced. word; but this distinction is merely a later invention of the grammarians; [p. 33] cf. Gell. 7, 7).
    I.
    In the ante-class. per.,
    A.
    To designate the limit of space or time, with reference to the distance passed through; hence often accompanied by usque (cf. ad), to this, thus far, so far, as far.
    1.
    Of space:

    surculum artito usque adeo, quo praeacueris,

    fit in the scion as far as you have sharpened it, Cato, R. R. 40, 3.— Hence: res adeo rediit, the affair has gone so far (viz., in deterioration, “cum aliquid pejus exspectatione contigit,” Don. ad Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 5):

    postremo adeo res rediit: adulescentulus saepe eadem et graviter audiendo victus est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 61; cf. id. Ph. 1, 2, 5.—
    2.
    Of time, so long ( as), so long ( till), strengthened by usque, and with dum, donec, following, and in Cic. with quoad:

    merces vectatum undique adeo dum, quae tum haberet, peperisset bona,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 76; 3, 4, 72; id. Am. 1, 2, 10 al.:

    nusquam destitit instare, suadere, orare, usque adeo donec perpulit,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 36; Cato, R. R. 67; id. ib. 76:

    atque hoc scitis omnes usque adeo hominem in periculo fuisse, quoad scitum sit Sestium vivere,

    Cic. Sest. 38, 82.—
    B.
    For the purpose of equalizing two things in comparison, followed by ut: in the same degree or measure or proportion... in which; or so very, so much, so, to such a degree... as (only in comic poets), Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 38:

    adeon hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum?

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 10.—Also followed by quasi, when the comparison relates to similarity:

    gaudere adeo coepit, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias,

    in the same manner as those rejoice who desire marriage, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 12.—
    C.
    (Only in the comic poets) = ad haec, praeterea, moreover, besides, too: ibi tibi adeo lectus dabitur, ubi tu haud somnum capias ( beside the other annoyances), a bed, too, shall be given you there, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 80.—Hence also with etiam:

    adeo etiam argenti faenus creditum audio,

    besides too, id. Most. 3, 1, 101.—
    D.
    (Only in the comic poets.) Adeo ut, for this purpose that, to the end that:

    id ego continuo huic dabo, adeo me ut hic emittat manu,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 32:

    id adeo te oratum advenio, ut, etc.,

    id. Aul. 4, 10, 9:

    adeo ut tu meam sententiam jam jam poscere possis, faciam, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 26 (where Wagner now reads at ut):

    atque adeo ut scire possis, factum ego tecum hoc divido,

    id. Stich. 5, 4, 15. (These passages are so interpreted by Hand, I. p. 138; others regard adeo here = quin immo.)—
    E.
    In narration, in order to put one person in strong contrast with another. It may be denoted by a stronger emphasis upon the word to be made conspicuous, or by yet, on the contrary, etc.:

    jam ille illuc ad erum cum advenerit, narrabit, etc.: ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 4 sq.; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 8 al.
    II.
    To the Latin of every period belongs the use of this word,
    A.
    To give emphasis to an idea in comparison, so, so much, so very, with verbs, adjectives, and substantives:

    adeo ut spectare postea omnīs oderit,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 65:

    neminem quidem adeo infatuare potuit, ut ei nummum ullum crederet,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    adeoque inopia est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 32, 3 Weiss.:

    et voltu adeo modesto, adeo venusto, ut nil supra,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 92:

    nemo adeo ferus est, ut, etc.,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 39.—With usque:

    adeo ego illum cogam usque, ut mendicet meus pater,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 10:

    usque adeo turbatur,

    even so much, so continually, Verg. E. 1, 12; Curt. 10, 1, 42; Luc. 1, 366.—In questions:

    adeone me fuisse fungum, ut qui illi crederem?

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49:

    adeone hospes hujus urbis, adeone ignarus es disciplinae consuetudinisque nostrae, ut haec nescias?

    Cic. Rab. 10, 28; so id. Phil. 2, 7, 15; id. Fam. 9, 10; Liv. 2, 7, 10; 5, 6, 4.—With a negative in both clauses, also with quin in the last:

    non tamen adeo virtutum sterile saeculum, ut non et bona exempla prodiderit,

    Tac. H. 1, 3; so Suet. Oth. 9:

    verum ego numquam adeo astutus fui, quin, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 13.—

    Sometimes the concluding clause is to be supplied from the first: quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae nesciat urbem?... non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, viz.,

    that we know not the Trojans and their history, Verg. A. 1, 565:

    adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars?

    Juv. 6, 59.—Hence (post-Cic.): adeo non ut... adeo nihil ut... so little that, so far from that... (in reference to which, it should be noticed that in Latin the negative is blended with the verb in one idea, which is qualified by adeo) = tantum abest ut: haec dicta adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint, these words left them all so unmoved that, etc., or had so little effect, etc., Liv. 3, 2, 7: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret, who restrained his anger so little that, etc. (for, qui non—tenuit iram adeo, ut), id. 8, 7, 5; so 5, 45, 4; Vell. 2, 66, 4: Curt. 3, 12, 22.—Also with contra in the concluding clause:

    apud hostes Afri et Carthaginienses adeo non sustinebant, ut contra etiam pedem referrent,

    Liv. 30, 34, 5. —
    B.
    Adeo is placed enclitically after its word, like quidem, certe, and the Gr. ge, even, indeed, just, precisely. So,
    1.
    Most freq. with pronouns, in order to render prominent something before said, or foll., or otherwise known (cf. in Gr. egôge, suge, autos ge, etc., Viger. ed. Herm. 489, vi. and Zeun.): argentariis male credi qui aiunt, nugas praedicant: nam et bene et male credi dico; id adeo hodie ego expertus sum, just this (touto ge), Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 1; so id. Aul. 2, 4, 10; 4, 2, 15; id. Am. 1, 1, 98; 1, 2, 6; id. Ep. 1, 1, 51; 2, 2, 31; 5, 2, 40; id. Poen. 1, 2, 57: plerique homines, quos, cum nihil refert, pudet;

    ubi pudendum'st ibi eos deserit pudor, is adeo tu es,

    you are just such a one, id. Ep. 2, 1, 2:

    cui tu obsecutus, facis huic adeo injuriam,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 68: tute adeo jam ejus verba audies, you yourself shall hear what he has to say (suge akousêi), Ter. And. 3, 3, 27: Dolabella tuo nihil scito mihi esse jucundius: hanc adeo habebo gratiam illi, i. e. hanc, quae maxima est, gratiam (tautên ge tên charin), Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16:

    haec adeo ex illo mihi jam speranda fuerunt,

    even this, Verg. A. 11, 275.—It is often to be translated by the intensive and, and just, etc. (so esp. in Cic. and the histt.): id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that (touto ge skopeite), Cic. Caec. 30, 87:

    id adeo ex ipso senatus consulto cognoscite,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, 143; cf. id. Clu. 30, 80:

    ad hoc quicumque aliarum atque senatus partium erant, conturbari remp., quam minus valere ipsi malebant. Id adeo malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat,

    And just this evil, Sall. C. 37, 11; so 37, 2; id. J. 68, 3; Liv. 2, 29, 9; 4, 2, 2: id adeo manifestum erit, si cognoverimus, etc., and this, precisely this, will be evident, if, etc., Quint. 2, 16, 18 Spald.—It is rarely used with ille:

    ille adeo illum mentiri sibi credet,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 6.—Sometimes with the rel. pron.: quas adeo haud quisquam liber umquam tetigit, Plaut: Poen. 1, 2, 57; Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37. —With interrog. pron.:

    Quis adeo tam Latinae linguae ignarus est, quin, etc.,

    Gell. 7, 17.—Adeo is joined with the pers. pron. when the discourse passes from one person to another, and attention is to be particularly directed to the latter: Juppiter, tuque adeo summe Sol, qui res omnes inspicis, and thou especially, and chiefly thou, Enn. ap. Prob.:

    teque adeo decus hoc aevi inibit,

    Verg. E. 4, 11; id. G. 1, 24: teque, Neptune, invoco, vosque adeo venti, Poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73;

    and without the copulative: vos adeo... item ego vos virgis circumvinciam,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 4, 25.— Ego adeo often stands for ego quidem, equidem (egôge):

    tum libertatem Chrysalo largibere: ego adeo numquam accipiam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 30; so id. Mil. 4, 4, 55; id. Truc. 4, 3, 73:

    ego adeo hanc primus inveni viam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 16:

    nec me adeo fallit,

    Verg. A. 4, 96.—Ipse adeo (autos ge), for the sake of emphasis:

    atque hercle ipsum adeo contuor,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 24:

    ipsum adeo praesto video cum Davo,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 4:

    ipse adeo senis ductor Rhoeteus ibat pulsibus,

    Sil. 14, 487.—
    2.
    With the conditional conjj. si, nisi, etc. (Gr. ei ge), if indeed, if truly:

    nihili est autem suum qui officium facere immemor est, nisi adeo monitus,

    unless, indeed, he is reminded of it, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 2: Si. Num illi molestae quippiam hae sunt nuptiae? Da. Nihil Hercle: aut si adeo, bidui est aut tridui haec sollicitudo, and if, indeed, etc. (not if also, for also is implied in aut), Ter. And. 2, 6, 7.—
    3.
    With adverbs: nunc adeo (nun ge), Plaut. As. 3, 1, 29; id. Mil. 2, 2, 4; id. Merc. 2, 2, 57; id. Men. 1, 2, 11; id. Ps. 1, 2, 52; id. Rud. 3, 4, 23; Ter. And. 4, 5, 26; Verg. A. 9, 156: jam adeo (dê ge), id. ib. 5, 268; Sil. 1, 20; 12, 534; Val. Fl. 3, 70. umquam adeo, Plaut. Cas. 5, 4, 23:

    inde adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1:

    hinc adeo,

    Verg. E. 9, 59: sic adeo (houtôs ge), id. A. 4, 533; Sil. 12, 646:

    vix adeo,

    Verg. A. 6, 498:

    non adeo,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 57; Verg. A. 11, 436. —
    4.
    With adjectives = vel, indeed, even, very, fully:

    quot adeo cenae, quas deflevi, mortuae!

    how very many suppers, Plaut. Stich. 1, 3, 59: quotque adeo fuerint, qui temnere superbum... Lucil. ap. Non. 180, 2: nullumne malorum finem adeo poenaeque dabis (adeo separated from nullum by poet. license)? wilt thou make no end at all to calamity and punishment? Val. Fl. 4, 63:

    trīs adeo incertos caeca caligine soles erramus,

    three whole days we wander about, Verg. A. 3, 203; 7, 629.—And with comp. or the adv. magis, multo, etc.:

    quae futura et quae facta, eloquar: multo adeo melius quam illi, cum sim Juppiter,

    very much better, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 3; so id. Truc. 2, 1, 5:

    magis adeo id facilitate quam aliā ullā culpā meā, contigit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15.—
    5.
    With the conjj. sive, aut, vel, in order to annex a more important thought, or to make a correction, or indeed, or rather, or even only:

    sive qui ipsi ambīssent, seu per internuntium, sive adeo aediles perfidiose quoi duint,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 71:

    si hercle scivissem, sive adeo joculo dixisset mihi, se illam amare,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 33; so id. Truc. 4, 3, 1; id. Men. 5, 2, 74; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 9: nam si te tegeret pudor, sive adeo cor sapientia imbutum foret, Pacuv. ap. Non. 521, 10:

    mihi adeunda est ratio, quā ad Apronii quaestum, sive adeo, quā ad istius ingentem immanemque praedam possim pervenire,

    or rather, Cic. Verr 2, 3, 46, 110; Verg. A. 11, 369; so, atque adeo:

    ego princeps in adjutoribus atque adeo secundus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 9.—
    6.
    With the imperative, for emphasis, like tandem, modo, dum, the Germ. so, and the Gr. ge (cf. L. and S.), now, I pray:

    propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab janua,

    Ter. And. 4, 4, 20 (cf. xullabete g auton, Soph. Phil. 1003).—
    C.
    Like admodum or nimis, to give emphasis to an idea (for the most part only in comic poets, and never except with the positive of the adj.; cf. Consent. 2023 P.), indeed, truly, so very, so entirely:

    nam me ejus spero fratrem propemodum jam repperisse adulescentem adeo nobilem,

    so very noble, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 123:

    nec sum adeo informis,

    nor am I so very ugly, Verg. E. 2, 25:

    nam Caii Luciique casu non adeo fractus,

    Suet. Aug. 65:

    et merito adeo,

    and with perfect right, Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 42:

    etiam num credis te ignorarier aut tua facta adeo,

    do you, then, think that they are ignorant of you or your conduct entirely? id. Ph. 5, 8, 38.—
    D.
    To denote what exceeds expectation, even: quam omnium Thebis vir unam esse optimam dijudicat, quamque adeo cives Thebani rumificant probam, and whom even the Thebans (who are always ready to speak evil of others) declare to be an honest woman, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 44.— Hence also it denotes something added to the rest of the sentence, besides, too, over and above, usually in the connection: -que adeo (rare, and never in prose; cf.

    adhuc, I.): quin te Di omnes perdant qui me hodie oculis vidisti tuis, meque adeo scelestum,

    and me too, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 122; cf. id. 4, 2, 32:

    haec adeo tibi me, ipsa palam fari omnipotens Saturnia jussit,

    Verg. A. 7, 427.
    III.
    After Caesar and Cicero (the only instance of this use adduced from Cicero's works, Off. 1, 11, 36, being found in a passage rejected by the best critics, as B. and K.).
    A.
    For adding an important and satisfactory reason to an assertion, and then it always stands at the beginning of the clause, indeed, for:

    cum Hanno perorāsset, nemini omnium cum eo certare necesse fuit: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat: the idea is,

    Hanno's speech, though so powerful, was ineffectual, and did not need a reply; for all the senators belonged to the party of Hannibal, Liv. 21, 11, 1; so id. 2, 27, 3; 2, 28, 2; 8, 37, 2; Tac. Ann. 1, 50, 81; Juv. 3, 274; 14, 233.—Also for introducing a parenthesis: sed ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita [p. 34] ingenia esse) ni subinde auro... principum animi concilientur, Liv. 21, 20, 8; so id. 9, 26, 17; 3, 4, 2; Tac. A. 2, 28.—
    B.
    When to a specific fact a general consideration is added as a reason for it, so, thus (in Livy very often):

    haud dubius, facilem in aequo campi victoriam fore: adeo non fortuna modo, sed ratio etiam cum barbaris stabat,

    thus not only fortune, but sagacity, was on the side of the barbarians, Liv. 5, 38, 4:

    adeo ex parvis saepe magnarum momenta rerum pendent,

    id. 27, 9, 1; so id. 4, 31, 5; 21, 33, 6; 28, 19; Quint. 1, 12, 7; Curt. 10, 2, 11; Tac. Agr. 1:

    adeo in teneris consuescere multum est,

    Verg. G. 2, 272.—
    C.
    In advancing from one thought to another more important = immo, rather, indeed, nay: nulla umquam res publica ubi tantus paupertati ac parsimoniae honos fuerit: adeo, quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, Liv. praef. 11; so Gell. 11, 7; Symm. Ep. 1, 30, 37.—
    D.
    With a negative after ne—quidem or quoque, so much the more or less, much less than, still less (post-Aug.):

    hujus totius temporis fortunam ne deflere quidem satis quisquam digne potuit: adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest,

    still less can one describe: it by words, Vell. 2, 67, 1:

    ne tecta quidem urbis, adeo publicum consilium numquam adiit,

    still less, Tac. A. 6, 15; so id. H. 3, 64; Curt. 7, 5, 35:

    favore militum anxius et superbia viri aequalium quoque, adeo superiorum intolerantis,

    who could not endure his equals even, much less his superiors, Tac. H. 4, 80.—So in gen., after any negative: quaelibet enim ex iis artibus in paucos libros contrahi solet: adeo infinito spatio ac traditione opus non est, so much the less is there need, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 16; Plin. 17, 12, 35, § 179; Tac. H. 3, 39.—(The assumption of a causal signif. of adeo = ideo, propterea, rests upon false readings. For in Cael. Cic. Fam. 8, 15 we should read ideo, B. and K., and in Liv. 24, 32, 6, ad ea, Weiss.).—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 135-155.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adeo

  • 17 calumnia

    călumnĭa (old form kălumnĭa; v. the letter K), ae, f. [perh. for calvomnia, from calvor; cf. incīlo], trickery, artifice, chicanery, cunning device.
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    per obtrectatores Lentuli calumniā extracta res est,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 3:

    (Lucullus) inimicorum calumniā triennio tardius quam debuerat triumphavit,

    id. Ac. 2, 1, 3:

    inpediti ne triumpharent calumniā paucorum, quibus omnia honesta atque inhonesta vendere mos erat,

    Sall. C. 30, 4:

    Metellus calumniā dicendi tempus exemit,

    Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3:

    cum omni morā, ludificatione, calumniā senatūs auctoritas impediretur,

    id. Sest. 35, 75.— Plur.:

    res ab adversariis nostris extracta est variis calumniis,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 4, 1.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    A pretence, evasion, subterfuge:

    juris judicium cum erit et aequitatis, cave in istā tam frigidā, tam jejunā calumniā delitescas,

    Cic. Caecin. 21, 61:

    senatus religionis calumniam non religione, sed malevolentiā... comprobat,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1:

    Carneades... itaque premebat alio modo nec ullam adhibebat calumniam,

    id. Fat. 14, 31:

    calumniam stultitiamque ejus obtrivit ac contudit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 18:

    illud in primis, ne qua calumnia, ne qua fraus, ne quis dolus adhibeatur,

    id. Dom. 14, 36:

    quae major calumnia est, quam venire imberbum adulescentulum... dicere se filium senatorem sibi velle adoptare?

    id. ib. 14, 37.—
    2.
    In discourse, etc., a misrepresentation, false statement, fallacy, cavil (cf.:

    cavillatio, perfugium): haec cum uberius disputantur et fusius, facilius effugiunt Academicorum calumniam,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 7, 20:

    (Carneades) saepe optimas causas ingenii calumniā ludificari solet,

    id. Rep. 3, 5, 9:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    id. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    si in minimis rebus pertinacia reprehenditur, calumnia etiam coërcetur,

    id. ib. 2, 20, 65:

    altera est calumnia, nullam artem falsis adsentiri opinionibus,

    Quint. 2, 17, 18:

    si quis tamen... ad necessaria aliquid melius adjecerit, non erit hac calumniā reprendendus,

    id. 12, 10, 43.—
    3.
    A false accusation, malicious charge, esp. a false or malicious information, or action at law, a perversion of justice ( = sukophantia):

    jam de deorum inmortalium templis spoliatis qualem calumniam ad pontifices adtulerit?

    false report, Liv. 39, 4, 11:

    Scythae... cum confecto jam bello supervenissent, et calumniā tardius lati auxilii, mercede fraudarentur,

    an unjust charge, Just. 42, 1, 2:

    quamquam illa fuit ad calumniam singulari consilio reperta ratio... Quae res cum ad pactiones iniquissimas magnam vim habuit, tum vero ad calumnias in quas omnes inciderent, quos vellent Apronius,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 15, § 38:

    causam calumniae reperire,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8, §

    21: (Heraclius), a quo HS. C. milia per calumniam malitiamque petita sunt,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 27, §

    66: mirari improbitatem calumniae,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 15, §

    37: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumniā quādam et nimis callidā juris interpretatione,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33:

    iste amplam occasionem calumniae nactus,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 25, § 61:

    quem iste in decumis, in rebus capitalibus, in omni calumniā praecursorem habere solebat et emissarium,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 41, § 108; 2, 2, 9, §

    25: ad rapinas convertit animum, vario et exquisitissimo calumniarum et auctionum et vectigalium genere,

    Suet. Calig. 38 init.; cf.

    the context: calumniā litium alienos fundos petere,

    Cic. Mil. 27, 74:

    adeo illis odium Romanorum incussit rapacitas proconsulum, sectio publicanorum, calumniae litium,

    Just. 38, 7, 8:

    calumniarum metum inicere alicui,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    principes confiscatos ob tam leve ac tam inpudens calumniarum genus, ut, etc.,

    id. Tib. 49:

    calumniis rapinisque intendit animum,

    id. Ner. 32:

    creditorum turbam... nonnisi terrore calumniarum amovit,

    id. Vit. 7:

    fiscales calumnias magna calumniantium repressit,

    id. Dom. 9 fin.Plur.:

    istae calumniae,

    App. Mag. 1, p. 273, 9; cf.:

    calumnia magiae,

    id. ib. 2, p. 274, 10.—
    4.
    Hence, jurid. t. t., the bringing of an action, whether civil or criminal, in bad faith:

    actoris calumnia quoque coërcetur,

    litigiousness on the part of the plaintiff, Just. Inst. 4, 16, 1 Sandars ad loc.; Gai Inst. 4, 174: vetus calumniae actio, a prosecution for blackmail or malicious prosecution, id. ib.: calumniam jurare, to take the oath that the action is brought or defence offered in good faith, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 3: sei juraverit calumniae causā non postulare, Lex Acil. Repetund. 19; Dig. 39, 2, 7; cf.: praeter jusjurandum exigere non calumniae causā infitias ire, Gai Inst. 4, 172:

    jusjurandum exigere non calumniae causā agere,

    id. ib. 4, 176.—Hence:

    nec satis habere bello vicisse Hannibalem, nisi velut accusatores calumniam in eum jurarent ac nomen deferrent,

    Liv. 33, 37, 5 Weissenb. ad loc; so,

    de calumniā jurare,

    Dig. 39, 2, 13, § 3: jusjurandum de calumniā, Gai Inst. 4, 179; Dig. 12, 3, 34 al.: et quidem calumniae judicium adversus omnes actiones locum habet, a conviction in a cross-action for malicious prosecution, Gai Inst. 4, 175:

    turpissimam personam calumniae honestae civitati inponere,

    to fasten the vile character of a malicious prosecutor upon, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 17, § 43:

    sine ignominiā calumniae accusationem relinquere non posse,

    id. Clu. 31, 86.— The person convicted of this charge was branded on the forehead with the letter K; v. calumniator.—
    II.
    Transf., a conviction for malicious prosecution ( = calumniae judicium, v. I. A. 4. supra):

    hic illo privato judicio, mihi credite, calumniam non effugiet,

    Cic. Clu. 59, 163: scito C. Sempronium Rufum, mel ac delicias tuas, calumniam maximo plausu tulisse, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 1:

    accusare alienae dominationis scelerisque socius propter calumniae metum non est ausus,

    Cic. Dom. 19, 49:

    perinde poenā teneri ac si publico judicio calumniae condemnatus,

    Tac. A. 14, 41:

    calumniam fictis eludere jocis,

    Phaedr. 3, prol. 37.—
    III.
    Trop.
    A.
    Of abstr. things: in hac igitur calumniā timoris et caecae suspitionis tormento, cum plurima ad alieni sensūs conjecturam, non ad suum judicium scribantur, i. e. when the writer ' s mind is made the fool of his fears, Caecil. ap. Cic. Fam. 6, 7, 4. —
    B.
    Contra se, a mistaken severity towards one ' s self:

    inveni qui Ciceroni crederent, eum (Calvum) nimiā contra se calumniā verum sanguinem perdidisse,

    Quint. 10, 1, 115 (referring to Cic. Brut. 82, 283: nimium inquirens in se atque ipse sese observans, metuensque ne vitiosum colligeret, etiam verum sanguinem deperdebat).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > calumnia

  • 18 duplex

    dū̆plex, ĭcis (abl. commonly duplici;

    duplice,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 122), adj. [duo-plico], twofold, double.
    I.
    Lit.:

    et duplices hominum facies et corpora bina,

    Lucr. 4, 452; cf.

    aër (with geminus),

    id. 4, 274:

    cursus (with duae viae),

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 30:

    pars (opp. simplex),

    Quint. 8, 5, 4; cf. id. 4, 4, 5:

    modus (opp. par and sesquiplex),

    Cic. Or. 57, 193 et saep.:

    duplici de semine,

    Lucr. 4, 1229:

    quem locum duplici altissimo muro munierant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 29, 3:

    fossa duodenūm pedum,

    id. ib. 7, 36 fin.:

    vallum,

    id. B. C. 3, 63, 3:

    rates,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 6:

    tabellae,

    consisting of two leaves, Suet. Aug. 27:

    dorsum,

    consisting of two boards, Verg. G. 1, 172:

    acies,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 24, 1; id. B. C. 1, 83, 1; 3, 67, 3 al.; cf.

    proelium,

    Suet. Aug. 13:

    seditio,

    id. Tib. 25:

    triumphus,

    id. Dom. 6:

    cura,

    id. Tib. 8 et saep.—Prov.:

    duplex fit bonitas, simul accessit celeritas,

    who gives promptly gives twice, Pub. Syr. 141 (Rib.).—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    Of things made double by being divided into two, cloven, bipartite, double:

    ne duplices habeatis linguas, ne ego bilingues vos necem,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 7; cf. id. As. 3, 3, 105:

    ficus,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 122; Plin. 20, 6, 23, § 52; Veg. Vet. 2, 10, 6 (1, 38, p. 265 Bip; cf. id. 1, 56, p. 281 Bip.):

    folia palmae,

    Plin. 16, 24, 38, § 90:

    lex,

    Quint. 7, 7, 10.—
    2.
    Poet., like the Gr. diplous, of things in pairs, for ambo or uterque, both:

    oculi,

    Lucr. 6, 1145:

    palmae,

    Verg. A. 1, 93; cf. Ov. Am. 3, 327.—
    3.
    Opp. to single, like the Gr. diplous and our double, for thick, strong, stout:

    clavi,

    Cato R. R. 20:

    amiculum,

    Nep. Dat. 3; cf.

    pannus,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 25:

    fenus,

    Prop. 3 (4), 1, 22 (for which:

    magnum fenus,

    Tib. 2, 6, 22). —
    4.
    With quam in post-Aug. prose, for alterum tantum, twice as much as, Col. 1, 8, 8:

    duplex quam ceteris pretium,

    Plin. 19, 1, 2, § 9; Quint. 2, 3, 3.
    II.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of words, of a double sense, ambiguous:

    verba dubia et quasi duplicia,

    Quint. 9, 2, 69.—
    2.
    In poets, like the Gr. diplous, of character, qs. double-tongued, double-faced, i. e. false, deceitful:

    Ulixes,

    Hor. C. 1, 6, 7:

    Amathusia,

    Cat. 68, 51; so,

    animo,

    Vulg. Jacob. 1, 8; 4, 8.— Adv.: dū̆plĭcĭter, doubly, on two accounts, Lucr. 6, 510; Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 104; id. Fam. 9, 20:

    res conscriptae,

    ambiguously, Arn. 5, p. 182; Vulg. Sirach, 23, 13.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > duplex

  • 19 fallo

    fallo, fĕfelli, falsum, 3 (archaic inf. praes. pass. fallier, Pers. 3, 50; perf. pass. fefellitus sum, Petr. Fragm. 61, MSS.), v. a. [Sanscr. sphal, sphul, to waver; Gr. sphallô, a-sphalês], to deceive, trick, dupe, cheat, disappoint (freq. and class.; syn.: decipio, impono, frustror, circumvenio, emungo, fraudo).
    I.
    In gen.
    (α).
    Of living objects:

    T. Roscius non unum rei pecuniariae socium fefellit, verum novem homines honestissimos ejusdem muneris, etc.... induxit, decepit, destituit, omni fraude et perfidia fefellit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116 sq.; so,

    aliquem dolis,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 13; cf. id. Heaut. 3, 1, 61:

    senem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 43:

    referam gratiam, atque eas itidem fallam, ut ab illis fallimur,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 93: tu illum fructu fallas, Poët. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73:

    id ipsum sui fallendi causa milites ab hostibus factum existimabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 50, 2:

    tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco Inventum,

    Verg. G. 1, 139; cf. Ov. M. 15, 474:

    is enim sum, nisi me forte fallo, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 8, 21:

    num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, verum dies?

    id. Cat. 1, 3, 7:

    nisi me fallit animus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 17, 48; cf.:

    neque eum prima opinio fefellit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 67, 3:

    ne spes eum fallat,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 10, 4:

    si in hominibus eligendis spes amicitiae nos fefellerit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 28:

    in quo cum eum opinio fefellisset,

    Nep. Ages. 3, 5:

    nisi forte me animus fallit,

    Sall. C. 20, 17:

    nisi memoria me fallit,

    fails me, Gell. 20, p. 285 Bip.:

    nisi me omnia fallunt,

    Cic. Att. 8, 7, 1; cf.:

    omnia me fallunt, nisi, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 95 med.:

    nisi quid me fallit,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 6; cf.:

    si quid nunc me fallit in scribendo,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 4:

    dominum sterilis saepe fefellit ager,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 450:

    certe hercle hic se ipsus fallit, non ego,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 15:

    tam libenter se fallunt, quam si una fata decipiunt,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 11, 1:

    cum alios falleret, se ipsum tamen non fefellit,

    Lact. 1, 22, 5.— Pass. in mid. force, to deceive one's self, be deceived, to err, be mistaken:

    errore quodam fallimur in disputando,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35:

    qua (spe) possumus falli: deus falli qui potuit?

    id. N. D. 3, 31, 76:

    memoriā falli,

    Plin. 10, 42, 59, § 118:

    jamque dies, nisi fallor, adest,

    Verg. A. 5, 49; Cic. Att. 4, 17, 1; 16, 6, 2:

    ni fallor,

    Ov. F. 4, 623; Lact. 2, 19, 1; cf.:

    ordinis haec virtus erit et venus, aut ego fallor,

    Hor. A. P. 42.—With object-clause:

    dicere non fallar, quo, etc.,

    Luc. 7, 288:

    quamquam haut falsa sum, nos odiosas haberi,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 4; cf.:

    id quam facile sit mihi, haud sum falsus,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 3; Ter. And. 4, 1, 23; Sall. J. 85, 20:

    neque ea res falsum me habuit,

    did not deceive me, id. ib. 10, 1:

    ut falsus animi est!

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 43.—
    (β).
    Of inanim. or abstr. objects:

    promissum,

    not to fulfil, Curt. 7, 10, 9:

    fidem hosti datam fallere,

    to violate, break, betray, deceive, Cic. Off. 1, 13, 39:

    quodsi meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit,

    id. Cat. 4, 11, 23; cf. id. de Or. 1, 1, 2:

    non fallam opinionem tuam,

    id. Fam. 1, 6 fin.; cf. Caes. B. C. 3, 86 fin.:

    imperium,

    to fail to execute, Plin. 7, 37, 38, § 125:

    cum lubrica saxa vestigium fallerent,

    betrayed, Curt. 4, 9.— Poet.:

    tu faciem illius Falle dolo,

    imitate deceptively, assume, Verg. A. 1, 684:

    sua terga nocturno lupo,

    i. e. to hide, conceal, Prop. 4, 5, 14:

    casses, retia,

    to shun, avoid, Ov. H. 20, 45; 190. —
    (γ).
    Absol.: neque quo pacto fallam... Scio quicquam, Caecil. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29 fin.:

    cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    ea (divinatio) fallit fortasse nonnumquam,

    id. Div. 1, 14, 25:

    non in sortitione fallere,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 132:

    in ea re,

    Nep. Them. 7, 2; Cels. 7, 26, 2: ne falleret bis relata eadem res, Liv. 29, 35, 2:

    ut, si quid possent, de induciis fallendo impetrarent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 13, 5:

    germinat et numquam fallentis termes olivae,

    Hor. Epod. 16, 45:

    plerumque sufflati atque tumidi (oratores) fallunt pro uberibus,

    Gell. 7, 14, 5.—
    B.
    Impers.: fallit (me) I deceive myself, I mistake, am mistaken:

    sed nos, nisi me fallit, jacebimus,

    Cic. Att. 14, 12, 2; cf.:

    nisi me propter benevolentiam forte fallebat,

    id. Cael. 19, 45; id. Sest. 50, 106:

    nec eum fefellit,

    id. Off. 2, 7, 25:

    vide, ne te fallat,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 25. And cf. under II. B. 2.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    To deceive in swearing, to swear falsely:

    is jurare cum coepisset, vox eum defecit in illo loco: SI SCIENS FALLO,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 1, 2; cf.:

    lapidem silicem tenebant juraturi per Jovem haec verba dicentes: SI SCIENS FALLO, TVM ME DISPITER, etc., Paul. ex Fest. s. v. lapidem, p. 115 Müll.: si sciens fefellisset,

    Plin. Pan. 64, 3; cf. Liv. 21, 45, 8; Prop. 4, 7, 53:

    expedit matris cineres opertos Fallere,

    i. e. to swear falsely by the ashes of your mother, Hor. C. 2, 8, 10.—
    B.
    With respect to one's knowledge or sight, for the more usual latēre: to lie concealed from, to escape the notice, elude the observation of a person (so in Cic., Sall., and Caes. for the most part only impers., v. 2. infra).
    (α).
    With acc.:

    neque enim hoc te, Crasse, fallit, quam multa sint et quam varia genera dicendi,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 255:

    tanto silentio in summum evasere, ut non custodes solum fallerent, sed, etc.,

    Liv. 5, 47, 3:

    nec fefellit veniens ducem,

    id. 2, 19, 7; Curt. 7, 6, 4; cf.:

    quin et Atridas duce te (Mercurio)... Priamus... Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae Castra fefellit,

    Hor. C. 1, 10, 16:

    quos fallere et effugere est triumphus,

    id. ib. 4, 4, 52:

    Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem Fallere testa,

    id. ib. 3, 14, 20; Suet. Caes. 43:

    nec te Pythagorae fallant arcana,

    Hor. Epod. 15, 21; id. Ep. 1, 6, 45:

    nec quicquam eos, quae terra marique agerentur, fallebat,

    Liv. 41, 2, 1 Drak.:

    ut plebem tribunosque falleret judicii rescindendi consilium initum,

    id. 4, 11, 4:

    tanta celeritate, ut visum fallant,

    Plin. 9, 50, 74, § 157:

    oculos littera fallit,

    cannot be distinctly read, Ov. A. A. 3, 627.— With acc. and inf.:

    neutros fefellit hostes appropinquare,

    Liv. 31, 33, 8 Weissenb. ad loc.—Mid. with gen.:

    nec satis exaudiebam, nec sermonis fallebar tamen,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 55.—
    (β).
    Absol., to escape notice, be unseen, remain undiscovered:

    speculator Carthaginiensium, qui per biennium fefellerat, Romae deprehensus,

    Liv. 22, 33, 1; 25, 9, 2:

    spes fallendi, resistendive, si non falleret,

    of remaining unnoticed, id. 21, 57, 5:

    non fefellere ad Tifernum hostes instructi,

    id. 10, 14, 6.—So with part. perf., Liv. 42, 64, 3; 23, 19, 11.—With part. pres.: ne alio itinere hostis falleret ad urbem incedens, i. e. arrive secretly, lanthanoi prosiôn, Liv. 8, 20, 5; cf. id. 5, 47, 9; Verg. A. 7, 350:

    nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit,

    i. e. has remained unnoticed, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 10:

    fallere pro aliquo,

    to pass for, Gell. 7, 14:

    bonus longe fallente sagitta,

    Verg. A. 9, 572.—
    2.
    Impers.: fallit (me), it is concealed from me, unknown to me, I do not know, am ignorant of (for the most part only with negatives or in negative interrogations), constr. with subject-clause:

    non me fefellit: sensi,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 64:

    num me fefellit, hosce id struere?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; cf.:

    in lege nulla esse ejusmodi capita, te non fallit,

    Cic. Att. 3, 23, 4:

    nec me animi fallit, etc.,

    Lucr. 1, 136; 5, 97:

    quem fallit?

    who does not know? Plin. 2, 103, 106, § 233:

    neque vero Caesarem fefellit, quin, etc.,

    Caes. B C. 3, 94, 3.—
    C.
    To cause any thing (space, time, etc.) not to be observed or felt, to lighten any thing difficult, or to appease, silence any thing disagreeable, to beguile ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    medias fallunt sermonibus horas Sentirique moram prohibent,

    Ov. M. 8, 652:

    jam somno fallere curam,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 114:

    Fallebat curas aegraque corda labor,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 2, 16; cf.

    dolores,

    id. ib. 5, 7, 39:

    luctum,

    Val. Fl. 3, 319:

    molliter austerum studio fallente laborem,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 12; Ov. M. 6, 60; Plin. 27, 7, 28, § 49.—Prov.:

    fallere credentem non est operosa puellam Gloria,

    Ov. H. 2, 63.—Hence, falsus, a, um, P. a., deceptive, pretended, feigned, deceitful, spurious, false (syn.: adulterinus, subditus, subditicius, spurius).
    A.
    [p. 722] Adj.:

    testes aut casu veri aut malitia falsi fictique esse possunt,

    Cic. Div. 2, 11, 27; cf.:

    falsum est id totum, neque solum fictum, sed etiam imperite absurdeque fictum,

    id. Rep. 2, 15:

    ementita et falsa plenaque erroris,

    id. N. D. 2, 21, 55:

    pro re certa spem falsam domum retulerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; cf.:

    spe falsa atque fallaci,

    id. Phil. 12, 2, 7; so,

    spes,

    id. Sull. 82, 91:

    falsa et mendacia visa,

    id. Div. 2, 62, 127; cf.:

    falsa et inania visa,

    id. ib.:

    falsum et imitatione simulatum,

    id. de Or. 2, 45, 189; cf. id. Phil. 11, 2, 5:

    argumentum,

    id. Inv. 1, 48, 90:

    qui falsas lites falsis testimoniis Petunt,

    Plaut. Rud. prol. 13:

    reperiuntur falsi falsimoniis,

    id. Bacch. 3, 6, 12:

    ambitio multos mortales falsos fieri subegit,

    Sall. C. 10, 5 Kritz.:

    pater (opp. verus),

    a supposed father, Ov. M. 9, 24; cf. id. ib. 1, 754:

    falsi ac festinantes,

    Tac. A. 1, 7: suspectio, Enn. ap. Non. 511, 5:

    nuntius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175:

    rumores,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 20, 2:

    poena falsarum et corruptarum litterarum,

    Cic. Fl. 17, 39; cf.:

    falsas esse litteras et a scriba vitiatas,

    Liv. 40, 55, 1:

    falsarum tabularum rei,

    Suet. Aug. 19:

    fama,

    Cic. Lael. 4, 15:

    appellatio,

    Quint. 7, 3, 5:

    sententiae,

    id. 8, 5, 7:

    crimina,

    Hor. C. 3, 7, 14;

    terrores,

    id. Ep. 2, 1, 212:

    opprobria,

    i. e. undeserved, id. ib. 1, 16, 38; cf.

    honor,

    id. ib. 39: falsi Simoëntis ad undam, i. e. fictitious (simulati), Verg. A. 3, 302; cf.:

    falsi sequimur vestigia tauri (i. e. Jovis),

    Val. Fl. 8, 265:

    vultu simulans Haliagmona,

    Stat. Th. 7, 739:

    ita ceteros terruere, ut adesse omnem exercitum trepidi ac falsi nuntiarent,

    Tac. H. 2, 17:

    ne illi falsi sunt qui divorsissumas res pariter expectant,

    deceived, mistaken, Sall. J. 85, 20; cf.:

    falsus utinam vates sim,

    Liv. 21, 10, 10; so,

    vates,

    id. 4, 46, 5.— Comp. (rare):

    quanto est abjectior et falsior ista (theologia),

    Aug. Civ. D. 7, 5 fin.:

    nihil est hominum inepta persuasione falsius,

    Petr. 132; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 92, 11 Müll.— Sup.:

    id autem falsissimum est,

    Col. 1, 6, 17.—
    (β).
    With gen.:

    Felix appellatur Arabia, falsi et ingrati cognominis,

    Plin. 12, 18, 41, § 82.—
    2.
    False, counterfeit, spurious, = adulterinus (late Lat.): moneta, Cod. Th. 9, 21, 9.—
    B.
    As subst.
    1.
    falsus, i, m., a liar, deceiver:

    Spurinnam ut falsum arguens,

    a false prophet, Suet. Caes. 81 fin.; id. Tib. 14.—
    2.
    falsum, i, n., falsehood, fraud:

    ex falsis verum effici non potest,

    Cic. Div. 2, 51, 106; cf.:

    veris falsa remiscet,

    Hor. A. P. 151:

    vero distinguere falsum,

    id. Ep. 1, 10, 29:

    falsum scripseram,

    Cic. Att. 7, 14, 2; Quint. 7, 2, 53:

    ex illa causa falsi,

    i. e. of fraud, Dig. 48, 10 (De lege Cornelia de falsis), 1;

    v. the whole title: acclinis falsis animus,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 6:

    nec obstitit falsis Tiberius,

    Tac. A. 2, 82:

    simulationum falsa,

    id. ib. 6, 46 et saep.—Adverb.:

    telisque non in falsum jactis,

    i. e. not at random, with effect, Tac. A. 4, 50 fin.:

    jurare falsum,

    Ov. Am. 3, 3, 11.— Adv., untruly, erroneously, unfaithfully, wrongly, falsely; in two forms, falso and false.
    1.
    falso:

    eho mavis vituperari falso, quam vero extolli?

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 21 sq.; cf. id. Trin. 1, 2, 173;

    so opp. vero,

    Curt. 5, 2, 2: ei rei dant operam, ut mihi falso maledicatur, Cato ap. Charis. p. 179 P.: falso criminare, Enn. ap. Non. 470, 16:

    neque me perpetiar probri Falso insimulatam,

    id. Am. 3, 2, 7; 21; cf.:

    non possum quemquam insimulare falso,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107:

    falso memoriae proditum,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 14, 41:

    cum Tarquinius... vivere falso diceretur,

    id. Rep. 2, 21; cf.:

    adesse ejus equites falso nuntiabantur,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 14, 1:

    cum utrumque falso fingerent,

    Liv. 42, 2:

    falso in me conferri,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 5, 2: aliquem falso occidere, i. e. by mistake, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 179 P.; cf.:

    ut miseri parentes quos falso lugent, vivere sciant,

    Liv. 34, 32, 13; and:

    falso lamentari eas Darium vivum,

    Curt. 3, 12:

    falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum,

    Sall. J. 1:

    falso plurima volgus amat,

    Tib. 3, 3, 20 (so perh. also in Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141, non assentiar saepe falso, instead of false).—Ellipt.: Da. Si quid narrare occepi, continuo dari tibi verba censes. Si. Falso, Ter. And. 3, 2, 24; cf.:

    atqui in talibus rebus aliud utile interdum, aliud honestum videri solet. Falso: nam, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 3, 18, 74; so Quint. 2, 17, 12; Nep. Alc. 9:

    quia inter inpotentes et validos falso quiescas, = quia falluntur qui putant quiesci posse,

    Tac. Germ. 36.—
    2.
    false (very rare): judicium false factum, Sisenn. ap. Charis. p. 179; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 78 Fleck. (Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141 dub., B. and K., al. falso).— Sup.:

    quae adversus haec falsissime disputantur,

    Aug. Conf. 10, 13.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > fallo

  • 20 falsum

    fallo, fĕfelli, falsum, 3 (archaic inf. praes. pass. fallier, Pers. 3, 50; perf. pass. fefellitus sum, Petr. Fragm. 61, MSS.), v. a. [Sanscr. sphal, sphul, to waver; Gr. sphallô, a-sphalês], to deceive, trick, dupe, cheat, disappoint (freq. and class.; syn.: decipio, impono, frustror, circumvenio, emungo, fraudo).
    I.
    In gen.
    (α).
    Of living objects:

    T. Roscius non unum rei pecuniariae socium fefellit, verum novem homines honestissimos ejusdem muneris, etc.... induxit, decepit, destituit, omni fraude et perfidia fefellit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116 sq.; so,

    aliquem dolis,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 13; cf. id. Heaut. 3, 1, 61:

    senem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 43:

    referam gratiam, atque eas itidem fallam, ut ab illis fallimur,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 93: tu illum fructu fallas, Poët. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73:

    id ipsum sui fallendi causa milites ab hostibus factum existimabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 50, 2:

    tum laqueis captare feras et fallere visco Inventum,

    Verg. G. 1, 139; cf. Ov. M. 15, 474:

    is enim sum, nisi me forte fallo, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 8, 21:

    num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, verum dies?

    id. Cat. 1, 3, 7:

    nisi me fallit animus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 17, 48; cf.:

    neque eum prima opinio fefellit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 67, 3:

    ne spes eum fallat,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 10, 4:

    si in hominibus eligendis spes amicitiae nos fefellerit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 28:

    in quo cum eum opinio fefellisset,

    Nep. Ages. 3, 5:

    nisi forte me animus fallit,

    Sall. C. 20, 17:

    nisi memoria me fallit,

    fails me, Gell. 20, p. 285 Bip.:

    nisi me omnia fallunt,

    Cic. Att. 8, 7, 1; cf.:

    omnia me fallunt, nisi, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 95 med.:

    nisi quid me fallit,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 6; cf.:

    si quid nunc me fallit in scribendo,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 4:

    dominum sterilis saepe fefellit ager,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 450:

    certe hercle hic se ipsus fallit, non ego,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 15:

    tam libenter se fallunt, quam si una fata decipiunt,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 11, 1:

    cum alios falleret, se ipsum tamen non fefellit,

    Lact. 1, 22, 5.— Pass. in mid. force, to deceive one's self, be deceived, to err, be mistaken:

    errore quodam fallimur in disputando,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35:

    qua (spe) possumus falli: deus falli qui potuit?

    id. N. D. 3, 31, 76:

    memoriā falli,

    Plin. 10, 42, 59, § 118:

    jamque dies, nisi fallor, adest,

    Verg. A. 5, 49; Cic. Att. 4, 17, 1; 16, 6, 2:

    ni fallor,

    Ov. F. 4, 623; Lact. 2, 19, 1; cf.:

    ordinis haec virtus erit et venus, aut ego fallor,

    Hor. A. P. 42.—With object-clause:

    dicere non fallar, quo, etc.,

    Luc. 7, 288:

    quamquam haut falsa sum, nos odiosas haberi,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 4; cf.:

    id quam facile sit mihi, haud sum falsus,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 3; Ter. And. 4, 1, 23; Sall. J. 85, 20:

    neque ea res falsum me habuit,

    did not deceive me, id. ib. 10, 1:

    ut falsus animi est!

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 43.—
    (β).
    Of inanim. or abstr. objects:

    promissum,

    not to fulfil, Curt. 7, 10, 9:

    fidem hosti datam fallere,

    to violate, break, betray, deceive, Cic. Off. 1, 13, 39:

    quodsi meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit,

    id. Cat. 4, 11, 23; cf. id. de Or. 1, 1, 2:

    non fallam opinionem tuam,

    id. Fam. 1, 6 fin.; cf. Caes. B. C. 3, 86 fin.:

    imperium,

    to fail to execute, Plin. 7, 37, 38, § 125:

    cum lubrica saxa vestigium fallerent,

    betrayed, Curt. 4, 9.— Poet.:

    tu faciem illius Falle dolo,

    imitate deceptively, assume, Verg. A. 1, 684:

    sua terga nocturno lupo,

    i. e. to hide, conceal, Prop. 4, 5, 14:

    casses, retia,

    to shun, avoid, Ov. H. 20, 45; 190. —
    (γ).
    Absol.: neque quo pacto fallam... Scio quicquam, Caecil. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29 fin.:

    cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    ea (divinatio) fallit fortasse nonnumquam,

    id. Div. 1, 14, 25:

    non in sortitione fallere,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 132:

    in ea re,

    Nep. Them. 7, 2; Cels. 7, 26, 2: ne falleret bis relata eadem res, Liv. 29, 35, 2:

    ut, si quid possent, de induciis fallendo impetrarent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 13, 5:

    germinat et numquam fallentis termes olivae,

    Hor. Epod. 16, 45:

    plerumque sufflati atque tumidi (oratores) fallunt pro uberibus,

    Gell. 7, 14, 5.—
    B.
    Impers.: fallit (me) I deceive myself, I mistake, am mistaken:

    sed nos, nisi me fallit, jacebimus,

    Cic. Att. 14, 12, 2; cf.:

    nisi me propter benevolentiam forte fallebat,

    id. Cael. 19, 45; id. Sest. 50, 106:

    nec eum fefellit,

    id. Off. 2, 7, 25:

    vide, ne te fallat,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 25. And cf. under II. B. 2.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    To deceive in swearing, to swear falsely:

    is jurare cum coepisset, vox eum defecit in illo loco: SI SCIENS FALLO,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 1, 2; cf.:

    lapidem silicem tenebant juraturi per Jovem haec verba dicentes: SI SCIENS FALLO, TVM ME DISPITER, etc., Paul. ex Fest. s. v. lapidem, p. 115 Müll.: si sciens fefellisset,

    Plin. Pan. 64, 3; cf. Liv. 21, 45, 8; Prop. 4, 7, 53:

    expedit matris cineres opertos Fallere,

    i. e. to swear falsely by the ashes of your mother, Hor. C. 2, 8, 10.—
    B.
    With respect to one's knowledge or sight, for the more usual latēre: to lie concealed from, to escape the notice, elude the observation of a person (so in Cic., Sall., and Caes. for the most part only impers., v. 2. infra).
    (α).
    With acc.:

    neque enim hoc te, Crasse, fallit, quam multa sint et quam varia genera dicendi,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 255:

    tanto silentio in summum evasere, ut non custodes solum fallerent, sed, etc.,

    Liv. 5, 47, 3:

    nec fefellit veniens ducem,

    id. 2, 19, 7; Curt. 7, 6, 4; cf.:

    quin et Atridas duce te (Mercurio)... Priamus... Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Trojae Castra fefellit,

    Hor. C. 1, 10, 16:

    quos fallere et effugere est triumphus,

    id. ib. 4, 4, 52:

    Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem Fallere testa,

    id. ib. 3, 14, 20; Suet. Caes. 43:

    nec te Pythagorae fallant arcana,

    Hor. Epod. 15, 21; id. Ep. 1, 6, 45:

    nec quicquam eos, quae terra marique agerentur, fallebat,

    Liv. 41, 2, 1 Drak.:

    ut plebem tribunosque falleret judicii rescindendi consilium initum,

    id. 4, 11, 4:

    tanta celeritate, ut visum fallant,

    Plin. 9, 50, 74, § 157:

    oculos littera fallit,

    cannot be distinctly read, Ov. A. A. 3, 627.— With acc. and inf.:

    neutros fefellit hostes appropinquare,

    Liv. 31, 33, 8 Weissenb. ad loc.—Mid. with gen.:

    nec satis exaudiebam, nec sermonis fallebar tamen,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 55.—
    (β).
    Absol., to escape notice, be unseen, remain undiscovered:

    speculator Carthaginiensium, qui per biennium fefellerat, Romae deprehensus,

    Liv. 22, 33, 1; 25, 9, 2:

    spes fallendi, resistendive, si non falleret,

    of remaining unnoticed, id. 21, 57, 5:

    non fefellere ad Tifernum hostes instructi,

    id. 10, 14, 6.—So with part. perf., Liv. 42, 64, 3; 23, 19, 11.—With part. pres.: ne alio itinere hostis falleret ad urbem incedens, i. e. arrive secretly, lanthanoi prosiôn, Liv. 8, 20, 5; cf. id. 5, 47, 9; Verg. A. 7, 350:

    nec vixit male, qui natus moriensque fefellit,

    i. e. has remained unnoticed, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 10:

    fallere pro aliquo,

    to pass for, Gell. 7, 14:

    bonus longe fallente sagitta,

    Verg. A. 9, 572.—
    2.
    Impers.: fallit (me), it is concealed from me, unknown to me, I do not know, am ignorant of (for the most part only with negatives or in negative interrogations), constr. with subject-clause:

    non me fefellit: sensi,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 64:

    num me fefellit, hosce id struere?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; cf.:

    in lege nulla esse ejusmodi capita, te non fallit,

    Cic. Att. 3, 23, 4:

    nec me animi fallit, etc.,

    Lucr. 1, 136; 5, 97:

    quem fallit?

    who does not know? Plin. 2, 103, 106, § 233:

    neque vero Caesarem fefellit, quin, etc.,

    Caes. B C. 3, 94, 3.—
    C.
    To cause any thing (space, time, etc.) not to be observed or felt, to lighten any thing difficult, or to appease, silence any thing disagreeable, to beguile ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    medias fallunt sermonibus horas Sentirique moram prohibent,

    Ov. M. 8, 652:

    jam somno fallere curam,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 114:

    Fallebat curas aegraque corda labor,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 2, 16; cf.

    dolores,

    id. ib. 5, 7, 39:

    luctum,

    Val. Fl. 3, 319:

    molliter austerum studio fallente laborem,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 12; Ov. M. 6, 60; Plin. 27, 7, 28, § 49.—Prov.:

    fallere credentem non est operosa puellam Gloria,

    Ov. H. 2, 63.—Hence, falsus, a, um, P. a., deceptive, pretended, feigned, deceitful, spurious, false (syn.: adulterinus, subditus, subditicius, spurius).
    A.
    [p. 722] Adj.:

    testes aut casu veri aut malitia falsi fictique esse possunt,

    Cic. Div. 2, 11, 27; cf.:

    falsum est id totum, neque solum fictum, sed etiam imperite absurdeque fictum,

    id. Rep. 2, 15:

    ementita et falsa plenaque erroris,

    id. N. D. 2, 21, 55:

    pro re certa spem falsam domum retulerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; cf.:

    spe falsa atque fallaci,

    id. Phil. 12, 2, 7; so,

    spes,

    id. Sull. 82, 91:

    falsa et mendacia visa,

    id. Div. 2, 62, 127; cf.:

    falsa et inania visa,

    id. ib.:

    falsum et imitatione simulatum,

    id. de Or. 2, 45, 189; cf. id. Phil. 11, 2, 5:

    argumentum,

    id. Inv. 1, 48, 90:

    qui falsas lites falsis testimoniis Petunt,

    Plaut. Rud. prol. 13:

    reperiuntur falsi falsimoniis,

    id. Bacch. 3, 6, 12:

    ambitio multos mortales falsos fieri subegit,

    Sall. C. 10, 5 Kritz.:

    pater (opp. verus),

    a supposed father, Ov. M. 9, 24; cf. id. ib. 1, 754:

    falsi ac festinantes,

    Tac. A. 1, 7: suspectio, Enn. ap. Non. 511, 5:

    nuntius,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175:

    rumores,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 20, 2:

    poena falsarum et corruptarum litterarum,

    Cic. Fl. 17, 39; cf.:

    falsas esse litteras et a scriba vitiatas,

    Liv. 40, 55, 1:

    falsarum tabularum rei,

    Suet. Aug. 19:

    fama,

    Cic. Lael. 4, 15:

    appellatio,

    Quint. 7, 3, 5:

    sententiae,

    id. 8, 5, 7:

    crimina,

    Hor. C. 3, 7, 14;

    terrores,

    id. Ep. 2, 1, 212:

    opprobria,

    i. e. undeserved, id. ib. 1, 16, 38; cf.

    honor,

    id. ib. 39: falsi Simoëntis ad undam, i. e. fictitious (simulati), Verg. A. 3, 302; cf.:

    falsi sequimur vestigia tauri (i. e. Jovis),

    Val. Fl. 8, 265:

    vultu simulans Haliagmona,

    Stat. Th. 7, 739:

    ita ceteros terruere, ut adesse omnem exercitum trepidi ac falsi nuntiarent,

    Tac. H. 2, 17:

    ne illi falsi sunt qui divorsissumas res pariter expectant,

    deceived, mistaken, Sall. J. 85, 20; cf.:

    falsus utinam vates sim,

    Liv. 21, 10, 10; so,

    vates,

    id. 4, 46, 5.— Comp. (rare):

    quanto est abjectior et falsior ista (theologia),

    Aug. Civ. D. 7, 5 fin.:

    nihil est hominum inepta persuasione falsius,

    Petr. 132; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 92, 11 Müll.— Sup.:

    id autem falsissimum est,

    Col. 1, 6, 17.—
    (β).
    With gen.:

    Felix appellatur Arabia, falsi et ingrati cognominis,

    Plin. 12, 18, 41, § 82.—
    2.
    False, counterfeit, spurious, = adulterinus (late Lat.): moneta, Cod. Th. 9, 21, 9.—
    B.
    As subst.
    1.
    falsus, i, m., a liar, deceiver:

    Spurinnam ut falsum arguens,

    a false prophet, Suet. Caes. 81 fin.; id. Tib. 14.—
    2.
    falsum, i, n., falsehood, fraud:

    ex falsis verum effici non potest,

    Cic. Div. 2, 51, 106; cf.:

    veris falsa remiscet,

    Hor. A. P. 151:

    vero distinguere falsum,

    id. Ep. 1, 10, 29:

    falsum scripseram,

    Cic. Att. 7, 14, 2; Quint. 7, 2, 53:

    ex illa causa falsi,

    i. e. of fraud, Dig. 48, 10 (De lege Cornelia de falsis), 1;

    v. the whole title: acclinis falsis animus,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 6:

    nec obstitit falsis Tiberius,

    Tac. A. 2, 82:

    simulationum falsa,

    id. ib. 6, 46 et saep.—Adverb.:

    telisque non in falsum jactis,

    i. e. not at random, with effect, Tac. A. 4, 50 fin.:

    jurare falsum,

    Ov. Am. 3, 3, 11.— Adv., untruly, erroneously, unfaithfully, wrongly, falsely; in two forms, falso and false.
    1.
    falso:

    eho mavis vituperari falso, quam vero extolli?

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 21 sq.; cf. id. Trin. 1, 2, 173;

    so opp. vero,

    Curt. 5, 2, 2: ei rei dant operam, ut mihi falso maledicatur, Cato ap. Charis. p. 179 P.: falso criminare, Enn. ap. Non. 470, 16:

    neque me perpetiar probri Falso insimulatam,

    id. Am. 3, 2, 7; 21; cf.:

    non possum quemquam insimulare falso,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107:

    falso memoriae proditum,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 14, 41:

    cum Tarquinius... vivere falso diceretur,

    id. Rep. 2, 21; cf.:

    adesse ejus equites falso nuntiabantur,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 14, 1:

    cum utrumque falso fingerent,

    Liv. 42, 2:

    falso in me conferri,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 5, 2: aliquem falso occidere, i. e. by mistake, Naev. ap. Charis. p. 179 P.; cf.:

    ut miseri parentes quos falso lugent, vivere sciant,

    Liv. 34, 32, 13; and:

    falso lamentari eas Darium vivum,

    Curt. 3, 12:

    falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum,

    Sall. J. 1:

    falso plurima volgus amat,

    Tib. 3, 3, 20 (so perh. also in Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141, non assentiar saepe falso, instead of false).—Ellipt.: Da. Si quid narrare occepi, continuo dari tibi verba censes. Si. Falso, Ter. And. 3, 2, 24; cf.:

    atqui in talibus rebus aliud utile interdum, aliud honestum videri solet. Falso: nam, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 3, 18, 74; so Quint. 2, 17, 12; Nep. Alc. 9:

    quia inter inpotentes et validos falso quiescas, = quia falluntur qui putant quiesci posse,

    Tac. Germ. 36.—
    2.
    false (very rare): judicium false factum, Sisenn. ap. Charis. p. 179; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 78 Fleck. (Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141 dub., B. and K., al. falso).— Sup.:

    quae adversus haec falsissime disputantur,

    Aug. Conf. 10, 13.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > falsum

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