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then at least

  • 1 ad-modum

        ad-modum adv.;    prop., to the proper limit, to full measure; hence, with numerals, full, quite, at least, no less than: noctu turres admodum CXX excitantur, full, Cs.: equites, mille admodum, a round thousand, Cu.; no more than, just, only (late), Cu.—Of degree, fully, highly, completely, entirely, altogether, very: admodum antiqui: admodum amplum et excelsum: neque hi admodum sunt multi, N.: admodum pauci: natio admodum dedita religionibus, Cs.—Esp., with words expressing time of life, as puer, adulescens, iuvenis, senex, etc.: admodum tum adulescens, then a mere youth: non admodum grandis natu: puer admodum, L. —With negatives, just, at all, whatever: litterarum admodum nihil scire: equestris pugna nulla admodum fuit, L.—With advv.: raro admodum exclamant.—With verbs: admodum mirabar quam ob rem, etc.: alqm admodum diligere; delectare. — As an emphatic affirmative, yes, certainly, of course: advenis modo? Pa. admodum, T.

    Latin-English dictionary > ad-modum

  • 2 dēnique

        dēnique adv.,    and thenceforward, and thereafter, at last, at length, finally, lastly, only, not until: denique Metuebant me, T.: Metui, quid futurum denique esset, T.: post biennium denique appellas: octavo denique mense, Cs.: mortuo denique, not till after his death.—With nunc, now at last, only now, not till now: nunc denique incipiunt credere.—With tum, then at last, only then, not till then: tum denique nomen referemus: tum denique interficiere, cum, etc.—In enumerations, besides, thereafter, finally, lastly, in fine: ut nomen deferrent, ut accusatorem compararent, denique ut pugnarent: proximo, altero, denique reliquis consecutis diebus.—Followed by postremo, C.—In a summary or climax, in a word, in short, in fact, briefly, to sum up, in fine, even, I may say: Ut ad pauca redeam... Haec denique eius fuit oratio, T.: nobis est domi inopia, mala res... denique quid reliqui habemus? S.: omnia sua iura, commoda, totam denique libertatem: non curia, non domus, non denique haec sedes honoris: denique haec fuit altera persona, in a word, N.: Denique sit quidvis simplex, H.: vitavi denique culpam, Non laudem merui, merely, H.—Ironical, in fine, forsooth, indeed: ii denique, qui tum concursabant, Roscio obicient, etc.—Restrictive, in fine, at least, certainly: nostros praesidia deducturos aut denique indiligentius servaturos, Cs.: eosdem (liberos) bonā aut denique aliquā re p. perdere: Ne nummi pereant... aut denique fama, H.
    * * *
    finally, in the end; and then; at worst; in short, to sum up; in fact, indeed

    Latin-English dictionary > dēnique

  • 3 tum

        tum adv., of time    [3 TA-].—Of time past, then, at that time, in those times: placuit tum id mihi, T.: qui tum vexare cupiebant: vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant, L.: Caere, opulento tum oppido, L.: tum Staienus condemnatus est, i. e. in that trial.—In emphatic opposition to other advv. of time: tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopiā? T.: quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revolsa, nunc a me tamen deportata est: Et tum sicca, prius creberrima fontibus, Ide, O.—Of time present (only in orat. obliq., for nunc), now, at this time, then: quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore? if they were not now so, L.—Of time future, then, in that case, if that be done, thereupon: Tum meae... Vocis accedet bona pars, H.: confer sudantes, ructantes... tum intelleges, etc.: agedum, dictatorem creemus... Pulset tum mihi lictorem, qui sciet, etc., L.—Of time indefinite, then, at such a time, in such circumstances, in this instance, if so: nam quid agimus, cum sevocamus animum?... quid, inquam, tum agimus, nisi, etc.?—Repeated, tum... tum, sometimes... sometimes, now... now, at one time... at another: tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur: dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites, L.—Of succession in time, then, thereupon, next, afterwards, forthwith: conlocari iussit hominem in aureo lecto... Tum ad mensam eximiā formā pueros iussit consistere: tum, prope iam perculsis aliis tribunis, A. Virginius Caesoni capitis diem dicit, L.—In a series, repeated, or with other advv. or conjj. varying the expression: ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Iove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.: tum... alias... tum... alias: tum... tum... aliquando: tum... tum... aut... aut: modo... tum autem.—Fig., of succession in thought, and then, besides, also, moreover, again, further, on the other hand: Quot me censes homines iam deverberasse, Hospites tum civīs? as well as, T.: faciendum est igitur nobis ut... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus... confirmetur.—After a general clause with cum, introducing a particular or emphatic assertion: cum... tum, as... so, while... also, not only... but also, as... so especially: Quom id mihi placebat, tum uno ore omnes omnia Bona dicere, T.: cum omnium rerum simulatio vitiosa est, tum amicitiae repugnat maxime: movet patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor, L.—Cum, followed by tum vero, tum maxime, tum praecipue or tum inprimis, while... in particular, not only... but especially, while... above all, not only... but chiefly: cum haec sunt videnda, tum vero illud est hominis magni, etc.: cum infamia atque indignitas rei impediebat, tum maxime quod, etc., Cs.: cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.— Cum, followed by tum certe, tum nimirum, tum etiam, tum quoque or tum praeterea, while... at least, as... so assuredly, both... and as well, not only... but moreover: at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis: cum memoriter, tum etiam amice, etc.: cum potestas maior, tum vir quoque potestati par, etc., L.—Referring to a temporal clause, with cum.—Of coincidence of definite time, tum... cum, or cum... tum, at the time when, at a time when, even when, already when: tum, quom gratum mihi esse potuit, nolui, T.: cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur: tum mittendos legatos fuisse cum Perseus Graecas urbes obsideret, L.—Of succession in time, then, next, at once, forthwith: id cum Sulla fecisset, tum ante oppidum Nolam Samnitium castra cepit: cum muros defensoribus nudasset, tum Afros ad subruendum murum mittit, L.—Of indefinite time, tum... cum, or cum... tum, at the time when, at a time when, at such times as, whenever: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adiungitur: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, O.—With ubi, of succession in time, then, next, at once, forthwith: ubi eorum dolorem cognovi, tum meum animum in illos proposui: ubi spectaculi tempus venit, tum orta vis, L.—Of indefinite time, ubi... tum, whenever: Post ubi tempust promissa iam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt, T.—With postquam or postea quam, of succession in definite time, then, at once: tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc., L.: posteaquam e portu piratae exierunt, tum coeperunt quaerere homines, etc., as soon as.—In indefinite time, then, always: postquam commoditas prava dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum malitia praevertere urbīs adsuevit.—With ut, ut... tum, or tum... ut, when, after, as soon as: ut vero accessit cohortatio... tum vero filium seduxit: ut vero aquam ingressi sunt, tum utique egressis rigere corpora, L.—With quando, tum... quando, or quando... tum, when, as soon as: utinam tum essem natus quando Romani dona accipere coepissent.—With dum, then, meanwhile: dum se glomerant... tum pondere turris Procubuit, V.—With quam diu, then, so long: qui, quam tibi amicus non modo tum fuerit quam diu tecum in provinciā fuit, verum, etc.—With a relative, then, at that time: Quā tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis iunxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis iam fui ad pariendum mensibus, C. poët.—With an abl absol., then, thereafter, at once: ut morte eius nuntiatā tum denique bellum confectum arbitraretur: ita rebus divinis peractis tum de bello dictator rettulit, L.—Fig., in a conclusion after cum or si, then, therefore, consequently, in that case: cum magnus numerus deesset, tum iste homo coepit, etc.: quid tum quaeso, si hoc pater resciverit? T.: Si quidem me amaret, tum istuc prodesset, T. —In particular phrases, iam tum, already at that time, as soon as that: iam tum erat suspitio Dolo malo haec fieri, T.: ut mihi iam tum divinasse ille videatur hanc urbem esse, etc.—Tum demum or tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, as late as that: tum demum Liscus, quod antea tacuerat, proponit, Cs.: quo cum venerimus, tum denique vivemus.—Tum primum, tum primo, or tum deinde, then first, then for the first time, not till then: ludorum gratiā, quos tum primum anniversarios in circo facere constituisset: tum primo, L.: quas cum solus pertulisset, tum deinde comitia conlegae subrogando habuit, L.— Hic tum, at this point, just here, just then: hic tum iniectus est hominibus scrupulus.—With emphatic particles, tum vero, tum enim vero, or enim vero tum, then indeed, just then, at that crisis, then if not before, then: discedit a Melino Cluentia. tum vero illa egregia mater palum exsultare... coepit: Quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari... Sensit, Tum vero gemitūs... Edidit, O.—Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least: et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem, etc.—Ne tum quidem, not even then: num quis horum miser hodie? ne tum quidem, post spiritum extremum.—Tum maxime or tum cum maxime, especially at that time, chiefly then, just then, precisely at that time: quem provincia tum maxime exspectabat: regi, tum maxime captivos ex Illyrico vendenti, at that very time, L.—Etiam tum, even then, even at that time, even already, even yet: totum se Servilio etiam tum tradidit: Ipsa ego non longos etiam tum scissa capillos, not yet long, O.—Tum quoque, also then, then likewise, then as before, then too, then once more, even then: tum quoque homini plus tribui quam necessitati: tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis, L.—Tum autem, and then, besides further, moreover, nay even, statim se ad hominis egentis, tum autem iudicis, familiaritatem se applicavit: tanta enim tempestas cooritur... tum autem nives proluit, etc., Cs.— Tum ipsum, at that very time, just then, even then: id quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere.—Quid tum? what then? what next? what further?: dic; cras est mihi Iudicium. quid tum? T.: videsne abundare me otio? A. quid tum?
    * * *
    then, next; besides; at that time

    cum...tum -- not only...but also

    Latin-English dictionary > tum

  • 4 at

    at or ast, conj. [Curtius connects the Sanscr. ati, ultra, nimis, the Gr. eti, the Lat. et, and at in atavus; Vanicek connects with these at, atque, and atqui. Thus the original idea of addition is prominent in eti, et, and atque; and the idea of opposition in at and atqui, which agree with at-ar in meaning as well as in form. After the same analogy, the Gr. pleon, more, has become plên, but; and the Lat. magis has passed into the same meaning in the Fr. mais and the Ital. mai. The confusion in MSS. between at, ac, and et, and between atque and atqui, was prob. caused as much by their connection in idea as in form] (it was sometimes, for the sake of euphony, written ad; cf. Quint. 12, 10; 12, 32; 1, 7, 5; Charis. p. 203 P., where, instead of at conjunctionem esse, ad vero praepositionem, the reading should be, ad conjunctionem esse, at vero praepositionem, Fr.; v. the pass. in its connection; cf. also Vel. Long. p. 2230 P.; Cassiod. p. 2287 P.; Mar. Vict. p. 2458 P. The form ast is found in the old laws; it occurs once in Trag. Rel., but never in Com. Rel. nor in Lucil.; at is found in Plautus about 280 times, and ast about 10 times; in Ter. at about 100 times, and ast once; in Hor. at 60 times, ast 3 times; in Verg. at 168 times, ast 16; in Juv. at 17 times, ast 7; Catull., Tibull., and Prop. use only at, and Pers. (Jahn) only ast; in prose, Cic. uses [p. 186] ast in his epistles. It joins to a previous thought a new one, either antithetical or simply different, and especially an objection; while sed denotes a direct opposition; and autem marks a transition, and denotes at once a connection and an opposition).
    I.
    In adding a diff., but not entirely opp. thought, a qualification, restriction, etc., moreover, but, yet; sometimes an emphasized (but never merely copulative) and.
    A.
    In gen.: SEI PARENTEM PVER VERBERIT AST OLE PLORASSIT PVER DIVEIS PARENTOM SACER ESTO, if the son strike his father, and the father complain, let the son, etc., Lex Serv. Tullii ap. Fest. s. v. plorare, p. 230 Müll.; Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 24: Philosophari est mihi necesse, at paucis, but only in a few words, Enn., Trag. Rel. p. 65 Rib.:

    DIVOS ET EOS QVI CAELESTES, SEMPER HABITI COLVNTO... AST OLLA PROPTER QVAE etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 19; 3, 4, 11: hinc Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam Solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcer in alto Quaerit Aventino, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 83 Vahl.); Plaut. Capt. 5, 4, 22:

    si ego hic peribo, ast ille, ut dixit, non redit,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 25:

    paret Amor dictis carae genetricis. At Venus Ascanio placidam per membra quietem Inrigat,

    Verg. A. 1, 691:

    (Aeneas) finem dedit ore loquendi. At, Phoebi nondum patiens, immanis in antro Bacchatur vates,

    id. ib. 6, 77; 11, 709 sq.: quo (odore) totum nati corpus perduxit;

    at illi Dulcis compositis spiravit crinibus aura,

    id. G. 4, 416; so id. ib. 4, 460; 4, 513; id. A. 3, 259; 3, 675; 7, 81; 8, 241; 9, 793; Prop. 4, 4, 15; 4, 7, 11; Luc. 3, 664; 4, 36 al.—Also in prose (chiefly post-Aug.):

    una (navis) cum Nasidianis profugit: at ex reliquis una praemissa Massiliam, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 7:

    ubi facta sunt, in unum omnia miscentur. At pastilli haec ratio est, etc.,

    Cels. 5, 17; 6, 18:

    quamquam insideret urbem proprius miles, tres urbanae, novem praetoriae cohortes Etruriā ferme Umbriāque delectae aut vetere Latio et coloniis antiquitus Romanis. At apud idonea provinciarum sociae triremes etc.,

    Tac. A. 4, 5; 4, 6:

    negavit aliā se condicione adlecturum, quam si pateretur ascribi albo, extortum sibi a matre. At illa commota etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 51; id. Calig. 15; 44; id. Vesp. 5; id. Dom. 4; id. Galb. 7 al.—In the enumeration of particulars:

    Cum alio cantat, at tamen alii suo dat digito litteras, Naev., Com. Rel. p. 20 Rib.: dant alios aliae (silvae) fetus: dant utile lignum Navigiis pinos... At myrtus validis hastilibus et bona bello Cornus,

    Verg. G. 2, 447:

    Nam neque tum stellis acies obtunsa videtur... At nebulae magis etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 401; 3, 87; id. A. 7, 691:

    Hic altā Sicyone, ast hic Amydone relictā, Hic Andro, etc.,

    Juv. 3, 69.— The Vulg. often uses at as a mere continuative, where even et or atque might stand: sciscitabur ab iis ubi Christus nasceretur. At illi dixerunt ei: In etc., Matt. 2, 5; 4, 20; 8, 32; 14, 29; 15, 34 et persaep.—In transition,
    B.
    Esp.,
    1.
    To a new narration, like the Gr. de; so the commencement of the fourth book of the Æneid: At regina gravi jam dudum saucia curā, etc. (the third book closes with the narrative of Æneas); so the beginning of the third book of the Thebaid of Statius: At non Aoniae moderator perfidus aulae, etc.; Verg. A. 4, 504; 5, 35; 5, 545; 5, 700; 5, 779; 6, 679; 7, 5; 8, 370; 8, 608; 9, 503; 10, 689; 11, 597; 12, 134 et saep.—Also in the postAug. histt. and other prose writers; so after speaking of the Ubii etc., Tac. says: At in Chaucis coeptavere seditionem praesidium agitantes etc., A. 1, 38; so ib. 4, 13; 12, 62; 14, 23 et saep.—
    2.
    To a wonderful, terrible, unexpected, or exciting occurrence or circumstance:

    clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit, etc.... At gemini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones Effugiunt,

    Verg. A. 2, 225; 3, 225:

    Lacte madens illic suberat Pan ilicis umbrae, Et facta agresti lignea falce Pales etc. At quā Velabri regio patet etc.,

    Tib. 2, 5, 33; Verg. G. 4, 471:

    consurgit Turnus in ensem et ferit. Exclamant Troes trepidique Latini, Arrectaeque amborum acies. At perfidus ensis Frangitur in medio,

    id. A. 12, 731; 10, 763:

    adusque Supremum tempus, ne se penuria victūs Opprimeret metuebat. At hunc liberta securi divisit medium,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 99: Magnus quanto mucrone minatur Noctibus hibernis et sidera terret Orion. At sonipes habitus etc., Stat. S. 1, 1, 46.—
    3.
    To a passionate appeal, etc., in which case the antecedent clause is not expressed, but must be considered as existing in the mind of the speaker; cf. in Gr. alla su, su de.
    a.
    In passing to an interrogation, exhortation, request:

    At, scelesta, viden ut ne id quidem me dignum esse existumat?

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 23; id. Aul. 1, 1, 8:

    At qui nummos tristis inuncat?

    Lucil. 15, 21 Müll.: Me. Sauream non novi. Li. At nosce sane, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 58: Ca. Non adest. Ps. At tu cita, id. Ps. 1, 1, 30:

    satis habeo, at quaeso hercle etiam vide,

    id. Merc. 5, 4, 53 (Ritschl, sat habeo. Sed):

    at unum hoc quaeso... Ut, etc.,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 89:

    at tu, qui laetus rides mala nostra caveto Mox tibi,

    Tib. 1, 2, 87:

    Hunc ut Peleus vidit, At inferias, juvenum gratissime Crantor, Accipe, ait,

    Ov. M. 12, 367:

    at tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus arenae Ossibus et capiti inhumato Particulam dare,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 23.—In prose:

    at vide quid succenseat,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 24, 2:

    itaque pulsus ego civitate non sum, quae nulla erat: at vide, quam ista tui latrocinii tela contempserim,

    id. Part. Or. 4, 1, 28; id. Dom. 44; App. M. 6, p. 179, 18.—
    b.
    In expressions of passion, astonishment, indignation, pain, etc.:

    At ut scelesta sola secum murmurat,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 13: Sc. Nunc quidem domi certost: certa res est Nunc nostrum opservare ostium, [ubi] ubist. Pa. At, Sceledre, quaeso, Ut etc., id. Mil. 2, 4, 46:

    At o deorum quidquid in caelo regit Terras et humanum genus, Quid iste fert tumultus?

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1:

    At tibi quanta domus rutila testudine fulgens, etc.,

    Stat. S. 2, 4, 11.—In prose:

    horum omnium studium una mater oppugnat: at quae mater?

    Cic. Clu. 70; id. Verr. 2, 2, 45:

    at per deos immortales! quid est, quod de hoc dici possit,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 46:

    institui senatores, qui omnia indicum responsa perscriberent. At quos viros!

    id. Sull. 42; id. Deiot. 19, 33:

    tangit et ira deos: at non impune feremus,

    Ov. M. 8, 279; 10, 724:

    at tibi Colchorum, memini, regina vacavi,

    id. H. 12, 1.—
    c.
    In indignant imprecations:

    At te di omnes cum consilio, Calve, mactāssint malo! Pomp., Com. Rel. p. 245 Rib.: At te Juppiter diique omnes perdant!

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 37:

    At te di deaeque faxint cum isto odio, Laches,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 59:

    At te di perdant,

    id. Eun. 3, 1, 41:

    At tibi di dignum factis exitium duint,

    id. And. 4, 1, 42:

    At vobis male sit,

    Cat. 3, 13:

    At tibi, pro scelere, exclamat, pro talibus ausis Di... persolvant grates dignas et praemia reddant Debita!

    Verg. A. 2, 535.—In prose:

    At vos, ait, devota capita, respiciant di perjuriorum vindices,

    Just. 14, 4, 10.—
    d.
    Rarely of friendly inclination, disposition:

    At tibi di bene faciant omnes,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 18:

    At tibi di semper, adulescens, quisquis es, faciant bene,

    id. Men. 5, 7, 32:

    At tu, Catulle, destinatus obdura,

    Cat. 8, 19.—
    e.
    In entreaty:

    At vos, o superi, miserescite regis,

    Verg. A. 8, 572:

    at tu, pater deūm hominumque, hinc saltem arce hostes,

    Liv. 1, 12.—
    II.
    In adding an entirely opposite thought, but, but indeed, but on the other hand, on the contrary, etc. (the strictly class. signif. of the word).
    A.
    In gen.: at differentiam rerum significat: ut cum dicimus, Scipio est bellator, at M. Cato orator, Paul. ex Fest. p. 11 Müll.: splendet saepe, ast idem nimbis interdum nigret, Att., Trag. Rel. p. 170 Rib.: So. Mentire nunc. Me. At jam faciam, ut verum dicas dicere, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 189: So. Per Jovem juro med etc. Me. At ego per Mercurium juro, tibi etc., id. ib. 1, 1, 280:

    Atque oppido hercle bene velle illud visus sum, Ast non habere quoi commendarem caprum,

    id. Merc. 2, 1, 22:

    fecit idem Themistocles... at idem Pericles non fecit,

    Cic. Att. 7, 11, 3:

    non placet M. Antonio consulatus meus, at placuit P. Servilio,

    id. Phil. 2, 5, 12:

    majores nostri Tusculanos Aequos... in civitatem etiam acceperunt, at Karthaginem et Numantiam funditus sustulerunt,

    id. Off. 1, 11, 35: brevis a naturā nobis vita data est;

    at memoria bene redditae vitae sempiterna,

    id. Phil. 14, 12, 32; id. Cat. 2, 2, 3; id. Leg. 2, 18:

    crebras a nobis litteras exspecta, ast plures etiam ipse mittito,

    id. Att. 1, 16 fin.: Rejectis pilis comminus gladiis pugnatum est. At Germani phalange factā impetus gladiorum exceperunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 52:

    Postquam Caesar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri verbo alius alii varie adsentiebantur. At M. Porcius Cato hujusce modi orationem habuit,

    Sall. C. 52, 1:

    hac iter Elysium nobis, at laeva... ad impia Tartara mittit,

    Verg. A. 6, 542: T. Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi... M. At nos hinc alii sitientīs ibimus Afros, id. E. 1, 65: Dam. Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella... Men. At mihi sese offert ultro meus ignis Amyntas, id. ib. 3, 66; 7, 35; 7, 55; id. G. 1, 219; 1, 242; 1, 370; 2, 151; 2, 184; 3, 331; 4, 18; 4, 180; id. A. 2, 35; 2, 687; 3, 424; 5, 264;

    6, 489: Ast ego nutrici non mando vota,

    Pers. 2, 39:

    ast illi tremat etc.,

    id. 6, 74:

    Ast vocat officium,

    id. 6, 27:

    At Jesus audiens ait,

    Vulg. Matt. 9, 12; 9, 22; 12, 3; 12, 48 et persaep.—
    a.
    In order to strengthen a contrast, sometimes (esp. in Plaut. and Ter.) with contra, e contrario, potius, etiam, vero.
    (α).
    With contra:

    Summis nitere opibus, at ego contra ut dissimilis siem,

    Lucil. 26, 19 Müll.:

    Ergo quod magnumst aeque leviusque videtur... At contra gravius etc.,

    Lucr. 1, 366; so id. 1, 570; 1, 1087; 2, 235: L. Opimius ejectus est e patriā: At contra bis Catilina absolutus est, Cic. Pis. 95; id. Verr. 5, 66; id. Sex. Rosc. 131; id. Quinct. 75:

    At tibi contra Evenit, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 27:

    (Cornutus) taedio curarum mortem in se festinavit: at contra reus nihil infracto animo, etc.,

    Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    With e contrario: apud nos mercenarii scribae existimantur;

    at apud illos e contrario nemo ad id officium admittitur, nisi, etc.,

    Nep. Eum. 1, 5:

    in locis siccis partibus sulcorum imis disponenda sunt semina, ut tamquam in alveolis maneant. At uliginosis e contrario in summo porcae dorso collocanda, etc.,

    Col. 11, 3, 44.—
    (γ).
    With potius:

    at satius fuerat eam viro dare nuptum potius,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 44:

    at potius serves nostram, tua munera, vitam,

    Ov. H. 3, 149.—
    (δ).
    With etiam: At etiam, furcifer, Male loqui mi audes? but do you even? etc., Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 31; id. Trin. 4, 2, 151; id. Rud. 3, 4, 6:

    At etiam cubat cuculus. Surge, amator, i domum,

    but he is yet abed, id. As. 5, 2, 73; so id. Capt. 2, 3, 98; id. Mil. 4, 4, 6:

    Exi foras, sceleste. At etiam restitas, Fugitive!

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 1; 5, 6, 10: Proinde aut exeant, aut quiescant, etc.... at etiam sunt, Quirites, qui dicant, a me in exsilium ejectum esse Catilinam, on the contrary, there are indeed people who say. etc., Cic. Cat. 2, 6, 12; id. Phil. 2, 30, 76; id. Quinct. 56; id. Verr. 5, 77; id. Dom. 70 al.—
    (ε).
    With vero, but certainly:

    At vero aut honoribus aucti aut etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 36, 87; id. Off. 2, 20, 70; 2, 23, 80; id. Fin. 1, 10, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 17 al.—
    (ζ).
    With certe:

    Numquam ego te, vitā frater amabilior, Aspiciam posthac. At certe semper amabo,

    Cat. 65, 11; 66, 25. —
    (η).
    So, quidem—at (very rare) = quidem —autem, Cic. Off. 1, 22, 75.—
    b.
    Ironically: Th. Quid valeam? Ly. At tu aegrota, si lubet, per me aetatem quidem, Plaut. Curc. 4, 3, 22:

    at, credo, mea numina tandem Fessa jacent,

    Verg. A. 7, 297; 7, 363; Ov. H. 1, 44.—
    B.
    Very freq. in adding an objection, from one's own mind or another's, against an assertion previously made, but, on the contrary, in opposition to this; sometimes, but one may say, it may be objected, and the like:

    Piscium magnam atque altilium vim interfecisti. At nego,

    Lucil. 28, 43 Müll.:

    Quid tandem te impedit? Mosne majorum? At persaepe etiam privati in hac re publicā perniciosos cives morte multārunt. An leges, quae de civium Romanorum supplicio rogatae sunt? At numquam in hac urbe etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 11, 28:

    Appellandi tempus non erat? At tecum plus annum vixit. In Galliā agi non potuit? At et in provinciā jus dicebatur et etc.,

    id. Quinct. 41:

    Male judicavit populus. At judicavit. Non debuit. At potuit. Non fero. At multi clarissimi cives tulerunt,

    id. Planc. 11:

    sunt, quos signa, quos caelatum argentum delectant. At sumus, inquiunt, civitatis principes,

    id. Part. Or. 5, 2, 36; id. Fin. 4, 25, 71; id. Verr. 2, 2 fin.:

    quid porro quaerendum est? Factumne sit? At constat: A quo? At patet,

    id. Mil. 6, 15; id. Phil. 2, 9: convivium vicinorum cotidie compleo, quod ad multam noctem, quam maxime possumus, vario sermone producimus. At non est voluptatum tanta quasi titillatio in senibus. Credo: sed ne desideratio quidem, [p. 187] id. Sen. 14, 47:

    multo magnus orator praestat minutis imperatoribus. At prodest plus imperator. Quis negat?

    id. Brut. 73, 256; id. Div. 2, 29, 62; 2, 31, 67; 2, 32, 69 al.:

    Maxime Juppiter! At in se Pro quaestu sumptum facit hic,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 18 al. — In this case freq. strengthened,
    a.
    By pol, edepol, hercule: At pol ego neque florem neque flocces volo mihi, Caecil., Com. Rel. p. 67 Rib.: So. Non edepol volo profecto. Me. At pol profecto ingratiis, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 215; so id. As. 2, 2, 34; 4, 2, 14; id. Capt. 3, 4, 64; id. Cas. 2, 3, 15; id. Cist. 4, 2, 70; id. Trin. 2, 4, 73: Ha. Gaudio ero vobis. Ad. At edepol nos voluptati tibi, id. Poen. 5, 4, 61; 3, 1, 68:

    At hercule aliquot annos populus Romanus maximā parte imperii caruit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 54; id. Sex. Rosc. 50:

    at hercle in eā controversiā, quae de Argis est, superior sum,

    Liv. 34, 31:

    At, Hercule, reliquis omnibus etc.,

    Plin. 7, 50, 51, § 169:

    At, hercules, Diodorus et in morbo etc.,

    id. 29, 6, 39, § 142:

    At hercule Germanicum Druso ortum etc.,

    Tac. A. 1, 3; 1, 17; 1, 26;

    3, 54: At, hercules, si conscius fuissem etc.,

    Curt. 6, 10, 20 al. —
    b.
    By enim, which introduces a reason for the objection implied in at, but certainly, but surely, but indeed, etc., alla gar: At enim tu nimis spisse incedis, Naev., Com. Rel. p. 16 Rib.; Turp. id. p. 93: at enim nimis hic longo sermone utimur;

    Diem conficimus,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 78:

    At enim istoc nil est magis etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 21:

    At enim vereor, inquit Crassus, ne haec etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 49, 188:

    cum dixisset Sophocles, O puerum pulchrum, Pericle. At enim praetorem, Sophocle, decet non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes habere, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 40, 144 Beier; so id. Mur. 35, 74; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52 al.:

    at enim inter hos ipsos existunt graves controversiae,

    id. Quinct. 1; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51; 20, 60; id. Phil. 2, 2, 3; id. Ac. 2, 17, 52:

    At enim cur a me potissimum hoc praesidium petiverunt?

    id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 15:

    At enim quis reprehendet, quod in parricidas rei publicae decretum erit?

    Sall. C. 51, 25 Kritz:

    At enim quid ita solus ego circum curam ago?

    Liv. 6, 15; 34, 32:

    At enim eo foedere, quod etc.,

    id. 21, 18; 34, 31; 39, 37: At enim nova nobis in fratrum filias conjugia;

    sed etc.,

    Tac. A. 12, 6.—
    c.
    By tamen: Jam id peccatum primum magnum, magnum, at humanum tamen, Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 53: Hi secretis sermonibus... conveniunt;

    nam publice civitas talibus inceptis abhorrebat. At tamen interfuere quidam etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 55:

    At certe tamen, inquiunt, quod etc.,

    Cat. 10, 14.—
    C.
    With a preced. negative, sometimes no antithesis is appended by at, but it is indicated that if what has been said is not true, yet at least something else is true, but yet; sometimes with tamen, but yet; or certe, but at least, yet at least:

    Nolo victumas: at minimis me extis placare volo,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 95:

    Si tibi non cordi fuerant conubia nostra,... At tamen in vostras potuisti ducere sedes,

    Cat. 64, 158 sq.:

    Non cognoscebantur foris, at domi: non ab alienis, at a suis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 11, 56:

    Liceat haec nobis, si oblivisci non possumus, at tacere,

    id. Fl. 25, 61:

    Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi,

    Verg. A. 1, 543; so id. ib. 4, 615, and 6, 406. —With certe:

    Haec erant... quorum cognitio studiosis juvenibus si non magnam utilitatem adferet, at certe, quod magis petimus, bonam voluntatem,

    Quint. 12, 11, 31; Cels. 2, 15; Suet. Calig. 12, al.—
    D.
    The antithesis is sometimes not so much in the clause appended by at, as in the persons or things introduced in it; so,
    (α).
    Esp. freq. in conditional clauses with si, si non, si minus, etiam si, etc.; cf. Herm. ad Viger. 241: Si ego hic peribo, ast ille, ut dixit, non redit; At erit mi hoc factum mortuo memorabile, if I perish here, but he does not return, yet etc., Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 26; id. Bacch. 2, 3, 131:

    si ego digna hac contumeliā Sum maxime, at tu indignus qui faceres tamen,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 25:

    Si tu oblitus es, at di meminerunt,

    Cat. 30, 11:

    si non eo die, at postridie,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 1:

    si non paulo, at aliquanto (post petīsses),

    Cic. Quinct. 40; 97; id. Mil. 93 al.:

    quanta tempestas invidiae nobis, si minus in praesens, at in posteritatem impendeat,

    id. Cat. 1, 22; id. Verr. 5, 69; id. Clu. 15: qui non possit, etiam si sine ullā suspitione, at non sine argumento male dicere, id. Cael. 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With etsi:

    ei, etsi nequāquam parem illius ingenio, at pro nostro tamen studio meritam gratiam referamus,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 4, 14; Tac. Or. 19.—
    (γ).
    With quod si:

    Quod si nihil cum potentiore juris humani relinquitur inopi, at ego ad deos confugiam,

    Liv. 9, 1; Tac. A. 1, 67.—
    E.
    At, like autem and de, sometimes serves simply to introduce an explanation: cum Sic mutilus miniteris. At illi foeda cicatrix etc., now an ugly scar etc., Hor. S. 1, 5, 60. —
    F.
    And also like de in Hom. and Hdt., it sometimes introduces an apodosis,
    a.
    With si: Bellona, si hobie nobis victoriam duis, ast ego templum tibi voveo, if to-day thou bestow victory, then I etc., ean—de, Liv. 10, 19.—
    b.
    With quoniam: Nunc, quoniam tuum insanabile ingenium est, at tu tuo supplicio doce etc., since your disposition is past cure, at least etc., epei—de, Liv. 1, 28.
    A.
    At is sometimes repeated at the beginning of several clauses,
    a.
    In opposition each to the preceding clause: Soph. Tu quidem haut etiam octoginta's pondo. Paegn. At confidentiā Militia illa militatur multo magis quam pondere. At ego hanc operam perdo, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 47 sq.:

    Si ego hic peribo, ast ille, ut dixit, non redit: At erit mi hoc factum mortuo memorabile,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 25 sq.; id. As. 5, 2, 6 sqq. (Cic., in Quir. 7 and 10, opposes at to sed, and Tac., in A. 12, 6, sed to at).—
    b.
    In opposition to some common clause preceding:

    At etiam asto? At etiam cesso foribus facere hisce assulas?

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 20: Quid tum esse existimas judicatum? Certe gratīs judicāsse. At condemnārat; at causam totam non audierat;

    at in contionibus etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 113:

    Sit flagitiorum omnium princeps: at est bonus imperator, at felix,

    id. Verr. 5, 4; id. Sest. 47; id. Fragm. B. 16, 5 B. and K.: Nefarius Hippias Pisistrati filius arma contra patriam ferens;

    at Sulla, at Marius, at Cinna recte, imo jure fortasse,

    id. Att. 9, 10, 3: At non formosa est, at non bene culta puella;

    At, puto, non votis saepe petita meis?

    Ov. Am. 3, 7, 1 sq. Merk.:

    At quam sunt similes, at quam formosus uterque!

    id. F. 2, 395: rideri possit eo quod Rusticius tonso toga defluit: at est bonus ut melior vir Non alius quisquam; at tibi amicus;

    at ingenium ingens Inculto latet hoc sub corpore,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 30 sqq. (cf. sed—

    sed,

    Cat. 64, 141; Juv. 5, 61; 8, 149; and a similar use of alla in Hellenistic Greek, as alla—alla, 2 Cor. 2, 17: alla—alla —alla, 1 Cor. 6, 11).—
    B.
    Though regularly occupying the first place in its clause or sentence, it sometimes stands second (cf. atque fin.):

    Saepius at si me, Lycida formose, revisas,

    Verg. E. 7, 67; id. G. 3, 331:

    Tutior at quanto merx est in classe secundā,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 47:

    Mentior at si quid, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 8, 37:

    Gramineis ast inde toris discumbitur,

    Val. Fl. 8, 255:

    Major at inde etc.,

    Stat. Th. 4, 116.—See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 417-451; Wagner, Quaest. XXXVII. ad Verg. IV. pp. 581- 585.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > at

  • 5 D

    D, d (n. indecl., sometimes f. sc. littera), the flat dental mute, corresponding in character and sound to the English d and the Greek D, was the fourth letter of the Latin alphabet, and was called de: Ter. Maur. p. 2385 P., Auson. Idyll. 12, de Litt. Monos. 14. But at the end of a syllable, or after another consonant, its sound was sharpened, so that the grammarians often discuss the question whether d or t should be written, especially in conjunctions and prepositions. Illa quoque servata est a multis differentia, ut ad cum esset praepositio, d litteram, cum autem conjunctio, t acciperet (Quint. 1, 7, 5; cf. id. 1, 4, 16). Hence we may infer that some disputed this distinction, and that the sounds of ad and at must at least have been very similar (cf. also Terent. Scaur. p. 2250, Vel. Long. p. 2230 sq., Cassiod. p. 2287, 2291). Thus also aput, it, quit, quot, aliut, set, haut are found for apud, id, quid, quod, aliud, sed, haud. It would appear from the remarks of these authors that the last two words in particular, having a proclitic character, while they distinctly retained the d sound before an initial vowel in the following word, were pronounced before a consonant almost as set, haut (Mar. Vict. p. 2462 P., Vel. Long. l. l. v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.). The use of t for d in the middle of a word, as Alexenter for Alexander, atnato for adnato, is very rare (cf. Wordsworth, Fragm. p. 486 sq.). On the other hand, the use of d for t, which sometimes appears in MSS. and inscrr., as ed, capud, essed, inquid (all of which occur in the Cod. palimps. of Cic. Rep.), adque, quodannis, sicud, etc., fecid, reliquid, etc. (all in inscriptions after the Augustan period), is to be ascribed to a later phonetic softening (cf. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.).
    II.
    As an initial, the letter d, in pure Latin words, suffers only a vowel after it; the single consonantal compound dr being found only in borrowed words, such as drama, Drusus, Druidae, etc., and in the two onomatopees drenso and drindio. Accordingly, the d of the initial dv, from du, was rejected, and the remaining v either retained unaltered (as in v iginti for du iginti; cf. triginta) or changed into b (as in b ellum, b is, b onus, for du ellum, du is, du onus; v. those words and the letter B). So too in and after the 4th century A.D., di before vowels was pronounced like j (cf. J ovis for Dj ovis, and J anus for Di anus); and hence, as the Greek di ( di) passed into dz, i. e. z (as in z a for d ia, and z eta for di aeta), we sometimes find the same name written in two or three ways, as Diabolenus, Jabolenus, Zabolenus; Jadera, Diadora, Zara. In many Greek words, however, which originally began with a y sound, d was prefixed by an instinctive effort to avoid a disagreeable utterance, just as in English the initial j has regularly assumed the sound of dj: thus Gr. zugon, i. e. diugon = L. jugum; and in such cases the d sound has been prefixed in Greek, not lost in Latin and other languages (v. Curt. Griech. Etym. p. 608 sq.).b. As a medial, d before most consonants undergoes assimilation; v. ad, no. II.; assum, init., and cf. iccirco, quippiam, quicquam, for idcirco, quidpiam, quidquam; and in contractions like cette from cedite, pelluviae from pediluviae, sella from sedela. In contractions, however, the d is sometimes dropped and a compensation effected by lengthening the preceding vowel, as scāla for scand-la. D before endings which begin with s was suppressed, as pes from ped-s, lapis from lapid-s, frons from frond-s, rasi from radsi, risi from rid-si, lusi from lud-si, clausi from claud-si; but in the second and third roots of cedo, and in the third roots of some other verbs, d is assimilated, as cessi, cessum, fossum, etc. D is also omitted before s in composition when another consonant follows the s, as ascendo, aspicio, asto, astringo, and so also before the nasal gn in agnatus, agnitus, and agnosco, from gnatus, etc.: but in other combinations it is assimilated, as assentio, acclamo, accresco; affligo, affrico; agglomero, aggrego; applico, approbo, etc. In tentum, from tendo, d is dropped to avoid the combination ndt or ntt, since euphony forbids a consonant to be doubled after another.g. Final d stood only in ad, apud, sed, and in the neuter pronouns quid, quod, illud, istud, and aliud, anciently alid. Otherwise, the ending d was considered barbarous, Prisc. p. 686 P.
    III.
    The letter d represents regularly an original Indo-Germanic d, in Greek d, but which in German becomes z, in Gothic t, and in Anglo-Saxon t: cf. Gr. hêdomai, Sanscr. svad, Germ. süss, Angl.-Sax. svēte (sweet), with Lat. suadeo; domare with Gr. damaô, Germ. zähmen, Eng. tame; domus with demô, timber, O. H. Germ. zimber; duo with duô, zwei, two. But it is also interchanged with other sounds, and thus sometimes represents—
    1.
    An original t: mendax from mentior; quadraginta, quadra, etc., from quatuor.—
    2.
    An original r: ar and ad; apur or apor and apud; meridies and medidies, audio and auris; cf. arbiter, from ad-beto; arcesso for ad-cesso.—
    3.
    An original l: adeps, Gr. aleipha; dacrima and lacrima, dingua and lingua; cf. on the contrary, olere for odere, consilium and considere, Ulixes from Odusseus (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 223).—
    4.
    An original s: Claudius, from the Sabine Clausus, medius and misos; and, on the contrary, rosa and rhodon. —
    5.
    A Greek th: fides, pistis; gaudere, gêtheô; vad-i-monium (from va-d-s, vadis), aethlon.
    IV.
    In the oldest period of the language d was the ending of the ablat. sing. and of the adverbs which were originally ablatives (cf. Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excur. I.; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. Prol. 10): pu CNANDO, MARID, DICTATORED, IN ALTOD MARID, NAVALED PRAEDAD on the Col. Rostr.; DE SENATVOS SENTENTIAD (thrice) IN OQVOLTOD, IN POPLICOD, IN PREIVATOD, IN COVENTIONID, and the adverbs SVPRAD SCRIPTVM EST (thrice), EXSTRAD QVAM SEI, and even EXSTRAD VRBEM, in S. C. de Bacch. So intra-d, ultra-d, citra-d, contra-d, infra-d, supra-d; contro-d, intro-d, etc.; and probably interea-d, postea-d. Here too belongs, no doubt, the adverb FACILVMED, found in the last-mentioned inscription. But this use of the d became antiquated during the 3d century B.C., and is not found at all in any inscription after 186 B. C. Plautus seems to have used or omitted it at will (Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excurs. p. 18: Corss. Ausspr. 1, 197; 2, 1008).
    2.
    D final was also anciently found—
    a.
    In the accus. sing. of the personal pronouns med, ted, sed: INTER SED CONIOVRASE and INTER SED DEDISE, for inter se conjuravisse and inter se dedisse, in the S. C. de Bacch. This usage was retained, at least as a license of verse, when the next word began with a vowel, even in the time of Plautus. But in the classic period this d no longer appears. —
    b.
    In the imperative mood;

    as estod,

    Fest. p. 230. The Oscan language retained this ending (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 206).—
    c.
    In the preposition se-, originally identical with the conjunction sed (it is retained in the compound seditio); also in red-, prod-, antid-, postid-, etc. ( redire, prodire, etc.); and in these words, too, it is a remnant of the ancient characteristic of the ablative (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 200 sq.; Roby, Lat. Gr. 1, 49).
    V.
    As an abbreviation, D usually stands for the praenomen Decimus; also for Deus, Divus, Dominus, Decurio, etc.; over epitaphs, D. M. = Diis Manibus; over temple inscriptions, D. O. M. = Deo Optimo Maxumo; in the titles of the later emperors, D. N. = Dominus Noster, and DD. NN. = Domini Nostri. Before dates of letters, D signified dabam, and also dies; hence, a. d. = ante diem; in offerings to the gods, D. D. = dono or donum dedit; D. D. D. = dat, dicat, dedicat, etc. Cf. Orell. Inscr. II. p. 457 sq.
    The Romans denoted the number 500 by D; but the character was then regarded, not as a letter, but as half of the original Tuscan numeral (or CI[C ]) for 1000.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > D

  • 6 d

    D, d (n. indecl., sometimes f. sc. littera), the flat dental mute, corresponding in character and sound to the English d and the Greek D, was the fourth letter of the Latin alphabet, and was called de: Ter. Maur. p. 2385 P., Auson. Idyll. 12, de Litt. Monos. 14. But at the end of a syllable, or after another consonant, its sound was sharpened, so that the grammarians often discuss the question whether d or t should be written, especially in conjunctions and prepositions. Illa quoque servata est a multis differentia, ut ad cum esset praepositio, d litteram, cum autem conjunctio, t acciperet (Quint. 1, 7, 5; cf. id. 1, 4, 16). Hence we may infer that some disputed this distinction, and that the sounds of ad and at must at least have been very similar (cf. also Terent. Scaur. p. 2250, Vel. Long. p. 2230 sq., Cassiod. p. 2287, 2291). Thus also aput, it, quit, quot, aliut, set, haut are found for apud, id, quid, quod, aliud, sed, haud. It would appear from the remarks of these authors that the last two words in particular, having a proclitic character, while they distinctly retained the d sound before an initial vowel in the following word, were pronounced before a consonant almost as set, haut (Mar. Vict. p. 2462 P., Vel. Long. l. l. v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.). The use of t for d in the middle of a word, as Alexenter for Alexander, atnato for adnato, is very rare (cf. Wordsworth, Fragm. p. 486 sq.). On the other hand, the use of d for t, which sometimes appears in MSS. and inscrr., as ed, capud, essed, inquid (all of which occur in the Cod. palimps. of Cic. Rep.), adque, quodannis, sicud, etc., fecid, reliquid, etc. (all in inscriptions after the Augustan period), is to be ascribed to a later phonetic softening (cf. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 191 sq.).
    II.
    As an initial, the letter d, in pure Latin words, suffers only a vowel after it; the single consonantal compound dr being found only in borrowed words, such as drama, Drusus, Druidae, etc., and in the two onomatopees drenso and drindio. Accordingly, the d of the initial dv, from du, was rejected, and the remaining v either retained unaltered (as in v iginti for du iginti; cf. triginta) or changed into b (as in b ellum, b is, b onus, for du ellum, du is, du onus; v. those words and the letter B). So too in and after the 4th century A.D., di before vowels was pronounced like j (cf. J ovis for Dj ovis, and J anus for Di anus); and hence, as the Greek di ( di) passed into dz, i. e. z (as in z a for d ia, and z eta for di aeta), we sometimes find the same name written in two or three ways, as Diabolenus, Jabolenus, Zabolenus; Jadera, Diadora, Zara. In many Greek words, however, which originally began with a y sound, d was prefixed by an instinctive effort to avoid a disagreeable utterance, just as in English the initial j has regularly assumed the sound of dj: thus Gr. zugon, i. e. diugon = L. jugum; and in such cases the d sound has been prefixed in Greek, not lost in Latin and other languages (v. Curt. Griech. Etym. p. 608 sq.).b. As a medial, d before most consonants undergoes assimilation; v. ad, no. II.; assum, init., and cf. iccirco, quippiam, quicquam, for idcirco, quidpiam, quidquam; and in contractions like cette from cedite, pelluviae from pediluviae, sella from sedela. In contractions, however, the d is sometimes dropped and a compensation effected by lengthening the preceding vowel, as scāla for scand-la. D before endings which begin with s was suppressed, as pes from ped-s, lapis from lapid-s, frons from frond-s, rasi from radsi, risi from rid-si, lusi from lud-si, clausi from claud-si; but in the second and third roots of cedo, and in the third roots of some other verbs, d is assimilated, as cessi, cessum, fossum, etc. D is also omitted before s in composition when another consonant follows the s, as ascendo, aspicio, asto, astringo, and so also before the nasal gn in agnatus, agnitus, and agnosco, from gnatus, etc.: but in other combinations it is assimilated, as assentio, acclamo, accresco; affligo, affrico; agglomero, aggrego; applico, approbo, etc. In tentum, from tendo, d is dropped to avoid the combination ndt or ntt, since euphony forbids a consonant to be doubled after another.g. Final d stood only in ad, apud, sed, and in the neuter pronouns quid, quod, illud, istud, and aliud, anciently alid. Otherwise, the ending d was considered barbarous, Prisc. p. 686 P.
    III.
    The letter d represents regularly an original Indo-Germanic d, in Greek d, but which in German becomes z, in Gothic t, and in Anglo-Saxon t: cf. Gr. hêdomai, Sanscr. svad, Germ. süss, Angl.-Sax. svēte (sweet), with Lat. suadeo; domare with Gr. damaô, Germ. zähmen, Eng. tame; domus with demô, timber, O. H. Germ. zimber; duo with duô, zwei, two. But it is also interchanged with other sounds, and thus sometimes represents—
    1.
    An original t: mendax from mentior; quadraginta, quadra, etc., from quatuor.—
    2.
    An original r: ar and ad; apur or apor and apud; meridies and medidies, audio and auris; cf. arbiter, from ad-beto; arcesso for ad-cesso.—
    3.
    An original l: adeps, Gr. aleipha; dacrima and lacrima, dingua and lingua; cf. on the contrary, olere for odere, consilium and considere, Ulixes from Odusseus (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 223).—
    4.
    An original s: Claudius, from the Sabine Clausus, medius and misos; and, on the contrary, rosa and rhodon. —
    5.
    A Greek th: fides, pistis; gaudere, gêtheô; vad-i-monium (from va-d-s, vadis), aethlon.
    IV.
    In the oldest period of the language d was the ending of the ablat. sing. and of the adverbs which were originally ablatives (cf. Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excur. I.; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. Prol. 10): pu CNANDO, MARID, DICTATORED, IN ALTOD MARID, NAVALED PRAEDAD on the Col. Rostr.; DE SENATVOS SENTENTIAD (thrice) IN OQVOLTOD, IN POPLICOD, IN PREIVATOD, IN COVENTIONID, and the adverbs SVPRAD SCRIPTVM EST (thrice), EXSTRAD QVAM SEI, and even EXSTRAD VRBEM, in S. C. de Bacch. So intra-d, ultra-d, citra-d, contra-d, infra-d, supra-d; contro-d, intro-d, etc.; and probably interea-d, postea-d. Here too belongs, no doubt, the adverb FACILVMED, found in the last-mentioned inscription. But this use of the d became antiquated during the 3d century B.C., and is not found at all in any inscription after 186 B. C. Plautus seems to have used or omitted it at will (Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Excurs. p. 18: Corss. Ausspr. 1, 197; 2, 1008).
    2.
    D final was also anciently found—
    a.
    In the accus. sing. of the personal pronouns med, ted, sed: INTER SED CONIOVRASE and INTER SED DEDISE, for inter se conjuravisse and inter se dedisse, in the S. C. de Bacch. This usage was retained, at least as a license of verse, when the next word began with a vowel, even in the time of Plautus. But in the classic period this d no longer appears. —
    b.
    In the imperative mood;

    as estod,

    Fest. p. 230. The Oscan language retained this ending (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 206).—
    c.
    In the preposition se-, originally identical with the conjunction sed (it is retained in the compound seditio); also in red-, prod-, antid-, postid-, etc. ( redire, prodire, etc.); and in these words, too, it is a remnant of the ancient characteristic of the ablative (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 200 sq.; Roby, Lat. Gr. 1, 49).
    V.
    As an abbreviation, D usually stands for the praenomen Decimus; also for Deus, Divus, Dominus, Decurio, etc.; over epitaphs, D. M. = Diis Manibus; over temple inscriptions, D. O. M. = Deo Optimo Maxumo; in the titles of the later emperors, D. N. = Dominus Noster, and DD. NN. = Domini Nostri. Before dates of letters, D signified dabam, and also dies; hence, a. d. = ante diem; in offerings to the gods, D. D. = dono or donum dedit; D. D. D. = dat, dicat, dedicat, etc. Cf. Orell. Inscr. II. p. 457 sq.
    The Romans denoted the number 500 by D; but the character was then regarded, not as a letter, but as half of the original Tuscan numeral (or CI[C ]) for 1000.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > d

  • 7 haece

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > haece

  • 8 hic

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > hic

  • 9 Hoc erat quod

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Hoc erat quod

  • 10 Hoc est

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Hoc est

  • 11 hoce

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > hoce

  • 12 saltem

    saltem (sometimes in MSS. saltim; cf. Aus. Ep. 7, 23; and Prisc. p. 1013 P.), adv. [old acc. form, from salvus, salus]. prop., saved, reserved (salvā re; compare Engl. save, except). It serves to point out that which still remains or holds good, in spite of or by way of exception to something opposed to it; and accordingly is used (like certe, II.) as a restrictive particle, at least, at the least, at all events, anyhow.
    I.
    Affirmatively (class.).
    A.
    With a statement of the opposite:

    si illud non licet, Saltem hoc licebit,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 2, 12; Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 26:

    semper tu hoc facito cogites, tute uti sis optimus: Si id nequeas, saltem ut optimis sis proximus,

    id. Trin. 2, 4, 86; cf. Quint. 10, 1, 127:

    saltem accurate, ut metui videar, si resciverim,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 14:

    impetrabo, ut aliquot saltem nuptiis prodat dies,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 13:

    si alia membra vino madeant, cor sit saltem sobrium,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 2:

    etsi istuc mihi acerbum'st... saltem id volupe est, cum, etc.,

    id. Mil. 4, 5, 12:

    quo provocati a me venire noluerunt, revocati saltem revertantur,

    Cic. Agr. 3, 1, 1:

    attrepidate saltem, nam vos approperare haud postulo,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    vere nihil potes dicere: finge aliquid saltem commode,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; id. Fl. 13, 35:

    eripe mihi hunc dolorem aut minue saltem,

    id. Att. 9, 6, 5: neque iis (militibus) posse persuaderi, ut eum defendant aut sequantur saltem, * Caes. B. C. 1, 6; Quint. 6, 5, 1; Plaut. Merc. 3, 4, 52: utinam quietis temporibus atque aliquo, si non bono, at saltem certo statu civitatis haec inter nos studia exercere possemus! Cic. Fam. 9, 8, 2; id. Pis. 11, 24.—In a question:

    quis ego sum saltem, si non sum Sosia?

    tell me, at least, who I am; then who am I, pray? Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 282.—
    B.
    Without mention of the opposite:

    istuc sapienter saltem fecit filius,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 103:

    saltem aliquem velim, qui mihi ex his locis viam monstret,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 29:

    saltem Pseudolum mihi dedas,

    id. Ps. 4, 7, 127:

    saltem aliquid de pondere detraxisset,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 20, 57:

    nunc saltem ad illos calculos revertamur,

    id. Att. 8, 12, 5:

    saltem tenet hoc nos,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 44:

    ut opperiare hos sex dies saltem modo,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 87; cf.:

    triduom hoc saltem,

    id. Truc. 4, 4, 21:

    saltem tantisper, dum, etc.,

    id. Rud. 4, 4, 146:

    antehac quidem sperare saltem licebat: nunc etiam id ereptum est,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 23, 3:

    at grammatici saltem omnes descendent,

    Quint. 1, 4, 7. This last mode of enunciation forms the transition to its use,
    II.
    With the negatives non, neque, to indicate that not even a single remaining thing specified holds good; and, consequently, = ne... quidem, not at least, not even, nor even (so perh. only since the Aug. per.):

    ibi tribuni militum non praemunito vallo, non deorum saltem, si non hominum, memores, nec auspicato, etc.... instruunt aciem,

    Liv. 5, 38; 2, 43, 8; 6, 2, 19; Quint. 10, 7, 20; Plin. Pan. 82, 1; App. M. 7, p. 194, 33 al.:

    neque enim mihi illud saltem placet, quod, etc.,

    Quint. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    nec vero saltem iis sufficiat, etc.,

    id. 10, 2, 15:

    non fratrem, non patruum saltem porta tenus obvium,

    Tac. A. 3, 5 fin.:

    nec deformitate istā saltem flumina carebant atque amnes,

    Plin. Pan. 82, 3:

    ut ipsum iter neque impervium neque saltem durum putent,

    Quint. 12, 11, 11:

    nec mihi statuta saltem cibaria praestabantur,

    App. M. 7, p. 194, 33.—Cf. with vix:

    illud vix saltem praecipiendum videtur, ne, etc.,

    Quint. 6, 4, 15.—After ne... quidem:

    ut ne a sententiis quidem ac verbis saltem singulis possit separari,

    Quint. 6, 5, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > saltem

  • 13 tum

    tum, adv. demonstr., of time [pronom. demonstr. stems to-, ta-; Gr. to, seen in ita, tam, etc.; cf. quom or cum], then.
    I.
    Absol.
    A.
    Referring to a time previously specified.
    1.
    To a definite past time.
    (α).
    To a period of time in which something was or happened (opp. later periods) = illis temporibus:

    is dictu'st ollis popularibus olim Qui tum vivebant homines,

    Enn. Ann. v. 308 Vahl.:

    quod tum erat res in pecore et locorum possessionibus, i. e. Romuli temporibus,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 16:

    cum illi male dicerent, quod tum fieri licebat, i. e. Periclis temporibus,

    id. de Or. 3, 34, 138:

    erat omnino tum mos ut faciles essent in suum cuique tribuendo,

    id. Brut. 21, 85; cf. id. Tusc. 1, 46, 111:

    vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant,

    Liv. 1, 4, 6; 2, 6, 8; 3, 29, 3; 4, 6, 12; 42, 62, 11;

    44, 9, 4: ut tum erant tempora,

    Nep. Att. 1, 2; 12, 3; Liv. 1, 3, 3; 1, 8, 4; 2, 7, 4; 2, 9, 8; 2, 50, 2; 2, 63, 6;

    39, 6, 7 and 9.—With illis temporibus: nam jam tum illis temporibus fortius... loquebantur quam pugnabant,

    Nep. Thras. 2, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to a point of time, then, at that time:

    insigneita fere tum milia militum octo Duxit,

    Enn. Ann. v. 336 Vahl.: ut jacui exsurgo;

    ardere censui aedis: ita tum confulgebant,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 15:

    jam duo restabant fata tum,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 35; id. Cist. 1, 3, 14: quot eras annos gnatus tum, quom, etc.? Me Septuennis, nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum, id. Men. 5, 9, 56; id. Merc. prol. 66; id. Most. 1, 2, 49; id. Am. 2, 1, 56; Ter. And. 1, 1, 82: sic igitur tum se levis ac diffusilis aether... undique flexit. Lucr. 5, 467; 5, 837; 5, 911; 5, 432;

    5, 942: atque huic anno proximus Sulla consule et Pompejo fuit. Tum P. Sulpicii in tribunatu, cottidie contionantis, totum genus dicendi cognovimus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 306; id. Ac. 2, 22, 69:

    scribit Eudemum Pheras venisse, quae erat urbs in Thessalia tum admodum nobilis,

    id. Div. 1, 25, 53; id. Rep. 2, 37, 63:

    hi tum in Asia rhetorum principes,

    id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Sest. 11, 26; id. Planc. 37, 90; id. Quint. 61, 170; id. Fam. 9, 21, 2:

    hoc tum veritus Caesar Pharum prehendit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 112:

    eodem anno a Campanis Cumae, quam Graeci tum urbem tenebant, capiuntur,

    Liv. 4, 44, 13; 1, 7, 14; 2, 9, 5;

    2, 37, 7: praetores tum duos Latium habebat,

    id. 8, 3, 9:

    Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant, dictatorem dixit,

    id. 8, 12, 13; 5, 8, 4; 22, 46, 6;

    1, 7, 12: tum Athenis perpetui archontes esse desierunt,

    Vell. 1, 8, 3:

    tum Cimbri et Teutoni transcendere Rhenum,

    id. 2, 8, 3; Val. Max. 1, 5, 3; Tac. H. 4, 49; 3, 57:

    non timido, non ignavo cessare tum licuit,

    Curt. 3, 11, 5:

    Archiae, qui tum maximum magistratum Thebis obtinebat,

    Nep. Pelop. 3, 2; id. Phoc. 3, 3.—With in eo tempore: eum quem virile secus tum in eo tempore habebat, Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 5.—Repeated by anaphora:

    quae nox omnium temporum conjurationis acerrima fuit. Tum Catilinae dies exeundi, tum ceteris manendi condicio, tum descriptio... constituta est, tum tuus pater, etc.,

    Cic. Sull. 18, 52; cf. Lucr. 5, 1377; 5, 1399.—
    (γ).
    Esp., referring to a former state, implying that it no longer exists:

    quaesivit ex lege illa Cornelia quae tum erat,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 55:

    cum sententias Oppianicus, quae tum erat potestas, palam ferri velle dixisset,

    id. ib. 27, 75:

    Caere, opulento tum oppido,

    Liv. 1, 2, 3; 3, 52, 3:

    praetores aerarii (nam tum a praetoribus tractabatur aerarium), etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 9.—
    (δ).
    Expressly opposed to present time (hodie, nunc, hoc tempore, etc.; class. and very freq.; but in post-Aug. writers tunc is regularly used): prius non is eras qui eras;

    nunc is factu's qui tum non eras,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 138:

    tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopia?

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 25; id. Hec. 3, 3, 48:

    quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revulsa, nunc a me tamen reportata est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 46, § 112:

    tum imperator populi Romani deos patrios reportabat, nunc praetor ejusdem populi eosdem illos deos... auferebat,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 77; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 78; 2, 5, 20, § 51; id. Clu. 31, 86; id. Planc. 9, 22; id. Quint. 22, 71; id. Phil. 14, 8, 21; id. Leg. 2, 22, 57; Caes. B. C. 3, 17; Liv. 5, 3, 5; 6, 15, 11; 10, 9, 6.—
    (ε).
    Opposed to another time specified:

    itaque tum eos exire jussit. Post autem e provincia litteras ad conlegium misit, se, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11:

    itaque ut tum carere rege, sic pulso Tarquinio nomen regis audire non poterat,

    id. Rep. 2, 30, 53; id. Mil. 21, 55:

    sicut legatorum antea, ita tum novorum colonorum caede imbutis armis,

    Liv. 4, 31, 7; 39, 22, 10; 9, 36, 1; 2, 52, 7; 4, 2, 10; 4, 57, 11;

    21, 17, 1: et tum sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide,

    Ov. M. 2, 218; Verg. A. 11, 33; Nep. Arist. 2, 3; id. Ham. 11, 7.—
    (ζ).
    In the historians in applying general statements or truths to the state of affairs spoken of: communi enim fit vitio naturae ut invisis atque incognitis rebus... vehementius exterreamur;

    ut tum accidit,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 4; 3, 68; id. B. G. 7, 3; 2, 6; id. B. C. 1, 80:

    foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus,

    Liv. 1, 24, 4; 1, 32, 14; 21, 31, 12.—
    (η).
    Denoting coincidence or inner connection with an action before mentioned = a temporal clause (tum = cum hoc fieret), then, on that occasion:

    quis tum non ingemuit?

    Cic. Vatin. 13, 31:

    ne tum quidem hominum venustatem et facetias perspicere potuisti? i. e. cum coronam auream imponebant,

    id. Fl. 31, 76: apud imperitos tum illa dicta sunt;

    nunc agendum est subtilius,

    id. Fin. 4, 27, 74:

    itaque tum Stajenus condemnatus est,

    i. e. in that trial, id. Clu. 36, 101; id. Sen. 7, 22:

    M. Porcius Cato qui, asper ingenio, tum lenem mitemque senatorem egit,

    Liv. 45, 25; Val. Max. 8, 3, 3:

    sed tum supplicia dis... decernuntur,

    Tac. A. 3, 64; 3, 72:

    Graecia tum potuit Priamo quoque flenda videri,

    Ov. M. 14, 474.—

    With the occasion referred to specified in the same clause: Manlius... ex petulanti scurra in discordiis civitatis ad eam columnam tum suffragiis populi pervenerat,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 39:

    emisti tum in naufragio hujus urbis... tum, inquam, emisti ut, etc.,

    id. Prov. Cons. 4, 7.—Repeated by anaphora: et Capitolinis injecit sedibus ignes. Tum statua Nattae, tum simulacra deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice belua vi fulminis icti conciderunt, Cic. Div. 2, 20, 45;

    so repeated seven times,

    id. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—
    (θ).
    Redundant, the time of the action being clear without it (esp. in Cic.):

    atque hoc tum judicio facto... tamen Avitus Oppianicum reum statim non facit,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 56:

    itaque tum ille inopia et necessitate coactus ad Caepasios confugit,

    id. ib. 20, 57; id. Brut. 23, 90; 39, 145; 43, 161; cf. id. Sull. 18, 51, where tum redundant occurs six times successively.—
    2.
    In oblique discourse, referring to the time of the speaker, = nunc in direct discourse:

    quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore?

    if they were not now so, Liv. 3, 62, 1:

    (dixit Sempronius)... nec tum agrum plebi, sed sibi invidiam quaeri,

    id. 4, 44, 9; 4, 57, 4:

    moenia eos tum transcendere non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romanae,

    id. 21, 35, 9; 5, 21, 7 (in this use nunc is also freq.).—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    (α).
    Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc., at such a season:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo (after Lyra rises),

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 12; 1, 35 fin.; Col. 11, 2, 87.—
    (β).
    With the force of an indefinite temporal clause, at such a time, in such circumstances, i. e. when such a thing happens as has happened:

    qui (porci) a partu decimo die habentur puri, ab eo appellantur sacres, quod tum ad sacrificium idonei habentur primum,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 16; 2, 7, 13:

    deinde cibum sequitur somnus... quia plurima tum se corpora conturbant (i. e. cum cibum ceperunt),

    Lucr. 4, 957; 3, 599; 4, 892; 4, 919;

    4, 1030: quam regionem cum superavit animus... finem altius se efferendi facit. Tum enim sui similem et levitatem et calorem adeptus... nullam in partem movetur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43; 1, 31, 75; 3, 23, 55; 4, 24, 54; Tac. Dial. 7.—
    (γ).
    With the force of a conditional clause, then, in this instance, if so: immo res omnis relictas habeo prae quod tu velis. Ph. Tum tu igitur, qua causa missus es ad portum, id expedi (i. e. si ita est), Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 39; id. Most. 5, 1, 55; id. As. 1, 1, 93; 2, 2, 64; 3, 3, 36; id. Aul. 3, 6, 31; id. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 2, 78: non potitus essem;

    fuisset tum illos mi aegre aliquot dies,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 7; id. Eun. 2, 2, 50; 5, 1, 23; id. Hec. 3, 5, 12:

    ego C. Caesaris laudibus desim, quas, etc.? Tum hercule me confitear non judicium aliquod habuisse,

    Cic. Planc. 39, 93: scribant aliquid Isocrateo more...;

    tum illos existimabo non desperatione formidavisse genus hoc,

    id. Or. 70, 235; id. Font. 21, 49 (17, 39); id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85; id. Fam. 9, 8, 2; Ov. H. 18 (19), 81: vellem tam ferax saeculum haberemus...;

    tum ego te primus hortarer, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 15, 8.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    To a definite time before mentioned:

    ut sit satius perdere Quam aut nunc manere tam diu, aut tum persequi,

    i. e. after my future return, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 27:

    jam nunc mente prospicio quae tum studia hominum, qui concursus futuri sint,

    Cic. Div. in Caecin. 13, 42; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37; 1, 10, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 17; id. Marcell. 9, 30:

    tum meae... Vocis accedet bona pars,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 45.—
    (β).
    With the force of a conditional clause (cf. 3. b, supra), then, in this instance, if so: specta, tum scies. Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 100; cf.:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 37: tuom incendes genus;

    Tum igitur aquae erit tibi cupido, etc.,

    id. Trin. 3, 2, 50; id. Curc. 2, 3, 17:

    confer sudantes, ructantes, refertos epulis... tum intelleges, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 100; id. Planc. 18, 45; id. Phil. 2, 45, 115:

    agedum, dictatorem creemus... Pulset tum mihi lictorem qui sciet, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 29, 12; Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 6; id. Or. 23, 78; 71, 235; Liv. 4, 22, 11; 5, 16, 10; 9, 11, 4.—
    B.
    Referring to a time subsequent to a time mentioned, then, thereupon.
    1.
    Simple sequence in time.
    (α).
    Time proper (only of an immediate sequence;

    otherwise deinde, postea, etc., are used): tum cum corde suo divum pater atque hominum rex Effatur, etc.,

    Enn. Ann. 179:

    dico ei quo pactod eam viderim erilem nostram filiam sustollere. Extimuit tum illa,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 9; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 58: tum ille egens forte adplicat Primum ad Chrysidis patrem se. Ter. And. 5, 4, 21; id. Eun. 3, 1, 17; Cato, R. R. 48 (49); 135 (136); so id. ib. 112 (113): equos quinto anno... amittere binos (dentes);

    tum renascentes eis sexto anno impleri,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 2 sq.: collo [p. 1909] cari jussit hominem in aureo lecto, abacosque complures ornavit... Tum ad mensam eximia forma pueros jussit consistere, eosque, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 61:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum puer nuntiavit venire ad eum Laelium... Tum Scipio e cubiculo est egressus, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18; id. Div. 2, 66, 135; id. Clu. 14, 40; id. Cat. 3, 5, 10; id. Ac. 2, 5, 13; id. Div. 1, 35, 77:

    hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum suo more conclamaverunt ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 26; cf. id. ib. 7, 64; 5, 43 fin.;

    5, 48: adsurgentem ibi regem cuspide ad terram adfixit. Tum spolia caputque abscisum spiculo gerens... hostes fudit,

    Liv. 4, 19, 5; 5, 21, 1; 1, 26, 9; 1, 18, 10; 1, 20, 1; 1, 22, 6; 1, 28, 4; 1, 28, 9; 2, 24, 4;

    3, 8, 11, etc.: tum Caesar cum exercitu Thessaliam petit,

    Vell. 2, 52, 1; Val. Max. 5, 1, 3; Curt. 4, 3, 7; Tac. A. 3, 28; 11, 35; id. H. 4, 84; Ov. M. 2, 122; 4, 80; 7, 121; 10, 481; 14, 386; Flor. 1, 13, 12; Gell. 1, 19, 5; 1, 23, 5.—
    (β).
    In partic., foll. by an abl. absol.:

    tum, prope jam perculsis aliis tribunis, A. Verginius Caesoni capitis diem dicit,

    Liv. 3, 11, 9; 8, 32, 1; 10, 29, 12:

    tum omni spe perdita, Meherdates dolo ejus vincitur, traditurque victori,

    Tac. A. 12, 15; 12, 16:

    tum, ferro extracto, confestim exanimatus est,

    Nep. Epam. 9, 4.—
    (γ).
    Implying a connection between two events, hence, under these circumstances, accordingly, thereupon:

    at pater omnipotens ira tum percitus acri... Phaethonta... Deturbavit in terram,

    Lucr. 5, 399:

    madefactum iri Graeciam sanguine... tum neque te ipsum non esse commotum, Marcumque Varronem et M. Catonem... vehementer esse perterritos,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 68; cf. id. ib. 1, 34, 76; Caes. B. G. 4, 25; cf. id. ib. 5, 49; 5, 51;

    7, 59: quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis, nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit,

    Liv. 1, 9, 2; 3, 26, 1; 3, 31, 7; 4, 45, 7.—
    2.
    Enumeration of a series of events; the co-ordinate clauses introduced by tum... tum, or primum (primo)... deinde... tum, etc.
    (α).
    Succession of time proper:

    ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Jove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 24, 49; 1, 27, 57; 2, 28, 58 sq.:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. Fin. 1, 16, 50; 5, 23, 65; id. Tusc. 5, 2, 5:

    primum... deinde... tum... postremo,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; 3, 3, 6: primum colonos inde Romanos expulit: inde in Latinam viam transgressus, etc., inde Lavinium recepit; tum deinceps Corbionem, Vitelliam;

    postremum, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 39, 4:

    primi consules sub jugum missi, tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, tum deinceps singulae legiones,

    id. 9, 6, 1:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. 21, 22, 8; id. praef. 9; 3, 28, 8: 5, 39, 7;

    23, 23, 6: deinde... deinde... Tum... post quas, etc.,

    Curt. 3, 3, 24: primum... deinde... deinde... tum... postea, Masur. Gabin. ap. Gell. 5, 13, 5; Gai. Inst. 4, 60.—
    (β).
    So in partic.: tum (also hic, et;

    not deinde or postea), to denote the succession of speakers in dialogue: immo duas dabo, inquit adulescens... Tum senex ille: Si vis, inquit, quattuor sane dato,

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 46 dub.:

    tum Piso... inquit, etc. Tum Quintus... inquit, etc. Hic ego... inquam, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Piso... inquit, etc. Et ille ridens... inquit, etc. Tum Piso exorsus est, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2 sqq.:

    tum Atticus... inquit, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Brutus, etc. Tum ille, etc. Tum Atticus, etc. Tum Pomponius... inquit, etc.,

    id. Brut. 3, 11 sqq., and through the whole treatise; cf. id. Ac. 1, 2, 4; 1, 3, 9; 1, 4, 13; 1, 12, 43 and 44; 2, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 15 sqq.; id. Rep. 1, 13, 19 sqq.; Liv. 7, 10, 2 sqq.; 23, 12, 8; Tac. Dial. 3; 15; 25; 42; Gell. 3, 1, 11 sqq.; 18, 1, 9 sqq.; Ov. M. 14, 594.—
    (γ).
    Transf., of sequence or succession of thought, passing into mere co-ordination (v. C. 2. b, g), then... again... furthermore:

    qui mi in cursu obstiterit, faxo vitae is obstiterit suae. Prius edico ne quis, etc. Tum pistores scrofipasci qui, etc. Tum piscatores.... Tum lanii autem qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 28; 4, 2, 34; 4, 2, 39: (res familiaris) primum bene parta sit, tum quam plurimis se utilem praebeat, deinde augeatur ratione, diligentia, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 26, 92; id. Ac. 2, 47, 146; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 68 sq.; 5, 40, 117; id. Ac. 2, 10, 30; id. de Or. 1, 42, 190; id. Cat. 4, 3, 5; id. Agr. 1, 2, 5; id. Clu. 2, 6; Liv. 3, 26, 11.—
    C.
    Hence, as co-ordinating conjunction, introducing an additional assertion, or thought.
    1.
    Alone, = praeterea, and then, besides, also, moreover, on the other hand (freq. in ante-class. style and in Cic.;

    rare in Livy and post-Aug. prose): argenti aurique advexit multum, lanam purpuramque multam... tum Babylonica peristromata, etc.,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 3, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 10; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 71; 4, 8, 17; id. Ps. 3, 2, 78; id. Aul. 1, 2, 6; 1, 3, 16; id. Men. 5, 5, 41; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 1, 3, 15; 4, 2, 3; Ter. And. 1, 5, 27; 1, 2, 21; 2, 3, 7; id. Eun. prol. 4; 5, 6, 15; id. Heaut. 2, 1, 16; Lucr. 4, 680; cf. id. 1, 494; 4, 1152:

    magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum omnis ab eo percepta doctrina... caruit omnino rebus urbanis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 1; 2, 14, 43; id. Div. 1, 24, 50; 1, 42, 94; id. de Or. 1, 46, 201; id. Off. 1, 6, 19; id. Fin. 1, 6, 21; 2, 16, 53; id. Leg. 1, 5, 17; 1, 9, 26; id. Rab. Post. 14, 40; id. Phil. 13, 12, 26:

    altera ex parte Bellovaci instabant, alteram Camulogenus tenebat: tum legiones a praesidio interclusas maximum flumen distinebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59; id. B. C. 3, 49: naves convenerunt duae Punicae quinqueremes;

    duae ab Heraclea triremes... tum quinque Rhodiae quadriremes,

    Liv. 42, 56, 6; 1, 40, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 3, 4; Just. 5, 10, 3.—Sometimes connecting two terms of the same clause, with the force of cum... tum (v. infra, 3. d.):

    quot me censes homines jam deverberasse, hospites tum civis?

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 14:

    faciendum est igitur nobis ut... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus... confirmetur,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 3, 7; Liv. 28, 43, 1 (in co-ordination often with etiam, autem, and sometimes with praeterea and porro; v. III. infra).—
    2.
    Tum as correlative of a preceding tum.
    (α).
    With an added assertion or thought: ita est haec hominum natio: voluptarii atque potatores, Tum sycophantae... plurimi In urbe habitant;

    tum meretrices mulieres Nusquam perhibentur blandiores gentium,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 28; id. Mil. 3, 1, 100; 3, 1, 102.—
    (β).
    Tum... tum = nunc... nunc (modo... modo), sometimes... sometimes, now... now, at one time... at another (freq. in Cic., not in Caes., rare in Liv., and very rare in postAug. writers):

    tum huc, tum illuc inretitos impedit piscis,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 17:

    tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 134:

    mihi... tum hoc tum illud probabilius videtur,

    id. Off. 3, 7, 33; so id. Am. 4, 13; id. Sen. 13, 45; id. Top. 7, 31; id. N. D. 2, 19, 49:

    (alvus) tum restringitur, tum relaxatur,

    id. ib. 2, 54, 136; id. Rep. 3, 13 (14), 23; id. Leg. 2, 7, 16; id. Or. 63, 212; id. Sen. 3, 7; id. Inv. 1, 37, 66:

    dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites,

    Liv. 8, 39, 4; Suet. Ner. 1; Gell. 1, 11, 15.—Tum may be repeated several times:

    plerique propter voluptatem tum in morbos graves, tum in damna, tum in dedecora incurrunt,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 14, 47; 3, 7, 26;

    so three times,

    id. N. D. 1, 12, 29; 1, 14, 37; 1, 15, 39; id. Inv. 1, 52, 98; id. Or. 3, 45, 177; id. Off. 1, 7, 22; id. Leg. 2, 17, 43; id. Top. 25, 96;

    four times,

    id. N. D. 1, 43, 120; 2, 20, 52; 2, 39, 101; id. Verr. 2, 4, 34, § 75;

    five times,

    id. N. D. 2, 5, 14; id. Inv. 1, 13, 17; 1, 41, 76; id. Verr. 2, 5, 36, § 94;

    six times,

    id. ib. 1, 53, 120;

    seven times,

    Quint. 9, 4, 133;

    nine times,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 50, 51.—And in chronological order (to be distinguished from the instances B. 2. a and g):

    Atheniensium (rem publicam constituerunt) tum Theseus, tum Draco, tum Solo, tum Clisthenes, tum multi alii,

    at different times, successively, Cic. Rep. 2, 1, 2.—
    (γ).
    Preceded or followed by other co-ordinate words (alias, modo, aliquando, aut... aut, nunc... nunc):

    ex quo intellegitur qualis ille sit quem tum moderatum, alias modestum, tum temperantem, alias constantem continentemque dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 36:

    tum... tum... aliquando,

    id. Div. 2, 2, 6:

    tum... tum... aut... aut,

    id. Or. 61, 204:

    modo... tum autem,

    id. N. D. 2, 40, 142:

    nunc... nunc... tum... tum,

    Flor. 1, 17, 5.—
    (δ).
    Tum... tum = et... et, both... and, not only... but also, partly... partly, without regard to time, the second term being frequently strengthened by etiam (mostly post-Aug.):

    Milo Compsam oppugnans, ictusque lapide tum Clodio, tum patriae, quam armis petebat, poenas dedit,

    Vell. 2, 68, 3:

    Muciam et Fulviam, tum a patre, tum a viro utramque inclitam,

    Val. Max. 9, 1, 8:

    Caesar Pompejo tum proprias, tum etiam filiae lacrimas reddidit,

    id. 5, 1, 10; Quint. 7, 3, 18; Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 28; id. Clem. 1, 19, 2; Front. Aquaed. 1; Tac. A. 12, 33; Suet. Tit. 3; Nep. praef. 8;

    and with etiam,

    Val. Max. 2, 2, 8; 5, 9, 1; 7, 6 prooem.; Nep. Them. 2, 3.—
    3.
    As correlative with a preceding cum, introducing particular after a universal or a stronger or more important assertion after a weaker or less important.
    a.
    Connecting complete sentences with different predicates, cum... tum = as... so, while... (tum being not translated; ante-class. cum always with indic.; class. with subj. or indic.):

    quom antehac te amavi, et mihi amicam esse crevi... tum id mihi hodie aperuisti,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 2; id. Truc. 4, 1, 6:

    quom id mihi placebat, tum uno ore omnes omnia Bona dicere,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 10:

    quae cum res tota ficta sit pueriliter, tum ne efficit quidem quod vult,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 19; id. Tusc. 5, 39, 13; id. Fam. 13, 16, 1; and so with subj., id. N. D. 1, 1, 1; id. Off. 3, 2, 5; id. Lael. 7, 23; id. Brut. 39, 145; 11, 250:

    cum omnium rerum simulatio est vitiosa, tum amicitiae repugnat maxime,

    id. Lael. 25, 91; id. Div. 2, 27, 58; and so with indic., id. Planc. 33, 80; id. Tull. 4, 8; id. Div. in Caecil. 20, 65; id. Sest. 1, 2; id. Fam. 16, 4, 4:

    haec cum merito ejus fieri intellegebat, tum magni interesse arbitrabatur, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 4; 3, 16; id. B. C. 1, 58; Liv. 3, 34, 1; 4, 53, 4.—
    b.
    Clauses with the same predicate, which is placed after the first clause (always with indic.):

    nam mihi, cum multa eximie divineque videntur Athenae tuae peperisse, tum nihil melius illis mysteriis quibus, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 36; id. Tusc. 4, 18, 42; id. Phil. 2, 5, 12; Liv. 4, 46, 10; 6, 38, 10.—
    c.
    Clauses with a common predicate placed before both co-ordinate terms, cum... tum = not only, but also; as... so especially:

    visa est Arcesilae cum vera sententia, tum honesta et digna sapiente,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 77; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; 2, 35, 119; 3, 1, 3:

    movit patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor,

    Liv. 9, 10, 1; 4, 57, 2; Suet. Ner. 46 init.
    d.
    With a common predicate after both co-ordinate terms:

    quom virum tum uxorem, di vos perdant,

    Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 103:

    luxuria cum omni aetati turpis tum senectuti foedissima est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 123; id. Clu. 59, 161; id. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 86; id. N. D. 1, 21, 57; id. Deiot. 9, 26; id. Clu. 16, 46:

    concitatos animos flecti quam frangi putabat cum tutius tum facilius esse,

    Liv. 2, 23, 15; 6, 9, 8; 1, 57, 1; 10, 26, 13; Tac. Dial. 5.—With tum several times repeated:

    quem pater moriens cum tutoribus et propinquis, tum legibus, tum aequitati magistratuum, tum judiciis vestris commendatum putavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 151; cf. esp. id. Planc. 40, 95. —
    e.
    Tum, in this construction, is freq. strengthened,
    (α).
    By vero:

    cum haec sunt videnda, tum vero illud est hominis magni, etc.,

    in particular, Cic. Clu. 58, 159; id. Mur. 27, 55; id. Phil. 3, 5, 12; 7, 3, 9; cf. id. Or. 1, 23, 106; 3, 16, 60; Liv. 34, 39, 9; Quint. 12, 1, 25.—
    (β).
    By maxime, above all, most of all, especially, chiefly:

    cum omnibus in rebus temeritas in adsentando turpis est, tum in eo loco maxime in quo ju dicandum est quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 4, 7; id. Tusc. 4, 1, 1; 5, 12, 36; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 69:

    cum infamia atque indignitas rei impediebat, tum maxime quod, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 56; Sall. J. 43, 5; Liv. 1, 8, 2; Suet. Claud. 30; Quint. 6, 1, 29.—
    (γ).
    By praecipue, especially, chiefly, above all:

    cum omnium sociorum provinciarumque rationem diligenter habere debetis, tum praecipue Siciliae,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 2; id. Fam. 13, 11, 3:

    fortuna quae plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus, tum praecipue in bello,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 68; Liv. 22, 43, 11; 1, 40, 3; Quint. 1, 1, 29; 1, 10, 13; 5, 10, 106; Plin. Ep. 4, 3, 2.—
    (δ).
    By inprimis, chiefly, principally:

    cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 18; id. Fam. 12, 22, 3.—
    (ε).
    By cumprimis, chiefly, principally: quapropter bene cum superis de rebus habenda Nobis est ratio... tum cumprimis Unde anima atque animi constet [p. 1910] natura videndum, Lucr. 1, 131.—
    (ζ).
    By certe, especially, at least, assuredly:

    at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 5, 13; id. Fam. 7, 4; cf. Quint. 2, 1, 10.—
    (η).
    By nimirum, assuredly, undoubtedly:

    cum plurimas... commoditates amicitia contineat, tum illa nimirum praestat omnibus quod, etc.,

    Cic. Am. 7, 23. —
    (θ).
    By etiam, besides, as well:

    cum omnes omnibus ex terris homines improbos audacesque collegerat, tum etiam multos fortes viros et bonos... tenebat,

    Cic. Cael. 6, 14; id. Ac. 2, 10, 31; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2:

    quos tu cum memoriter, tum etiam erga nos amice et benevole collegisti,

    id. Fin. 1, 10, 34; id. Verr. 2, 3, 23, § 56:

    cum sua virtute, tum etiam alienis vitiis,

    id. Leg. 23, 67; id. Fin. 2, 12, 38; id. N. D. 2, 37, 95; id. de Or. 3, 60, 225; Liv. 1, 21, 2; 7, 23, 6; 7, 32, 10; Val. Max. 7, 2, 3; 3, 2, 10; 9, 6, 3; Quint. 9, 1, 20; 9, 4, 143.—
    (ι).
    By quoque, also, besides, as well:

    cum potestas major, tum vir quoque potestati par hostes trans Anienem submovere,

    Liv. 4, 17, 11; 1, 22, 2; cf. Quint. 12, 10, 72.—
    (κ).
    By et, also, besides, too:

    cujus mortem cum luctus civitatis, tum et dictaturae undecim insignem fecere,

    Just. 19, 1, 7.—
    (λ).
    By praeterea, moreover, besides:

    dicimus C. Verrem cum multa libidinose fecerit, tum praeterea quadringentiens sestertium ex Sicilia abstulisse,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56.
    II.
    Tum as correlative of dependent clauses (freq. in ante - class. writings and Cic., rare in post-Aug. writings).
    A.
    With temporal clauses, introduced by cum, = at the time when, at a time when.
    1.
    Referring to definite past time.
    a.
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    jam tum cum primum jussit me ad se arcessier, Roget quis, Quid tibi cum illa?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 4; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21:

    qui (Hercules) tum dolore frangebatur cum immortalitatem ipsa morte quaerebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20:

    bene apud majores nostros senatus tum cum florebat imperium decrevit ut, etc.,

    id. Div. 1, 41, 91; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114; id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 2, 66, § 160; id. Clu. 33, 89; id. Verr. 1, 2, 5; id. Brut. 2, 7; 23, 89; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Agr. 2, 24, 64; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; 3, 4, 11:

    tum mittendos legatos fuisse cum Perseus Graecas urbes obsideret,

    Liv. 45, 3, 7:

    tum cum Vipereos sparsi... dentes,

    Ov. M. 4, 572; id. H. 3, 23; Val. Max. 6, 1, 12.—After pluperf.:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant scimus Romae solutione impedita fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19; Val. Max. 3, 6, 1; 2, 8, 15 fin. —Tum inserted in the temporal clause:

    cum Davo egomet vidi jurgantem ancillam... quom ibi me adesse neuter tum praesenserat,

    Ter. And. 5, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Tum, introducing the apodosis of the temporal clause (generally not transl. in Engl.).
    (α).
    Of coincident events, cum... tum = while: quom genui tum morituros scivi, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132 (Trag. Rel. v. 361 Vahl.); Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 18:

    cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 3, 6; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Cael. 26, 63; id. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum pavida mulier nullam opem videret, tum Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, etc.,

    Liv. 1, 58, 3; 5, 11, 4. —
    (β).
    Tum = deinde, usu. after a pluperf.:

    id cum Sulla fecisset, tum ante oppidum Nolam Samnitium castra cepit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 33, 72; id. Brut. 92, 319; id. Ac. 2, 3, 9; 2, 3, 15; id. Fin. 1, 8, 26; id. Tusc. 4, 20, 45; id. Div. 1, 25, 53; 2, 2, 7; id. Rep. 2, 25, 47; Liv. 21, 11, 8; cf. id. 1, 26, 7; 23, 22, 4.—Inserted in the apodosis:

    cum jam humanae opes egestae a Veis essent, amoliri tum deum dona,

    Liv. 5, 22, 3.—
    2.
    Referring to definite present time:

    quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis. Cum enim miserum esse dicis, tum eum qui non sit, dicis esse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 12.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent of the clause, = at the time when, at a time when, whenever: hominum inmortalis est infamia;

    etiam tum vivit quom esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28; id. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7; Cato, R. R. 31:

    nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque requirit Cum pariter mens et corpus sopita quiescunt,

    Lucr. 3, 919; 4, 444; 4, 455;

    4, 1166: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adjungitur,

    Cic. Div. 2, 25, 54; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104; id. N. D. 2, 3, 9: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, Ov. H. 5, 109; Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44; 2, 27, 88; id. Fin. 4, 8, 20; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 20; 5, 26, 73; id. N. D. 1, 4, 9; id. Off. 1, 27, 93.—Tum maxime... cum plurimum = eo magis quo magis:

    eam (partem animi) tum maxime vigere cum plurimum absit a corpore,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 70; so, cum maxime... tum maxime; v. b. a foll.—
    b.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    As coincident:

    quom amamus, tum perimus,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 94:

    ulmus, cum folia cadunt, tum iterum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; so id. ib. 155 (156):

    cum ea quae quasi involuta fuerunt, aperti sunt, tum inventa dicuntur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 8, 26; id. Fin. 5, 10, 29; 1, 17, 57; id. N. D. 2, 52, 129; 1, 19, 49; id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 15.—Cum maxime... tum maxime = quo magis eo magis:

    nam quom pugnabant maxume, ego tum fugiebam maxume,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 45:

    quamobrem omnes, cum secundae res sunt maxume, tum maxume Meditari secum oportet, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 14, 30 poet. —
    (β).
    As subsequent:

    ad legionem quom itum, adminiculum eis danunt tum jam aliquem cognatum suum,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 47:

    eo cum accessit ratio argumentique conclusio... tum et perceptio eorum omnium apparet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 10, 30; 2, 41, 128; id. Fin. 5, 9, 24; 1, 20, 69; 5, 15, 41; id. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 1, 24, 58; 3, 2, 3; id. N. D. 2, 48, 123; id. Div. 2, 19, 44.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    quom mi haec dicentur dicta, tum tu, furcifer, quasi mus in medio pariete vorsabere,

    Plaut. Cas. 1, 51; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 20:

    non committam ut tum haec res judicetur cum haec frequentia Roma discesserit,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 54; id. Agr. 2, 17, 44; 2, 25, 67; id. Fin. 4, 22, 62; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Liv. 23, 13, 4; 41, 10, 7; Ov. M. 2, 651; id. H. 15, 293; Nep. Them. 6, 5.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; 4, 6, 30:

    de quo cum perpauca dixero, tum ad jus civile veniam,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Clu. 2, 6; 4, 9; Liv. 3, 56, 10.—
    B.
    With temporal clause, introduced by ubi.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    vitem novellam resecare tum erit tempus ubi valebit,

    Cato, R. R. 33:

    tum tu igitur demum id adulescenti aurum dabis, ubi erit locata virgo in matrimonium?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 52.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time (tum always = deinde):

    ubi eorum dolorem majorem quam ceterorum cognovi, tum meum animum in illos, tum mei consilii causam proposui, tum eos hortatus sum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    ubi illuxit, et Romanis Punica et Gallica arma cognita, tum dubitationem exemere,

    Liv. 25, 10, 5; 1, 9, 10; 4, 57, 3; 9, 43, 16; 21, 25, 12; 23, 11, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    post ubi tempust promissa jam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 8: Cato, R. R. 3 init.; 17:

    ubi jam morbi se flexit causa... Tum quasi vaccillans primum consurgit,

    Lucr. 3, 503; 6, 129; 6, 526.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time:

    otium ubi erit, tum tibi operam ludo et deliciae dabo,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 4, 13; id. Stich. 4, 2, 14:

    ubi tu voles, Ubi tempus erit, sat habet si tum recipitur,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 32; Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 72; id. Pers. 4, 7, 19; id. Cas. 3, 2, 27:

    ut ubi id interrogando argumentis firmavero, tum testes ad crimen accommodem,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 55:

    ubi haerere jam aciem videris, tum terrorem equestrem infer,

    Liv. 6, 12, 10; 22, 55, 8.—
    C.
    With a temporal clause introduced by postquam.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    Flaminius qui ne quieto quidem hoste ipse quieturus erat, tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 3, 7; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 (v. infra, III. A. 2. a. b).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis (always = deinde).
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    posteaquam e portu piratae exierunt, tum coeperunt quaerere homines, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 100; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40 (al. tunc):

    postquam satis virium collectum videbat, tum ex suis unum sciscitatum Romam ad patrem misit,

    Liv. 1, 54, 5; 3, 66, 5; 6, 13, 4; 22, 48, 4; 25, 10, 6; Gell. 5, 3, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time: postquam vero commoditas quaedam... dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum ingenio freta malitia pervertere urbes adsuevit, Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 3.—
    D.
    With a temporal clause introduced by ut.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    tum vero ingentem gemitum dat Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici... conspexit,

    Verg. A. 1, 485; cf. id. ib. 12, 218.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    nam ut dudum adcurrimus ad Alcesimarchum... tum mi, puto, prae timore hic excidisse Cistellam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 46:

    sed ut intellectum est quantam vim haberet accurata... oratio, tum etiam magistri dicendi multi subito exstiterunt,

    Cic. Brut. 8, 30; id. Phil. 9, 4, 9; Liv. 24, 44, 10; id. 21, 54, 9; 23, 34, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to future time:

    neque ut quaeque res delata ad nos erit, tum denique scrutari locos debemus,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 34, 146:

    traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum, si eam Romanus rite emisisset, victoriam de Vejentibus dari (= si quando),

    Liv. 5, 15, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.—
    E.
    With a temporal clause introduced by quando.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    auctoritatem senatus exstare sentio, tum, quando Alexandro mortuo, legatos Tyrum misimus,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 16, 41.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at scire tum memento quando id quod voles habebis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 41; id. Mil. 3, 1, 213; id. Most. 3, 1, 136; id. Men. 5, 7, 57:

    utinam tum essem natus quando Romani dona accipere coepissent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of indefinite time (quando = whenever):

    quando esurio tum crepant (intestina),

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 27; id. Truc. 1, 1, 15; id. Ps. 4, 7, 85:

    quando mulier dotem marito dabat, tum quae ex suis bonis retinebat reciperare dicebatur,

    Gell. 17, 6, 6; 7 (6), 14, 4.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at tu, quando habebis, tum dato,

    Plaut. Men. 3, 3, 23:

    quando ab eadem parte sol eodemque tempore iterum defecerit, tum signis omnibus ad principium revocatis, expletum annum habeto,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    quando mihi usus venerit, tum quaeram ex te atque discam,

    Gell. 6 (7), 17, 4.—
    F.
    In the apodosis after simul ac:

    an simul ac nubes successere, ipse in eas tum Descendit (Juppiter), prope ut hinc teli determinet ictus?

    Lucr. 6, 402.—
    G.
    With a temporal clause introduced by dum.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent:

    sanctius visum est nomen Augusti, ut scilicet jam tum dum colit terras, ipso numine ac titulo consecretur,

    Flor. 2, 33, 66 (4, 12, 66).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    dum habeat, tum amet,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23:

    dum se glomerant... tum pondere turris Procubuit,

    Verg. A. 9, 540.—
    H.
    As antecedent of quamdiu:

    qui cum tibi amicus non modo tum fuerit quamdiu tecum in provincia fuerit, verum etiam nunc sit cum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 24, § 58.—
    K.
    Denoting a logical consequence after quando and cum:

    quando ergo erga te benignus fui... tum te mihi benigne itidem addecet... referre gratiam,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 35:

    cum magnus numerus deesset, tum iste homo nefarius in eorum locum... substituere coepit cives Romanos,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 72.—
    L.
    After relative clauses denoting time: qua tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis junxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis jam fere ad pariendum mensibus, Poet. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 58, 219 (Trag. Rel. p. 246 Rib.).—
    M.
    With conditional clauses.
    1.
    With a conditional clause introduced by si, sin, ni (not nisi).
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of clause:

    tum pol ego interii, homo si ille abiit,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 6; id. Men. 2, 2, 71; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 40:

    si tenuis causa est, tum etiam argumentandi tenue filum,

    Cic. Or. 36, 124; id. Rep. 1, 40, 62; 2, 9, 15; id. Fin. 1, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 13; id. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    tum vero ego nequiquam Capitolium servaverim si civem in servitutem duci videam,

    Liv. 6, 14, 4; 3, 9, 11; 6, 14, 4; 7, 34, 14; Cato ap. Plin. 29, 1, 7, § 14; Gell. 2, 12, 1 sq.; 4, 13, 1; 14, 2, 21.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si triduum hoc hic erimus, tum arbores in te cadent,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 30; id. Rud. 5, 2, 59; 3, 4, 49; id. As. 1, 3, 89; id. Rud. 1, 3, 13; id. Ps. 4, 1, 1; 4, 1, 48 (39); Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 64; 3, 1, 17; id. Phorm. 1, 3, 19; Cato, R. R. 26; cf. id. ib. 27:

    quod si, ut spero, cepero, tum vero litteras publice mittam,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 3; id. Div. 1, 44, 100; cf. id. Ac. 2, 10, 32; id. Fin. 2, 4, 79; id. N. D. 3, 36, 87; id. Rep. 1, 43, 66: id. [p. 1911] Rosc. Am. 49, 142:

    si dimicandum erit, tum tu in novissimos te recipito,

    Liv. 7, 40, 13; 8, 10, 12; Hor. S. 1, 2, 97; Ov. M. 7, 32.—

    Esp., denoting the consequences of perjury in ancient formulas of oaths: si ego injuste illos homines dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae compotem me numquam siris esse,

    Liv. 1, 32, 7; 1, 24, 8; 22, 53, 11; hence, quid si falles? Me. Tum Mercurius Sosiae iratus siet, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 239; 3, 2, 52; id. Aul. 4, 10, 50; cf. also Liv. 3, 64, 10.—
    2.
    With a condition contrary to fact.
    (α).
    Tum, antecedent of clause:

    tum esset ostentum, si anguem vectis circumplicavisset,

    Cic. Div. 2, 28, 62; id. Verr. 2, 2, 68, § 164:

    tum id audirem si tibi soli viveres,

    id. Marcell. 8, 25; id. Fin. 4, 13, 33; id. Div. 2, 35, 73.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si quidem me amaret, tum istuc prodesset,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 56:

    quodsi omnia nobis quae ad victum pertinent. suppeditarentur, tum optimo quisque ingenio, totum se in cognitione et scientia collocaret,

    Cic. Off. 1, 44, 158. —
    N.
    After an abl. absol.
    1.
    With perfect participles (= postquam or cum... tum), mostly with denique, vero, demum.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    ut morte ejus nuntiata tum denique bellum confectum arbitraretur,

    Cic. Mur. 16, 34:

    sed confecto proelio tum vero cerneres quanta vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae,

    Sall. C. 61, 1:

    ita rebus divinis peractis tum de bello deque republica dictator rettulit,

    Liv. 22, 11, 1; 2, 29, 1; 2, 29, 3; 3, 56, 1; 5, 50, 8; Plin. 11, 20, 22, § 68.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    hisce omnibus rebus consideratis, tum denique id quod primum est dicendum, postremum soleo cogitare, quo utar exordio,

    Cic. Or. 2, 77, 315.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time (the abl. absol. = a fut. perf.):

    ita prope XL. diebus interpositis tum denique se responsuros esse arbitrantur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 10, 31; 1, 18, 54; id. Fin. 4, 13, 32; id. Scaur. Fragm. 10, 22.—
    2.
    With pres. participles (post-class.):

    tacentibus cunctis, tum ipse (dixit), etc.,

    Just. 12, 15, 6.
    III.
    Particular connections.
    A.
    With other particles of time.
    1.
    Jam tum, already at that time, i. e. earlier than might be anticipated:

    jam tum erat suspitio Dolo malo haec fieri,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 8; cf. id. ib. 4, 4, 58; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 34:

    quippe etenim jam tum divom mortalia saecla Egregias animo facies vigilante videbant,

    Lucr. 5, 1169; 5, 1037:

    ut mihi jam tum divinasse ille (Romulus) videatur hanc urbem sedem aliquando summo esse imperio praebituram,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 5, 10; 2, 7, 12; id. Div. 2, 57, 118; id. Tusc. 4, 2, 4:

    jam tum in Palatio monte Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt,

    Liv. 1, 5, 1; 1, 7, 16; 1, 41, 7; 10, 21, 14;

    24, 49, 1: ut jam tum qualis futurus esset ostenderet,

    Suet. Dom. 1; Curt. 4, 6, 29.—
    2.
    Tum demum and tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, i. e. later than might be expected, implying delayed action.
    a.
    Tum demum.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    adversisque in rebus noscere qui sit. Nam verae voces tum demum pectore ab imo Eiciuntur,

    Lucr. 3, 58:

    tum demum Liscus, oratione Caesaris adductus, quod antea tacuerat proponit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 5, 33; Sall. J. 46, 1:

    nec ante in campum degressi sunt quam, etc. Tum demum castra Etruscorum pro moenibus Fidenarum posita,

    Liv. 4, 17, 12; 45, 12, 6; 2, 20, 11; 5, 39, 2; 23, 19, 15 et saep.; Val. Max. 1, 6, 10; 1, 7, 4; Curt. 3, 12, 12; Tac. A. 3, 18; 3, 47.—
    (β).
    In partic., referring to clauses introduced by cum, ubi, si, or abl. absol. (v. II. A. B. L. M.), denoting absolute restriction to the terms of the clause:

    imo etiam ubi expolivero, magis hoc tum demum dices,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 60:

    tum demum mihi procax Academia videbitur si aut consenserint omnes, aut, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 6, 13:

    cum is Casilini eo die mansurum dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error,

    Liv. 22, 13, 8; Vell. 2, 115, 4; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 fin.; 7, 2, 4; Curt. 3, 11, 6; Plin. Ep. 8, 20, 7.—
    (γ).
    Sometimes = nunc demum (anteclass.): victus es, Chaline. St. Tum nos demum vivere. Olympio. Gaudeo, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 65.—
    b.
    Tum denique.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5:

    injecta glaeba tumulus is (locus) ubi humatus est vocatur, ac tum denique multa religiosa jura complectitur,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 57; id. Fin. 3, 22, 76; id. Tusc. 3, 26, 61: nequiquam temptati ut tum denique desisterent impediendo bello, Liv. 4, 55, 5; Ov. M. 4, 519; 7, 857; 10, 664.—
    (β).
    Referring to clauses with cum, etc. (v. II. A. B. L. M.):

    tum denique homines nostra intellegimus bona quom quae in potestate habuimus ea amisimus,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    quo cum venerimus, tum denique vivemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 31, 75; 3, 31, 75; id. Leg. 2, 4, 10; id. Rep. 1, 6, 11; so,

    tum denique si,

    id. Fam. 14, 2, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 10, § 29; id. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 1:

    indicandum primum fuisse, dein petendum praesidium, postremo ni impetraretur, tum denique querendum,

    Liv. 23, 43, 2; Cato ap. Plin. 17, 18, 29, § 126 (for tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9, v. II. D. 2. a).—
    3.
    Tum primum (rarely primo), then for the first time:

    tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit,

    Lucr. 5, 1014:

    ludorum gratia quos tum primum anniversarios in circo facere constituisset,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 7, 12; id. Sen. 21, 78; Caes. B. G. 7, 11:

    ponte sublicio tum primum in Tiberi facto,

    Liv. 1, 33, 6; 2, 41, 3; 39, 22, 2; 2, 20, 6; 39, 49, 4; Vell. 2, 37, 5; Tac. A. 2, 27; id. H. 4, 57; Curt. 3, 12, 26. —
    4.
    With deinde, hic, postea, with consecutive force emphatic.
    a.
    Deinde tum (very rare):

    primum ea quae sumus acturi cogitare debemus, deinde tum dicere ac facere,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 6, 62.—
    b.
    Tum deinde.
    (α).
    = tum demum or tum denique, then at length, not till then, then only:

    nonne optime patronus occurrat prius conviciis luxuriae, etc., tum deinde narret de bonis Pallae? etc.,

    Quint. 4, 2, 27; 12, 10, 11:

    emam, aedificabo, credam, exigam, honores geram: tum deinde lassam senectutem in otium referam,

    Sen. Ep. 101, 4; Plin. 16, 44, 95, § 251.—So corresp. with cum:

    quas cum solus pertulisset, tum deinde comitia collegae subrogando habuit,

    Liv. 2, 8, 3 (Weissenb. demum, by conj.); Col. R. R. 1, 6, 13. —
    (β).
    = an emphatic deinde: nam praetermisit quod in prima parte sumere debuit;

    tum deinde eodem ipso quod omiserat quasi proposito ad confirmandum aliud utitur,

    Gell. 2, 8, 3; 13, 24 (23), 1; Just. 2, 1, 19.—
    c.
    With hic:

    hic tum repente Pacilius quidam accedit, ait, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94:

    hic ego tum ad respondendum surrexi,

    id. Clu. 18, 51; 27, 73:

    hic tum injectus est hominibus scrupulus,

    id. ib. 28, 76; id. Sest. 11, 25.—
    d.
    Tum postea:

    tum postea complorantibus nostris, dies quidem tandem inluxit,

    Gell. 19, 1, 3; so id. 14, 3, 10 (for quid tum postea, v. D. 1.).—
    5.
    With interim:

    unum, alterum, tertium annum Sassia quiescebat... Tum interim, Q. Hortensio, Q. Metello coss.... despondet ei filiam suam,

    Cic. Clu. 64, 179.—
    B.
    With particles of emphasis.
    1.
    Tum vero (sometimes tum enimvero or enimvero tum), then indeed, at that crisis, then if not before, etc., or merely = emphatic then, denoting either coincidence or sequence of action.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    discedit a Melino Cluentia. Tum vero illa egregia mater palam exsultare... coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 14; 22, 61; id. Agr. 1, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107:

    semper equidem magno cum metu incipio dicere... tum vero ita sum perturbatus ut, etc.,

    id. Clu. 18, 51:

    tum vero dubitandum non existimavit quin ad eos proficisceretur,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8; 5, 37; id. B. C. 1, 82; 2, 42:

    Aruns Tarquinius et Tullia minor... junguntur nuptiis. Tum vero in dies infestior Tulli senectus... coepit esse,

    Liv. 1, 47, 1; 2, 22, 6; 4, 49, 13; 10, 19, 12; 21, 45, 9; 21, 58, 5; Ov. M. 2, 227; 7, 685; Curt. 4, 13, 1; 3, 11, 5; Tac. Agr. 37.—And in enumerations:

    deinde... post autem... tum vero ipsam veterem Karthaginem vendunt,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 5.—
    (β).
    As correlative of temporal or conditional clauses, and after abl. absol.:

    quod ubi Romam est nuntiatum, senatui metum injecit ne tum vero sustineri nec in urbe seditio, nec in castris posset,

    Liv. 5, 7, 4; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    tum vero... si,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 19, 63; Liv. 6, 14, 4 (v. II. M. 1. a, b).—With cum, Liv. 32, 12, 1:

    quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari... vidit, Tum vero gemitus... Edidit,

    Ov. M. 2, 621; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40; v. C. 1. b. (so, tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; v. II. D. 2. and M. 1.).—
    2.
    Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least (usu. opposed to a later time): dixit sibi in somnis visum esse, etc. Et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem devovit se, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 24, 51; so,

    actum quidem,

    id. Fl. 25, 59; id. Lael. 11, 39:

    et tum quidem ab Dio Perseus in interiora regni recepit se... post dies paucos, etc.,

    Liv. 42, 39, 1; 1, 57, 10; 3, 2, 10;

    7, 17, 3.—Often in resuming the narrative after a digression: ac tum quidem regem... filium appellat,

    Curt. 4, 7, 25.—Merely emphatic:

    Duillio Cornelioque coss. etiam mari congredi ausus est. Tum quidem ipsa velocitas classis comparatae victoriae auspicium fuit,

    Flor. 1, 18 (2, 2), 7; so id. 1, 22 (2, 6), 20; 1, 40 (3, 5), 12.—With cum, Tac. Dial. 11.—
    3.
    Ne tum quidem, not even then:

    num quis horum miser hodie? Ne tum quidem, post spiritum extremum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 37, 89; id. Div. 1, 26, 55; id. Verr. 2, 2, 40, § 98:

    ubi ne tum quidem eos prodire intellexit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 50; 7, 53; Tac. H. 5, 21; Curt. 3, 2, 18.—With cum:

    ille vere ne tum quidem miser cum ab Oroete in crucem actus est,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92; so id. Tusc. 5, 20, 57; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; Liv. praef. 12; 39, 39, 11.—
    4.
    Tum maxime (sometimes tum cummaxime).
    (α).
    Especially at that time, chiefly then: illi sumposia, nos convivia quod tum maxime simul vivitur, Cic. Fam. 9, 24, 35; id. Leg. 2, 11, 26.—With cum:

    quae quidem vis tum maxime cognita est cum... M. Cato, legem suadens, in Galbam multa dixit,

    Cic. Brut. 23, 89; id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Par. 4, 1, 29.—
    (β).
    Just then, just at that moment (not ante-Aug.):

    regi, tum maxime captivos ex Illyrico vendenti,

    Liv. 43, 20, 3; 1, 10, 1:

    per totam aciem vulgatum est, castra amissa esse, et tum cummaxime ardere,

    id. 40, 32, 1; so,

    tum cummaxime,

    id. 43, 7, 8:

    corpus enim suum a caupone trucidatum tum maxime plaustro ad portam ferri,

    Val. Max. 1, 7, ext. 10; 2, 10, 2; 3, 2, 2 fin.; Curt. 3, 4, 14; 6, 6, 10; Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154; Quint. 2, 15, 30; 2, 61, 31; Suet. Caes. 65; id. Calig. 53.—So with cum:

    et quod tum maxime Abydum oppugnaret cum rex ab Attalo et Rhodiis ultro se bello lacessitum diceret,

    Liv. 31, 18, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 15, 2.—
    (γ).
    Strengthening the co-ordinate tum after cum, so especially; v. I. C. 3. e. b (for cum maxime... tum maxime and tum maxime... cum plurimum, v. II. A. 3. a. b.).—
    5.
    Tum potissimum = tum maxime, just then (rare):

    C. Caesar... tum potissimum acie commissa impeditos religione hostes vicit,

    Front. Strat. 2, 1, 16.—
    6.
    Etiam tum.
    (α).
    Even then:

    etiam tum vivit cum esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28:

    totum se Servilio etiam tum tradidit,

    even then, at so late a time, Cic. Sest. 62, 130:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit,

    id. Rosc. Am. 20, 57.— So with cum, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 59, § 154; id. Dom. 13, 23; id. Sest. 38, 81.—
    (β).
    Still, as yet (also as one word; cf. etiamtum, and v. the foll. additional passages), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 19, § 41; id. Fin. 3, 14, 48; id. Rep. 2, 12, 24; id. Arch. 3, 5; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; id. Brut. 20, 80; id. Off. 2, 14, 47; Caes. B. C. 3, 93; Liv. 5, 40, 10; Val. Max. 9, 6, 3; Tac. A. 3, 72; Suet. Claud. 27 fin.; id. Dom. 22.—

    And with a negation, = nondum: ipsa ego non longos etiam tum scissa capillos,

    not yet long, Ov. H. 8, 79.—
    7.
    Tum etiam.
    (α).
    Followed by si or cum, even if, even when:

    atque equidem filium Tum etiam si nolit, cogam,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 65:

    qui tum etiam cum... circumfusi erant caligine,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 45.—
    (β).
    Then also, then too, besides:

    tum etiam illud cogitatote, sic vivere Cornelium ut, etc.,

    Cic. Balb. 28, 65; id. N. D. 1, 16, 43; so id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Fin. 2, 16, 53; Col. 12 praef.—
    8.
    Tum quoque.
    (α).
    Also then, then likewise, then as before, then as on another occasion mentioned before: ceu lapidem si Percutiat lapis aut ferrum;

    nam tum quoque lumen Exsilit,

    Lucr. 6, 162:

    tum quoque homini plus tribui quam nescio cui necessitati,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 11, 28:

    tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis,

    Liv. 1, 33, 5; 2, 52, 2; 21, 22, 4; Caes. B. C. 3, 37; Ov. M. 14, 369.—
    (β).
    Even then, = etiam tum (rare):

    et tamen tum quoque se absentes triumphare credunt,

    Liv. 45, 38, 13; 39, 41, 3; 39, 47, 11; Ov. H. 17 (18), 190.—
    (γ).
    In orat. obliq. (v. I. A. 2.), even now:

    quod si Romani tum quoque aequa aspernarentur,

    Liv. 42, 62, 7. —
    (δ).
    = sic quoque, even under the circumstances, even as it was, etc. (v. sic, V. 3.): ut si effugium patuisset in publicum, impleturae urbem tumultu fuerint. Tum quoque [p. 1912] aliquotiens integro corpore evaserunt, Liv. 24, 26, 13; 40, 16, 6; 43, 4, 1;

    9, 13, 9: tum quoque, amputata dextra, navem sinistra comprehendit,

    Just. 2, 9, 18.—
    9.
    Tum ipsum = eo ipso tempore, at the very time, just then, even then (only in Cic. in four passages; cf.:

    nunc ipsum): tota igitur ratio talium largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum... moderanda est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 17, 60:

    quem quidem cum sua voluntate ex patria Karthaginem revertisset, tum ipsum cum vigiliis et fame cruciaretur, clamat virtus beatiorem fuisse quam Thorium,

    id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv. ad loc.:

    tum ipsum cum immolare velis extorum fieri mutatio potest,

    id. Div. 1, 52, 118:

    ita (oratores), non injuria, quotienscunque dicerent, id quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere,

    id. Or. 1, 27, 123.—
    C.
    Tum with co-ordinating particles.
    1.
    Tum autem.
    (α).
    = praeterea, and then, besides (v. I. C. 1.): turpilucricupidum te vocant cives tui;

    tum autem sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64:

    oves scabrae sunt... Tum autem Surorum nemo exstat qui ibi sex menses vixerit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 141; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 4, 2, 3; id. Poen. 5, 5, 34; 5, 7, 22; Ter. And. 1, 5, 34; id. Eun. 5, 9, 7; id. Hec. 2, 1, 14; 3, 2, 10:

    tum autem qui non ipso honesto movemur... callidi sumus, non boni,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 14, 41; id. Or. 1, 58, 247; 2, 19, 80.—
    (β).
    = tum... tum:

    visne igitur inter hos populos inambulantes, tum autem residentes quaeramus eisdem de rebus?

    Cic. Leg. 1, 5, 15.—
    (γ).
    = eo tempore, with autem as connective:

    tum illic autem Lemnius... uxorem duxit, etc.,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 25:

    tum autem ex omnibus montibus nives proluit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 48.—
    (δ).
    But in this instance:

    uxori emunda ancilla'st: tum autem pluscula Supellectile opus est,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 60; 5, 7, 25 sq.—
    2.
    For tum etiam, v. B. 7. b.—
    3.
    Tum praeterea:

    nam tui similis est probe. Tum praeterea talem, nisi tu, nulla pareret filium,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 20; so id. Ad. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33; Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56 (v. I. C. 3. e. l).—
    4.
    Tum porro:

    tum porro venti magnam quoque tollere partem Umoris possunt,

    Lucr. 6, 623; 4, 829 (827).—
    D.
    Quid tum?
    1.
    In dialogue, what then? what next? what further? novi ego hos pugnos meos. Ca. Quid tum? Th. Quid tum? Rogitas? Hisce ego, si tu me inritaveris, placidum te hodie reddam, Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 49; so id. As. 2, 2, 83; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 47; 3, 5, 66; id. Phorm. 3, 3, 8.—And strengthened:

    quid tum postea?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; id. As. 2, 2, 68; 2, 2, 79; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 78; 4, 2, 9; 4, 7, 23; id. Ad. 4, 5, 15; id. Hec. 4, 1, 36: videsne abundare me otio? A. Quid tum? Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 26.—
    2.
    In imitation of a dialogue:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules. Quid tum? Parumne multa de toleranda paupertate dicuntur?

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 37, 107; so id. Quint. 22, 72; 27, 84; id. Verr. 2, 4, 59, § 132; id. Dom. 47, 123; id. Dejot. 7, 22; id. Phil. 1, 10, 26; Hor. S. 2, 3, 230.—
    3.
    As emphatic co-ordinative in quoting the different items of a document, law, etc.: quive in senatu sententiam dixit, dixerit. Quid tum? Qui eorum coiit, coierit, etc., what next? i. e. and then, listen! Cic. Clu. 54, 148; so id. Agr. 1, 5, 16; 3, 3, 11; id. Mur. 12, 26; id. Fl. 23, 55.—
    E.
    Tum temporis = eo tempore (post class. and rare; cf.:

    tunc temporis): postera die civitas principem suum, ac tum temporis consulem in foro expectabat,

    Just. 31, 2, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tum

  • 14 volo

    1.
    vŏlo (2 d pers. sing. vis, orig. veis, Prisc. 9, 1, 6, p. 847 P.; 1 st pers. plur. volumus, but volimus, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 89 Speng.; 3 d pers. sing. volt, and 2 d pers. plur. voltis always in ante-class. writers;

    also volt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 17, § 42; 2, 5, 49, § 128; id. Sest. 42, 90; id. Phil. 8, 9, 26; id. Par. 5, 1, 34; id. Rep. 3, 33, 45:

    voltis,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 53, § 122; 2, 3, 94, § 219; 2, 5, 5, § 11; 2, 3, 89, § 208; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 33; id. Sest. 30, 64; id. Par. 1, 2, 11 et saep. — Pres. subj. velim, but sometimes volim, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 44 Ritschl; cf. Prisc. 9, 1, 8, p. 848 P.;

    so volint,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 65 Ritschl), velle, volui ( part. fut. voliturus, Serv. ad Verg. A. 5, 712; contr. forms, vin for visne, freq. in Plaut. and Ter., also Hor. S. 1, 9, 69; Pers. 6, 63:

    sis for si vis,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 70; id. Merc. 4, 4, 37; id. Pers. 3, 3, 8; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 20; id. Heaut. 1, 2, 38; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18, 42; id. Rosc. Am. 16, 48; id. Mil. 22, 60; Liv. 34, 32, 20:

    sultis for si voltis, only ante-class.,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. As. prol. 1; id. Capt. 2, 3, 96; 3, 5, 9; 4, 4, 11), v. irreg. a. [Sanscr. var-; Gr. bol-, boulomai; cf. the strengthened root Wel- in eeldomai, elpomai; Germ. wollen; Engl. will], expressing any exercise of volition, and corresponding, in most cases, to the Germ. wollen; in Engl. mostly rendered, to wish, want, intend, purpose, propose, be willing, consent, mean, will, and, impersonally, it is my will, purpose, intention, plan, policy (syn.: cupio, opto; but volo properly implies a purpose).
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    With object-infinitive.
    1.
    With pres. inf.
    a.
    To wish.
    (α).
    Exire ex urbe priusquam luciscat volo, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 35:

    potare ego hodie tecum volo,

    id. Aul. 3, 6, 33:

    ego quoque volo esse liber: nequiquam volo,

    id. Trin. 2, 4, 39; so id. ib. 2, 4, 164:

    ait rem seriam agere velle mecum,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 8:

    natus enim debet quicunque est velle manere In vita,

    Lucr. 5, 177:

    video te alte spectare et velle in caelum migrare,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 34, 82:

    quid poetae? Nonne post mortem nobilitari volunt?

    id. ib. 1, 15, 34:

    si innocentes existimari volumus,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28:

    quoniam opinionis meae voluistis esse participes,

    id. de Or. 1, 37, 172:

    quod eas quoque nationes adire et regiones cognoscere volebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 7:

    si velit suos recipere, obsides sibi remittat,

    id. ib. 3, 8 fin.:

    dominari illi volunt, vos liberi esse,

    Sall. J. 31, 23:

    si haec relinquere voltis,

    id. C. 58, 15:

    priusquam liberi estis, dominari jam in adversarios vultis,

    Liv. 3, 53, 7:

    si quis vestrum suos invisere volt, commeatum do,

    id. 21, 21, 5:

    non enim vincere tantum noluit, sed vinci voluit,

    id. 2, 59, 2:

    suspitionem Caesar quibusdam reliquit, neque voluisse se diutius vivere, neque curasse,

    Suet. Caes. 85:

    Eutrapelus cuicunque nocere volebat, Vestimenta dabat pretiosa,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 31.—
    (β).
    Idiomatically: quid arbitramini Rheginos merere velle ut ab iis marmorea illa Venus auferatur? what do you think the Rhegini would take for, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 60, § 135.—
    (γ).
    Transf., of things: fabula quae posci vult et spectata reponi, a comedy which wishes (i. e. is meant) to be in demand, etc., Hor. A. P. 190:

    neque enim aut hiare semper vocalibus aut destitui temporibus volunt sermo atque epistula,

    Quint. 9, 4, 20; cf. id. 8, prooem. 23.—
    b.
    Of the wishes of those that have a right to command, the gods, masters, parents, commanders, etc., I want, wish, will, am resolved, it is my will:

    in acdibus quid tibi meis erat negoti...? Volo scire,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 14; 3, 2, 17; 3, 2, 18; 3, 6, 27; id. Curc. 4, 3, 11; id. Ep. 3, 4, 74; id. Mil. 2, 3, 74; 3, 1, 17; id. Stich. 1, 2, 56; Ter. And. 1, 2, 9; 4, 2, 17:

    maxima voce clamat populus, neque se uni, nec paucis velle parere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 35, 55:

    consuesse deos immortalis, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    hic experiri vim virtutemque volo,

    Liv. 23, 45, 9.—
    c.
    = in animo habere, to intend, purpose, mean, design:

    ac volui inicere tragulam in nostrum senem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 4, 14:

    eadem quae illis voluisti facere tu, faciunt tibi,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 11; so id. Most. 2, 2, 5:

    puerumque clam voluit exstinguere,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 23:

    necare candem voluit,

    Cic. Cael. 13, 31: quid enim ad illum qui te captare vult, utrum [p. 2005] tacentem te irretiat an loquentem? id. Ac. 2, 29, 94:

    hostis hostem occidere volui,

    Liv. 2, 12, 9; 7, 34, 11: volui interdiu eum... occidere; volui, cum ad cenam invitavi, veneno scilicet tollere;

    volui... ferro interficere (ironically),

    id. 40, 13, 2:

    tuum crimen erit, hospitem occidere voluisse,

    the intention to kill your guest-friend, Val. Max. 5, 1, 3 fin.; 6, 1, 8:

    non enim vult mori, sed invidiam filio facere,

    Quint. 9, 2, 85.—

    Pregn., opp. optare: non vult mori qui optat,

    Sen. Ep. 117, 24:

    sed eo die is, cui dare volueram (epistulam), non est profectus,

    Cic. Att. 9, 7, 1:

    cum de senectute vellem aliquid scribere,

    id. Sen. 1, 2:

    ego te volui castigare, tu mihi accussatrix ades,

    Plaut. As. 3, 1, 10:

    bonus volo jam ex hoc die esse,

    id. Pers. 4, 3, 10:

    ego jam a principio amici filiam, Ita ut aequom fuerat, volui uxorem ducere,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 46:

    at etiam eo negotio M. Catonis splendorem maculare voluerunt,

    it was their purpose, Cic. Sest. 28, 60:

    eum (tumulum) non tam capere sine certamine volebat, quam causam certaminis cum Minucio contrahere,

    his plan was, Liv. 22, 28, 4.—Of things:

    cum lex venditionibus occurrere voluit,

    when it was the purpose of the law, Dig. 46, 1, 46: sed quid ea drachuma facere vis? Ca. Restim volo Mihi emere... qui me faciam pensilem, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 87: Ch. Revorsionem ad terram faciunt vesperi. Ni. Aurum hercle auferre voluere, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 63:

    si iis qui haec omnia flamma ac ferro delere voluerunt... bellum indixi, etc.,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 10, 24:

    (plebem) per caedem senatus vacuam rem publicam tradere Hannibali velle,

    Liv. 23, 2, 7:

    rem Nolanam in jus dicionemque dare voluerat Poeno,

    id. 23, 15, 9: qui (majores nostri) tanta cura Siculos tueri ac retinere voluerunt ut, etc., whose policy it was to protect, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 6, § 14:

    ut qui a principio mitis omnibus Italicis praeter Romanos videri vellet, etc.,

    Liv. 23, 15, 4: idem istuc, si in vilitate largiri voluisses, derisum tuum beneficium esset, if you had offered to grant the same thing during low prices, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 92, § 215.—
    d.
    = studere, conari, to try, endeavor, attempt:

    quas (i. e. magnas res) qui impedire vult, is et infirmus est mobilisque natura, et, etc.,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 75:

    nam si quando id (exordium) primum invenire volui, nullum mihi occurrit, nisi aut exile, aut, etc.,

    id. Or. 2, 77, 315:

    de Antonio dico, numquam illum... nonnullorum de ipso suspitionem infitiando tollere voluisse,

    that he never attempted to remove, id. Sest. 3, 8; id. Div. 1, 18, 35:

    audes Fatidicum fallere velle deum?

    do you dare attempt? Ov. F. 2, 262.—
    e.
    To mean, of actions and expressions:

    hic respondere voluit, non lacessere,

    the latter meant to answer, not to provoke, Ter. Phorm. prol. 19:

    non te judices urbi sed carceri reservarunt, neque to retinere in civitate, sed exilio privare voluerunt,

    Cic. Att. 1, 16, 9.—So, volo dicere, I mean (lit. I intend to say):

    quid aliud volui dicere?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 51:

    volo autem dicere, illud homini longe optimum esse quod ipsum sit optandum per se,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 20, 46.—Often with the acc. illud or id, as a correction: Tr. Specta quam arcte dormiunt. Th. Dormiunt? Tr. Illut quidem ut conivent volui dicere, I mean how they nod, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 145: Py. Quid? bracchium? Ar. Illud dicere volui femur, id. Mil. 1, 1, 27:

    adduxi volui dicere,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 21; id. Am. 1, 1, 233; 1, 1, 235; id. Cas. 2, 6, 14; id. Mil. 3, 2, 7; id. Ps. 3, 2, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 9.—
    f.
    To be going to: haec argumenta ego aedificiis dixi; nunc etiam volo docere ut homines aedium esse similes arbitremini, now I am going to show how, etc., Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 37: quando bene gessi rem, volo hic in fano supplicare, I am going to worship here, etc., id. Curc. 4, 2, 41:

    nunc quod relicuom restat volo persolvere,

    id. Cist. 1, 3, 40:

    sustine hoc, Penicule, exuvias facere quas vovi volo,

    id. Men. 1, 3, 13:

    sinite me prospectare ne uspiam insidiae sint, consilium quod habere volumus,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 3; id. As. 2, 2, 113; id. Cas. 4, 2, 3; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 61:

    si Prometheus, cum mortalibus ignem dividere vellet, ipse a vicinis carbunculos conrogaret, ridiculus videretur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9:

    ait se velle de illis HS. LXXX. cognoscere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 56:

    hinc se recipere cum vellent, rursus illi ex loco superiore nostros premebant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45. —
    g.
    To be about to, on the point of: quom mittere signum Volt, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 88 Vahl.):

    quotiens ire volo foras, retines me, rogitas quo ego eam,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 5:

    quae sese in ignem inicere voluit, prohibui,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 113:

    si scires aspidem latere uspiam, et velle aliquem imprudentem super eam adsidere,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 18, 59; id. Div. 1, 52, 118:

    quod cum facere vellent, intervenit M. Manilius,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18:

    qui cum opem ferre vellet, nuntiatum sibi esse aliam classem ad Aegates insulas stare,

    Liv. 22, 56, 7:

    at Libys obstantes dum vult obvertere remos, In spatium resilire manus breve vidit,

    Ov. M. 3, 676; 1, 635:

    P. Claudius cum proelium navale committere vellet,

    Val. Max. 1, 4, 3.—
    h.
    Will, and in oblique discourse and questions would, the auxiliaries of the future and potential: animum advortite: Comediai nomen dari vobis volo, I will give you, etc., Plaut. Cas. prol. 30:

    sed, nisi molestum est, nomen dare vobis volo comediai,

    id. Poen. prol. 50:

    vos ite intro. Interea ego ex hac statua verberea volo erogitare... quid sit factum,

    id. Capt. 5, 1, 30:

    i tu atque arcessi illam: ego intus quod facto est opus volo adcurare,

    id. Cas. 3, 3, 35; id. Cist. 1, 1, 113; id. Most. 1, 1, 63; id. Poen. 2, 44; id. Pers. 1, 3, 85; id. Rud. 1, 2, 33: cum vero (gemitus) nihil imminuat doloris, cur frustra turpes esse volumus? why will ( would) we be disgraceful to no purpose? Cic. Tusc. 2, 24, 57:

    illa enim (ars) te, verum si loqui volumus, ornaverat,

    id. ib. 1, 47, 112:

    ergo, si vere aestimare volumus, etc.,

    Val. Max. 7, 5, 6:

    si vere aestimare Macedonas, qui tunc erant, volumus,

    Curt. 4, 16, 33:

    ejus me compotem facere potestis, si meminisse vultis, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 40, 5:

    visne igitur, dum dies ista venit... interea tu ipse congredi mecum ut, etc....?

    id. 8, 7, 7:

    volo tibi Chrysippi quoque distinctionem indicare,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 14: vis tu homines urbemque feris praeponere silvis? will you prefer, etc., Hor. S. 2, 6, 92; cf. velim and vellem, would, II. A. 2.—
    k.
    Sometimes volui = mihi placuit, I resolved, concluded (generally, in this meaning, followed by an infinitive clause, v. I. B. 4.):

    uti tamen tuo consilio volui,

    still I concluded to follow your advice, Cic. Att. 8, 3, 1.—
    1.
    To be willing, ready, to consent, like to do something: si sine bello velint rapta... tradere... se exercitum domum reducturum, if they were willing, would consent to, would deliver, etc., Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 52:

    is dare volt, is se aliquid posci,

    likes to give, id. As. 1, 3, 29:

    hoc dixit, si hoc de cella concederetur, velle Siculos senatui polliceri frumentum in cellam gratis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 87, § 200:

    ei laxiorem daturos, si venire ad causam dicendam vellet,

    Liv. 39, 17, 2; 5, 36, 4: nemo invenitur qui pecuniam suam dividere velit. Sen. Brev. Vit. 3, 1:

    plerique concessam sibi sub condicione vitam si militare adversus eum vellent, recusarunt,

    Suet. Caes. 68:

    dedere etiam se volebant, si toleranda viris imperarentur,

    Flor. 1, 33 (2, 18), 12.—So with negatives, to be not willing, not to suffer, not to like, not to allow, refuse:

    heri nemo voluit Sostratam intro admittere,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 49:

    cum alter verum audire non vult,

    Cic. Lael. 26, 98: a proximis quisque minime anteiri vult, likes least to be surpassed, etc., Liv. 6, 34, 7:

    nihil ex his praeter... accipere voluit,

    refused to accept, Val. Max. 4, 3, 4.—
    m.
    To do something voluntarily or intentionally: volo facere = mea voluntate or sponte facio: si voluit accusare, pietati tribuo;

    si jussus est, necessitati,

    if he accused of his own free will, I ascribe it to his filial love, Cic. Cael. 1, 2:

    utrum statuas voluerint tibi statuere, an coacti sint,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 65, § 157:

    de risu quinque sunt quae quaerantur... sitne oratoris risum velle permovere,

    on purpose, id. Or. 2, 58, 235:

    laedere numquam velimus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 28.—So, non velle with inf., to do something unwillingly, with reluctance:

    vivere noluit qui mori non vult,

    who dies with reluctance, Sen. Ep. 30, 10.—
    n.
    To be of opinion, think, mean, pretend (rare with inf.; usu. with acc. and inf.; v. B. 8.):

    haec tibi scripsi ut isto ipso in genere in quo aliquid posse vis, te nihil esse cognosceres,

    in which you imagine you have some influence, Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    in hoc homo luteus etiam callidus ac veterator esse vult, quod ita scribit, etc.,

    pretends, means to be, id. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 35: sed idem Aelius Stoicus esse voluit, orator autem nec studuit um quam, nec fuit, id. Brut. 56, 206:

    Pythago. ras, qui etiam ipse augur esse vellet,

    id. Div. 1, 3, 5.—
    o.
    To like, have no objection to, approve of (cf. E. 1. sq.):

    magis eum delectat qui se ait philosophari velle sed paucis: nam omnino haud placere,

    that he liked, had no objection to philosophizing, Cic. Rep. 1, 18, 30; v. also II. A.—
    2.
    With pres. inf. understood.
    a.
    Supplied from a preceding or subsequent clause.
    (α).
    To wish, it is his will, etc. (cf. 1. a. and b. supra):

    nunc bene vivo et fortunate atque ut volo, i. e. vivere,

    as I wish, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 111: quod diu vivendo multa quae non volt (i. e. videre) videt, Caecil. ap. Cic. Sen. 8, 25:

    proinde licet quotvis vivendo condere saecla,

    Lucr. 3, 1090:

    nec tantum proficiebam quantum volebam,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 1:

    tot autem rationes attulit, ut velle (i. e. persuadere) ceteris, sibi certe persuasisse videatur,

    id. Tusc. 1, 21, 49:

    sed liceret, si velint, in Ubiorum finibus considere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 81:

    quo praesidio senatus libere quae vellet decernere auderet,

    id. B. C. 1, 2.—Of things:

    neque chorda sonum reddit quem vult manus et mens,

    Hor. A. P. 348.—
    (β).
    To choose, be pleased (freq.):

    tum mihi faciat quod volt magnus Juppiter,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 50:

    id repetundi copia est, quando velis,

    id. Trin. 5, 2, 7:

    habuit aurum quamdiu voluit,

    Cic. Cael. 13, 31:

    rapiebat et asportabat quantum a quoque volebat Apronius,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 29:

    provincias quas vellet, quibus vellet, venderet?

    id. Sest. 39, 84:

    quotiens ille tibi potestatem facturus sit ut eligas utrum velis,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45:

    daret utrum vellet subclamatum est,

    Liv. 21, 18, 14:

    senatus consultum factum est ut plebes praeficeret quaestioni quem vellet,

    id. 4, 51, 2:

    saxi materiaeque caedendae unde quisque vellet jus factum,

    id. 5, 55, 3; cf. id. 2, 13, 9; 5, 46, 10; 6, 25, 5; 22, 10, 23; 23, 6, 2; 23, 15, 15; 23, 45, 10; 23, 47, 2;

    26, 21, 11: vicem suam conquestus, quod sibi soli non liceret amicis, quatenus vellet, irasci,

    Suet. Aug. 66:

    at tu quantum vis tolle,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 16.—
    (γ).
    To intend, it is my purpose, etc. (v. 1. c. supra):

    sine me pervenire quo volo,

    let me come to my point, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 44:

    scripsi igitur Aristotelio more, quemadmodum quidem volui, tres libros... de Oratore,

    as I intended, Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ut meliore condicione quam qua ipse vult imitetur homines eos qui, etc.,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 8, 25:

    ego istos posse vincere scio, velle ne scirem ipsi fecerunt,

    Liv. 2, 45, 12. —
    (δ).
    To be willing, to consent, I will (v. 1. h. and l. supra): tu eum orato... St. Sane volo, yes, I will, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 57:

    jube me vinciri. Volo, dum istic itidem vinciatur,

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 75:

    patri dic velle (i. e. uxorem ducere),

    that you consent, are willing, Ter. And. 2, 3, 20 (cf.: si vis, II. A. 2, and sis, supra init.).—
    (ε).
    To do something voluntarily (v. 1. m. supra):

    tu selige tantum, Me quoque velle velis, anne coactus amem,

    Ov. Am. 3, 11, 50.—
    b.
    With ellipsis of inf.
    (α).
    Volo, with a designation of place, = ire volo:

    nos in Formiano morabamur, quo citius audiremus: deinde Arpinum volebamus,

    I intended to go to Arpinum, Cic. Att. 9, 1, 3:

    volo mensi Quinctili in Graeciam,

    id. ib. 14, 7, 2:

    hactenus Vitellius voluerat (i. e. procedere),

    Tac. A. 12, 42 fin.
    (β).
    With other omissions, supplied from context: volo Dolabellae valde desideranti, non reperio quid (i. e. to dedicate some writing to him), Cic. Att. 13, 13, 2.—
    (γ).
    In mal. part., Plaut. Aul. 2, 4, 7; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 16; 2. 19, 2; Prop. 1, 13, 36.—
    3.
    With perfect infinitive active (rare).
    a.
    In negative imperative sentences dependent on ne velis, ne velit (in oblique discourse also ne vellet), where ne velis has the force of noli. The perfect infinitive emphatically represents the action as completed (ante-class. and poet.).
    (α).
    In ancient ordinances of the Senate and of the higher officers (not in laws proper): NEIQVIS EORVM BACANAL HABVISE VELET... BACAS VIR NEQVIS ADIESE VELET CEIVIS ROMANVS... NEVE PECVNIAM QVISQVAM EORVM COMOINEM HABVISE VELET... NEVE... QVIQVAM FECISE VELET. NEVE INTER SED CONIOVRASE, NEVE COMVOVISE NEVE CONSPONDISE, etc., S. C. de Bacch. 4-13 ap. Wordsworth, Fragm. and Spec. p. 172.—So, in quoting such ordinances: per totam Italiam edicta mitti ne quis qui Bacchis initiatus esset, coisse aut convenisse causa sacrorum velit. [p. 2006] neu quid talis rei divinae fecisse, Liv. 39, 14, 8:

    edixerunt ne quis quid fugae causa vendidisse neve emisse vellet,

    id. 39, 17, 3. —
    (β).
    In imitation of official edicts: (vilicus) ne quid emisse velit insciente domino, neu quid domino celasse velit, the overseer must not buy any thing, etc., Cato, R. R. 5, 4:

    interdico, ne extulisse extra aedis puerum usquam velis,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 48:

    oscula praecipue nulla dedisse velis (= noli dare),

    Ov. Am. 1, 4, 38:

    ne quis humasse velit Ajacem, Atride, vetas? Cur?

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 187.—
    b.
    In affirmative sentences, implying command (in any mood or tense; mostly poet.): neminem nota strenui aut ignavi militis notasse volui, I have decided to mark no one, etc., Liv. 24, 16, 11: quia pepercisse vobis volunt, committere vos cur pereatis non patiuntur, because they have decided to spare you, etc., id. 32, 21, 33:

    sunt delicta tamen quibus ignovisse velimus (= volumus),

    which should be pardoned, Hor. A. P. 347.—
    c.
    To represent the will as referring to a completed action.
    (α).
    In optative sentences with vellem or velim, v. II. B. 5. b. a, and II. C. 1. b.—
    (β).
    In other sentences ( poet. and post-class.): ex omnibus praediis ex quibus non hac mente recedimus ut omisisse possessionem velimus, with the will to abandon (omittere would denote the purpose to give up at some future time), Dig. 43, 16, 1, § 25; so,

    an erit qui velle recuset Os populi meruisse?

    Pers. 1, 41:

    qui me volet incurvasse querela,

    id. 1, 91.
    B.
    With acc. and inf.
    1.
    To wish (v. A. 1. a.).
    a.
    With a different subject: hoc volo scire te: Perditus sum miser, I wish you to know, etc., Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 46:

    deos volo consilia vostra vobis recte vortere,

    id. Trin. 5, 2, 31:

    emere oportet quem tibi oboedire velis,

    id. Pers. 2, 4, 2:

    scin' quid nunc te facere volo?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 85:

    si perpetuam vis esse adfinitatem hanc,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 10:

    consul ille egit eas res quarum me participem esse voluit,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 17, 41:

    vim volumus exstingui: jus valeat necesse est,

    id. Sest. 42, 92:

    nec mihi hunc errorem extorqueri volo,

    id. Sen. 23, 85:

    hoc te scire volui,

    id. Att. 7, 18, 4:

    harum causarum fuit justissima quod Germanos suis quoque rebus timere voluit,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 16:

    ut equites qui salvam esse rempublicam vellent ex equis desilirent,

    Liv. 4, 38, 2:

    si me vivere vis recteque videre valentem,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 3:

    si vis me flere, dolendum est Primum ipsi tibi,

    id. A. P. 102.—With pass. inf. impers.:

    regnari tamen omnes volebant,

    that there should be a king, Liv. 1, 17, 3:

    mihi volo ignosci,

    I wish to be pardoned, Cic. Or. 1, 28, 130:

    volt sibi quisque credi,

    Liv. 22, 22, 14. —
    b.
    With the same subject.
    (α).
    With inf. act.:

    quae mihi est spes qua me vivere velim,

    what hope have I, that I should wish to live? Plaut. Rud. 1, 3, 33:

    volo me placere Philolachi,

    id. Most. 1, 3, 11; cf. id. Trin. 2, 2, 47; id. Rud. 2, 6, 1:

    judicem esse me, non doctorem volo,

    Cic. Or. 33, 117:

    vult, credo, se esse carum suis,

    id. Sen. 20, 73; so id. Off. 1, 31, 113; id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; 2, 23, 95. —
    (β).
    With inf. pass.:

    quod certiorem te vis fieri quo quisque in me animo sit,

    Cic. Att. 11, 13, 1; cf. id. Fam. 1, 9, 18:

    qui se ex his minus timidos existimari volebant,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 39; cf. id. B. C. 2, 29:

    religionis se causa... Bacchis initiari velle,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2:

    Agrippae se nepotem neque credi neque dici volebat,

    Suet. Calig. 22 fin.
    2.
    Of the will of superiors, gods, etc. (cf. A. 1. b. supra), I want, it is my will:

    me absente neminem volo intromitti,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 21:

    viros nostros quibus tu voluisti esse nos matres familias,

    id. Stich. 1, 2, 41; id. Most. 1, 4, 2; id. Rud. 4, 5, 9; id. Trin. 1, 2, 1:

    pater illum alterum (filium) secum omni tempore volebat esse,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 42:

    (deus) quinque reliquis motibus orbem esse voluit expertem,

    id. Univ. 10; cf. id. Sest. 69, 147; id. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 57; 1, 5, 14:

    causa mittendi fuit quod iter per Alpes... patefieri volebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 1; cf. id. ib. 5, 9; id. B. C. 1, 4:

    quippe (senatus) foedum hominem a republica procul esse volebat,

    Sall. C. 19, 2:

    nec (di) patefieri (crimina) ut impunita essent, sed ut vindicarentur voluerunt,

    Liv. 39, 16, 11; cf. id. 1, 56, 3; 2, 28, 5; 25, 32, 6:

    senatus... Romano sanguini pudicitiam tutam esse voluit,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, 9; cf. id. 6, 9, 2.—So in the historians: quid fieri vellet (velit), after a verbum imperandi or declarandi, he gave his orders, explained his will:

    quid fieri velit praecipit,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 56:

    ibi quid fieri vellet imperabat,

    id. ib. 7, 16:

    quid fieri vellet ostendit,

    id. ib. 7, 27:

    quae fieri vellet edocuit,

    id. B. C. 3, 108; cf. id. B. G. 7, 45; id. B. C. 3, 78; 3, 89:

    quid fieri vellet edixit,

    Curt. 8, 10, 30; 4, 13, 24; Val. Max. 7, 4, 2.— Frequently majores voluerunt, it was the will of our ancestors, referring to ancient customs and institutions:

    sacra Cereris summa majores nostri religione confici caerimoniaque voluerunt,

    Cic. Balb. 24, 55: majores vestri ne vos quidem temere coire voluerunt, cf. id. ib. 17, 39; 23, 54; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Fl. 7, 15; id. Imp. Pomp. 13, 39; id. Div. 1, 45, 103; id. Font. 24, 30 (10, 20); id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70.—Of testamentary dispositions: cum Titius, heres meus, mortuus erit, volo hereditatem meam ad P. Mevium pertinere, Gai Inst. 2, 277. Except in the institution of the first heir: at illa (institutio) non est comprobata: Titum heredem esse volo, Gai Inst. 2, 117. —
    3.
    Of the intention of a writer, etc., to want, to mean, intend:

    Asinariam volt esse (nomen fabulae) si per vos licet,

    Plaut. As. prol. 12:

    Plautus hanc mihi gnatam esse voluit Inopiam,

    has wanted Poverty to be my daughter, made her my daughter, id. Trin. prol. 9:

    primumdum huic esse nomen Diphilus Cyrenas voluit,

    id. Rud. prol. 33:

    quae ipsi qui scripserunt voluerunt vulgo intellegi,

    meant to be understood by all, Cic. Or. 2, 14, 60:

    si non hoc intellegi volumus,

    id. Fat. 18, 41:

    quale intellegi vult Cicero cum dicit orationem suam coepisse canescere,

    Quint. 11, 1, 31; so id. 9, 4, 82; 9, 3, 9:

    quamquam illi (Prometheo) quoque ferreum anulum dedit antiquitas vinculumque id, non gestamen, intellegi voluit,

    Plin. 33, 1, 4, § 8.—
    4.
    To resolve:

    Siculi... me defensorem calamitatum suarum... esse voluerunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    si a me causam hanc vos (judices) agi volueritis,

    if you resolve, id. ib. 8, 25:

    senatus te voluit mihi nummos, me tibi frumentum dare,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 85, § 196:

    qua (statua) abjecta, basim tamen in foro manere voluerunt,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 66, §

    160: liberam debere esse Galliam quam (senatus) suis legibus uti voluisset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 45:

    tu Macedonas tibi voluisti genua ponere, venerarique te ut deum,

    Curt. 8 (7), 13.— Hence,
    5.
    To order, command: erus meus tibi me salutem multam voluit dicere, has ordered me, etc., Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 25:

    montem quem a Labieno occupari voluerit,

    which he had ordered to be occupied, Caes. B. G. 1, 22:

    ibi futuros esse Helvetios ubi eos Caesar... esse voluisset,

    id. ib. 1, 13 (for velitis jubeatis with inf.-clause, v. II. B. 5. d.).—
    6.
    To consent, allow (cf. A. 1. I.):

    obtinuere ut (tribuni) tribuniciae potestatis vires salubres vellent reipublicae esse,

    they prevailed upon them to permit the tribunitian power to be wholesome to the republic, Liv. 2, 44, 5:

    Hiero tutores... puero reliquit quos precatus est moriens ut juvenum suis potissimum vestigiis insistere vellent,

    id. 24, 4, 5:

    petere ut eum... publicae etiam curae ac velut tutelae vellent esse (i. e. senatus),

    id. 42, 19, 5:

    orare tribunos ut uno animo cum consulibus bellum ab urbe ac moenibus propulsari vellent,

    id. 3, 69, 5:

    quam superesse causam Romanis cur non... incolumis Syracusas esse velint?

    id. 25, 28, 8:

    si alter ex heredibus voluerit rem a legatario possideri, alter non, ei qui noluit interdictum competet,

    Dig. 43, 3, 1, § 15.—So negatively = not to let, not to suffer:

    cum P. Attio agebant ne sua pertinacia omnium fortunas perturbari vellet,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 36.—
    7.
    To be of opinion that something should be, to require, demand:

    voluisti enim in suo genere unumquemque... esse Roscium,

    Cic. Or. 1, 61, 258: eos exercitus quos contra se multos jam annos aluerint velle dimitti, he demanded the disbanding of, etc., Caes. B. C. 1, 85:

    (Cicero) vult esse auctoritatem in verbis,

    Quint. 8, 3, 43:

    vult esse Celsus aliquam et superiorem compositionem,

    id. 9, 4, 137:

    si tantum irasci vis sapientem quantum scelerum indignitas exigit,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 9, 4. —
    8.
    To be of opinion that something is or was, = censere, dicere, but implying that the opinion is erroneous or doubtful, usu. in the third pers., sometimes in the second.
    (α).
    To imagine, consider:

    est genus hominum qui esse se primos omnium rerum volunt, Nec sunt,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17:

    semper auget adsentator id quod is cujus ad voluntatem dicitur vult esse magnum,

    Cic. Lael. 26, 98:

    si quis patricius, si quis—quod illi volunt invidiosius esse—Claudius diceret,

    Liv. 6, 40, 13.—
    (β).
    To be of opinion, to hold:

    vultis, opinor, nihil esse... in natura praeter ignem,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 14, 36:

    volunt illi omnes... eadem condicione nasci,

    id. Div. 2, 44, 93:

    vultis evenire omnia fato,

    id. ib. 2, 9, 24:

    alteri censent, etc., alteri volunt a rebus fatum omne relegari,

    id. Fat. 19, 45:

    vultis a dis immortalibus hominibus dispertiri somnia,

    id. N. D. 3, 39, 93; id. Tusc. 1, 10, 20; id. Fin. 3, 11, 36; id. Rep. 2, 26, 48:

    volunt quidam... iram in pectore moveri effervescente circa cor sanguine,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 19, 3.—
    (γ).
    To say, assert:

    si tam familiaris erat Clodiae quam tu esse vis,

    as you say he is, Cic. Cael. 21, 53:

    sit sane tanta quanta tu illam esse vis,

    id. Or. 1, 55, 23:

    ad pastum et ad procreandi voluptatem hoc divinum animal procreatum esse voluerunt: quo nihil mihi videtur esse absurdius,

    id. Fin. 2, 13, 40; 2, 17, 55; 2, 42, 131; 2, 46, 142; id. Fat. 18, 41.—With perf. inf.:

    Rhodi ego non fui: me vult fuisse,

    Cic. Planc. 34, 84.—
    (δ).
    To pretend, with perf. inf., both subjects denoting the same person:

    unde homines dum se falso terrore coacti Effugisse volunt, etc.,

    Lucr. 3, 69 (cf. A. 1. n. supra).—
    (ε).
    To mean, with perf. inf.:

    utrum scientem vultis contra foedera fecisse, an inscientem?

    Cic. Balb. 5, 13.— With pres. inf.:

    quam primum istud, quod esse vis?

    what do you mean by as soon as possible? Sen. Ep. 117, 24.—
    (ζ).
    Rarely in the first pers., implying that the opinion is open to discussion:

    ut et mihi, quae ego vellem non esse oratoris, concederes,

    what according to my opinion is not the orator's province, Cic. Or. 1, 17, 74.—
    9.
    In partic.
    a.
    With things as subjects.
    (α).
    Things personified:

    ne res publica quidem haec pro se suscipi volet,

    would have such things done for it, Cic. Off. 1, 45, 159:

    cui tacere grave sit, quod homini facillimum voluerit esse natura,

    which nature willed should be easiest for man, Curt. 4, 6, 6: fortuna Q. Metellum... nasci in urbe terrarum principe voluit, fate ordained that, etc., Val. Max. 7, 1, 1: nihil rerum ipsa natura voluit magnum effici cito, it is the law of nature that, etc., Quint. 10, 3, 4:

    quid non ingenio voluit natura licere?

    what license did nature refuse to genius? Mart. 8, 68, 9:

    me sine, quem semper voluit fortuna jacere,

    Prop. 1, 6, 25:

    hanc me militiam fata subire volunt,

    id. 1, 6, 30.—
    (β).
    Of laws, to provide:

    duodecim tabulae nocturnum furem... interfici impune voluerunt,

    Cic. Mil. 3, 9:

    lex duodecim tabularum tignum aedibus junctum... solvi prohibuit, pretiumque ejus dari voluit,

    Dig. 46, 3, 98, § 8 fin. (cf. Cic. Div. in Caecil. 6, 21, b. a, infra).—
    b.
    With perf. pass. inf., to represent a state or result wished for.
    (α).
    The inf. being in full, with esse expressed: si umquam quemquam di immortales voluere esse auxilio adjutum, tum me et Calidorum servatum volunt, if it ever was the will of the gods that any one should be assisted, etc., Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 1: Corinthum patres vestri, totius Graeciae lumen, exstinctum esse voluerunt, it was their will that Corinth should be ( and remain) destroyed, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 11:

    nostri... leges et jura tecta esse voluerunt,

    id. Or. 1, 59, 253:

    propter eam partem epistulae tuae per quam te et mores tuos purgatos et probatos esse voluisti,

    id. Att. 1, 17, 7; id. Fin. 4, 27, 76; id. de Or. 1, 51, 221:

    daturum se operam ne cujus suorum popularium mutatam secum fortunam esse vellent,

    Liv. 21, 45, 6: for velle redundant in this construction, v. II. A. 2. 3. infra.—With pass. inf. impers.:

    sociis maxime lex consultum esse vult,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 6, 21.—
    (β).
    With ellips. of esse (cf. Quint. 9, 3, 9): perdis me tuis dictis. Cu. Imo, servo et servatum volo, and mean that you should remain saved, Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 56:

    aunt qui volum te conventam,

    who want to see you, id. Cist. 4, 2, 39:

    eidem homini, si quid recte cura tum velis, mandes,

    if you want to have anything done well, id. As. 1, 1, 106:

    sed etiam est paucis vos quod monitos voluerim,

    id. Capt. prol. 53: id nunc res indicium haeo [p. 2007] facit, quo pacto factum volueris, this shows now why you wished this to be done, Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 31 (cf. Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 33; id. Aul. 3, 5, 30, II. B. 1, b, and II. B. 3. b. infra): domestica cura te levatum volo, I wish to see you relieved, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 9, 3:

    nulla sedes quo concurrant qui rem publicam defensam velint,

    id. Att. 8, 3, 4:

    rex celatum voluerat (i. e. donum),

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64:

    Hannibal non Capuam neglectam, neque desertos volebat socios,

    Liv. 25, 20, 5; 2, 15, 2; 2, 44, 3; 3, 21, 4; 22, 7, 4;

    26, 31, 6: contemptum hominis quem destructum volebat,

    Quint. 8, 3, 21:

    si te non emptam vellet, emendus erat,

    Ov. Am. 1, 8, 34 (so with velle redundant, v. II. A. 1. d., and II. A. 3. infra).—Both subjects denoting the same person:

    velle Pompeium se Caesari purgatum,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 8.— Esp., with pass. inf. impers.: alicui consultum velle, to take care for or advocate somebody's interests:

    liberis consultum volumus propter ipsos,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 17, 57:

    obliviscere illum aliquando adversario tuo voluisse consultum,

    id. Att. 16, 16 C, 10:

    quibus tribuni plebis nunc consultum repente volunt,

    Liv. 5, 5, 3; so id. 25, 25, 17:

    quamquam senatus subventum voluit heredibus,

    Dig. 36, 1, 1, § 4; so with dep. part., used passively:

    volo amori ejus obsecutum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 63.—
    c.
    With predic. adj., without copula.
    (α).
    The subjects being different (mostly aliquem salvum velle):

    si me vivum vis, pater, Ignosce,

    if you wish me to live, Ter. Heaut. 5, 5, 7:

    ille, si me alienus adfinem volet, Tacebit,

    id. Phorm. 4, 1, 16:

    ut tu illam salvam magis velis quam ego,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 17; 3, 5, 14:

    quoniam ex tota provincia soli sunt qui te salvum velint,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 67, § 150:

    irent secum extemplo qui rempublicam salvam vellent,

    Liv. 22, 53, 7.—
    (β).
    Both subjects denoting the same person (virtually = object infinitive):

    in occulto jacebis quom te maxime clarum voles (= clarus esse voles),

    when you will most wish to be famous, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 38:

    volo me patris mei similem,

    I wish to be like my father, id. As. 1, 1, 54: ut iste qui se vult dicacem et mehercule est, Appius, who means to be witty, etc., Cic. Or. 2, 60, 246:

    qui vero se populares volunt,

    who mean to be popular, id. Off. 2, 22, 78:

    ut integrum se salvumque velit,

    id. Fin. 2, 11, 33:

    ut (omne animal) se et salvum in suo genere incolumeque vellet,

    id. ib. 4, 8, 19. —
    d.
    With an inf.-clause understood.
    (α).
    Velle, to wish: utinam hinc abierit in malam crucem! Ad. Ita nos velle aequom est (ita = eum abire, etc.), Plaut. Poen. 4, 1, 5:

    stulta es, soror, magis quam volo (i.e. te esse),

    id. Pers. 4, 4, 78; id. Trin. 1, 2, 8; 2, 4, 175; id. Stich. 1, 1, 13; id. Ps. 1, 5, 55:

    senatum non quod sentiret, sed quod ego vellem decernere,

    Cic. Mil. 5, 12:

    neque enim facile est ut irascatur cui tu velis judex (= cui tu eum irasci velis),

    id. Or. 2, 45, 190; cf. id. Sest. 38, 82.—
    (β).
    Referring to the will of superiors, etc.:

    deos credo voluisse, nam ni vellent, non fieret,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46: jamne abeo? St. Volo (sc. te abire), so I will, id. Cas. 2, 8, 57; cf. id. Mil. 4, 6, 12; id. Merc. 2, 3, 33.—
    (γ).
    To mean, intend (v. B. 3.):

    acutum etiam illud est cum ex alterius oratione aliud atque ille vult (sc. te excipere),

    Cic. Or. 2, 67, 273.—
    (δ).
    To require, demand (v B. 7.):

    veremur quidem vos, Romani, et, si ita vultis, etiam timemus,

    Liv. 39, 37, 17;

    and of things as subjects: cadentque vocabula, si volet usus (i. e. ea cadere),

    Hor. A. P. 71.—
    (ε).
    To be of opinion, will have (v. B. 8.):

    ergo ego, inimicus, si ita vultis, homini, amicus esse rei publicae debeo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 8, 19:

    nam illi regi tolerabili, aut, si voltis, etiam amabili, Cyro,

    id. Rep. 1, 28, 44; id. Fin. 2, 27, 89; 3, 4, 12; id. Cael. 21, 53; Liv. 21, 10, 7; Quint. 2, 17, 41.—
    (ζ).
    With ellips. of predic. inf. (v. A. 2. b.): cras de reliquiis nos volo (i. e. cenare), it is my intention that we dine, etc., Plaut. Stich. 3, 2, 40:

    volo Varronem (i. e. hos libros habere),

    Cic. Att. 13, 25, 3.
    C.
    With ut, ne, or ut ne.
    1.
    With ut.
    a.
    To wish:

    volo ut quod jubebo facias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 8, 65:

    quia enim id maxime volo ut illi istac confugiant,

    id. Most. 5, 1, 49:

    ut mihi aedes aliquas conducat volo,

    id. Merc. 3, 2, 17: hoc prius volo meam rem agere. Th. Quid id est? Ph. Ut mihi hanc despondeas, id. Curc. 5, 2, 71: quid vis, nisi ut maneat Phanium? Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 8:

    velim ut tibi amicus sit,

    Cic. Att. 10, 16, 1:

    quare id quoque velim... ut sit qui utamur,

    id. ib. 11, 11, 2:

    maxime vellem, judices, ut P. Sulla... modestiae fructum aliquem percipere potuisset,

    id. Sull. 1, 1:

    equidem vellem uti pedes haberent (res tuae),

    id. Fam. 7, 33, 2:

    his ut sit digna puella volo,

    Mart. 11, 27, 14.—Both subjects denoting the same person: volueram, inquit, ut quam plurimum tecum essem, Brut. ap. Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1.—
    b.
    It is the will of, to want, ordain (v. B. 2.):

    at ego deos credo voluisse ut apud te me in nervo enicem,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 17: numquid me vis? Le. Ut valeas, id. Cist. 1, 1, 120: numquid vis? Ps. Dormitum ut abeas, id. Ps. 2, 2, 70:

    volo ut mihi respondeas,

    Cic. Vatin. 6, 14; 7, 17; 7, 18; 9, 21;

    12, 29: nuntia Romanis, caelestes ita velle ut mea Roma caput orbis terrarum sit,

    Liv. 1, 16, 7.—
    c.
    To intend, it is the purpose, aim, etc., the two subjects being the same:

    id quaerunt, volunt haec ut infecta faciant,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 9.—
    d.
    With other verbs:

    quod peto et volo parentes meos ut commonstres mihi,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 4:

    quasi vero aut populus Romanus hoc voluerit, aut senatus tibi hoc mandaverit ut... privares,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19, § 48;

    with opto,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 48;

    with laboro,

    Liv. 42, 14, 3;

    with aequum censere,

    id. 39, 19, 7.—
    2.
    With ne:

    at ne videas velim,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 23:

    quid nunc vis? ut opperiare hos sex dies saltem modo, ne illam vendas, neu me perdas, etc.,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 102:

    credibile est hoc voluisse legumlatorem, ne auxilia liberorum innocentibus deessent,

    intended, Quint. 7, 1, 56.—
    3.
    With ut ne: quid nunc tibi vis? Mi. Ut quae te cupit, eam ne spernas, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 60.
    D.
    With subjunct. of dependent verb (mostly ante-class.; class. and freq. with velim and vellem; but in Cic. mostly epistolary and colloquial).
    1.
    To wish:

    ergo animum advortas volo,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 23; 2, 3, 28; 2, 3, 70:

    volo amet me patrem,

    id. As. 1, 1, 63 dub.:

    hoc volo agatis,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 83:

    ducas volo hodie uxorem,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 14:

    quid vis faciam?

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 49; Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 24; Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 64; 2, 3, 65; 2, 6, 65; 3, 3, 3; id. Ps. 4, 1, 17; 4, 7, 19; id. Cas. 2, 3, 56; id. Capt. 1, 2, 12; id. Poen. 3, 2, 16; id. Pers. 2, 4, 23; id. Rud. 5, 2, 45; 5, 3, 58; id. Stich. 5, 2, 21; Ter. Heaut. 4, 6, 14:

    volo etiam exquiras quam diligentissime poteris quid Lentulus agat?

    Cic. Att. 8, 12, 6:

    Othonem vincas volo,

    id. ib. 13, 29, 2:

    eas litteras volo habeas,

    id. ib. 13, 32, 3:

    visne igitur videamus quidnam sit, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 15: visne igitur descendatur ad Lirim? id. Fragm. ap. Macr. S. 6, 4:

    volo, inquis, sciat,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 10, 2.—
    2.
    To be of opinion that something should be, demand, require (v. B. 7.): volo enim se efferat in adulescentia fecunditas, I like to see, etc., Cic. Or. 2, 21, 88:

    volo hoc oratori contingat ut, etc.,

    id. Brut. 84, 290.—
    3.
    With subj.-clause understood:

    abi atque obsona, propera! sed lepide volo (i. e. obsones),

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 55.
    E.
    With object nouns, etc.
    1.
    With acc. of a thing.
    a.
    With a noun, to want, wish for, like to have:

    voltisne olivas, aut pulmentum, aut capparim?

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 90:

    animo male est: aquam velim,

    id. Am. 5, 1, 6:

    quia videt me suam amicitiam velle,

    id. Aul. 2, 3, 68; so,

    gratiam tuam,

    id. Curc. 2, 3, 52; 2, 3, 56:

    aquam,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 34:

    discidium,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 14: nullam ego rem umquam in vita mea Volui quin tu in ea re mihi advorsatrix fueris, I never had any wish in my life, etc., id. Heaut. 5, 3, 5: (dixit) velle Hispaniam, he wanted Spain, i. e. as a province, Cic. Att. 12, 7, 1:

    mihi frumento non opus est: nummos volo,

    I want the money, id. Verr. 2, 3, 85, § 196:

    non poterat scilicet negare se velle pacem,

    id. Att. 15, 1 a, 3; cf. id. ib. 13, 32, 2 (v. II. C. 4. infra):

    si amplius obsidum (= plures obsides) vellet, dare pollicentur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9 fin.:

    pacem etiam qui vincere possunt, volunt,

    Liv. 7, 40, 18:

    ferunt (eum)... honestum finem voluisse,

    Tac. A. 6, 26:

    cum Scipio veram vellet et sine exceptione victoriam,

    Flor. 1, 33 (2, 18), 12:

    mensae munera si voles secundae, Marcentes tibi porrigentur uvae,

    Mart. 5, 78, 11.—
    b.
    Neutr. adjj., denoting things, substantively used: utrum vis opta, dum licet. La. Neutrum volo, Plaut. Ps. 3, 6, 16:

    quorum isti neutrum volunt,

    acknowledge neither, Cic. Fat. 12, 28:

    voluimus quaedam, contendimus... Obtenta non sunt,

    we aspired to certain things, id. Balb. 27, 61:

    restat ut omnes unum velint,

    hold one opinion, id. Marcell. 10, 32:

    si plura velim,

    if I wished for more, Hor. C. 3, 16, 38:

    per quod probemus aliud legislatorem voluisse,

    that the law-giver intended something different, Quint. 7, 6, 8:

    ut putent, aliud quosdam dicere, aliud velle,

    that they say one thing and mean another, id. 9, 2, 85:

    utrum is qui scripsit... voluerit,

    which of the two was meant by the author, id. 7, 9, 15:

    ut nemo contra id quod vult dicit, ita potest melius aliquid velle quam dicit,

    mean better than he speaks, id. 9, 2, 89:

    quis enim pudor omnia velle?

    to desire every thing, Mart. 12, 94, 11.—
    c.
    With neutr. demonstr. expressed or understood, to want, intend, aim at, like, will:

    immo faenus: id primum volo,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 64:

    proximum quod sit bono... id volo,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 22:

    nisi ea quae tu vis volo,

    unless my purpose is the same as yours, id. Ep. 2, 2, 82:

    siquidem id sapere'st, velle te id quod non potest contingere,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 83:

    hoc (i. e. otium cum dignitate) qui volunt omnes optimates putantur,

    who aim at this, Cic. Sest. 45, 98:

    privatum oportet in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 124:

    quid est sapientia? Semper idem velle atque idem nolle,

    Sen. Ep. 20, 5:

    pudebit eadem velle quae volueras puer,

    id. ib. 27, 2:

    nec volo quod cruciat, nec volo quod satiat,

    Mart. 1, 57, 4.—With demonstr. in place of inf.-clause:

    hoc Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur Atridae (sc. poenas in me sumi),

    Verg. A. 2, 104:

    hoc velit Eurystheus, velit hoc germana Tonantis (sc. verum esse, Herculem, etc.),

    Ov. H. 9, 7; Hor. S. 2, 3, 88.—
    d.
    With neutr. of interrog. pron.: quid nunc vis? Am. Sceleste, at etiam quid velim, id tu me rogas? what do you want now? Plaut. Am. 4, 2, 5:

    eloquere quid velis,

    id. Cas. 2, 4, 2: heus tu! Si. Quid vis? id. Ps. 4, 7, 21; so Ter. Eun. 2, 1, 11; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 152:

    sed plane quid velit nescio,

    what his intentions are, Cic. Att. 15, 1 a, 5; id. de Or. 2, 20, 84:

    mittunt etiam ad dominos qui quaerant quid velint,

    to ask for their orders, id. Tusc. 2, 17, 41:

    quid? Si haec... ipsius amici judicarunt? Quid amplius vultis?

    what more do you require, will you have? id. Verr. 2, 3, 65, § 152:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    spectatur quid voluerit scriptor,

    we find out the author's intention, Quint. 7, 10, 1.—Sometimes quid vult = quid sibi vult (v. 4. b.), to mean, signify:

    capram illam suspicor jam invenisse... quid voluerit,

    what it signified, Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 30:

    sed tamen intellego quid velit,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 31, 101:

    quid autem volunt ea di immortales significantes quae sine interpretibus non possimus intellegere? etc.,

    id. Div. 2, 25, 54.—Of things as subjects:

    hunc ensem mittit tibi... Et jubet ex merito scire quid iste velit,

    Ov. H. 11, 96.—
    e.
    With rel. pron.:

    quod volui, ut volui, impetravi... a Philocomasio,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 5, 1:

    ut quod frons velit oculi sciant,

    that the eyes know what the forehead wants, id. Aul. 4, 1, 13:

    illi quae volo concedere,

    to yield to him my wishes, id. Cas. 2, 3, 49:

    si illud quod volumus dicitur,

    what we like, id. Truc. 1, 2, 95:

    multa eveniunt homini quae volt, quae nevolt,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 84; id. Ep. 2, 2, 4:

    quamquam (litterae tuae) semper aliquid adferunt quod velim,

    Cic. Att. 11, 11, 1:

    quae vellem quaeque sentirem dicendi,

    id. Marcell. 1, 1:

    uti ea quae vellent impetrarent,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    satis animi ad id quod tam diu vellent,

    to carry out what they had desired so long, Liv. 4, 54, 5:

    sed quod volebant non... expediebant,

    their purpose, id. 24, 23, 9. —Idiomatically: quod volo = quod demonstrare volo, what I intend to prove:

    illud quod volumus expressum est, ut vaticinari furor vera soleat,

    Cic. Div. 1, 31, 67:

    bis sumpsit quod voluit,

    he has twice begged the question, id. ib. 2, 52, 107.—With indef. relations:

    cornucopia ubi inest quidquid volo,

    whatever I wish for, Plaut. Ps. 2, 3, 5:

    Caesar de Bruto solitus est dicere: magni refert hic quid velit, sed quidquid volt, valde volt,

    whatever he wills he wills strongly, Cic. Att. 14, 1, 2.—
    f.
    With indef. pronn.
    (α).
    Si quid vis, if you want any thing: illo praesente mecum agito si quid voles, [p. 2008] Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 72: Py. Adeat si quid volt. Pa. Si quid vis, adi, mulier, id. Mil. 4, 2, 47:

    eumque Alexander cum rogaret, si quid vellet, ut diceret,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 266; Caes. B. G. 1, 7 fin.
    (β).
    Nisi quid vis, unless you wish to give some order, to make some remark, etc.:

    ego eo ad forum nisi quid vis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 94:

    nunc de ratione videamus, nisi quid vis ad haec,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 18, 42.—
    (γ).
    Numquid vis or ecquid vis? have you any orders to give? a formula used by inferiors before leaving their superiors; cf. Don. ad Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 39:

    visunt, quid agam, ecquid velim,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 113:

    numquid vis aliud?

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 111; 1, 2, 106; id. Ad. 2, 2, 39; 3, 3, 78; id. Hec. 2, 2, 30:

    numquid vellem rogavit,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 6:

    frequentia rogantium num quid vellet,

    Liv. 6, 34, 7:

    rogavit num quid in Sardiniam vellet. Te puto saepe habere qui num quid Romam velis quaerant,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 1.—
    2.
    With acc. of the person: aliquem velle.
    (α).
    To want somebody, i. e. in order to see him, to speak with him (ante-class. and colloq.):

    Demenaetum volebam,

    I wanted, wished to see, Demenoetus, Plaut. As. 2, 3, 12:

    bona femina et malus masculus volunt te,

    id. Cist. 4, 2, 40:

    solus te solum volo,

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 70:

    quia non est intus quem ego volo,

    id. Mil. 4, 6, 40:

    hae oves volunt vos,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 24:

    quis me volt? Perii, pater est,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 1:

    centuriones trium cohortium me velle postridie,

    Cic. Att. 10, 16, 4.—With paucis verbis or paucis, for a few words ( moments):

    volo te verbis pauculis,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 28:

    sed paucis verbis te volo, Palaestrio,

    id. Mil. 2, 4, 22:

    Sosia, Adesdum, paucis te volo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 2.—
    (β).
    To love, like somebody, to be fond of somebody (anteclass. and poet.):

    hanc volo (= amo),

    Plaut. As. 5, 1, 18:

    sine me amare unum Argyrippum... quem volo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 38:

    quom quae te volt, eamdem tu vis,

    id. Mil. 4, 2, 80:

    aut quae (vitia) corpori' sunt ejus siquam petis ac vis,

    Lucr. 4, 1152:

    quam volui nota fit arte mea,

    Ov. Am. 1, 10, 60: nolo virum, facili redimit qui sanguine famam: hunc volo, laudari qui sine morte potest, I like the one who, etc., Mart. 1, 8, 6.—
    (γ).
    To wish to have:

    roga, velitne an non uxorem,

    whether he wishes to have his wife or not, Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 43:

    ut sapiens velit gerere rem publicam, atque... uxorem adjungere, et velle ex ea liberos (anacoluth.),

    Cic. Fin. 3, 20, 68.—

    With two accusatives: (narrato) illam te amare et velle uxorem,

    that you wish to have her as your wife, Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 25; cf. id. Phorm. 1, 2, 65.—
    3.
    With two accusatives, of the person and the thing: aliquem aliquid velle, to want something of somebody (cf.: aliquem aliquid rogare; mostly ante-class.;

    not in Cic.): numquid me vis?

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 120:

    face certiorem me quid meus vir me velit,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 1:

    num quidpiam me vis aliud?

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 81:

    nunc verba in pauca conferam quid te velim,

    id. As. 1, 1, 74:

    narrabit ultro quid sese velis,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 60:

    quid me voluisti?

    id. Mil. 4, 2, 35:

    numquid aliud me vis?

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 101:

    quin tu uno verbo dic quid est quod me velis,

    id. And. 1, 1, 18; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 85; id. Cist. 2, 3, 49; id. As. 2, 3, 12; id. Merc. 5, 2, 27; id. Pers. 4, 6, 11; Ter. Heaut. 4, 8, 31; id. Phorm. 2, 4, 18; id. Eun. 2, 3, 47; id. Hec. 3, 4, 15:

    si quid ille se velit, illum ad se venire oportere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 34:

    cum mirabundus quidnam (Taurea) sese vellet, resedisset Flaccus, Me quoque, inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 26, 15, 11; also, I want to speak with somebody (v. 2. a. a):

    paucis, Euclio, est quod te volo,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 22:

    est quod te volo secreto,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 33.—
    4.
    With acc. of thing and dat. of the person: aliquid alicui velle, to wish something to somebody (= cupio aliquid alicui; v. cupio;

    rare): quamquam vobis volo quae voltis, mulieres,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 1:

    si ex me illa liberos vellet sibi,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 33:

    praesidium velle se senectuti suae,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 44:

    nihil est mali quod illa non initio filio voluerit, optaverit,

    Cic. Clu. 66, 188:

    rem Romanam huc provectam ut externis quoque gentibus quietem velit,

    Tac. A. 12, 11:

    cui ego omnia meritissimo volo et debeo,

    to whom I give and owe my best wishes, Quint. 9, 2, 35.—Esp., in the phrase quid vis (vult) with reflex. dat. of interest, lit. what do you want for yourself?
    a.
    Quid tibi vis = quid vis, the dat. being redundant (rare):

    quid aliud tibi vis?

    what else do you want? Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 90.—With quisque:

    haud ita vitam agerent ut nunc plerumque videmus Quid sibi quisque velit nescire,

    be ignorant as to their own aims and purposes, Lucr. 3, 1058.—
    b.
    What do you mean? what do you drive at? what is your scope, object, drift (rare in post-Aug. writers; Don. ad Ter. Eun. prol. 45, declares it an archaism).
    (α).
    In 1 st pers. (rare):

    nunc quid processerim huc, et quid mihi voluerim dicam,

    and what I meant thereby, what was the purpose of my coming, Plaut. As. prol. 6:

    quid mihi volui? quid mihi nunc prodest bona voluntas?

    Sen. Ben. 4, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    In 2 d pers.:

    quid nunc tibi vis, mulier, memora,

    what is the drift of your talk? Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 60: sed quid nunc tibi vis? what do you want to come at (i.e. by your preamble)? id. Poen. 1, 1, 24: quid tu tibi vis? Ego non tangam meam? what do you mean? i. e. what is your purpose? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 28:

    quid tibi vis? quid cum illa rei tibi est?

    id. ib. 4, 7, 34:

    quid est quod sic gestis? quid sibi hic vestitus quaerit? Quid est quod laetus sis? quid tibi vis?

    what do you mean by all this? id. ib. 3, 5, 11:

    quid est, inepta? quid vis tibi? quid rides?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 6:

    quid vis tibi? Quid quaeris?

    id. Heaut. 1, 1, 9: Ph. Fabulae! Ch. Quid vis tibi? id. Phorm. 5, 8, 53:

    roganti ut se in Asiam praefectum duceret, Quid tibi vis, inquit, insane,

    Cic. Or. 2, 67, 269; so in 2 d pers. plur.:

    pro deum fidem, quid vobis vultis?

    Liv. 3, 67, 7.—
    (γ).
    In 3 d pers.:

    quid igitur sibi volt pater? cur simulat?

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 1:

    quid hic volt veterator sibi?

    id. ib. 2, 6, 26:

    proinde desinant aliquando me isdem inflare verbis: quid sibi iste vult?... Cur ornat eum a quo desertus est?

    Cic. Dom. 11, 29:

    quid sibi vellet (Caesar)? cur in suas possessiones veniret?

    Caes. B. G. 1, 44 med.:

    conicere in eum oculos, mirantes quid sibi vellet (i. e. by courting the plebeians),

    Liv. 3, 35, 5:

    qui quaererent quid sibi vellent qui armati Aventinum obsedissent,

    id. 3, 50, 15:

    quid sibi voluit providentia quae Aridaeum regno imposuit?

    Sen. Ben. 4, 31, 1: volt, non volt dare Galla mihi, nec dicere possum quod volt et non volt, quid sibi Galla velit, Mart: 3, 90, 2.—
    (δ).
    Transf. of things as subjects, what means, what signifies? quid volt sibi, Syre, haec oratio? Ter. Heaut. 4, 1, 2:

    ut pernoscatis quid sibi Eunuchus velit,

    id. Eun. prol. 45:

    quid ergo illae sibi statuae equestres inauratae volunt?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 150:

    quid haec sibi horum civium Romanorum dona voluerunt?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 80, §

    186: avaritia senilis quid sibi velit, non intellego,

    what is the meaning of the phrase, id. Sen. 18, 66:

    quid ergo illa sibi vult pars altera orationis qua Romanos a me cultos ait?

    Liv. 40, 12, 14:

    tacitae quid vult sibi noctis imago?

    Ov. M. 9, 473.—
    5.
    Bene or male alicui velle, to wish one well or ill, to like or dislike one (ante-class. and poet.): Ph. Bene volt tibi. St. Nequam est illud verbum bene volt, nisi qui bene facit, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 37 sq.:

    jam diu ego huic bene et hic mihi volumus,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 4:

    ut tibi, dum vivam, bene velim plus quam mihi,

    id. Cas. 2, 8, 30:

    egone illi ut non bene vellem?

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 90; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 95; id. Merc. 2, 1, 21; id. Ps. 4, 3, 7; id. Poen. 3, 3, 9:

    nisi quod tibi bene ex animo volo,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 6:

    quo tibi male volt maleque faciet,

    Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 44:

    atque isti etiam parum male volo,

    id. Truc. 5, 7; cf. id. As. 5, 1, 13:

    utinam sic sient qui mihi male volunt,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 13:

    non sibi male vult,

    he does not dislike himself, Petr. 38; so, melius or optime alicui velle, to like one better or best:

    nec est quisquam mihi aeque melius quoi vellem,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 42; id. Merc. 5, 2, 57:

    illi ego ex omnibus optime volo,

    id. Most. 1, 4, 24.—And bene velle = velle: bene volueris in precatione augurali Messalla augur ait, significare volueris, Fest. s. v. bene sponsis, p. 351.—
    6.
    With abl.: alicujus causa velle, to like one for his own sake, i. e. personally, a Ciceronian phrase, probably inst. of omnia alicujus causa velle; lit. to wish every thing (i.e. good) in somebody's behalf.
    (α).
    With omnia expressed: etsi mihi videor intellexisse cum tecum de re M. Annaeii locutus sum, te ipsius causa vehementer omnia velle, tamen, etc.... ut non dubitem quin magnus cumulus accedat commenda tionis meae, Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1:

    repente coepit dicere, se omnia Verris causa velle,

    that he had the most friendly disposition towards Verres, id. Verr. 2, 2, 26, § 64:

    accedit eo quod Varro magnopere ejus causa vult omnia,

    id. Fam. 13, 22, 1.—
    (β).
    Without omnia:

    per eos qui nostra causa volunt, valentque apud illum,

    Cic. Att. 11, 8, 1:

    sed et Phameae causa volebam,

    id. ib. 13, 49, 1:

    etsi te ipsius Attici causa velle intellexeram,

    id. ib. 16, 16, A, 6:

    valde enim ejus causa volo,

    id. Fam. 16, 17, 2 fin.:

    illud non perficis quo minus tua causa velim,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 6;

    12, 7, 1: si me velle tua causa putas,

    id. ib. 7, 17, 2:

    regis causa si qui sunt qui velint,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 1:

    credo tua causa velle Lentulum,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4, 5; id. Div. in Caecil. 6, 21; cf. id. Imp. Pomp. (v. C. 1. b. supra), where the phrase has its literal meaning; cf. also: alicujus causa (omnia) cupere; v. cupio.—
    7.
    With acc. and subjunct. per ecthesin (ante-class.): nunc ego illum meum virum veniat velim (by mixture of constructions: meum virum velim; and:

    meus vir veniat velim),

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 29:

    nunc ego Simonidem mi obviam veniat velim,

    id. Ps. 4, 5, 10:

    nimis hercle ego illum corvum ad me veniat velim,

    id. Aul. 4, 6, 4:

    saltem aliquem velim qui mihi ex his locis viam monstret,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 35:

    patrem atque matrem viverent vellem tibi,

    id. Poen. 5, 2, 106; cf. id. Merc. 2, 1, 30 (v. E. 1. d. supra).
    F.
    Velle used absolutely, variously rendered to will, have a will, wish, consent, assent:

    quod vos, malum... me sic ludificamini? Nolo volo, volo nolo rursum,

    I nill I will, I will I nill again, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 57: novi ingenium mulierum: Nolunt ubi velis, ubi nolis cupiunt ultro, they will not where you will, etc., id. Eun. 4, 7, 43:

    quis est cui velle non liceat?

    who is not free to wish? Cic. Att. 7, 11. 2:

    in magnis et voluisse sat est,

    Prop. 2, 10 (3, 1), 6:

    tarde velle nolentis est,

    slow ness in consenting betrays the desire to refuse, Sen. Ben. 2, 5, 4:

    quae (animalia) nullam injuriam nobis faciunt, quia velle non possunt, id. Ira, 2, 26, 4: ejus est nolle qui potest velle,

    the power to assent implies the power to dissent, Dig. 50, 17, 3.—So velle substantively:

    sed ego hoc ipsum velle miserius duco quam in crucem tolli,

    that very wishing, Cic. Att. 7, 11, 2: inest enim velle in carendo, the word carere implies the notion of a wish, id. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    velle ac posse in aequo positum erat,

    his will and power were balanced, Val. Max. 6, 9, ext. 5:

    velle tuum nolo, Didyme, nolle volo,

    Mart. 5, 83, 2:

    velle suum cuique est,

    each has his own likings, Pers. 5, 53.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Redundant, when the will to do is identified with the act itself.
    1.
    In imperative sentences.
    a.
    In independent sentences introduced by noli velle, where noli has lost the idea of volition:

    nolite, judices, hunc velle maturius exstingui vulnere vestro quam suo fato,

    do not resolve, Cic. Cael. 32, 79:

    nolite igitur id velle quod fieri non potest,

    id. Phil. 7, 8, 25: qui timor bonis omnibus injectus sit... nolite a me commoneri velle, do not wish, expect, to be reminded by me, etc., id. Mur. 25, 50: nolite hunc illi acerbum nuntium velle perferri, let it not be your decision that, etc., id. Balb. 28, 64: cujus auspicia pro vobis experti nolite adversus vos velle experiri, do not desire, etc., Liv. 7, 40, 16:

    noli adversum eos me velle ducere, etc.,

    Nep. Att. 4, 2.—
    b.
    Ne velis or ne velit fecisse = ne feceris, or ne facito (v. I. A. 3. a. supra).—So ne velis with pres. inf.:

    neve, revertendi liber, abesse velis (= neve abfueris),

    Ov. H. 1, 80.—
    c.
    In affirmative imperative sentences (velim esse = esto;

    rare): tu tantum fida sorori Esse velis (= fida esto or sis),

    Ov. M. 2, 745; and in 3 d pers.:

    di procul a cunctis... Hujus notitiam gentis habere velint (= habeant),

    id. P. 1, 7, 8:

    credere modo qui discet velit (= credat qui discet),

    Quint. 8, prooem. 12. —
    d.
    In clauses dependent on verbs of commanding and wishing:

    aut quia significant divam praedicere ut armis Ac virtute velint patriam defendere terram (= ut defendant),

    Lucr. 2, 641: precor quaesoque ne ante oculos patris facere et pati omnia infanda velis (= facias et patiaris). Liv. 23, 9, 2:

    monentes ne experiri vellet imperium cujus vis, etc.,

    id. 2, 59, 4; 39, 13, 2:

    et mea... opto Vulnera qui fecit facta levare velit,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 2, 18: nos contra (oravimus) [p. 2009]... ne vertere secum Cuncta pater fatoque urguenti incumbere vellet, Verg. A. 2, 653. —With pass. perf. inf. (v. I. B. 9. b. b):

    legati Sullam orant ut filii innocentis fortunas conservatas velit (virtually = fortunas conservet),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 9, 25:

    a te peto ut utilitatem sociorum per te quam maxime defensam et auctam velis (= defendas et augeas),

    id. Fam. 13, 9, 3.—So after utinam or ut:

    utinam illi qui prius eum viderint me apud eum velint adjutum tantum quantum ego vellem si quid possem (= utinam illi me adjuvent quantum ego adjuvarem, etc.),

    id. Att. 11, 7, 7:

    cautius ut saevo velles te credere Marti (= utinam te credidisses),

    Verg. A. 11, 153:

    edictum praemittit ad quam diem magistratus... sibi esse praesto Cordubae vellet (= sibi praesto essent),

    Caes. B. C. 1, 19 (cf. also I. B. 9. b. b, and I. B. 2. fin. supra).—
    2.
    In conditional clauses, si facere velim = si faciam, often rendered by the potential or future auxiliaries would or will:

    non tu scis, Bacchae bacchanti si velis advorsarier, ex insana insaniorem facies? (= si advorseris),

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 80:

    si meum Imperium exsequi voluisset, interemptam oportuit (= si executus esset),

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 1, 22:

    si id confiteri velim, tamen istum condemnetis necesse est (= si id confitear),

    if I would acknowledge, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 18, § 45:

    si quis velit ita dicere... nihil dicat (= si quis dicat),

    id. Fat. 14, 32:

    dies deficiat si velim numerare, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 32, 81;

    so,

    id. Tusc. 5, 35, 102; id. Verr. 2, 2, 21, § 52:

    qua in sententia si constare voluissent, suam auctoritatem... recuperassent,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 14; id. Verr. 2, 1, 11, § 31; id. Lael. 20, 75:

    conicere potestis, si recordari volueritis quanta, etc.,

    if you will remember, id. Verr. 2, 4, 58, § 129; so id. Or. 1, 44, 197; id. Brut. 1, 2, 5:

    quod si audire voletis externa, maximas res publicas ab adulescentibus labefactatas reperietis,

    id. Sen. 6, 20; so id. Or. 1, 60, 256; 2, 23, 95:

    ejus me compotem voti vos facere potestis, si meminisse vultis, non vos in Samnio, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 40, 5; 23, 13, 6; 23, 15, 4: cum olera Diogeni lavanti Aristippus dixisset: si Dionysium adulare velles, ista non esses;

    Imo, inquit, si tu ista esse velles, non adulares Dionysium,

    Val. Max. 4, 3, ext. 4:

    ut si his (legibus) perpetuo uti voluissent, sempiternum habituri fuerint imperium,

    id. 5, 3, ext. 3:

    quid enim si mirari velit, non in silvestribus dumis poma pendere,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 10, 6; cf. Curt. 5, 1, 1; 3, 5, 6; Ov. H. 17 (18), 43.—With perf. inf. pass.:

    nisi ea (opera) certi auctores monumentis suis testata esse voluissent,

    Val. Max. 3, 2, 24.—
    3.
    In declarative sentences.
    a.
    Volo in 1 st pers. with perf. pass. inf. or part. (volo oratum esse or oratum = oro; v. I. B. 9. b. a and b):

    vos omnes opere magno esse oratos volo benigne ut operam detis, etc.,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 21:

    justam rem et facilem esse oratam a vobis volo,

    id. Am. prol. 33:

    illud tamen te esse admonitum volo, etc.,

    Cic. Cael. 3, 8:

    sed etiam est paucis vos quod monitos voluerim,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 53:

    illud te, Tulli, monitum velim etc.,

    Liv. 1, 23, 8:

    quamobrem omnes eos oratos volo Ne, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 26; so, factum volo = faciam: serva tibi sodalem, et mihi filium. Mne. Factum volo, I will, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 91: pariter nunc opera me adjuves ac, etc. Nau. Factum volo, Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 4; so Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 10.—In 3 d pers.:

    esse salutatum vult te mea littera primum,

    Ov. P. 2, 7, 1.—
    b.
    With pres. inf.:

    propterea te vocari ad cenam volo (= voco te),

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 72:

    sed nunc rogare hoc ego vicissim te volo: quid fuit, etc. (= nunc te rogo),

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 136.—
    c.
    With perf. act. inf.:

    pace tua dixisse velim (= pace tua dixerim),

    Ov. P. 3, 1, 9.—
    d.
    In other connections, when the will or purpose is made more prominent than the action:

    eorum alter, qui Antiochus vocatur, iter per Siciliam facere voluit (= fecit),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 27, § 61:

    si suscipere eam (religionem) nolletis, tamen in eo qui violasset sancire vos velle oporteret (= sancire vos oporteret),

    id. ib. 2, 4, 51, §

    114: ut insequentibus diebus nemo eorum forum aut publicum adspicere vellet (= adspiceret),

    Liv. 9, 7, 11:

    talentis mille percussorem in me emere voluisti (= emisti),

    Curt. 3, 5, 6: quin etiam senatus gratias ei agentem quod redire voluisset ante portas eduxit (= quod redisset), Val. Max. 3, 4, 4:

    utri prius gratulemur, qui hoc dicere voluit, an cui audire contigit? (= qui hoc dixit),

    id. 4, 7, ext. 2:

    sic tua non paucae carpere facta volent (= carpent),

    Ov. P. 3, 1, 64.
    B.
    Velim, as potential subjunctive (mostly in 1 st pers. sing., as subjunctive of modest statement), = volo, I wish, I should like.
    1.
    With verb in the second person.
    a.
    With pres. subj., so most frequently in Cic.
    (α).
    As a modest imperative of the dependent verb: velim facias = fac, I wish you would do it, please do it:

    ego quae in rem tuam sint, ea velim facias,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 9:

    eas (litteras) in eundem fasciculum velim addas,

    Cic. Att. 12, 53:

    eum salvere jubeas velim,

    id. ib. 7, 7, 7:

    velim me facias certiorem, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 19, 9:

    tu velim saepe ad nos scribas,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 4:

    velim mihi ignoscas,

    id. Fam. 13, 75, 1:

    tu velim animum a me parumper avertas,

    id. Lael. 1, 5; cf. id. Att. 1, 11, 3; 7, 3, 11; 8, 12, 5; id. Fam. 15, 3, 2 et saep.:

    haec pro causa mea dicta accipiatis velim,

    Liv. 42, 34, 13: velim, inquit, hoc mihi probes, Aug. ap. Suet. Aug. 51:

    Musa velim memores, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 53.—
    (β).
    Expressing a wish without a command (v. vellem):

    vera dicas velim,

    I wish you told the truth, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 18:

    quam velim Bruto persuadeas ut Asturae sit,

    Cic. Att. 14, 15, 4:

    ipse velim poenas experiare meas,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 11, 74;

    so in asseverations: ita velim me promerentem ames, dum vivas, mi pater, ut... id mihi vehementer dolet,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 47.—
    b.
    With infinitive clause.
    (α).
    With the force of a modest imperative:

    sed qui istuc credam ita esse, mihi dici velim (i. e. a te),

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 6, 15:

    extremum illud est quod mihi abs te responderi velim,

    Cic. Vat. 17, 41 (may be a dependent subjunctive):

    itaque vos ego, milites, non eo solum animo.... pugnare velim, etc.,

    Liv. 21, 41, 10.—
    (β).
    As a mere wish:

    velim te arbitrari, frater, etc.,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 1:

    primum te arbitrari id quod res est velim,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 9.—With perf. act.:

    hanc te quoque ad ceteras tuas eximias virtutes, Masinissa, adjecisse velim,

    Liv. 30, 14, 6.—With perf. pass., Liv. 1, 23, 8 (v. II. A. 3. a. supra).—
    c.
    With ut (rare):

    de tuis velim ut eo sis animo, quo debes esse,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 14, 4. —
    d.
    With ne (rare), Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 23 (v. I. C. 2. supra).—
    2.
    With dependent verb in the third person, expressing a wish.
    a.
    With pres. subj.:

    ita se defatigent velim Ut, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 3:

    de Cicerone quae mihi scribis, jucunda mihi sunt: velim sint prospera,

    Cic. Att. 14, 11, 2:

    velim seu Himilco, seu Mago respondeat,

    Liv. 23, 12, 15:

    sint haec vera velim,

    Verg. Cir. 306:

    nulla me velim syllaba effugiat,

    Quint. 11, 2, 45.—With final clause:

    tu velim mihi ad urbem praesto sis, ut tuis consiliis utar,

    Cic. Att. 9, 16, 3; cf. id. ib. 11, 11, 2 (v. I. C. 2. supra).—With ellips. of pres. subj.:

    velim mehercule Asturae Brutus (i. e. sit),

    Cic. Att. 14, 11, 1.—
    b.
    With perf. subj. (a wish referring to the past):

    nimis velim improbissumo homini malas edentaverint,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 2, 48.—
    c.
    With inf.-clause:

    ne ego nunc mihi modium mille esse argenti velim!

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 9: di me perdant! Me. Quodcunque optes, velim tibi contingere, id. Cist. 2, 1, 30:

    velim eum tibi placere quam maxime,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 249: idque primum ita esse velim;

    deinde etiam, si non sit, mihi persuaderi tamen velim,

    id. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    quod faxitis, deos velim fortunare,

    Liv. 6, 41, 12.—With perf. pass. inf. (v. I. B. 9. b. b, supra):

    edepol te hodie lapide percussum velim,

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 33:

    moribus praefectum mulierum hunc factum velim,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 30.—With inf.-clause understood:

    nimium plus quam velim nostrorum ingenia sunt mobilia,

    Liv. 2, 37, 4.—
    3.
    With verb in the first person.
    a.
    With inf. pres. (so most freq.):

    atque hoc velim probare omnibus, etc.,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47:

    velim scire ecquid de te recordere,

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 13:

    quare te, ut polliceris, videre plane velim,

    id. Att. 11, 9, 3:

    nec vero velim... a calce ad carceres revocari,

    id. Sen. 23, 83:

    sed multitudo ea quid animorum... habeat scire velim,

    Liv. 23, 12, 7:

    interrogare tamen velim, an Isocrates Attice dixerit,

    Quint. 12, 10, 22.—With perf. inf. act., Ov. P. 3, 1, 9 (v. II. A. 3. c.).—
    b.
    With acc. and inf.:

    quod velis, modo id velim me scire,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 4, 8.—So with perf. pass. inf.:

    ego praeterquam quod nihil haustum ex vano velim, Fabium... potissimum auctorem habui,

    Liv. 22, 7, 4.—
    c.
    With subj. pres.:

    eo velim tam facili uti possim et tam bono in me quam Curione,

    Cic. Att. 10, 8, 10 B. and K. ex conj. Mull. (Lachm., Hoffm. posse; al. possem).—
    4.
    Velim in the principal sentence of conditional clauses, I would, I should be willing:

    aetatem velim servire, Libanum ut (= si) conveniam modo,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 8:

    velim, si fieri possit,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 12:

    si quid tibi compendi facere possim, factum edepol velim (redundant),

    id. ib. 2, 4, 26:

    si possim, velim,

    id. Stich. 4, 2, 9:

    nec velim (imitari orationes Thucydidis) si possim,

    Cic. Brut. 83, 287:

    si liceat, nulli cognitus esse velim,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 12, 42.—
    5.
    The other persons of velim in potential use (rare).
    a.
    Velis.
    (α).
    Imperatively = cupito:

    quoniam non potest fieri quod vis, Id velis quod possit,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 6:

    atque aliquos tamen esse velis tibi, alumna, penates,

    Verg. Cir. 331.—
    (β).
    Declaratively with indef. subj.: quom inopia'st, cupias; quando ejus copia'st, tum non velis, then you (i.e. people, they) do not want it, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 45.—
    (γ).
    Redundant, as a form of the imperative of the dependent verb, Ov. Am. 1, 4, 38 (v. I. A. 3. a. b); id. H. 1, 80 (v. II. A. 1. b.); id. M. 2, 746 (v. II. A. 1. c.).—
    b.
    Velit.
    (α).
    Modestly for vult:

    te super aetherias licentius auras Haud pater ille velit, etc.,

    Verg. A. 7, 558: nemo enim minui velit id in quo maximus fuit, would like that to be diminished in which, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 6; cf. Verg. A. 2, 104, and Ov. H. 9, 7 (v. I. E. 1. c. supra).— So, poet., instead of vellet with perf. inf.:

    ut fiat, quid non illa dedisse velit?

    Ov. Am. 2, 17, 30.—
    (β).
    = imperative of third person:

    arma velit, poscatque simul rapiatque juventus,

    Verg. A. 7, 340.—Redundantly, giving to the dependent verb the force of an imperative, Quint. 8, prooem. 12 (v. II. A. 1. c. supra; v. also I. A. 3. a. supra).—
    c.
    Velimus.
    (α).
    In the optative sense of velim:

    sed scire velimus quod tibi nomen siet,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 6, 18.—
    (β).
    With imperative sense (= let us, we should, etc.), Quint. 6, 3, 28 (v. I. A. 2. d. supra).—
    d.
    Velitis = velim velitis (i. e. jubeatis, jubete):

    novos consules ita cum Samnite gerere bellum velitis ut omnia ante nos bella gesta sunt,

    Liv. 9, 8, 10.—So especially in velitis jubeatis, a formula in submitting a law to the votes of the people in the comitia centuriata or tributa, let it be resolved and ordered by you:

    rogatus in haec verba populus: velitis jubeatisne haec sic fieri, si respublica populi Romani Quiritium, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 10, 2:

    velitis jubeatis, Quirites... uti de ea re Ser. Sulpicius praetor urbanus ad senatum referat, etc.,

    id. 38, 54, 3.—And parodied by Cic.:

    velitis jubeatis ut quod Cicero versum fecerit,

    Cic. Pis. 29, 72.—So in oblique discourse, vellent juberent:

    rogationem promulgavit, vellent juberent Philippo... bellum indici,

    Liv. 31, 6, 1:

    vellent juberentne se regnare,

    id. 1, 46, 1; cf.

    in the resolution of the people: plebis sic jussit: quod senatus... censeat, id volumus jubemusque,

    id. 26, 33, 14.—
    e.
    Velint, optative and redundant, Cic. Att. 11, 7, 7 (v. II. A. 1. d.); Ov. P. 1, 7, 8 (v. II. A. 1. c.).
    C.
    Vellem, as potential subjunctive, I wish, should like, should have liked, representing the wish as contrary to fact, while velim refers to a wish which may be realized:

    de Menedemo vellem verum fuisset, de regina velim verum sit,

    Cic. Att. 15, 4, 4. It is not used with imperative force; cf.:

    quod scribis, putare te... vellem scriberes, cur ita putares... tu tamen velim scribas,

    Cic. Att. 11, 24, 5.—Often quam vellem, how I wish, i. e. I wish very much; and in the same sense: nimium vellem, v. infra.
    1.
    With verb in first person.
    a.
    With inf. pres., I wish, would like, referring to present or future actions:

    videre equidem vos vellem, cum huic aurum darem,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 68:

    vellem equidem idem posse gloriari quod Cyrus,

    Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    vellem equidem vobis placere, Quirites, sed, etc.,

    Liv. 3, 68, 9:

    quam fieri vellem meus libellus!

    Mart. 8, 72, 9.—With cuperem and optarem:

    nunc ego Triptolemi cuperem conscendere currus... Nunc ego Medeae vellem frenare dracones... Nunc ego jactandas optarem sumere pennas, etc.,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 8, 1 sqq.— [p. 2010] Rarely, I should have liked:

    tum equidem istuc os tuum inpudens videre nimium vellem!

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 49.—And in conditional sense:

    maerorem minui: dolorem nec potui, nec, si possem, vellem (i. e. minuere),

    Cic. Att. 12, 28, 2:

    certe ego, si sineres, titulum tibi reddere vellem,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 5, 13:

    sic nec amari quidem vellem (i. e. if I were in his place),

    Sen. Ira, 1, 20, 4.—
    b.
    With perf. inf., I wish I had:

    abiit, vah! Rogasse vellem,

    I wish I had asked him, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 25:

    maxime vellem semper tecum fuisse,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5:

    quam vellem petisse ab eo quod audio Philippum impetrasse,

    id. ib. 10, 4, 10:

    non equidem vellem, quoniam nocitura fuerunt, Pieridum sacris imposuisse manum,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 27:

    ante equidem summa de re statuisse, Latini, Et vellem, et fuerat melius,

    Verg. A. 11, 303. —
    c.
    With inf.-clause, the predicate being a perf. part. (v. I. B. 9. b. b, supra):

    virum me natam vellem,

    would I had been born a man! Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 9.—
    d.
    With subj. imperf. (rare):

    quam vellem, Panaetium nostrum nobiscum haberemus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15.—
    2.
    The subject of the dependent verb in the second person.
    a.
    With subj. imperf. (the regular construction):

    hodie igitur me videbit, ac vellem tum tu adesses,

    I wish you could be present, Cic. Att. 13, 7, 2:

    quam vellem de his etiam oratoribus tibi dicere luberet,

    I wish you would please, id. Brut. 71, 248.—
    b.
    With subj. pluperf., I wish you had:

    vellem Idibus Martiis me ad cenam invitasses,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 4, 1:

    quam vellem te ad Stoicos inclinavisses,

    id. Fin. 3, 3, 10:

    vellem suscepisses juvenem regendum,

    id. Att. 10, 6, 2:

    quam vellem Bruto studium tuum navare potuisses,

    id. ib. 15, 4, 5.—
    c.
    With ne and pluperf. subj.:

    tu vellem ne veritus esses ne parum libenter legerem tuas litteras,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 33, 2.—
    d.
    With ellipsis of verb: vera cantas, vana vellem (i. e. cantares). Plaut. Most. 3, 4, 41.—
    3.
    With verb in third person.
    a.
    With imperf. subj. (the regular construction):

    patrem atque matrem viverent vellem tibi (per ecthesin, v. I. E. b.),

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 106:

    vellem adesset Antonius, modo sine advocatis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7, 16:

    vellem nobis hoc idem vere dicere liceret,

    id. Off. 3, 1, 1:

    vellem adesse posset Panaetius,

    id. Tusc. 1, 33, 81:

    vellem hoc esset laborare,

    id. Or. 2, 71, 287.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    vellem aliqui ex vobis robustioribus hunc male dicendi locum suscepissent,

    Cic. Cael. 3, 7:

    vellem dictum esset ab eodem etiam de Dione,

    id. ib. 10, 23; so id. ib. 31, 74; id. Brut. 44, 163:

    quam vellem Dareus aliquid ex hac indole hausisset!

    Curt. 3, 32 (12), 26.—
    c.
    With inf.-clause.
    (α).
    With inf. pres., I wish he were:

    quam non abesse ab hujus judicio L. Vulsionem vellem!

    Cic. Clu. 70, 198:

    nunc mihi... Vellem, Maeonide, pectus inesse tuum,

    Ov. F. 2, 120.—
    (β).
    With perf. inf. or part., I wish he had, had been:

    quam vellem Menedemum invitatum!

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    epistulas, quas quidem vellem mihi numquam redditas,

    Cic. Att. 11, 22, 1.—

    With ellipsis of predicate: illud quoque vellem antea (i. e. factum, or factum esse),

    Cic. Att. 11, 23, 3.—
    d.
    With ut, Cic. Sull. 1, 1; id. Fam. 7, 33, 2 (v. I. C. 1. a. supra).—
    4.
    With acc. of a neuter pronoun or of a noun:

    aliquando sentiam us nihil nobis nisi, id quod minime vellem, spiritum reliquum esse,

    Cic. Att. 9, 19, 2: tris eos libros maxime nunc vellem: apti essent ad id quod cogito, I would like to have (cf. I. E. 1. a.), id. ib. 13, 22, 2.—
    5.
    In the other persons of vellem (mostly poet.).
    a.
    Velles.
    (α).
    In optative sentences redundant, Verg. A. 11, 153 (v. II. A. 1. d.).—
    (β).
    Of an indefinite subject:

    velles eum (Senecam) suo ingenio dixisse, alieno judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 130.—
    b.
    Vellet.
    (α).
    In the potential sense of vellem: vellet abesse quidem;

    sed adest. Velletque videre, Non etiam sentire canum fera facta suorum,

    Ov. M. 3, 247.—
    (β).
    Conditionally:

    quis vellet tanti nuntius esse mali (i. e. if in this situation)?

    Ov. H. 12, 146.—
    c.
    Vellent.
    (α).
    In the potential sense of vellem:

    quam vellent aethere in alto Nunc of pauperiem et duros perferre labores!

    Verg. A. 6, 436.—
    (β).
    Conditionally: nec superi vellent hoc licuisse sibi, would wish, i. e. if in this situation, Mart. 4, 44, 8.
    D.
    Volam and voluero.
    1.
    In gen.: respiciendus erit sermo stipulationis, utrumne talis sit: quem voluero, an quem volam. Nam si talis fuerit quem voluero, cum semel elegerit, mutare voluntatem non poterit;

    si vero... quem volam, donec judicium dictet, mutandi potestatem habebit,

    Dig. 45, 1, 112.—
    2.
    Volam in principal sentences.
    (α).
    = Engl. future, I shall wish, etc.:

    et commeminisse hoc ego volam te,

    I shall require you to recollect this, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 7: cum omnia habueris, tunc habere et sapientiam voles? will you also wish to have wisdom when? etc., Sen. Ep. 17, 8.—
    (β).
    Denoting present probability: et scilicet jam me hoc voles patrem exorare, ut, etc., you doubtless wish me, etc., Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 27.—
    3.
    In clauses dependent on predicates implying a future, generally rendered by an English present:

    quid si sors aliter quam voles evenerit?

    otherwise than as you wish, Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 35:

    tum te, si voles, cum patriae quod debes solveris, satis diu vixisse dicito,

    then if you choose, if you will, Cic. Marcell. 9, 27:

    decedes cum voles,

    id. Att. 6, 3, 2:

    qui magis effugies eos qui volent fingere?

    those who are bent upon inventing, who will invent, falsehoods, id. ib. 8, 2, 2; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 24:

    quod voles gratum esse, rarum effice,

    Sen. Ben. 1, 14, 1; cf. id. Brev. Vit. 7, 9: si di volent, the gods permitting, August. ap. Suet. Calig. 8:

    invenies, vere si reperire voles,

    Ov. P. 3, 1, 34; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 78; Tib. 1, 4, 45.—So, voluero:

    quem (locum) si qui vitare voluerit, sex milium circuitu in oppidum pervenit,

    who wishes to avoid this spot, Caes. B. C. 2, 24.
    E.
    Si vis, parenthetically.
    1.
    If you please (cf. sis, supra init.):

    paulum opperirier, Si vis,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 52:

    audi, si vis, nunc jam,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 30:

    dic, si vis, de quo disputari velis,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 5, 13.—
    2.
    If you wish, choose, insist upon it:

    hanc quoque jucunditatem, si vis, transfer in animum,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 4, 14:

    addam, si vis, animi, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 27, 89:

    concedam hoc ipsum, si vis, etc.,

    id. Div. 2, 15, 34.
    F.
    Quam, with any person of the pres. indic. or subj., or imperf. subj. or future, = quamvis, in a concessive sense, virtually, however, however much.
    1.
    3 d pers. sing.:

    quod illa, quam velit sit potens, numquam impetravisset (= quamvis sit potens),

    however powerful she may be, Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    C. Gracchus dixit, sibi in somnis Ti. fratrem visum esse dicere, quam vellet cunctaretur, tamen eodem sibi leto... esse pereundum,

    id. Div. 1, 26, 56:

    quam volet jocetur,

    id. N. D. 2, 17, 46.—
    2.
    1 st pers. plur.:

    quam volumus licet ipsi nos amemus, tamen, etc.,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 9, 19.—
    3.
    2 d pers. plur.: exspectate facinus quam vultis improbum, vincam tamen, etc., expect a crime, however wicked ( ever so wicked), etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 5, § 11;

    but: hac actione quam voletis multi dicent,

    as many as you choose, id. ib. 2, 2, 42, § 102.—
    4.
    3 d pers. plur.:

    quam volent illi cedant, tamen a re publica revocabuntur,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 44, 113:

    quam volent in conviviis faceti, dicaces, etc., sint, alia fori vis est, alia triclinii,

    id. Cael. 28, 67;

    but: et ceteri quam volent magnas pecunias capere possint,

    as much money as they choose, id. Verr. 2, 2, 58, § 142.
    G.
    Volo = malo, to prefer, with a comparative clause (rare):

    quodsi in ceteris quoque studiis a multis eligere homines commodissimum quodque, quam sese uni alicui certo vellent addicere, = si se eligere mallent quam se uni addicere,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 2, 5:

    malae rei quam nullius duces esse volunt,

    Liv. 3, 68, 11:

    famaene credi velis quanta urbs a te capta sit, quam posteris quoque eam spectando esse?

    id. 25, 29, 6.
    H.
    With magis and maxime.
    1.
    Magis velle: ut tu illam salvam magis velles quam ego, you wish more than I, etc., Ter. Hec. 2, 2, 17.—
    2.
    With maxime, to wish above all, more than any thing or any one else, to be most agreeable to one, to like best, to prefer (among more than two alternatives):

    quia id maxime volo ut illi istoc confugiant,

    wish above all, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 49; so id. Trin. 3, 2, 38:

    maxime vellem, judices, ut P. Sulla, etc.,

    Cic. Sull. 1, 1:

    caritate nos capiunt reges, consilio optimates, libertate populi, ut in comparando difficile ad eligendum sit, quid maxime velis,

    which you prefer, like best, id. Rep. 1, 35, 55; so, quemadmodum ego maxime vellem, id. Att. 13, 1, 1:

    tris eos libros maxime nunc vellem,

    above all others, id. ib. 13, 32, 2:

    alia excusanti juveni, alia recipienti futura, ita ut maxime vellet senatus responderi placuit,

    as it was most agreeable to him, Liv. 39, 47:

    si di tibi permisissent quo modo maxime velles experiri animum meum,

    in the manner most convenient to yourself, Curt. 3, 6, 12.
    K.
    In disjunctive co - ordination.
    1.
    With sive... sive:

    tu nunc, sive ego volo, seu nolo, sola me ut vivam facis,

    whether I choose or not, Plaut. Cist. 3, 14:

    itaque Campanos sive velint, sive nolint, quieturos,

    Liv. 8, 2, 13.—
    2.
    Without connectives.
    a.
    Vis tu... vis:

    congredi cum hoste liceat... vis tu mari, vis terra, vis acie, vis urbibus expugnandis experiri virtutem?

    Liv. 25, 6, 22.—
    b.
    Velim nolim.
    (α).
    Interrogatively, = utrum velim nec ne:

    velit nolit scire, difficile est,

    it is difficult to know whether he intends it or not, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 4.—
    (β).
    = seu velim seu nolim:

    ut mihi, velim nolim, sit certa quaedam tuenda sententia,

    whether I will or not, Cic. N. D. 1, 7, 17:

    velim nolim, in cognomine Scipionum haeream necesse est,

    Val. Max. 3, 7, 3:

    mors interim adest, cui velis nolis vacandum est,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 8, 5:

    hunc ita fundatum necesse est, velit nolit, sequatur hilaritas continua,

    id. Vit. Beat. 4, 4:

    velint nolint, respondendum est... beate vivere bonum non esse,

    id. Ep. 117, 4:

    praeterea futuri principes, velint nolint, sciant, etc.,

    Plin. Pan. 20 fin. Part. and P. a.: vŏlens, entis.
    A.
    As a part. proper, retaining the meaning and construction of velle, with the force of a relative or adverbial clause.
    1.
    Agreeing with some member of the sentence ( poet. and in post-class. prose;

    rare): neque illum... multa volentem Dicere praeterea vidit (= qui multa voluit dicere),

    Verg. G. 4, 501; id. A. 2, 790:

    nec me vis ulla volentem Avertet (i. e. si adhaerere foederi volo),

    id. ib. 12, 203: decemviri, minuere volentes hujuscemodi violentiam... putaverunt, etc., intending ( who intended) to diminish such a violence, etc., Gell. 20, 1, 34:

    Milo, experiri etiamtunc volens, an ullae sibi reliquae vires adessent... rescindere quercum conatus est,

    id. 15, 16, 3:

    scio quosdam testatores, efficere volentes ne servi sui umquam ad libertatem venirent, etc., hactenus scribere solitos,

    Dig. 40, 4, 61:

    si te volentem ad prohibendum venire, deterruerit aliquis, etc.,

    ib. 43, 24, 1, § 10.—
    2.
    Abl. absol. (not ante-Aug.):

    ne cujus militis scripti nomen nisi ipso volente deleretur,

    except with his consent, Liv. 7, 41, 4; so,

    Teum ex medio cursu classem repente avertit, aut volentibus iis usurus commeatu parato hostibus, aut ipsos pro hostibus habiturus,

    with their consent, id. 37, 27, 3:

    ponuntque ferocia Poeni Corda, volente deo,

    since the god willed it, Verg. A. 1, 303: Thrasippo supplicium a se voluntaria morte exigere volente, while he was about to inflict punishment on himself, etc., Val. Max. 5, 1, ext. 2: scire volentibus immortalibus dis an Romana virtus imperium orbis mereretur, it being the will of the gods to know, etc., Flor. 1, 13, 3 (1, 7, 3): qui sciente aut volente eo ad quem res pertinet, possessionem nanciscitur, with the knowledge and consent of the person who, etc., Dig. 41, 2, 6. —
    B.
    As adj., willing, voluntary, and hence, favorably disposed (opp. invitus).
    1.
    Attributively.
    a.
    In the phrase cum dis volentibus, lit. with the willing or favoring gods, i. e. with the will, permission, or favor of the gods: dono ducite doque volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 208 Vahl.):

    sequere hac, mea gnata, me cum dis volentibus,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 4:

    cum dis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi Mani uti illaec suovetaurilia, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141 (142).— And without cum, abl. absol.:

    virtute ac dis volentibus magni estis et opulenti,

    Sall. J. 14, 19.—
    b.
    Volenti animo.
    (α).
    = cupide, eagerly:

    Romae plebes litteris quae de Metello ac Mario missae erant, volenti animo de ambobus acceperant,

    Sall. J. 73, 3. —
    (β).
    On purpose, intentionally:

    consilio hanc omnes animisque volentibus urbem Adferimur,

    Verg. A. 7, 216.—
    2.
    Predicatively.
    a.
    Agreeing with the subject-nom. or subject - acc.
    (α).
    Voluntarily, willingly, [p. 2011] gladly (class.):

    (hi) divini generis appellentur... vobisque jure et lege volentes pareant,

    Cic. Univ. 11 fin.:

    quas victi ab hostibus poenas metuerant, eas ipsi volentes pendere,

    Sall. J. 76, 6:

    quia volentes in amicitiam non veniebant,

    Liv. 21, 39, 4:

    si volentes ac non coacti mansissent in amicitia,

    id. 24, 37, 7:

    quocunque loco seu volens seu invitus constitisti,

    id. 7, 40, 13:

    itaque se numquam volentem parte qua posset rerum consilio gerendarum cessurum,

    id. 22, 27, 9:

    (virtus), quidquid evenerit, feret, non patiens tantum, sed etiam volens,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    non est referre gratiam quod volens acceperis nolenti reddere,

    id. Ben. 4, 40, 4:

    volens vos Turnus adoro,

    Verg. A. 10, 677; 3, 457; 6, 146;

    12, 833: date vina volentes,

    id. ib. 8, 275: ipsa autem macie tenuant armenta volentes ( on purpose), id. G. 3, 129.—And referring to subjects denoting things: quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura Sponte tulere sua, carpsit ( spontaneously and willingly), Verg. G. 2, 500.—
    (β).
    Favorably; with propitius, favorably and kindly, referring to the gods:

    precantes Jovem ut volens propitius praebeat sacra arma pro patria,

    Liv. 24, 21, 10:

    precantibus ut volens propitiaque urbem Romanam iniret,

    id. 29, 14, 13:

    in ea arce (Victoriam) sacratam, volentem propitiamque, firmam ac stabilem fore populo Romano,

    id. 22, 37, 12; 1, 16, 3; 7, 26, 3; 24, 38, 8; Inscr. Orell. 2489 sq.—Parodied by Plautus:

    agite, bibite, festivae fores! fite mihi volentes propitiae,

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 89.— Abl. absol.:

    omnia diis propitiis volentibusque ea faciemus,

    with the favor and help of the gods, Liv. 39, 16, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    si (Jovem) invocem ut dexter ac volens assit,

    Quint. 4, prooem. 5.—
    b.
    Agreeing with other terms of the sentence (rare): volenti consuli causa in Pamphyliam devertendi oblata est, a welcome cause was offered to the consul, etc., Liv. 38, 15, 3:

    quod nobis volentibus facile continget,

    if we wish, Quint. 6, 2, 30:

    is Ariobarzanem volentibus Armeniis praefecit,

    to their satisfaction, Tac. A. 2, 4:

    gemis... hominem, Urse, tuum, cui dulce volenti servitium... erat,

    to whom his servitude was sweet, since he liked it, Stat. S. 2, 6, 15:

    me mea virtus, etc., fatis egere volentem,

    Verg. A. 8, 133:

    saepe ille volentem castigabat erum,

    administered kindly received rebukes, Stat. S. 2, 6, 50.—
    c.
    In the phrase aliquid mihi volenti est or putatur, etc., something is welcome, acceptable to me, pleases me (= volens habeo or accipio aliquid; cf. the Gr. Humin tauta boulomenois estin, and, mihi aliquid cupienti est; v. cupio;

    rare but class.): uti militibus exaequatus cum imperatore labos volentibus esset,

    that the equalization of labor was acceptable to the soldier, Sall. J. 100, 4:

    quia neque plebei militia volenti putabatur,

    id. ib. 84, 3 Dietsch:

    grande periculum maritumis civitatibus esse, et quibusdam volentibus novas res fore,

    that to some a change of the government would be welcome, Liv. 21, 50, 10:

    quibus bellum volentibus erat, probare exemplum,

    Tac. Agr. 18.— Impers. with subject - inf.: ceterisque remanere et in verba Vespasiani adigi volentibus fuit, to the rest it was acceptable to remain, etc., Tac. H. 3, 43.—With subject-inf. understood:

    si volentibus vobis erit, in medium profero quae... legisse memini,

    Macr. S. 7, 13, 11:

    si volentibus vobis erit, diem fabulis et epulis exigamus,

    id. ib. 1, 7; 2, 3 fin.; 6, 6 init.
    3.
    As subst. (mostly post-Aug.).
    a.
    vŏlens, entis, m., = is qui vult, in the different meanings, and often with the construction of the verb.
    (α).
    One who wishes:

    nunc cis Hiberum castra Romana esse, arcem tutam perfugiumque novas volentibus res,

    Liv. 22, 22, 11:

    consulere se volentibus vacuas aures accommodavit,

    Val. Max. 5, 8, 3:

    quid opus libertate si volentibus luxu perire non licet,

    id. 2, 9, 5:

    discere meliora volentibus promptum est,

    i. e. it depends on our own will to learn better things, Quint. 11, 11, 12:

    nec sum in hoc sollicitus, dum res ipsa volentibus discere appareat,

    to the students, id. 8, 4, 15:

    mori volentibus vis adhibita vivendi,

    Suet. Tib. 61.—
    (β).
    One who intends, is about:

    juris ignorantia non prodest acquirere volentibus,

    i. e. in the acquisition of property, Dig. 22, 6, 7:

    si quis volentem incipere uti frui prohibuit,

    one who is about to enter upon a usufruct, ib. 43, 16, 3, § 14. —
    (γ).
    One who is willing:

    non refert quid sit quod datur, nisi a volente volenti datur,

    unless it is both willingly given and received, Sen. Ben. 2, 18, 8:

    ducunt volentem fata, nolentem trahunt,

    those willing to follow, id. Ep. 107, 11.—
    (δ).
    One who consents:

    tutiusque rati volentibus quam coactis imperitare,

    to rule men with their consent, Sall. J. 102, 6:

    quippe rempublicam si a volentibus nequeat ab invitis jus expetituram,

    peaceably if they could, forcibly if they must, Liv. 3, 40, 4:

    si quis aliam rem pro alia volenti solverit,

    if one pays with the consent of the receiver, Dig. 46, 3, 46:

    nulla injuria est quae in volentem fiat,

    ib. 47, 10, 1, § 5.—
    (ε).
    One who does a thing voluntarily:

    pecuniam etiam a volentibus acceperant,

    the contributions of money were voluntary, Vell. 2, 62, 3:

    parce, puer, stimulis... (solis equi) Sponte sua properant. Labor est inhibere volentis (i. e. properare),

    Ov. M. 2, 128.—
    (ζ).
    Volens = bene volens: munificus nemo habebatur nisi pariter volens, unless he was just as kindly disposed, sc. as he was liberal, Sall. J. 103, 6.—Often referring to a previously mentioned noun:

    hunc cape consiliis socium et conjunge volentem,

    and unite with him, since he wishes it, Verg. A. 5, 712; so may be taken Ov. M. 2, 128 (v. e).—
    b.
    In the neutr. plur. (volentia) rare, always with dat., things pleasing, acceptable:

    Pompeius multis suspitionibus volentia plebi facturus habebatur,

    that he would do what pleased the common people, Sall. H. 4, 31 Dietsch:

    haec atque talia plebi volentia fuere,

    Tac. A. 15, 36 Draeg. ad loc. al.:

    iique Muciano volentia rescripsere,

    id. H. 3, 52.—Hence, adv.: vŏlenter, willingly, App. M. 6, p. 178, 4.
    2.
    vŏlo, āvi, ātum ( part. gen. plur. volantūm, Verg. A. 6, 728; Lucr. 2, 1083), 1, v. n. [Sanscr. val-, to turn one's self, etc.; cf.: vŏlucer, vēlox, and vol- in velivolus], to fly.
    I.
    Lit.: ex alto... laeva volavit avis, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 95 Vahl.):

    aves,

    Lucr. 6, 742:

    accipitres,

    id. 4, 1010:

    corvi,

    id. 2, 822:

    altam supra volat ardea nubem,

    Verg. G. 1, 364:

    volat ille per aëra magnum Remigio alarum,

    id. A. 1, 300:

    columbae venere volantes,

    id. ib. 6, 191; Prop. 2, 30 (3, 28), 30; Juv. 8, 251:

    apes,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 96; cf. Plin. 10, 38, 54, § 112:

    volasse eum (Antonium), non iter fecisse diceres,

    Cic. Phil. 10, 5, 11.—Prov.:

    sine pennis volare haud facile est,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 49.—
    2.
    P. a. as subst.: vŏlantes, ĭum, comm., the birds ( poet.), Lucr. 2, 1083; Verg. A. 6, 239; 6, 728.—
    II.
    Transf., to fly, i. e. to move swiftly like one flying, to fleet, speed, hasten along:

    i sane... vola curriculo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 17; cf.:

    per summa levis volat aequora curru,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    medios volat ecce per hostes Vectus equo spumante Saces,

    id. ib. 12, 650:

    illa (Argo) volat,

    Ov. H. 6, 66:

    currus,

    Verg. G. 3, 181:

    axis,

    id. ib. 3, 107:

    nubes,

    Lucr. 5, 254:

    fulmina,

    id. 2, 213:

    tempestates,

    id. 6, 612:

    telum,

    id. 1, 971; cf. Sall. J. 60, 2; Verg. A. 9, 698; Liv. 26, 44, 7 al.:

    litterae Capuam ad Pompeium volare dicebantur,

    Cic. Att. 2, 19, 3:

    volat aetas,

    id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76:

    hora,

    Sen. Hippol. 1141:

    fama,

    Verg. A. 3, 121:

    et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 71.— Poet., with inf.:

    ast Erebi virgo ditem volat aethere Memphim Praecipere et Phariā venientem pellere terrā,

    Val. Fl. 4, 407.
    3.
    vŏlo, ōnis, m. [1. volo], a volunteer, first applied to the slaves who, after the battle at Cannæ, were enrolled upon their own expressed desire to serve (cf. Liv. 22, 57, 11; Val. Max. 7, 6, 1):

    volones dicti sunt milites, qui post Cannensem cladem usque ad octo milia, cum essent servi, voluntarie se ad militiam obtulere,

    Paul. Diac. p. 370:

    volones, quia sponte hoc voluerunt, appellati,

    Macr. S. 1, 11, 30:

    vetus miles tironi, liber voloni sese exaequari sineret,

    Liv. 23, 35, 6; 23, 32, 1; Capitol. Anton. Phil. 21, 6; Macr. S. 1, 11, 30.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > volo

  • 15 accūrātē

        accūrātē adv. with comp. and sup.    [accuratus], carefully, precisely, exactly, nicely: causam dicere: accuratius ad aestūs vitandos aedificare, Cs.: accuratissime eius avaritiam accusare, N.: Saltem accurate (sc. me fallere debebas), you might at least have taken pains, T.
    * * *
    accuratius, accuratissime ADV
    carefully, accurately, precisely, exactly; nicely; painstakingly, meticulous

    Latin-English dictionary > accūrātē

  • 16 ad

       ad praep. with acc.    [cf. Eng. at].—Of approach (opp. to ab, as in to ex).    I. In space, to, toward: retorquet oculos ad urbem: una pars vergit ad septentriones, Cs.: tendens ad sidera palmas, V. —Fig.: ad alia vitia propensior, more inclined to. —Esp., ad dextram, sinistram, or laevam, to or on the right or left: ito ad dextram, T.: alqd ad dextram conspicere, Cs.: non rectā regione... sed ad laevam, L.—Designating the goal, to, toward: ad ripam convenire, Cs.: vocari ad cenam, H.: ad se adferre: reticulum ad narīs sibi admovebat (cf. accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; and, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province).— Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in T. freq.): eamus ad me, T. — With gen., ellipt.: ad Dianae, to the temple of, T.: ad Castoris currere. — Used for dat: litteras dare ad aliquem, to write one a letter (cf. litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one): domum ad te scribere: ad primam (epistulam) scribere, to answer.—Hence, librum ad aliquem mittere, scribere, to dedicate a book to one. —In titles, ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.— With names of towns, ad answers to Whither? for the simple acc., i. e. to the vicinity of, to the neighborhood of: ad Aquinum accedere, approach: ut cum suis copiis iret ad Mutinam. — Of hostile movement or protection, against (cf. adversus): veniri ad se existimantes, Cs.: ipse ad hostem vehitur, N.: Romulus ad regem impetum facit (cf. in), L.: clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt, V.: ad hos casūs provisa praesidia, Cs.—In war, of manner of fighting: ad pedes pugna venerat, was fought out on foot, L.: equitem ad pedes deducere, L.: pugna ad gladios venerat, L. — Emphatic of distance, to, even to, all the way to: a Salonis ad Oricum portūs... occupavit, Cs.: usque a Dianis ad Sinopum navigare. — Fig.: deverberasse usque ad necem, T.: virgis ad necem caedi.—Of nearness or proximity in gen. (cf. apud), near to, by, at, close by: ad forīs adsistere: Ianum ad infimum Argiletum fecit, L.: quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset, at hand, L.: errantem ad flumina, V.; and ellipt.: pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret! — Of persons: qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat, Cs.: ad me fuit, at my house: ad inferos poenas parricidi luent, among.—So, fig.: ad omnīs nationes sanctum, in the judgment of, Cs.: ut esset ad posteros monumentum, etc., L.: ad urbem esse (of a general outside of the walls): ad urbem cum imperio remanere, Cs.—With names of towns and verbs of rest: pons, qui erat ad Genavam, Cs.; and with an ordinal number and lapis: sepultus ad quintum lapidem, N.—    II. In time, about, toward: domum reductus ad vesperum, toward evening.—Till, until, to, even to, up to: usque ad hanc aetatem: ad multam noctem: amant ad quoddam tempus, until: quem ad finem? how long: ad quartam (sc. horam), H. — Hence, ad id (sc. tempus), till then: ad id dubios servare animos, L.— At, on, in, by: ad horam destinatam, at the appointed hour: frumentum ad diem dare. —    III. In number or amount, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. circiter): talenta ad quindecim coëgi, T.: annos ad quadraginta natus.—Adverb.: occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor, Cs.: ad duo milia et trecenti occisi, L.—Of a limit, to, unto, even to (rare): (viaticum) ad assem perdere, to the last farthing, H.: ad denarium solvere. —Esp., ad unum, to a single one, without exception: omnes ad unum idem sentiunt: exosus ad unum Troianos, V. —    IV. In other relations, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in: ad honorem antecellere: nihil ad rem pertinet.—Ellipt.: rectene an secus, nihil ad nos: Quid ad praetorem? quid ad rem? i. e. what difference does it make? H.: quibus (auxiliaribus) ad pugnam confidebat, Cs.: ad speciem ornatus, ad sensum acerbus: mentis ad omnia caecitas: ad cetera paene gemelli, H.: facultas ad dicendum.—With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., according to, agreeably to, after: taleis ad certum pondus examinatis, Cs.: ad cursūs lunae describit annum, L.: canere ad tibiam: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (see unguis), H.: ad istorum normam sapientes: ad specus angustiae vallium (i. e. ad specuum similitudinem angustae valles), Cs. — With the cause or reason, according to, at, on, in consequence of, for, in order to: ad horum proces in Boeotiam duxit, on their entreaty, L.: dictis ad fallendum instructis, L.: causae ad discordiam, to produce dissension, T.: ad facinora incendere, S.: ad speciem tabernaculis relictis, for appearance, Cs.: ad id, for this use, as a means to that end, L.: ad id ipsum, for that my purpose, L.: delecto milite ad navīs, marines, L.: puer ad cyathum statuetur, H.: biiugi ad frena leones, yoked in pairs with bits, V.: res quae sunt ad incendia, Cs.: ad communem salutem utilius.—In comparison, to, compared with, in comparison with: terra ad universi caeli complexum: nihil ad tuum equitatum, Caesar.—    V. In adverbial phrases, ad omnia, withal, to crown all: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc., L.—Ad hoc and ad haec, moreover, besides, in addition: ad hoc, quos... postremo omnes, quos, etc., S. — Ad id quod, beside that (rare): ad id quod... indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur, L. — Ad tempus, at a definite, fixed time, C., L.; at a fit, appropriate time, L.; for some time, for a short time, L.; according to circumstances. — Ad praesens, for the moment, for a short time.—Ad locum, on the spot: ut ad locum miles esset paratus, L.—Ad verbum, word for word, literally. — Ad summam, on the whole, generally, in general; in a word, in short, C., H.—Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum, at the end, finally, at last; of place, at the extremity, at the top, at the end: ad extremum (teli) unde ferrum exstabat, L.; of time, at last, finally: ad extremum incipit philosophari; of order, finally, lastly; to the last degree, quite, L. — Quem ad finem? to what limit? how far? how long? Note.—a. Ad rarely follows its acc: quam ad, T.: quos ad, C.: ripam ad Araxis, Ta.—b. In composition, ad- stands before vowels, b, d, f, h, i consonant, m, n, q, v, and mostly before l, r, s; acbefore c; but very often ad- before cl-, cr-, and cu-; ag- or ad- before g; ap- or ad- before p; atbefore t; but a- or ad- before gn, sp, sc, st.
    * * *
    I II
    to, up to, towards; near, at; until, on, by; almost; according to; about w/NUM

    Latin-English dictionary > ad

  • 17 aliquandō

        aliquandō adv.    [ali- + quando], of time, at some time or other, once; at any time, ever: quis civis meliorum partium aliquando? inlucescet aliquando ille dies: si aliquando esset osurus: Sero, verum aliquando tamen, but yet once: Forsitan aliquis aliquando eius modi quidpiam fecerit.—Si forte aliquando or si aliquando, if at any time, if ever, if once, if at one time, if one day: si quid huius simile forte aliquando evenerit, T.: quod si aliquando manus ista plus valuerit, etc.—Of an indefinite past, or future time, once, formerly, some day, hereafter: quam concedis adhuc artem omnino non esse, sed aliquando, etc.: aut quisquam nostri misereri potest, qui aliquando vobis hostis fuit? S.—Meton., sometimes, now and then: utilitatem aliquando cum honestate pugnare: sitne aliquando mentiri boni viri? haud semper errat fama; aliquando et elegit, Ta.—Colloq., once, for once, on this occasion, now: nostro more aliquando, non rhetorico loquamur, now in our own way: dicendum enim aliquando est, etc., I must for once say it.—In requests or wishes, at length, now at last: audite quaeso, iudices, et aliquando miseremini sociorum: ut (Iuppiter) aliquando fulmina ponat, O.—Implying delay, finally, at length, now at last: quibus (quaestionibus) finem aliquando fecit: aliquando tandem huc animum ut adiungas tuom, T.: tandem aliquando: aliquando iam, now at length.
    * * *
    sometime (or other), at any time, ever; finally; before too late; at length

    Latin-English dictionary > aliquandō

  • 18 apex

        apex icis, m    [1 AP-], the extreme end, point, summit, top: lauri, V.: montis, O.: sublimis (of a headland), Iu.: levis, a tongue of flame, V.—A hat, helmet, crown: regum apices, H.: summus, the top of the helmet, V.: hinc apicem Fortuna Sustulit, the crown, H.: dialis, the flamen's hat, i. e. the priestly office, L. — Fig., the highest ornament: apex est senectutis auctoritas.
    * * *
    point, top, summit; cap, crown; conical priest cap; highest honor; long mark over vowel; outlines of letters, letter; least particle, speck

    Latin-English dictionary > apex

  • 19 ast

        ast    conj., older and poet. for at.
    * * *
    but, on the other hand/contrary; but yet; at least; in that event; if further

    Latin-English dictionary > ast

  • 20 at

       at or    (rarely) ast, conj, but (introducing a contrast to what precedes).    I. In a transition, but, but on the other hand, but meanwhile: comminus pugnatum est; at Germani impetūs gladiorum exceperunt, Cs.: alius alii varie... At Cato, etc., S.: paret Amor dictis... At Venus, etc., V.: appellatus est Atticus... At ille... respondit, N.: At regina, etc., V.—Sometimes at simply emphasizes a word: Bellona, si hodie nobis victoriam duis, ast ego templum tibi voveo, I for my part, L. — Esp., interrupting the thought: metuebat. At hunc liberta divisit, etc., H.: dapibus epulamur opimis. At subitae adsunt Harpyiae, V.: at quem ad modum corrupisti?: at quam caeca avaritia est!: huc armati tendunt; at tu, pater deūm, hinc arce hostes, L.—After a negative clause, at sometimes introduces a qualification (a contradiction would require sed or verum): non placet Antonio; at placuit Servilio, and yet: quoniam... at tu tuo supplicio doce, etc., yet at least, L.: si te nulla movet... imago, At ramum agnoscas, V.—Esp., after si, etc., introducing a qualification, but yet, nevertheless, yet: quod si se abstulerunt, at exemplum reliquerunt: si oblivisci non possumus, at tacere: quod si nihil relinquitur... at ego ad deos confugiam, L.—Introducing a minor premise, but (it is also true that), now: at nemo sapiens est nisi fortis, ergo, etc.—Repeated with emphasis: si non virtute... at sermone, at humanitate eius delectamini: at est bonus, at tibi amicus, at, etc., H.—Beginning a discourse: At o deorum quicquid... Quid iste fert tumultus? H.—    II. Introducing a direct opposition, but, but on the contrary: iste civis Romanos (coluit)? at nullis infestior fuit: brevis vita... at memoria sempiterna: ut videre piratum non liceret? At contra... hoc iucundissimum spectaculum, etc.: illi delubra decorabant... at hi contra, S.: apud nos... At apud illos e contrario, N.: at etiam sunt qui dicant, but there are even some, etc.: an sine me ille vicit? At ne potuit quidem, but it was not even possible: esto, nihil laudis adeptus est... at vero, etc., but assuredly.—Introducing an objection: quid tandem te impedit? Mosne maiorum? At persaepe, etc., i. e. surely not, for, etc.: at non est tanta... credo, sed, etc., but, it will be urged: at valuit odium, fecit iratus... Quid, si, etc., but, it may be said, etc.—Strengthened by enim or enim vero, but indeed, but surely: at enim non fuit ab Oppianico constitutus, but no, for (it is objected), etc.: At enim vero nemo de plebe consul fuit, but most assuredly, it is objected, L.—In an ironical objection: at vero Pompei voluntatem a me alienabat oratio mea: At, puto, non ultro... Me petiit? O.
    * * *
    but, but on the other hand; on the contrary; while, whereas; but yet; at least

    Latin-English dictionary > at

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