Перевод: с латинского на английский

с английского на латинский

through the round of military gradation

  • 1 Turbo

    1.
    turbo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. ( fut. perf. turbassit, for turbaverit, Cic. Leg. 3, 4; al. turbassitur) [turba], to disturb, agitate, confuse, disorder; to throw into disorder or confusion (freq. and class.; syn.: confundo, misceo, agito).
    I.
    Lit.:

    ventorum vi agitari atque turbari mare,

    Cic. Clu. 49, 138:

    aequora ventis,

    Lucr. 2, 1:

    hibernum mare,

    Hor. Epod. 15, 8; Ov. M. 7, 154; 14, 545 al.:

    eversae turbant convivia mensae,

    id. ib. 12, 222; cf. in a poet. transf.:

    ancipiti quoniam bello turbatur utrimque,

    Lucr. 6, 377:

    ne comae turbarentur, quas componi vetuit,

    Quint. 11, 3, 148:

    ne turbet toga mota capillos,

    Ov. Am. 3, 2, 75:

    capillos,

    id. M. 8, 859; id. Am. 3, 14, 33; cf.

    in a Greek construction: turbata capillos,

    id. M. 4, 474:

    ceram,

    the seal, Quint. 12, 8, 13:

    uvae recentes alvum turbant,

    Plin. 23, 1, 6, § 10.— Absol.:

    instat, turbatque ruitque,

    Ov. M. 12, 134.—Reflex.:

    cum mare turbaret (sc. se),

    Varr. R. R. 3, 17, 7 Schneid. ad loc. (al. turbaretur).—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Milit. t. t., to throw into disorder, break the line of battle, disorganize:

    equitatus turbaverat ordines,

    Liv. 3, 70, 9:

    aciem peditum,

    id. 30, 18, 10.— Absol.:

    equites eruptione factā in agmen modice primo impetu turbavere,

    Liv. 38, 13, 12:

    turbantibus invicem copiis,

    Flor. 4, 2, 49:

    hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, sistet,

    Verg. A. 6, 857.—
    2.
    Of water, to trouble, make thick or turbid:

    lacus,

    Ov. M. 6, 364:

    fons quem nulla volucris turbarat,

    id. ib. 3, 410:

    flumen imbre,

    id. ib. 13, 889:

    limo aquam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 60:

    aquas lacrimis,

    Ov. M. 3, 475; cf.:

    pulvis sputo turbatus,

    Petr. 131.—
    II.
    Trop.:

    non modo illa permiscuit, sed etiam delectum atque ordinem turbavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 50, § 123:

    qui omnia inflma summis paria fecit, turbavit, miscuit,

    id. Leg. 3, 9, 19:

    Aristoteles quoque multa turbat, a magistro Platone non dissentiens,

    id. N. D. 1, 13, 33:

    quantas res turbo!

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 2, 1:

    quas meus filius turbas turbet,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 1; cf.:

    quae meus filius turbavit,

    id. ib. 5, 1, 5; id. Cas. 5, 2, 6:

    ne quid ille turbet vide,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 24:

    haec, quae in re publicā turbantur,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 3:

    cum dies alicui nobilium dicta novis semper certaminibus contiones turbaret,

    Liv. 3, 66, 2: ne incertā prole auspicia turbarentur, id. 4, 6, 2:

    milites nihil in commune turbantes,

    Tac. H. 1, 85:

    turbantur (testes),

    Quint. 5, 7, 11; cf. id. 4, 5, 6; 5, 14, 29; 10, 7, 6:

    spem pacis,

    Liv. 2, 16, 5.— Absol.: Ph. Ea nos perturbat. Pa. Dum ne reducam, turbent porro, quam velint, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 12 (cf. I. B. 1. supra):

    repente turbare Fortuna coepit,

    Tac. A. 4, 1:

    si una alterave civitas turbet,

    id. ib. 3, 47: M. Servilius postquam, ut coeperat, omnibus in rebus turbarat, i. e. had deranged all his affairs, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 2.— Impers. pass.:

    nescio quid absente nobis turbatum'st domi,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7:

    totis Usque adeo turbatur agris,

    Verg. E. 1, 12:

    si in Hispaniā turbatum esset,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 57.—Hence, turbātus, a, um, P. a., troubled, disturbed, disordered, agitated, excited.
    A.
    Lit.:

    turbatius mare ingressus,

    more stormy, Suet. Calig. 23:

    turbatius caelum,

    id. Tib. 69.—
    B.
    Trop.:

    hostes inopinato malo turbati,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12:

    oculis simul ac mente turbatus,

    Liv. 7, 26, 5:

    turbatus religione simul ac periculo,

    Suet. Ner. 19; cf.:

    turbatus animi,

    Sil. 14, 678:

    placare voluntates turbatas,

    Cic. Planc. 4, 11: seditionibus omnia turbata sunt, Sall. Or. Phil. contr. Lepid. 1:

    turbata cum Romanis pax,

    Just. 18, 2, 10:

    omnia soluta, turbata atque etiam in contrarium versa,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 7; cf.:

    quae si confusa, turbata, permixta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 9, 5, 3.—Hence, adv.: turbātē, confusedly, disorderly:

    aguntur omnia raptim atque turbate,

    in confusion, Caes. B. C. 1, 5, 1.
    2.
    turbo, ĭnis, m. (collat. form tur-ben, ĭnis, n., Tib. 1, 5, 3; id. ap. Charis. p. 118 P.; gen. turbonis, Caes. ib.) [1. turbo], that which spins or twirls round (cf. vertex).
    I.
    A whirlwind, hurricane, tornado: ventus circumactus et eundem ambiens locum et se ipse vertigine concitans turbo est. Qui si pugnacior est ac diutius volutatur, inflammatur, et efficit, quem prêstêra Graeci vocant:

    hic est igneus turbo,

    Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 3:

    falsum est faces et trabes turbine exprimi,

    id. ib. 7, 5, 1; 2, 22, 2; id. Ep. 109, 18:

    procellae, turbines,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 51; cf.: saevi exsistunt turbines, Pac. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 39, 157 (Trag. Rel. p. 111 Rib.); Enn. ap. Schol. Vat. ad Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 4 (Ann. v. 553 Vahl.):

    venti vis rapido percurrens turbine campos,

    Lucr. 1, 273; cf. id. 1, 279; 1, 294; 5, 217; Ov. M. 6, 310:

    senatus decrevit, ut Minerva, quam turbo dejecerat, restitueretur,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 25, 1:

    turbo aut subita tempestas,

    id. Cael. 32, 79:

    pulvis collectus turbine,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 31:

    venti rotanti turbine portant,

    Lucr. 1, 294:

    ita turbine nigro Ferret hiemps,

    Verg. G. 1, 320:

    venti ruunt et terras turbine perflant,

    id. A. 1, 83:

    accendi turbine quodam aëris,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 4, 1.—In apposition with ventus:

    exoritur ventus turbo,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 47:

    circumstabant navem turbines venti,

    id. Trin. 4, 1, 16.—
    B.
    Trop., whirlwind, storm, etc.:

    qui in maximis turbinibus ac fluctibus rei publicae navem gubernassem,

    Cic. Pis. 9, 20:

    tu, procella patriae, turbo ac tempestas pacis atque otii,

    id. Dom. 53, 137:

    ego te in medio versantem turbine leti Eripui,

    Cat. 64, 149:

    cum illi soli essent duo rei publicae turbines,

    Cic. Sest. 11, 25:

    miserae mentis,

    Ov. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    miserarum rerum,

    id. M. 7, 614:

    nescio quo miserae turbine mentis agor,

    id. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    Gradivi,

    i. e. tumult of war, Sil. 11, 101:

    virtutem turbine nullo Fortuna excutiet tibi,

    Luc. 2, 243:

    horum mala, turbo quīs rerum imminet,

    Sen. Agam. 196.—
    II.
    Lit., a spinning-top, whipping-top, Verg. A. 7, 378 sq.; Tib. 1, 5, 3.—
    B.
    Transf., of things that have the shape or whirling motion of a top, as a reel, whirl, spindle, etc., Cic. Fat. 18, 42; Varr. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 449; Hor. Epod. 17, 7; Cat. 64, 315; Ov. M. 1, 336; Plin. 2, 10, 7, § 47; 9, 36, 61, § 130; 27, 4, 5, § 14; 36, 13, 19, § 90; 37, 4, 15, § 56.—
    III.
    A whirling motion, a whirl, twirl, twist, rotation, revolution, a round, circle (mostly poet.):

    cum caeli turbine ferri,

    Lucr. 5, 624:

    lunae,

    id. 5, 632:

    ignium,

    id. 6, 640; cf. Verg. A. 3, 573:

    teli (contorti),

    id. ib. 6, 594; cf. id. ib. 11, 284; Luc. 3, 465; Sil. 4, 542:

    saxi,

    whirling force, circular hurling, Verg. A. 12, 531:

    serpentis,

    i. e. the coiling, Sil. 3, 191:

    Aegaeus,

    whirlpool, vortex, Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 287; so, rapax, Stat [p. 1918] Th. 4, 813:

    verterit hunc (servum in emancipatione) dominus, momento turbinis exit Marcus Dama,

    i. e. of whirling round, Pers. 5, 78: militiae turbine factus eques, i. e. through the round of military gradation or promotion, Ov. Am. 3, 15, 6:

    vulgi,

    i. e. a throng, crowd, Claud. II. Cons. Stil. 200.
    3.
    Turbo, ōnis, m., the name of a gladiator, Hor. S. 2, 3, 310.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Turbo

  • 2 turbo

    1.
    turbo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. ( fut. perf. turbassit, for turbaverit, Cic. Leg. 3, 4; al. turbassitur) [turba], to disturb, agitate, confuse, disorder; to throw into disorder or confusion (freq. and class.; syn.: confundo, misceo, agito).
    I.
    Lit.:

    ventorum vi agitari atque turbari mare,

    Cic. Clu. 49, 138:

    aequora ventis,

    Lucr. 2, 1:

    hibernum mare,

    Hor. Epod. 15, 8; Ov. M. 7, 154; 14, 545 al.:

    eversae turbant convivia mensae,

    id. ib. 12, 222; cf. in a poet. transf.:

    ancipiti quoniam bello turbatur utrimque,

    Lucr. 6, 377:

    ne comae turbarentur, quas componi vetuit,

    Quint. 11, 3, 148:

    ne turbet toga mota capillos,

    Ov. Am. 3, 2, 75:

    capillos,

    id. M. 8, 859; id. Am. 3, 14, 33; cf.

    in a Greek construction: turbata capillos,

    id. M. 4, 474:

    ceram,

    the seal, Quint. 12, 8, 13:

    uvae recentes alvum turbant,

    Plin. 23, 1, 6, § 10.— Absol.:

    instat, turbatque ruitque,

    Ov. M. 12, 134.—Reflex.:

    cum mare turbaret (sc. se),

    Varr. R. R. 3, 17, 7 Schneid. ad loc. (al. turbaretur).—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Milit. t. t., to throw into disorder, break the line of battle, disorganize:

    equitatus turbaverat ordines,

    Liv. 3, 70, 9:

    aciem peditum,

    id. 30, 18, 10.— Absol.:

    equites eruptione factā in agmen modice primo impetu turbavere,

    Liv. 38, 13, 12:

    turbantibus invicem copiis,

    Flor. 4, 2, 49:

    hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, sistet,

    Verg. A. 6, 857.—
    2.
    Of water, to trouble, make thick or turbid:

    lacus,

    Ov. M. 6, 364:

    fons quem nulla volucris turbarat,

    id. ib. 3, 410:

    flumen imbre,

    id. ib. 13, 889:

    limo aquam,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 60:

    aquas lacrimis,

    Ov. M. 3, 475; cf.:

    pulvis sputo turbatus,

    Petr. 131.—
    II.
    Trop.:

    non modo illa permiscuit, sed etiam delectum atque ordinem turbavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 50, § 123:

    qui omnia inflma summis paria fecit, turbavit, miscuit,

    id. Leg. 3, 9, 19:

    Aristoteles quoque multa turbat, a magistro Platone non dissentiens,

    id. N. D. 1, 13, 33:

    quantas res turbo!

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 2, 1:

    quas meus filius turbas turbet,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 1; cf.:

    quae meus filius turbavit,

    id. ib. 5, 1, 5; id. Cas. 5, 2, 6:

    ne quid ille turbet vide,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 24:

    haec, quae in re publicā turbantur,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 3:

    cum dies alicui nobilium dicta novis semper certaminibus contiones turbaret,

    Liv. 3, 66, 2: ne incertā prole auspicia turbarentur, id. 4, 6, 2:

    milites nihil in commune turbantes,

    Tac. H. 1, 85:

    turbantur (testes),

    Quint. 5, 7, 11; cf. id. 4, 5, 6; 5, 14, 29; 10, 7, 6:

    spem pacis,

    Liv. 2, 16, 5.— Absol.: Ph. Ea nos perturbat. Pa. Dum ne reducam, turbent porro, quam velint, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 12 (cf. I. B. 1. supra):

    repente turbare Fortuna coepit,

    Tac. A. 4, 1:

    si una alterave civitas turbet,

    id. ib. 3, 47: M. Servilius postquam, ut coeperat, omnibus in rebus turbarat, i. e. had deranged all his affairs, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 2.— Impers. pass.:

    nescio quid absente nobis turbatum'st domi,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7:

    totis Usque adeo turbatur agris,

    Verg. E. 1, 12:

    si in Hispaniā turbatum esset,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 57.—Hence, turbātus, a, um, P. a., troubled, disturbed, disordered, agitated, excited.
    A.
    Lit.:

    turbatius mare ingressus,

    more stormy, Suet. Calig. 23:

    turbatius caelum,

    id. Tib. 69.—
    B.
    Trop.:

    hostes inopinato malo turbati,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12:

    oculis simul ac mente turbatus,

    Liv. 7, 26, 5:

    turbatus religione simul ac periculo,

    Suet. Ner. 19; cf.:

    turbatus animi,

    Sil. 14, 678:

    placare voluntates turbatas,

    Cic. Planc. 4, 11: seditionibus omnia turbata sunt, Sall. Or. Phil. contr. Lepid. 1:

    turbata cum Romanis pax,

    Just. 18, 2, 10:

    omnia soluta, turbata atque etiam in contrarium versa,

    Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 7; cf.:

    quae si confusa, turbata, permixta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 9, 5, 3.—Hence, adv.: turbātē, confusedly, disorderly:

    aguntur omnia raptim atque turbate,

    in confusion, Caes. B. C. 1, 5, 1.
    2.
    turbo, ĭnis, m. (collat. form tur-ben, ĭnis, n., Tib. 1, 5, 3; id. ap. Charis. p. 118 P.; gen. turbonis, Caes. ib.) [1. turbo], that which spins or twirls round (cf. vertex).
    I.
    A whirlwind, hurricane, tornado: ventus circumactus et eundem ambiens locum et se ipse vertigine concitans turbo est. Qui si pugnacior est ac diutius volutatur, inflammatur, et efficit, quem prêstêra Graeci vocant:

    hic est igneus turbo,

    Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 3:

    falsum est faces et trabes turbine exprimi,

    id. ib. 7, 5, 1; 2, 22, 2; id. Ep. 109, 18:

    procellae, turbines,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 51; cf.: saevi exsistunt turbines, Pac. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 39, 157 (Trag. Rel. p. 111 Rib.); Enn. ap. Schol. Vat. ad Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 4 (Ann. v. 553 Vahl.):

    venti vis rapido percurrens turbine campos,

    Lucr. 1, 273; cf. id. 1, 279; 1, 294; 5, 217; Ov. M. 6, 310:

    senatus decrevit, ut Minerva, quam turbo dejecerat, restitueretur,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 25, 1:

    turbo aut subita tempestas,

    id. Cael. 32, 79:

    pulvis collectus turbine,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 31:

    venti rotanti turbine portant,

    Lucr. 1, 294:

    ita turbine nigro Ferret hiemps,

    Verg. G. 1, 320:

    venti ruunt et terras turbine perflant,

    id. A. 1, 83:

    accendi turbine quodam aëris,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 4, 1.—In apposition with ventus:

    exoritur ventus turbo,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 47:

    circumstabant navem turbines venti,

    id. Trin. 4, 1, 16.—
    B.
    Trop., whirlwind, storm, etc.:

    qui in maximis turbinibus ac fluctibus rei publicae navem gubernassem,

    Cic. Pis. 9, 20:

    tu, procella patriae, turbo ac tempestas pacis atque otii,

    id. Dom. 53, 137:

    ego te in medio versantem turbine leti Eripui,

    Cat. 64, 149:

    cum illi soli essent duo rei publicae turbines,

    Cic. Sest. 11, 25:

    miserae mentis,

    Ov. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    miserarum rerum,

    id. M. 7, 614:

    nescio quo miserae turbine mentis agor,

    id. Am. 2, 9, 28:

    Gradivi,

    i. e. tumult of war, Sil. 11, 101:

    virtutem turbine nullo Fortuna excutiet tibi,

    Luc. 2, 243:

    horum mala, turbo quīs rerum imminet,

    Sen. Agam. 196.—
    II.
    Lit., a spinning-top, whipping-top, Verg. A. 7, 378 sq.; Tib. 1, 5, 3.—
    B.
    Transf., of things that have the shape or whirling motion of a top, as a reel, whirl, spindle, etc., Cic. Fat. 18, 42; Varr. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 449; Hor. Epod. 17, 7; Cat. 64, 315; Ov. M. 1, 336; Plin. 2, 10, 7, § 47; 9, 36, 61, § 130; 27, 4, 5, § 14; 36, 13, 19, § 90; 37, 4, 15, § 56.—
    III.
    A whirling motion, a whirl, twirl, twist, rotation, revolution, a round, circle (mostly poet.):

    cum caeli turbine ferri,

    Lucr. 5, 624:

    lunae,

    id. 5, 632:

    ignium,

    id. 6, 640; cf. Verg. A. 3, 573:

    teli (contorti),

    id. ib. 6, 594; cf. id. ib. 11, 284; Luc. 3, 465; Sil. 4, 542:

    saxi,

    whirling force, circular hurling, Verg. A. 12, 531:

    serpentis,

    i. e. the coiling, Sil. 3, 191:

    Aegaeus,

    whirlpool, vortex, Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 287; so, rapax, Stat [p. 1918] Th. 4, 813:

    verterit hunc (servum in emancipatione) dominus, momento turbinis exit Marcus Dama,

    i. e. of whirling round, Pers. 5, 78: militiae turbine factus eques, i. e. through the round of military gradation or promotion, Ov. Am. 3, 15, 6:

    vulgi,

    i. e. a throng, crowd, Claud. II. Cons. Stil. 200.
    3.
    Turbo, ōnis, m., the name of a gladiator, Hor. S. 2, 3, 310.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > turbo

  • 3 amplector

        amplector exus, ī, dep.    [am- + plecto], to twine around, encircle, encompass, embrace: manibus saxa, to grasp, L.: ansas acantho, V.: urbes muro, H.: illam in somnis, T.: me: Nox tellurem amplectitur alis, overshadows, V.—Fig., of the mind, to embrace, understand, comprehend, see through: omnia consilio.—In speech, to comprehend in discussion, discuss particularly, handle, treat: quod (argumentum) verbis: res per scripturam: cuncta meis versibus, V.—To sum up, treat summarily: omnis oratores: omnia communiter, L.— To comprehend under a name: alqd virtutis nomine.—To embrace with love, esteem, value, honor, cling to: quem (filium) mihi videtur amplecti res p.: amore possessiones: hoc se amplectitur uno, piques himself on, H.: rem p. nimium (of one who robs the treasury).—Of military operations, to cover, occupy: quindecim milia passuum circuitu, Cs.: Brigantium partem victoriā, Ta.
    * * *
    amplecti, amplexus sum V DEP
    surround, encircle, embrace, clasp; esteem; cherish; surround, include, grasp

    Latin-English dictionary > amplector

  • 4 circā

        circā adv.    and praep., later for circum.    I. Adv, around, round about, all around, near: gramen erat circa, O.: ripae Responsant circa, V.: ex montibus qui circa sunt, which are around, L.: sed non passi sunt ii, qui circa erant, who were at hand, N.: multarum circa civitatum inritatis animis, the surrounding towns, L.: corpora multa virūm circa, V.: farre ex agris circa undique convecto, all around, L.: cum circa omnia hostium essent, L.—    II. Praep. with acc. (sometimes after or separated from the acc.). — In space, about, around, on the side of, surrounding, encompassing: quam (Hennam) circa sunt flores: ligna contulerunt circa casam, N.: aes triplex Circa pectus, H.: quem circa tigres iacent, O. — Around, about, among, through: Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit, L.: circa domos ire, L.: circa civitates miserat nuntios, L.—In the region of, near to, near by: urbīs circa Capuam occupare: circa Liternum posuit castra, in the neighborhood of, L. —In vague designations of a place, in, at, about: Circa virentīs campos, H.: cum amor Saeviet circa iecur, H.: quadriduum circa rupem consumptum, L.: circa unam rem ambitūs facere, L.—Of persons as attendants, around, with, attending, accompanying: canes quos circa se haberet: trecentos iuvenes circa se habebat, L. — In time, about: circa eandem horam, L.: Circa lustra decem, H. —In numerical designations, about, nearly, almost: circa quingentos Romanorum, L.—Fig., about, in respect to: circa adfectationem originis, Ta.
    * * *
    I
    around, all around; round about; near, in vicinity/company; on either side
    II
    around, on bounds of; about/near (space/time/numeral); concerning; with

    Latin-English dictionary > circā

  • 5 circinō

        circinō —, —, āre    [circinus], to make round, round: easdem circinat auras, i. e. traverses in a circle, O.
    * * *
    circinare, circinavi, circinatus V TRANS
    bend/make circular/round; traverse circular course, wheel through; take round

    Latin-English dictionary > circinō

  • 6 circum

        circum    [acc. of circus], adv. and praep.    I. Adv, around, round about, all around: Arboribus clausi circum, V.: quae circum essent opera, Cs.: portis circum omnibus instant, V.: circum tutae sub moenibus urbis, round about under the walls, V.: Gentibus circumque infraque relictis, O.: circum Undique convenere, on all sides, V.—    II. Praep. with acc. (sometimes following its case), around, about, all around: terra circum axem se convertit: novas circum felix eat hostia fruges, V.: circum caput Deposuit radios, O. — About, upon, around, near: capillus circum caput Reiectus, T.: flexo circum tempora cornu, O.: flumina circum, on the borders of the rivulets, V.: turbā circum te stante, H.: Circum claustra fremunt, V. — Among, around, through, to: circum villulas nostras errare, in our villas around: circum Me vectari rura caballo, H.: pueros circum amicos dimittit, to friends around: ducebat eos circum civitates: dimissis circum municipia litteris, Cs.: circum oram maritimam misit, ut, etc., L.: oras et litora circum Errans, V.—In the neighborhood of, around, about, at, near by: templa circum forum: urbes, quae circum Capuam sunt.—Of attendants, with, attending, accompanying: paucae, quae circum illam essent, T.: Hectora circum, V.: Circum pedes homines habere, i. e. slaves.—    III. In composition, the m before vowels was not pronounced, and is often omitted; circum with many verbs forms a loose compound, and tmesis is frequent in poetry (see circumago, circumdo, etc.). Some edd. have circum verto, circum volito, etc.
    * * *
    I
    about, around; round about, near; in a circle; in attendance; on both sides
    II
    around, about, among, near (space/time), in neighborhood of; in circle around

    Latin-English dictionary > circum

  • 7 circumvector

        circumvector —, ārī, dep.    [circumveho], to ride about, sail around: oram, L.—Poet., to go through, describe: Singula, V.
    * * *
    circumvectari, circumvectatus sum V DEP
    sail round; travel round

    Latin-English dictionary > circumvector

  • 8 lūstrō

        lūstrō āvī, ātus, āre    [2 lustrum], to light up, illuminate, make bright: lampade terras (Aurora), V.— To review, survey, observe, examine: lumine corpus, V.: tua vestigia, search for thee, V.: omnia eundo, O.: exercitum apud Iconium.— To go around, encircle: regem choreis, V.— To go round, wander over, traverse: (terrae) tuis victoriis lustra tae sunt: latitudinem orbis: navibus aequor, V.: pede barbaro Lustrata Rhodope, H.: fugā harenam, Iu.—Fig., in religion, to make bright, purify by a propitiatory offering: in lustrandā coloniā: exercitum suovetaurilibus, L.: senem flammā, O.: Lustramur, purify ourselves, V.: se centum ovis, Iu.— To review, consider: omnia ratione animoque.
    * * *
    I
    lustrare, lustravi, lustratus V
    purify, cleanse by sacrifice; illuminate
    II
    lustrare, lustravi, lustratus V
    review, inspect, look around, seek; move over/through; circle around a person
    III

    Latin-English dictionary > lūstrō

  • 9 per-ferō

        per-ferō tulī, lātus, ferre,    to bear through, bring home: lapis nec pertulit ictum, reach the mark, V.—To carry, bring, convey: Caesaris mandata ad Pompeium: epistulam, N.: Pansā mihi hunc nuntium perferente: cum ad eum fama tanti exercitūs perlata esset, had reached him, L.: perfertur circa collem clamor, resounds round the hill, L.: hinc te reginae ad limina perfer, betake yourself, V.—To convey news, announce, report, bring tidings: sermone omnium perfertur ad me, esse, etc., I am informed: nuntius perfert incensas navīs, V.: haec ab Romā in castra perlata movent Romanos, etc., L.—Fig., to bring to an end, bring about, carry through, carry out, complete, accomplish: id quod suscepi: mandata, Ta.: legem pertulit, ut, etc., had a law passed, L.: perficiam, ut possitis: perficite, ut is habeat, etc.—To bear, support, endure to the end: decem annorum poenam, N.: onus, H.: intrepidos ad fata novissima voltūs, kept, O.—To bear, suffer, put up with, brook, submit to, endure: perfer, si me amas: paupertatem, T.: frigore et fame et siti ac vigiliis perferendis: pauperiem, V.: indignitates, Cs.—To permit, suffer: cessare in tectis arma sua, Pr.: urbīs cremari, Ta.

    Latin-English dictionary > per-ferō

  • 10 trāiciō (trāiic-) and trānsiciō

        trāiciō (trāiic-) and trānsiciō (trānsiic-), iēcī, iectus, ere    [trans + iacio], to throw across, cause to cross, cause to go across, put over, transfer, throw over, shoot across: neque ullum interim telum traiciebatur, Cs.: quae Concava traiecto cumba rudente vehat (te), O.: adreptum vexillum trans vallum hostium traiecit, L.: volucrem traiecto in fune columbam suspendit, V.: per ardentīs acervos celeri membra pede, O.—Of military or naval forces, to cause to cross, transport, ship across, lead over, ship over, transfer: equitatum, Cs.: omnibus ferme suis trans Rhodanum traiectis, L.: classem in Italiam, L.: eodem magnam partem fortunarum, N.: ut praedatum milites trans flumen per occasiones aliis atque aliis locis traicerent, L.: classis Punica in Sardiniam traiecta, L.: equitum magnam partem flumen traiecit, Cs.: si se Alpīs Antonius traiecerit: quos in Africam secum traiceret, L.: ad Achillam sese ex regiā, Cs.— To pass through, make a way through, break through: pars equitum mediam traiecit aciem, L.— To strike through, stab through, pierce, penetrate, transfix, transpierce: unum ex multitudine, Cs.: scorpione ab latere dextro traiectus, Cs.: cuspide serpentem, O.: ferro pectus, L.: cava tempora ferro, V.: terga sagitta, O.— To cross, pass, go over, cross over: ad Aethaliam insulam, L.: in Africam, L.: Samum, L.: Hiberos veteres traiecisse, Ta.: murum iaculo: traiecto amni, L.: ratibus Trebiam, L.: utribus amnem, Cu.: medium aetherio cursu axem, V.: postquam cernant Rhodanum traiectum, L.—Fig., to transfer, cause to pass: ex illius invidiā aliquid in te traicere: arbitrium litis in omnes, O.: in cor Traiecto lateris capitisve dolore, having thrown itself, H.— To overstep: fati litora, Pr.—In rhet., to transpose: verba.

    Latin-English dictionary > trāiciō (trāiic-) and trānsiciō

  • 11 turbō

        turbō inis, m    [1 turbo], that which whirls, a whirlwind, hurricane, tornado: saevi exsistunt turbines, Pac. ap. C.: validi venti, O.: turbo aut subita tempestas: pulvis collectus turbine, H.: venti terras turbine perflant, V.— A spinning-top, whip-top: volitans sub verbere, V.— A magic wheel, wheel of fortune: solve turbinem, H.— A whorl, spiral, twist: bucina, in latum quae turbine crescit ab imo, O.: suāpte naturā versari turbinem.— A whirl, round, circle: nubes Turbine fumans piceo, i. e. of black curling smoke, V.— A whirling motion, revolution: teli (contorti), V.: Murranum ingentis turbine saxi Excutit, i. e. with a huge whirling stone, V.: militiae turbine factus eques, i. e. through the round of promotion, O.—Fig., a whirlwind, storm: in maximis turbinibus rei p. navem gubernare: tu, turbo ac tempestas pacis atque oti, disturber: mentis, O.
    * * *
    I
    turbare, turbavi, turbatus V
    disturb, agitate, throw into confusion
    II
    that which whirls; whirlwind, tornado; spinning top; spiral, round, circle
    III
    that which whirls; whirlwind, tornado; spinning top; spiral, round, circle

    Latin-English dictionary > turbō

  • 12 circueo

    circuire, circuivi(ii), circuitus V
    encircle, surround; border; skirt; circulate/wander through; go/measure round

    Latin-English dictionary > circueo

  • 13 circumcirco

    circumcircare, circumcircavi, circumcircatus V
    encircle, surround; border; skirt; circulate/wander through; go/measure round

    Latin-English dictionary > circumcirco

  • 14 circumeo

    circumire, circumivi(ii), circumitus V
    encircle, surround; border; skirt; circulate/wander through; go/measure round

    Latin-English dictionary > circumeo

  • 15 circumio

    circumere, -, - V
    encircle, surround; border; skirt; circulate/wander through; go/measure round

    Latin-English dictionary > circumio

  • 16 A

    1.
    A, a, indecl. n. (sometimes joined with littera), the first letter of the Latin alphabet, corresponding to the a, a of the other Indo-. European languages:

    A primum est: hinc incipiam, et quae nomina ab hoc sunt, Lucil. ap. Terent. Scaur. p. 2255 P.: sus rostro si humi A litteram impresserit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 13, 23:

    ne in A quidem atque S litteras exire temere masculina Graeca nomina recto casu patiebantur,

    Quint. 1, 5, 61.
    II.
    The sound of the A is short or long in every part of the word; as, ăb, păter, ită; ā, māter, frustrā. During a short period (between about 620 and 670 A. U. C. = from 134 to 84 B.C.) long a was written aa, probably first by the poet L. Attius, in the manner of the Oscan language; so we find in Latin inscriptions: AA. CETEREIS (i.e.a ceteris), CALAASI, FAATO, HAACE, MAARCIVM, PAAPVS, PAASTORES, VAARVS; and in Greek writing, MAAPKOPs PsIOS MAAPKEAAOS, KOINTON MAAPKION (like Osc. aasas = Lat. āra, Osc. Paapi = Lat. Pāpius, Osc. Paakul = Lat. Pāculus, Pācullus, Pācuvius, etc.), v. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 28 sq., and cf. Mommsen, Unterital. Dialekte, p. 210 sq. (The Umbrian language has gone a step farther, and written long a by aha, as Aharna, Naharcom, trahaf, etc.; cf. Aufrecht and Kirchhoff, Umbrische Sprachdenkm. p. 76 sq.) Vid. also the letters E and U.
    III.
    In etymological and grammatical formation of words, short a very often (sometimes also long a) is changed into other vowels.
    A.
    Short a is changed,
    1.
    , into long a
    a.
    In consequence of the suppression of the following consonants at the end or in the middle of the word: ŭb, ā; vădis, vūs; ăg-, ăg-men, exāmen; tăg-, contūmino; căd-, cāsus. Hence also in the abl. sing. of the first decl., and in the particles derived from it. in consequence of the suppression of the original ablat. end. - d: PRAEDAD (Col. Rostr.), praedā; SENTENTIAD (S. C. de Bacch.), sententiā; EXTBAD (ib.), extrā; SVPRAD (ib.), suprā. —Hence,
    b.
    In perfect forms: scăb-o, scābi; căveo, cūvi; făv-eo, fāvi; păv-eo, pāvi (for scăbui, căvui, făvui, păvui).
    c.
    In other forms: ăgo, ambūges; păc-, păc-iscor, pâcis (pâx); săg-ax, sūgus, sāga; măc-er, mâcero; făg- (phagein), fūgus. (Contrary to analogy, ă remains short in dănunt, from dă-in-unt, V. Ritschl, l.l.p. 17.)
    2.
    Short a is changed into é or ē—
    a.
    Into é.
    (α).
    Most frequently in the second part of compounds, particularly before two consonants: facio, confectus; jacio, conjectus; rapio, dereptus; dăm-, damno, condemno; fāl-, fallo, fefelli; măn-, mando, commendo; scando, ascendo; ăp-, aptus, ineptus; ăr-, ars, iners, sollers; ăn-, annus, perennis; căpio, auceps; căput, triceps; ăgo, remex; jăcio, objex. And thus in Plautus, according to the best MSS., dispenno, dispessus from pando, compectus from compăciscor, anteceptus from capio (on the other hand, in Vergil, according to the best MS., aspurgo, attractare, deiractare, kept their a unchanged).
    (β).
    Sometimes ă is changed into ĕ also before one consonant (but in this case it is usually changed into ĭ; v. infra, 3. a. a.): grădior, ingrĕdior; pătior, perpĕtior; părio, repĕrio; păro, vitupĕro; ăp-, coepi (i. e. co-ŭpi); căno, tubicĕn, tibicĕn; in the reduplicated carcĕr (from carcar) farfŏrus (written also farfārus); and so, according to the better MSS., aequipĕro from păro, and defĕtigo from fătigo.
    (γ).
    In words taken from the Greek: talanton, talŏntum; phalara, phalŏrae; sisaron, sisŏr (but, according to the best MSS., cumŭra from kamara, not camŏra).
    b.
    Short a is changed to ē in some perfect forms: ăgo, ēgi; fūcio, féci; jăci, jĕci; frag-, frango, frēgi; căpio, cēpi, and păg-, pango, pēgi (together with pepĭgi and panxi, v. pango).
    3.
    Short a is changed to ĭ, a (most frequently in the second part of compounds)
    (α).
    before one consonant: ăgo, abĭgo; făcio, confĭcio; cădo, concĭdo; sălio, assĭlio; răpio, abrĭpio; păter, Juppĭter (in Umbrian lang. unchanged, Jupater), Marspĭter; Diespĭter, Opĭter; rătus, irrĭtus; ămicus, inìmicus (but ŭ remains unchanged in adŭmo, impătiens, and in some compounds of a later period of Roman literature, as praejacio, calefacio, etc.). —
    (β).
    Sometimes also before two consonants (where it is usually changed into ĕ; v. supra, 2. a. b.): tăg-, tango, contingo; păg-, pango, compingo (unchanged in some compounds, as peragro, desacro, depango, obcanto, etc.).
    b.
    ă is changed into ĭ in the reduplicated perfect forms: cădo, cecĭdi; căno, cecĭni; tăg-, tango, tetĭgi; păg-, pango, pepĭgi.
    c.
    Likewise in some roots which have ă: păg-, pignus; străg- (strangulo, strangô), stringo.
    d.
    In words taken from the Greek: mêchanê, machĭna; patanê, patĭna; bukanê, bucĭna; trutanê, trutĭna; balaneion, balĭneum; Katana, Catĭna (written also Catana); Akragas, Agrĭgentum.
    4.
    Short a is changed into short or long o.
    a.
    Into ŏ: scăbo, scobs; păr, pars, portio; dăm-, dŏmo; Fabii, Fŏvii (v. Paul. ex Fest. p. 87); marmaron, marmŏr; Mars, redupl. Marmar, Marmor (Carm. Fratr. Arv.).
    b.
    Into ō: dă-, dōnum, dōs; ăc-, ăcuo, ōcior (v. this art.).
    5.
    Short a is changed into ŭ
    a.
    In the second part of compounds, particularly before l, p, and b: calco, inculco; salsus, insulsus; salto, exsulto; capio, occŭpo; răpio, surrupio and surruptus (also written surripio and surreptus); tăberna, contŭbernium; —before other consonants: quătio, conoŭtio; as, decussis; Mars, Mamŭrius, Mamŭralia; and once also condumnari (Tab. Bant. lin. 8, immediately followed by condemnatus, v. Klenze, Philol. Abhandl. tab. I., and Mommsen, Unterital. Dial. p. 149).
    b.
    In words of Greek origin: Hekabê, Hecŭba; skutalê, scutŭla; kraipalê, crapŭla; passalos, pessŭlus; aphlaston, aplustre; thriambos, triumphus.
    c.
    ă is perhaps changed into ŭ in ulciscor, compared with alc-, ulexô (arc-, arceo).
    B.
    Long a is sometimes changed into ē or ō.
    1.
    Into é: hālo, anhélo; fās-, féstus, profēstus; nām, némpe.
    2.
    Into ō: gnā-, gnārus, ignārus, ignōro. (But in general long a remains unchanged in composition: lābor, delūbor; gnàvus, ignūnus; fàma, infūmis.)
    IV.
    Contrary to the mode of changing Greek a into Latin e, i, o, u (v. supra), Latin a has sometimes taken the place of other Greek vowels in words borrowed from the Greek, as: lonchê, lancea; kulix, călix; Ganumêoês, Caiāmitus.
    V.
    The repugnance of the Latin Language to the Greek combined vowels ao has caused the translocation of them in Alumento for Daomeoôn (Paul. ex Fest. p. 18 Müll.).— Greek a is suppressed in Hercules from Hêraklês (probably in consequence of the inserted u; in late Latin we find Heracla and Heracula, cf. Ritschl, in Rhein. Mus. Neue Folge, vol. 12, p. 108).
    VI.
    Latin ă was early combined with the vowels i and u, forming the diphthongs ai and au; by changing the i into e, the diphthong ai soon became ae. So we find in the oldest inscriptions: AIDE, AIDLLIS, AIQVOM, GNAIVOD, HAICE, DVELONAI, TABELAI, DATAI, etc., which soon gave place to aedem, aedilis, aequom, Gnaeo, haec, Bellonae, tabellae, datae, etc. (the Col. Rostr. has PRAESENTE, PRAEDAD, and the S. C. de Bacch. AEDEM. The triphthong aei, found in CONQVAEISIVEI (?), is very rare; Miliar. Popil. lin. 11, v. Ritschl, l. l. p. 21). In some poets the old gen. sing. of the first decl. (- ai) is preserved, but is dissyllabic, āī. So in Ennius: Albūī Longūī, terrūī frugiferāī, frondosāī, lunāī, viāī; in Vergil: aulāī, aurāī, aquāī, pictāī; in Ausonius: herāī.
    B.
    ue as well as au are changed into other vowels.
    1.
    The sound of ae, e, and oe being very similar, these vowels are often interchanged in the best MSS., So we find caerimonia and cerimonia, caepa and cēpa, saeoulum and séculum; scaena and scēna; caelum and coelum, haedus and hoedus, macstus and moestus; cena, coena, and caena, etc.
    2.
    In composition and reduplications ae becomes í: aequus, iníquus; quaero, inquíro; laedo, illído; taedet, pertisum (noticed by Cic.); aestumo, exístumo; cuedo, cecídi, concído, homicida.
    3.
    ae is also changed into í in a Latinized word of Greek origin: Achaios (AchaiWos), Achíous.
    4.
    The diphthong au is often changed to ó and ú (the latter particularly in compounds): caudex, códex; Claudius, Clodius; lautus, lotus; plaustrum, plōstrum; plaudo, plōdo, explōdo; paululum, pōlulum; faux, suffōco; si audes (acc. to Cic. or acc. to others, si audies), sódes, etc.; claudo, inclūdo; causa, accūso. Hence in some words a regular gradation of au, o, u is found: claudo, clōdicare, clúdo; raudus, ródus, rúdus; caupo, cópa, cūpa; naugae, nōgae (both forms in the MSS. of Plautus), nūgae; fraustra, frode, frude (in MSS. of Vergil); cf. Ritschl, in Wintercatalog 1854-55, and O. Ribbeck, in Jahn's Neue Jahrb. vol. 77, p. 181 sq.—The change of au into and ō appears only in audio, (oboedio) obēdio.
    5.
    Au sometimes takes the place of av-: faveo, fautum, favitor, fautor; navis, navita, nauta; avis, auceps, auspex. So Latin aut corresponds to Sanscr. avo. (whence - , Lat. - ve), Osc. avti, Umbr. ute, ote; and so the Lat. preposition ab, through av, becomes au in the words aufero and aufugio (prop. av-fero, av-fugio, for ab-fero, ab-fugio). Vid. the art. ab init.
    VII.
    In primitive roots, which have their kindred forms in the sister-languages of the Latin, the original a, still found in the Sanscrit, is in Latin either preserved or more frequently changed into other vowels.
    A.
    Original a preserved: Sanscr. mātri, Lat. màter; S. bhrātri, L. fràter; S. nāsā, L. nàsus and nàris; S. ap, L. aqua; S. apa, L. ab; S. nāma, L. năm; S. ćatur, [p. 2] L. quattuor (in Greek changed: thettares); S. capūla, L. căput (in Greek changed: kephalê, etc.).
    B.
    Original a is changed into other Latin vowels—
    1.
    Into e: S. ad, L. ed (ĕdo); S. as, L. es (esse); S. pat, L. pet (peto); S. pād, L. pĕd (pès); S. dant, L. dent (dens); S. ǵan, L. gen (gigno); S. , L. mè-tior; S. saptan, L. septem; S. daśan, L. decem; S. śata, L. centum; S. aham, L. ŏgo; S. pāra, L. per; S. paśu, L. pŏcus; S. asva, L. ŏquus, etc.
    2.
    Into i: S. an-, a- (neg. part.), L. in-: S. ana (prep.), L. in; S. antar, L. inter; S. sama, L. similis; S. agni, L. ignis; S. abhra, L. imber; S. panéa, L. quinque, etc.
    3.
    Into o: S. avi, L. ŏvi (ovis); S. vać, L. vōc (voco); S. pra, L. pro; S. , L. po (pŏtum); S. nāma, L. nōmen; S. api, L. ŏb; S. navan, L. nŏvem; S. nava, L. nŏvus, etc.
    4.
    Into u: S. marmara, L. murmur.
    5.
    Into ai, ae: S. prati, L. (prai) prae; S. śaśpa, L. caespes.
    6.
    Into different vowels in the different derivatives: S. , L. mê-tior, mŏdus; S. praó, L. prŏcor, prŏcus; S. vah, L. vĕho, via.
    C.
    Sometimes the Latin has preserved the original a, while even the Sanscrit has changed it: Lat. pa-, pater, Sanscr. pd, pitri.
    2.
    As an abbreviation A. usually denotes the praenomen Aulus; A. A. = Auli duo, Inscr. Orell. 1530 (but A. A. = Aquae Aponi, the modern Abano, ib. 1643 sq.; 2620; 3011). The three directors of the mint were designated by III. VIRI A. A. A. F. F. (i. e. auro, argento, aeri flando, feriundo), ib. 569; 2242; 2379; 3134 al.;

    so also A. A. A.,

    ib. 3441 (cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 13 fin., and v. the art. Triumviri); A. D. A. agris dandis adsignandis, and A. I. A. agris judicandis adsignandis; A. O. amico optimo; A. P. a populo or aediliciae potestatis; A. P. R. aerario populi Romani. —Upon the voting tablets in judicial trials A. denoted absoluo; hence A. is called littera salutaris, Cic. Mil. 6, 15; v. littera. In the Roman Comitia A. (= antiquo) denoted the rejection of the point in question; v. antiquo. In Cicero's Tusculan Disputations the A. designated one of the disputants = adulescens or auditor, opp. to M. for magister or Marcus (Cicero); but it is to be remarked that the letters A and M do not occur in the best MSS. of this treatise; cf. edd. ad Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 9.—In dates A. D. = ante diem; v. ante; A. U. C. = anno urbis conditae; A. P. R. C. anno post Romam conditam.
    3.
    a, prep.=ab, v. ab.
    4.
    ā, interj.=ah, v. ah.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > A

  • 17 a

    1.
    A, a, indecl. n. (sometimes joined with littera), the first letter of the Latin alphabet, corresponding to the a, a of the other Indo-. European languages:

    A primum est: hinc incipiam, et quae nomina ab hoc sunt, Lucil. ap. Terent. Scaur. p. 2255 P.: sus rostro si humi A litteram impresserit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 13, 23:

    ne in A quidem atque S litteras exire temere masculina Graeca nomina recto casu patiebantur,

    Quint. 1, 5, 61.
    II.
    The sound of the A is short or long in every part of the word; as, ăb, păter, ită; ā, māter, frustrā. During a short period (between about 620 and 670 A. U. C. = from 134 to 84 B.C.) long a was written aa, probably first by the poet L. Attius, in the manner of the Oscan language; so we find in Latin inscriptions: AA. CETEREIS (i.e.a ceteris), CALAASI, FAATO, HAACE, MAARCIVM, PAAPVS, PAASTORES, VAARVS; and in Greek writing, MAAPKOPs PsIOS MAAPKEAAOS, KOINTON MAAPKION (like Osc. aasas = Lat. āra, Osc. Paapi = Lat. Pāpius, Osc. Paakul = Lat. Pāculus, Pācullus, Pācuvius, etc.), v. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 28 sq., and cf. Mommsen, Unterital. Dialekte, p. 210 sq. (The Umbrian language has gone a step farther, and written long a by aha, as Aharna, Naharcom, trahaf, etc.; cf. Aufrecht and Kirchhoff, Umbrische Sprachdenkm. p. 76 sq.) Vid. also the letters E and U.
    III.
    In etymological and grammatical formation of words, short a very often (sometimes also long a) is changed into other vowels.
    A.
    Short a is changed,
    1.
    , into long a
    a.
    In consequence of the suppression of the following consonants at the end or in the middle of the word: ŭb, ā; vădis, vūs; ăg-, ăg-men, exāmen; tăg-, contūmino; căd-, cāsus. Hence also in the abl. sing. of the first decl., and in the particles derived from it. in consequence of the suppression of the original ablat. end. - d: PRAEDAD (Col. Rostr.), praedā; SENTENTIAD (S. C. de Bacch.), sententiā; EXTBAD (ib.), extrā; SVPRAD (ib.), suprā. —Hence,
    b.
    In perfect forms: scăb-o, scābi; căveo, cūvi; făv-eo, fāvi; păv-eo, pāvi (for scăbui, căvui, făvui, păvui).
    c.
    In other forms: ăgo, ambūges; păc-, păc-iscor, pâcis (pâx); săg-ax, sūgus, sāga; măc-er, mâcero; făg- (phagein), fūgus. (Contrary to analogy, ă remains short in dănunt, from dă-in-unt, V. Ritschl, l.l.p. 17.)
    2.
    Short a is changed into é or ē—
    a.
    Into é.
    (α).
    Most frequently in the second part of compounds, particularly before two consonants: facio, confectus; jacio, conjectus; rapio, dereptus; dăm-, damno, condemno; fāl-, fallo, fefelli; măn-, mando, commendo; scando, ascendo; ăp-, aptus, ineptus; ăr-, ars, iners, sollers; ăn-, annus, perennis; căpio, auceps; căput, triceps; ăgo, remex; jăcio, objex. And thus in Plautus, according to the best MSS., dispenno, dispessus from pando, compectus from compăciscor, anteceptus from capio (on the other hand, in Vergil, according to the best MS., aspurgo, attractare, deiractare, kept their a unchanged).
    (β).
    Sometimes ă is changed into ĕ also before one consonant (but in this case it is usually changed into ĭ; v. infra, 3. a. a.): grădior, ingrĕdior; pătior, perpĕtior; părio, repĕrio; păro, vitupĕro; ăp-, coepi (i. e. co-ŭpi); căno, tubicĕn, tibicĕn; in the reduplicated carcĕr (from carcar) farfŏrus (written also farfārus); and so, according to the better MSS., aequipĕro from păro, and defĕtigo from fătigo.
    (γ).
    In words taken from the Greek: talanton, talŏntum; phalara, phalŏrae; sisaron, sisŏr (but, according to the best MSS., cumŭra from kamara, not camŏra).
    b.
    Short a is changed to ē in some perfect forms: ăgo, ēgi; fūcio, féci; jăci, jĕci; frag-, frango, frēgi; căpio, cēpi, and păg-, pango, pēgi (together with pepĭgi and panxi, v. pango).
    3.
    Short a is changed to ĭ, a (most frequently in the second part of compounds)
    (α).
    before one consonant: ăgo, abĭgo; făcio, confĭcio; cădo, concĭdo; sălio, assĭlio; răpio, abrĭpio; păter, Juppĭter (in Umbrian lang. unchanged, Jupater), Marspĭter; Diespĭter, Opĭter; rătus, irrĭtus; ămicus, inìmicus (but ŭ remains unchanged in adŭmo, impătiens, and in some compounds of a later period of Roman literature, as praejacio, calefacio, etc.). —
    (β).
    Sometimes also before two consonants (where it is usually changed into ĕ; v. supra, 2. a. b.): tăg-, tango, contingo; păg-, pango, compingo (unchanged in some compounds, as peragro, desacro, depango, obcanto, etc.).
    b.
    ă is changed into ĭ in the reduplicated perfect forms: cădo, cecĭdi; căno, cecĭni; tăg-, tango, tetĭgi; păg-, pango, pepĭgi.
    c.
    Likewise in some roots which have ă: păg-, pignus; străg- (strangulo, strangô), stringo.
    d.
    In words taken from the Greek: mêchanê, machĭna; patanê, patĭna; bukanê, bucĭna; trutanê, trutĭna; balaneion, balĭneum; Katana, Catĭna (written also Catana); Akragas, Agrĭgentum.
    4.
    Short a is changed into short or long o.
    a.
    Into ŏ: scăbo, scobs; păr, pars, portio; dăm-, dŏmo; Fabii, Fŏvii (v. Paul. ex Fest. p. 87); marmaron, marmŏr; Mars, redupl. Marmar, Marmor (Carm. Fratr. Arv.).
    b.
    Into ō: dă-, dōnum, dōs; ăc-, ăcuo, ōcior (v. this art.).
    5.
    Short a is changed into ŭ
    a.
    In the second part of compounds, particularly before l, p, and b: calco, inculco; salsus, insulsus; salto, exsulto; capio, occŭpo; răpio, surrupio and surruptus (also written surripio and surreptus); tăberna, contŭbernium; —before other consonants: quătio, conoŭtio; as, decussis; Mars, Mamŭrius, Mamŭralia; and once also condumnari (Tab. Bant. lin. 8, immediately followed by condemnatus, v. Klenze, Philol. Abhandl. tab. I., and Mommsen, Unterital. Dial. p. 149).
    b.
    In words of Greek origin: Hekabê, Hecŭba; skutalê, scutŭla; kraipalê, crapŭla; passalos, pessŭlus; aphlaston, aplustre; thriambos, triumphus.
    c.
    ă is perhaps changed into ŭ in ulciscor, compared with alc-, ulexô (arc-, arceo).
    B.
    Long a is sometimes changed into ē or ō.
    1.
    Into é: hālo, anhélo; fās-, féstus, profēstus; nām, némpe.
    2.
    Into ō: gnā-, gnārus, ignārus, ignōro. (But in general long a remains unchanged in composition: lābor, delūbor; gnàvus, ignūnus; fàma, infūmis.)
    IV.
    Contrary to the mode of changing Greek a into Latin e, i, o, u (v. supra), Latin a has sometimes taken the place of other Greek vowels in words borrowed from the Greek, as: lonchê, lancea; kulix, călix; Ganumêoês, Caiāmitus.
    V.
    The repugnance of the Latin Language to the Greek combined vowels ao has caused the translocation of them in Alumento for Daomeoôn (Paul. ex Fest. p. 18 Müll.).— Greek a is suppressed in Hercules from Hêraklês (probably in consequence of the inserted u; in late Latin we find Heracla and Heracula, cf. Ritschl, in Rhein. Mus. Neue Folge, vol. 12, p. 108).
    VI.
    Latin ă was early combined with the vowels i and u, forming the diphthongs ai and au; by changing the i into e, the diphthong ai soon became ae. So we find in the oldest inscriptions: AIDE, AIDLLIS, AIQVOM, GNAIVOD, HAICE, DVELONAI, TABELAI, DATAI, etc., which soon gave place to aedem, aedilis, aequom, Gnaeo, haec, Bellonae, tabellae, datae, etc. (the Col. Rostr. has PRAESENTE, PRAEDAD, and the S. C. de Bacch. AEDEM. The triphthong aei, found in CONQVAEISIVEI (?), is very rare; Miliar. Popil. lin. 11, v. Ritschl, l. l. p. 21). In some poets the old gen. sing. of the first decl. (- ai) is preserved, but is dissyllabic, āī. So in Ennius: Albūī Longūī, terrūī frugiferāī, frondosāī, lunāī, viāī; in Vergil: aulāī, aurāī, aquāī, pictāī; in Ausonius: herāī.
    B.
    ue as well as au are changed into other vowels.
    1.
    The sound of ae, e, and oe being very similar, these vowels are often interchanged in the best MSS., So we find caerimonia and cerimonia, caepa and cēpa, saeoulum and séculum; scaena and scēna; caelum and coelum, haedus and hoedus, macstus and moestus; cena, coena, and caena, etc.
    2.
    In composition and reduplications ae becomes í: aequus, iníquus; quaero, inquíro; laedo, illído; taedet, pertisum (noticed by Cic.); aestumo, exístumo; cuedo, cecídi, concído, homicida.
    3.
    ae is also changed into í in a Latinized word of Greek origin: Achaios (AchaiWos), Achíous.
    4.
    The diphthong au is often changed to ó and ú (the latter particularly in compounds): caudex, códex; Claudius, Clodius; lautus, lotus; plaustrum, plōstrum; plaudo, plōdo, explōdo; paululum, pōlulum; faux, suffōco; si audes (acc. to Cic. or acc. to others, si audies), sódes, etc.; claudo, inclūdo; causa, accūso. Hence in some words a regular gradation of au, o, u is found: claudo, clōdicare, clúdo; raudus, ródus, rúdus; caupo, cópa, cūpa; naugae, nōgae (both forms in the MSS. of Plautus), nūgae; fraustra, frode, frude (in MSS. of Vergil); cf. Ritschl, in Wintercatalog 1854-55, and O. Ribbeck, in Jahn's Neue Jahrb. vol. 77, p. 181 sq.—The change of au into and ō appears only in audio, (oboedio) obēdio.
    5.
    Au sometimes takes the place of av-: faveo, fautum, favitor, fautor; navis, navita, nauta; avis, auceps, auspex. So Latin aut corresponds to Sanscr. avo. (whence - , Lat. - ve), Osc. avti, Umbr. ute, ote; and so the Lat. preposition ab, through av, becomes au in the words aufero and aufugio (prop. av-fero, av-fugio, for ab-fero, ab-fugio). Vid. the art. ab init.
    VII.
    In primitive roots, which have their kindred forms in the sister-languages of the Latin, the original a, still found in the Sanscrit, is in Latin either preserved or more frequently changed into other vowels.
    A.
    Original a preserved: Sanscr. mātri, Lat. màter; S. bhrātri, L. fràter; S. nāsā, L. nàsus and nàris; S. ap, L. aqua; S. apa, L. ab; S. nāma, L. năm; S. ćatur, [p. 2] L. quattuor (in Greek changed: thettares); S. capūla, L. căput (in Greek changed: kephalê, etc.).
    B.
    Original a is changed into other Latin vowels—
    1.
    Into e: S. ad, L. ed (ĕdo); S. as, L. es (esse); S. pat, L. pet (peto); S. pād, L. pĕd (pès); S. dant, L. dent (dens); S. ǵan, L. gen (gigno); S. , L. mè-tior; S. saptan, L. septem; S. daśan, L. decem; S. śata, L. centum; S. aham, L. ŏgo; S. pāra, L. per; S. paśu, L. pŏcus; S. asva, L. ŏquus, etc.
    2.
    Into i: S. an-, a- (neg. part.), L. in-: S. ana (prep.), L. in; S. antar, L. inter; S. sama, L. similis; S. agni, L. ignis; S. abhra, L. imber; S. panéa, L. quinque, etc.
    3.
    Into o: S. avi, L. ŏvi (ovis); S. vać, L. vōc (voco); S. pra, L. pro; S. , L. po (pŏtum); S. nāma, L. nōmen; S. api, L. ŏb; S. navan, L. nŏvem; S. nava, L. nŏvus, etc.
    4.
    Into u: S. marmara, L. murmur.
    5.
    Into ai, ae: S. prati, L. (prai) prae; S. śaśpa, L. caespes.
    6.
    Into different vowels in the different derivatives: S. , L. mê-tior, mŏdus; S. praó, L. prŏcor, prŏcus; S. vah, L. vĕho, via.
    C.
    Sometimes the Latin has preserved the original a, while even the Sanscrit has changed it: Lat. pa-, pater, Sanscr. pd, pitri.
    2.
    As an abbreviation A. usually denotes the praenomen Aulus; A. A. = Auli duo, Inscr. Orell. 1530 (but A. A. = Aquae Aponi, the modern Abano, ib. 1643 sq.; 2620; 3011). The three directors of the mint were designated by III. VIRI A. A. A. F. F. (i. e. auro, argento, aeri flando, feriundo), ib. 569; 2242; 2379; 3134 al.;

    so also A. A. A.,

    ib. 3441 (cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 13 fin., and v. the art. Triumviri); A. D. A. agris dandis adsignandis, and A. I. A. agris judicandis adsignandis; A. O. amico optimo; A. P. a populo or aediliciae potestatis; A. P. R. aerario populi Romani. —Upon the voting tablets in judicial trials A. denoted absoluo; hence A. is called littera salutaris, Cic. Mil. 6, 15; v. littera. In the Roman Comitia A. (= antiquo) denoted the rejection of the point in question; v. antiquo. In Cicero's Tusculan Disputations the A. designated one of the disputants = adulescens or auditor, opp. to M. for magister or Marcus (Cicero); but it is to be remarked that the letters A and M do not occur in the best MSS. of this treatise; cf. edd. ad Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 9.—In dates A. D. = ante diem; v. ante; A. U. C. = anno urbis conditae; A. P. R. C. anno post Romam conditam.
    3.
    a, prep.=ab, v. ab.
    4.
    ā, interj.=ah, v. ah.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > a

  • 18 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 19 adjutor

    1.
    adjūtor, ātus, 1, v. dep., i. q. adjuto, and also ante-class. (found in Pac., Afran., and Lucil.): adjutamini et defendite, Pac. ap. Non. 74, 2; Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 89; Pac. ap. Non. 477, 26: me adjutamini, Afran. ib.: magna adjutatus diu, Lucil. ib.
    2.
    adjūtor, ōris, m. [adjuvo], one who helps, a helper, assistant, aider, promoter (class. through all periods).
    I.
    In gen.:

    hic adjutor meus et monitor et praemonstrator,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 2:

    ejus iracundiae,

    id. Ad. 1, 1, 66:

    ad hanc rem adjutorem dari,

    id. Phorm. 3, 3, 26:

    adjutores ad me restituendum multi fuerunt,

    Cic. Quint. 9:

    in psaltria hac emunda,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 9:

    honoris,

    Cic. Fl. 1:

    ad praedam,

    id. Rose. Am. 2, 6; so id. de Or. 1, 59; id. Tusc. 1, 12:

    tibi venit adjutor,

    id. N. D. 1, 7:

    L. ille Torquatus auctor exstitit,

    id. Sull. 34; id. Off. 2, 15; 3, 33; id. Fin. 5, 30; id. Att. 8, 3; 9, 12; Caes. B. C. 1, 7; Sall. J. 82; Liv. 29, 1, 18:

    nolite dubitare libertatem consule adjutore defendere,

    with the aid of the consul, Cic. Leg. Agr. 16;

    and so often,

    id. Verr. 1, 155; id. Font. 44; id. Clu. 36; id. Mur. 84.—
    II.
    Esp., a common name of a military or civil officer, an aid, adjutant, assistant, deputy, secretary, etc.:

    comites et adjutores negotiorum publicorum,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 3:

    dato adjutore Pharnabazo,

    Nep. Con. 4; so id. Chabr. 2; Liv. 33, 43; Suet. Aug. 39; id. Tib. 63; id. Calig. 26:

    rhetorum (i. e. hypodidascali),

    Quint. 2, 5, 3; Gell. 13, 9; and in the inscriptions in Orell. 3462, 3200 al.; under the emperors an officer of court, minister (v. Vell. 2, 127; cf. Suet. Calig. 26); usu. with ab and the word indicative of the office (v. ab fin.):

    adjutor a rationibus, Orell. Inscr. 32: a sacris,

    ib. 2847:

    a commentariis ornamentorum,

    ib. 2892.— Also with gen.:

    adjutor cornicularii,

    ib. 3517:

    haruspicum imperatoris,

    ib. 3420 al. —In scenic language, adjutor is the one who, by his part, sustains or assists the hero of the piece (prôtagônistês), to which the class. passage, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, refers; cf. Heind. ad Hor. S. 1, 9, 46:

    in scena postquam solus constitit sine apparatu, nullis adjutoribus,

    with no subordinate actors, Phaedr. 5, 5, 14; Suet. Gramm. 18; Val. Max. 2, 4, no. 4.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adjutor

  • 20 agger

    agger, ĕris, m. [ad-gero].
    I.
    Things brought to a place in order to form an elevation above a surface or plain, as rubbish, stone, earth, sand, brushwood, materials for a rampart, etc. (in the histt., esp. Cæs., freq.; sometimes in the poets): ab opere revocandi milites, qui paulo longius aggeris petendi causā processerant, Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    aggere paludem explere,

    id. ib. 7, 58; cf. id. ib. 7, 86:

    longius erat agger petendus,

    id. B. C. 1, 42; 2, 15 al.:

    superjecto aggere terreno,

    Suet. Calig. 19; cf. id. ib. 37:

    implere cavernas aggere,

    Curt. 8, 10, 27:

    fossas aggere complent,

    Verg. A. 9, 567: avis e medio aggere exit, from the midst of the pile of wood, Ov. M. 12, 524.— But far oftener,
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    The pile formed by masses of rubbish, stone, earth, brushwood, etc., collected together; acc. to its destination, a dam, dike, mole, pier; a hillock, mound, wall, bulwark, rampart, etc.; esp. freq. in the histt. of artificial elevations for military purposes: tertium militare sepimentum est fossa et terreus agger, a clay or mud wall, Varr. R. R. 1, 14, 2: aggeribus niveis ( with snow-drifts) informis Terra, Verg. G. 3, 354:

    atque ipsis proelia miscent Aggeribus murorum, pleon. for muris,

    id. A. 10, 24; cf. id. ib. 10, 144:

    ut cocto tolleret aggere opus, of the walls of Babylon,

    Prop. 4, 10, 22.— A dike of earth for the protection of a harbor (Ital. molo), Vitr. 5, 12, 122; Ov. M. 14, 445; 15, 690.— A causeway through a swamp:

    aggeres umido paludum et fallacibus campis imponere,

    Tac. A. 1, 61.— A heap or pile of arms:

    agger armorum,

    Tac. H. 2, 70.— Poet., for mountains:

    aggeres Alpini,

    Verg. A. 6, 830; so,

    Thessalici aggeres,

    i. e. Pelion, Ossa, Olympus, Sen. Herc. Oet. 168.— A funeral pile of wood, Ov. M. 9, 234, and Sen. Herc. Fur. 1216.— A heap of ashes:

    ab alto aggere,

    Luc. 5, 524 Weber.— A high wave of the sea:

    ab alto Aggere dejecit pelagi,

    Luc. 5, 674:

    consurgit ingens pontus in vastum aggerem,

    Sen. Hippol. 1015 (cf.:

    mons aquae,

    Verg. A. 1, 105).—
    B.
    In milit. lang.
    1.
    A mound erected before the walls of a besieged city, for the purpose of sustaining the battering engines, and which was gradually advanced to the town; cf. Smith's Dict. Antiq., and Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 2, 12:

    aggere, vineis, turribus oppidum oppugnare,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 4; id. Att. 5, 20:

    esset agger oppugnandae Italiae Graecia,

    id. Phil. 10, 9:

    celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, aggere jacto turribusque constitutis, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 12:

    jacere,

    to throw up, Sall. J. 37, 4; so Vulg. Isa. 29, 3:

    aggerem exstruere,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 30:

    instruere,

    id. ib. 8, 41:

    promovere ad urbem,

    to bring near to the city, Liv. 5, 7.— Hence, poet.: stellatis axibus agger Erigitur, geminasque aequantis moenia turres Accipit, a mound is built provided with wheels (for moving it forwards), Luc. 3, 455; imitated by Sil. 13, 109.—Since such aggeres consisted principally of wood, they could be easily set on fire, Caes. B. C. 2, 14: horae momento simul aggerem ac vineas incendium hausit, Liv 5, 7.— Trop.:

    Graecia esset vel receptaculum pulso Antonio, vel agger oppugnandae Italiae,

    rampart, mound, Cic. Phil. 10, 4: Agger Tarquini, the mound raised by Tarquinius Superbus for the defence of the eastern part of the city of Rome, in the neighborhood of the present Porta S. Lorenzo, Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 67; cf. id. 36, 15, 24, n. 2, * Hor. S. 1, 8, 15; Juv. 5, 153; so id. 8, 43; Quint. 12, 10, 74.—Suet. uses agger for the Tarpeian rock: quoad praecipitaretur ex aggere, Calig. 27.—
    2.
    The mound raised for the protection of a camp before the trench (fossa), and from earth dug from it, which was secured by a stockade (vallum), consisting of sharpened stakes (valli); cf.

    Hab. Syn. 68, and Smith's Dict. Antiq.: in litore sedes, Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit,

    Verg. A. 7, 159; Plin. 15, 14, 14, § 47.—
    3.
    The tribunal, in a camp, formed of turf, from which the general addressed his soldiers:

    stetit aggere saltus Cespitis, intrepidus vultum meruitque timeri,

    Luc. 5, 317:

    vix eā turre senex, cum ductor ab aggere coepit,

    Stat. Th. 7, 374; cf. Tac. A. 1, 18 Lips.—
    4.
    A military or public road, commonly graded by embankments of earth (in the class. per. only in Verg. and Tac., and always in connection with viae, agger alone belonging only to later Lat.):

    viae deprensus in aggere serpens,

    Verg. A. 5, 273:

    Aurelius agger, i. e. via Aurelia,

    Rutil. Itiner. 39:

    aggerem viae tres praetoriae cohortes obtinuere,

    Tac. H. 2, 24 and 42; 3, 21 and 23.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > agger

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