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the temperature

  • 1 caelum

        caelum ī, n    [2 CAV-], the sky, heaven, heavens, vault of heaven: caelum terra mariaque: quod tegit omnia caelum, O.: aliquod caeli signum, sign, constellation: in caelo regere, H.: portae de caelo tactae, struck by lightning, L.: caelum terramque miscere (of violent winds), V.: de caelo demissis, i. e. of divine descent, L.: albente caelo, at break of day, Cs.: vesperascente caelo, in the evening twilight, N. — In augury: de caelo servare, to observe the signs of heaven: de caelo fieri (of celestial signs), to appear.—Provv.: quid si nunc caelum ruat? (of a vain fear), T.: delabi caelo, to drop from the sky (of sudden good-fortune): caelum ac terras miscere, to throw everything into confusion, L.: findere caelum aratro (of an impossibility), O.—In a play on the name Caelius: caeli spatium, the breadth of the sky (or of the grave of Caelius), V. — A sky, clime, zone, region: caelum, sub quo natus essem, L.: Caelum non animum mutare, H.—The air, sky, atmosphere, temperature, climate, weather: foedus annus intemperie caeli, L.: caeli spiritus iucundus: caeli morem praediscere, V.: ducere animam de caelo, the open air: Germania aspera caelo, Ta.: salubre: serenum, V.: palustre, L.: foedum imbribus, Ta.—Fig., of well-being, heaven, the height of honor, prosperity, happiness: Caesar fertur in caelum, praised to the skies: vos ad caelum efferre rumore secundo, H.: collegam de caelo detraxisti, deprived of his position: in caelo sum, i. e. very happy: caelum accepisse fatebor, O. — Of things: omnia, quae tu in caelum ferebas, extolled.
    * * *
    I
    heaven, sky, heavens; space; air, climate, weather; universe, world; Jehovah
    II
    chisel; engraving tool; burin

    Latin-English dictionary > caelum

  • 2 Iuppiter (Iūpi-)

        Iuppiter (Iūpi-) Iovis, m    [DIV-], Jupiter, Jove, son of Saturn, brother and husband of Juno, chief of the gods, god of the sky, Cs., C., L., H., V., O.: Iovis stella, the planet Jupiter.—Heaven, sky, air: sub Iove frigido, H.: metuendus (i. e. pluvius), V.: sub Iove, in the open air, O.: loci, temperature, O.: Iuppiter Stygius, i. e. Pluto, V.: Iovis auribus ista Servas, i. e. of Augustus, H.

    Latin-English dictionary > Iuppiter (Iūpi-)

  • 3 temperiēs

        temperiēs —, acc. em, abl. ē, f    [temporo], a due mingling, proper mixture, tempering, temperature, temper: ubi temperiem sumpsere umorque calorque, O.: Temperiemque dedit, mixtā cum frigore flammā, i. e. a moderate temperature, O.: caeli mira, Cu.: blandarum aquarum, O.
    * * *
    proper mixture, temper

    Latin-English dictionary > temperiēs

  • 4 causodes

    causodes, causodes ADJ
    characterized by high temperature; burning

    Latin-English dictionary > causodes

  • 5 bonae

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonae

  • 6 bonus

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonus

  • 7 cael

    1.
    caelum ( cēlum, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 640), i, n. [caedo], the chisel or burin of the sculptor or engraver, a graver:

    caelata vasa... a caelo vocata, quod est genus ferramenti, quem vulgo cilionem vocant,

    Isid. Orig. 20, 4, 7; Quint. 2, 21, 24; Varr. ap. Non. p. 99, 18; Stat. S. 4, 6, 26; Mart. 6, 13, 1.— Plur., Aus. Epigr. 57, 6.
    2.
    caelum ( coelum; cf. Aelius ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 18 Müll.; Plin. 2, 4, 3, § 9; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 129), i, n. (old form cae-lus, i, m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; and ap. Charis. p. 55 P.; Petr. 39, 5 sq.; 45, 3; Arn. 1, 59; cf. the foll. I. 2.; plur. caeli, only poet., Lucr. 2, 1097, caelos, cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 331; and in eccl. writers freq. for the Heb., v. infra, cf. Caes. ap Gell. 19, 8, 3 sq., and Charis. p. 21 P., who consider the plur. in gen. as not in use, v. Rudd. I. p. 109. From Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 3: unum caelum esset an innumerabilia, nothing can be positively inferred.—Form cael: divum domus altisonum cael, Enn. ap. Aus. Technop. 13, 17, or Ann. v. 561 Vahl.) [for cavilum, root in cavus; cf. Sanscr. çva-, to swell, be hollow; Gr. kuô, koilos], the sky, heaven, the heavens, the vault of heaven (in Lucr alone more than 150 times): hoc inde circum supraque, quod complexu continet terram, id quod nostri caelum memorant, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 17 Müll.:

    ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum,

    Ov. M. 1, 5; cf.:

    quis pariter (potis est) caelos omnīs convortere,

    Lucr. 2, 1097:

    boat caelum fremitu virum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 78; cf. Tib. 2, 5, 73; Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 1; cf. Cat. 62, 26:

    quicquid deorum in caelo regit,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1 et saep.:

    lapides pluere, fulmina jaci de caelo,

    Liv. 28, 27, 16.—Hence the phrase de caelo tangi, to be struck with lightning, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; Liv. 26, 23, 5 Drak.; 29, 14, 3; Verg. E. 1, 17; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Galb. 1; Tac. A. 13, 24; 14, 12;

    so also, e caelo ictus,

    Cic. Div. 1, 10, 16.—
    2.
    Personified: Caelus (Caelum, Hyg. Fab. praef.), son of Aether and Dies, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 44; father of Saturn, Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 63; of Vulcan, id. ib. 3, 21, 55; of Mercury and the first Venus, id. ib. 3, 23, 59, Serv ad Verg. A. 1, 297 al.—
    3.
    In the lang. of augury:

    de caelo servare,

    to observe the signs of heaven, Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3; so,

    de caelo fieri, of celestial signs,

    to appear, occur, id. Div. 1, 42, 93.—
    4.
    Prov.:

    quid si nunc caelum ruat? of a vain fear,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 41 Don.; cf. Varr ap. Non. p. 499, 24: delabi caelo, to drop down from the sky, of sudden or unexpected good fortune, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41; cf.. caelo missus, Tib 1, 3, 90; Liv. 10, 8, 10; Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 13:

    decidere de caelo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 6 al.: caelum ac terras miscere, to confound every thing, overturn all, raise chaos, Liv 4, 3, 6; cf. Verg. A. 1, 133; 5, 790; Juv. 2, 25: findere caelum aratro, of an impossibility, Ov Tr 1, 8, 3: toto caelo errare, to err very much, be much or entirely mistaken, Macr. S. 3, 12, 10.—
    5.
    Gen. caeli in a pun with Caeli, gen. of Caelius, Serv. et Philarg. ad Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    6.
    In eccl. Lat. the plur caeli, ōrum, m., is very freq., the heavens, Tert. de Fuga, 12; id. adv. Marc. 4, 22; 5, 15; Lact. Epit. 1, 3; Cypr. Ep. 3, 3; 4, 5; Vulg. Psa. 32, 6; 21, 32; id. Isa. 1, 2.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    Heaven, in a more restricted sense; the region of heaven, a climate, zone, region:

    cuicumque particulae caeli officeretur, quamvis esset procul, mutari lumina putabat,

    to whatever part of the horizon, however distant, the view was obstructed, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 179; cf. Quint. 1, 10, 45:

    hoc caelum, sub quo natus educatusque essem,

    Liv. 5, 54, 3; so Plin. 8, 54, 80, § 216; 17, 2, 2, §§ 16 and 19 sq.; Flor. 4, 12, 62:

    caelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 27.—
    B.
    The air, sky, atmosphere, temperature, climate, weather (very freq.):

    in hoc caelo, qui dicitur aër,

    Lucr. 4, 132; Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 102:

    caelum hoc, in quo nubes, imbres ventique coguntur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43:

    pingue et concretum caelum,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130: commoda, quae percipiuntur caeli temperatione, id. N. D. 2, 5, 13; cf.:

    caell intemperies,

    Liv. 8, 18, 1; Quint. 7, 2, 3;

    Col. prooem. 1' intemperantia,

    id. ib. 3:

    spiritus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15:

    gravitas,

    id. Att. 11, 22, 2; Tac. A. 2, 85:

    varium caeli morem praediscere,

    Verg. G. 1, 51:

    varietas et mutatio,

    Col. 11, 2, 1:

    qualitas,

    Quint. 5, 9, 15:

    caeli solique clementia,

    Flor. 3, 3, 13:

    subita mutatio,

    id. 4, 10, 9 al. —With adj.:

    bonum,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 2:

    tenue,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    salubre,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    serenum,

    Verg. G. 1, 260:

    palustre,

    Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    austerum,

    Plin. 18, 12, 31, § 123:

    foedum imbribus ac nebulis,

    Tac. Agr. 12:

    atrox,

    Flor. 3, 2, 2 et saep.:

    hibernum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 47, § 122:

    austrinum,

    id. 16, 26, 46, § 109:

    Italum,

    Hor. C. 2, 7, 4:

    Sabinum,

    id. Ep. 1, 7, 77; cf.:

    quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum Salerni,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 1. —
    C.
    Daytime, day (very rare): albente caelo, at break of day, Sisenn. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 35; Caes. B. C. 1, 68; Auct. B. Afr. 11; 80; cf.:

    eodem die albescente caelo,

    Dig. 28, 2, 25, § 1:

    vesperascente caelo,

    in the evening twilight, Nep. Pelop. 2, 5.—
    D.
    Height:

    mons in caelum attollitur,

    toward heaven, heavenwards, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 6; cf.

    Verg.: aequata machina caelo,

    Verg. A. 4, 89.—So of the earth or upper world in opposition to the lower world:

    falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes,

    Verg. A. 6, 896.—
    E.
    Heaven, the abode of the happy dead, etc. (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Apoc. 4, 2; 11, 15 et saep.; cf.:

    cum (animus) exierit et in liberum caelum quasi domum suam venerit,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 22, 51:

    ut non ad mortem trudi, verum in caelum videretur escendere,

    id. ib. 1, 29, 71.—
    F.
    Trop, the summit of prosperity, happiness, honor, etc.:

    Caesar in caelum fertur,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 3, 6; cf. id. Att. 14, 18, 1; 6, 2, 9:

    Pisonem ferebat in caelum,

    praised, id. ib. 16, 7, 5:

    te summis laudibus ad caelum extulerunt,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 1; 12, 25, 7; Hor. Ep 1, 10, 9; Tac. Or. 19.—Of things:

    omnia, quae etiam tu in caelum ferebas,

    extolled, Cic. Att. 7, 1, 5:

    caelo tenus extollere aliquid,

    Just. 12, 6, 2:

    in caelo ponere aliquem,

    id.,4,14; and: exaequare aliquem caelo, Lucr 1, 79; Flor. 2, 19, 3:

    Catonem caelo aequavit,

    Tac. A. 4, 34:

    caelo Musa beat,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 29; cf.:

    recludere caelum,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 22;

    the opp.: collegam de caelo detraxisti,

    deprived of his exalted honor, Cic. Phil. 2, 42, 107: in caelo sum, I am in heaven, i. e. am very happy, id. Att. 2, 9, 1:

    digito caelum attingere,

    to be extremely fortunate, id. ib. 2, 1, 7:

    caelum accepisse fatebor,

    Ov. M. 14, 844:

    tunc tangam vertice caelum,

    Aus. Idyll. 8 fin.; cf.:

    caelum merere,

    Sen. Suas. 1 init.
    G.
    In gen., a vault, arch, covering:

    caelum camerarum,

    the interior surface of a vault, Vitr. 7, 3, 3; Flor. 3, 5, 30 dub.:

    capitis,

    Plin. 11, 37, 49, § 134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cael

  • 8 caeli

    1.
    caelum ( cēlum, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 640), i, n. [caedo], the chisel or burin of the sculptor or engraver, a graver:

    caelata vasa... a caelo vocata, quod est genus ferramenti, quem vulgo cilionem vocant,

    Isid. Orig. 20, 4, 7; Quint. 2, 21, 24; Varr. ap. Non. p. 99, 18; Stat. S. 4, 6, 26; Mart. 6, 13, 1.— Plur., Aus. Epigr. 57, 6.
    2.
    caelum ( coelum; cf. Aelius ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 18 Müll.; Plin. 2, 4, 3, § 9; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 129), i, n. (old form cae-lus, i, m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; and ap. Charis. p. 55 P.; Petr. 39, 5 sq.; 45, 3; Arn. 1, 59; cf. the foll. I. 2.; plur. caeli, only poet., Lucr. 2, 1097, caelos, cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 331; and in eccl. writers freq. for the Heb., v. infra, cf. Caes. ap Gell. 19, 8, 3 sq., and Charis. p. 21 P., who consider the plur. in gen. as not in use, v. Rudd. I. p. 109. From Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 3: unum caelum esset an innumerabilia, nothing can be positively inferred.—Form cael: divum domus altisonum cael, Enn. ap. Aus. Technop. 13, 17, or Ann. v. 561 Vahl.) [for cavilum, root in cavus; cf. Sanscr. çva-, to swell, be hollow; Gr. kuô, koilos], the sky, heaven, the heavens, the vault of heaven (in Lucr alone more than 150 times): hoc inde circum supraque, quod complexu continet terram, id quod nostri caelum memorant, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 17 Müll.:

    ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum,

    Ov. M. 1, 5; cf.:

    quis pariter (potis est) caelos omnīs convortere,

    Lucr. 2, 1097:

    boat caelum fremitu virum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 78; cf. Tib. 2, 5, 73; Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 1; cf. Cat. 62, 26:

    quicquid deorum in caelo regit,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1 et saep.:

    lapides pluere, fulmina jaci de caelo,

    Liv. 28, 27, 16.—Hence the phrase de caelo tangi, to be struck with lightning, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; Liv. 26, 23, 5 Drak.; 29, 14, 3; Verg. E. 1, 17; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Galb. 1; Tac. A. 13, 24; 14, 12;

    so also, e caelo ictus,

    Cic. Div. 1, 10, 16.—
    2.
    Personified: Caelus (Caelum, Hyg. Fab. praef.), son of Aether and Dies, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 44; father of Saturn, Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 63; of Vulcan, id. ib. 3, 21, 55; of Mercury and the first Venus, id. ib. 3, 23, 59, Serv ad Verg. A. 1, 297 al.—
    3.
    In the lang. of augury:

    de caelo servare,

    to observe the signs of heaven, Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3; so,

    de caelo fieri, of celestial signs,

    to appear, occur, id. Div. 1, 42, 93.—
    4.
    Prov.:

    quid si nunc caelum ruat? of a vain fear,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 41 Don.; cf. Varr ap. Non. p. 499, 24: delabi caelo, to drop down from the sky, of sudden or unexpected good fortune, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41; cf.. caelo missus, Tib 1, 3, 90; Liv. 10, 8, 10; Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 13:

    decidere de caelo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 6 al.: caelum ac terras miscere, to confound every thing, overturn all, raise chaos, Liv 4, 3, 6; cf. Verg. A. 1, 133; 5, 790; Juv. 2, 25: findere caelum aratro, of an impossibility, Ov Tr 1, 8, 3: toto caelo errare, to err very much, be much or entirely mistaken, Macr. S. 3, 12, 10.—
    5.
    Gen. caeli in a pun with Caeli, gen. of Caelius, Serv. et Philarg. ad Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    6.
    In eccl. Lat. the plur caeli, ōrum, m., is very freq., the heavens, Tert. de Fuga, 12; id. adv. Marc. 4, 22; 5, 15; Lact. Epit. 1, 3; Cypr. Ep. 3, 3; 4, 5; Vulg. Psa. 32, 6; 21, 32; id. Isa. 1, 2.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    Heaven, in a more restricted sense; the region of heaven, a climate, zone, region:

    cuicumque particulae caeli officeretur, quamvis esset procul, mutari lumina putabat,

    to whatever part of the horizon, however distant, the view was obstructed, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 179; cf. Quint. 1, 10, 45:

    hoc caelum, sub quo natus educatusque essem,

    Liv. 5, 54, 3; so Plin. 8, 54, 80, § 216; 17, 2, 2, §§ 16 and 19 sq.; Flor. 4, 12, 62:

    caelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 27.—
    B.
    The air, sky, atmosphere, temperature, climate, weather (very freq.):

    in hoc caelo, qui dicitur aër,

    Lucr. 4, 132; Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 102:

    caelum hoc, in quo nubes, imbres ventique coguntur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43:

    pingue et concretum caelum,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130: commoda, quae percipiuntur caeli temperatione, id. N. D. 2, 5, 13; cf.:

    caell intemperies,

    Liv. 8, 18, 1; Quint. 7, 2, 3;

    Col. prooem. 1' intemperantia,

    id. ib. 3:

    spiritus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15:

    gravitas,

    id. Att. 11, 22, 2; Tac. A. 2, 85:

    varium caeli morem praediscere,

    Verg. G. 1, 51:

    varietas et mutatio,

    Col. 11, 2, 1:

    qualitas,

    Quint. 5, 9, 15:

    caeli solique clementia,

    Flor. 3, 3, 13:

    subita mutatio,

    id. 4, 10, 9 al. —With adj.:

    bonum,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 2:

    tenue,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    salubre,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    serenum,

    Verg. G. 1, 260:

    palustre,

    Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    austerum,

    Plin. 18, 12, 31, § 123:

    foedum imbribus ac nebulis,

    Tac. Agr. 12:

    atrox,

    Flor. 3, 2, 2 et saep.:

    hibernum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 47, § 122:

    austrinum,

    id. 16, 26, 46, § 109:

    Italum,

    Hor. C. 2, 7, 4:

    Sabinum,

    id. Ep. 1, 7, 77; cf.:

    quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum Salerni,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 1. —
    C.
    Daytime, day (very rare): albente caelo, at break of day, Sisenn. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 35; Caes. B. C. 1, 68; Auct. B. Afr. 11; 80; cf.:

    eodem die albescente caelo,

    Dig. 28, 2, 25, § 1:

    vesperascente caelo,

    in the evening twilight, Nep. Pelop. 2, 5.—
    D.
    Height:

    mons in caelum attollitur,

    toward heaven, heavenwards, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 6; cf.

    Verg.: aequata machina caelo,

    Verg. A. 4, 89.—So of the earth or upper world in opposition to the lower world:

    falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes,

    Verg. A. 6, 896.—
    E.
    Heaven, the abode of the happy dead, etc. (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Apoc. 4, 2; 11, 15 et saep.; cf.:

    cum (animus) exierit et in liberum caelum quasi domum suam venerit,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 22, 51:

    ut non ad mortem trudi, verum in caelum videretur escendere,

    id. ib. 1, 29, 71.—
    F.
    Trop, the summit of prosperity, happiness, honor, etc.:

    Caesar in caelum fertur,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 3, 6; cf. id. Att. 14, 18, 1; 6, 2, 9:

    Pisonem ferebat in caelum,

    praised, id. ib. 16, 7, 5:

    te summis laudibus ad caelum extulerunt,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 1; 12, 25, 7; Hor. Ep 1, 10, 9; Tac. Or. 19.—Of things:

    omnia, quae etiam tu in caelum ferebas,

    extolled, Cic. Att. 7, 1, 5:

    caelo tenus extollere aliquid,

    Just. 12, 6, 2:

    in caelo ponere aliquem,

    id.,4,14; and: exaequare aliquem caelo, Lucr 1, 79; Flor. 2, 19, 3:

    Catonem caelo aequavit,

    Tac. A. 4, 34:

    caelo Musa beat,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 29; cf.:

    recludere caelum,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 22;

    the opp.: collegam de caelo detraxisti,

    deprived of his exalted honor, Cic. Phil. 2, 42, 107: in caelo sum, I am in heaven, i. e. am very happy, id. Att. 2, 9, 1:

    digito caelum attingere,

    to be extremely fortunate, id. ib. 2, 1, 7:

    caelum accepisse fatebor,

    Ov. M. 14, 844:

    tunc tangam vertice caelum,

    Aus. Idyll. 8 fin.; cf.:

    caelum merere,

    Sen. Suas. 1 init.
    G.
    In gen., a vault, arch, covering:

    caelum camerarum,

    the interior surface of a vault, Vitr. 7, 3, 3; Flor. 3, 5, 30 dub.:

    capitis,

    Plin. 11, 37, 49, § 134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > caeli

  • 9 caelum

    1.
    caelum ( cēlum, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 640), i, n. [caedo], the chisel or burin of the sculptor or engraver, a graver:

    caelata vasa... a caelo vocata, quod est genus ferramenti, quem vulgo cilionem vocant,

    Isid. Orig. 20, 4, 7; Quint. 2, 21, 24; Varr. ap. Non. p. 99, 18; Stat. S. 4, 6, 26; Mart. 6, 13, 1.— Plur., Aus. Epigr. 57, 6.
    2.
    caelum ( coelum; cf. Aelius ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 18 Müll.; Plin. 2, 4, 3, § 9; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 129), i, n. (old form cae-lus, i, m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; and ap. Charis. p. 55 P.; Petr. 39, 5 sq.; 45, 3; Arn. 1, 59; cf. the foll. I. 2.; plur. caeli, only poet., Lucr. 2, 1097, caelos, cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 331; and in eccl. writers freq. for the Heb., v. infra, cf. Caes. ap Gell. 19, 8, 3 sq., and Charis. p. 21 P., who consider the plur. in gen. as not in use, v. Rudd. I. p. 109. From Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 3: unum caelum esset an innumerabilia, nothing can be positively inferred.—Form cael: divum domus altisonum cael, Enn. ap. Aus. Technop. 13, 17, or Ann. v. 561 Vahl.) [for cavilum, root in cavus; cf. Sanscr. çva-, to swell, be hollow; Gr. kuô, koilos], the sky, heaven, the heavens, the vault of heaven (in Lucr alone more than 150 times): hoc inde circum supraque, quod complexu continet terram, id quod nostri caelum memorant, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 17 Müll.:

    ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum,

    Ov. M. 1, 5; cf.:

    quis pariter (potis est) caelos omnīs convortere,

    Lucr. 2, 1097:

    boat caelum fremitu virum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 78; cf. Tib. 2, 5, 73; Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 1; cf. Cat. 62, 26:

    quicquid deorum in caelo regit,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1 et saep.:

    lapides pluere, fulmina jaci de caelo,

    Liv. 28, 27, 16.—Hence the phrase de caelo tangi, to be struck with lightning, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; Liv. 26, 23, 5 Drak.; 29, 14, 3; Verg. E. 1, 17; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Galb. 1; Tac. A. 13, 24; 14, 12;

    so also, e caelo ictus,

    Cic. Div. 1, 10, 16.—
    2.
    Personified: Caelus (Caelum, Hyg. Fab. praef.), son of Aether and Dies, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 44; father of Saturn, Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 63; of Vulcan, id. ib. 3, 21, 55; of Mercury and the first Venus, id. ib. 3, 23, 59, Serv ad Verg. A. 1, 297 al.—
    3.
    In the lang. of augury:

    de caelo servare,

    to observe the signs of heaven, Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3; so,

    de caelo fieri, of celestial signs,

    to appear, occur, id. Div. 1, 42, 93.—
    4.
    Prov.:

    quid si nunc caelum ruat? of a vain fear,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 41 Don.; cf. Varr ap. Non. p. 499, 24: delabi caelo, to drop down from the sky, of sudden or unexpected good fortune, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41; cf.. caelo missus, Tib 1, 3, 90; Liv. 10, 8, 10; Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 13:

    decidere de caelo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 6 al.: caelum ac terras miscere, to confound every thing, overturn all, raise chaos, Liv 4, 3, 6; cf. Verg. A. 1, 133; 5, 790; Juv. 2, 25: findere caelum aratro, of an impossibility, Ov Tr 1, 8, 3: toto caelo errare, to err very much, be much or entirely mistaken, Macr. S. 3, 12, 10.—
    5.
    Gen. caeli in a pun with Caeli, gen. of Caelius, Serv. et Philarg. ad Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    6.
    In eccl. Lat. the plur caeli, ōrum, m., is very freq., the heavens, Tert. de Fuga, 12; id. adv. Marc. 4, 22; 5, 15; Lact. Epit. 1, 3; Cypr. Ep. 3, 3; 4, 5; Vulg. Psa. 32, 6; 21, 32; id. Isa. 1, 2.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    Heaven, in a more restricted sense; the region of heaven, a climate, zone, region:

    cuicumque particulae caeli officeretur, quamvis esset procul, mutari lumina putabat,

    to whatever part of the horizon, however distant, the view was obstructed, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 179; cf. Quint. 1, 10, 45:

    hoc caelum, sub quo natus educatusque essem,

    Liv. 5, 54, 3; so Plin. 8, 54, 80, § 216; 17, 2, 2, §§ 16 and 19 sq.; Flor. 4, 12, 62:

    caelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 27.—
    B.
    The air, sky, atmosphere, temperature, climate, weather (very freq.):

    in hoc caelo, qui dicitur aër,

    Lucr. 4, 132; Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 102:

    caelum hoc, in quo nubes, imbres ventique coguntur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43:

    pingue et concretum caelum,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130: commoda, quae percipiuntur caeli temperatione, id. N. D. 2, 5, 13; cf.:

    caell intemperies,

    Liv. 8, 18, 1; Quint. 7, 2, 3;

    Col. prooem. 1' intemperantia,

    id. ib. 3:

    spiritus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15:

    gravitas,

    id. Att. 11, 22, 2; Tac. A. 2, 85:

    varium caeli morem praediscere,

    Verg. G. 1, 51:

    varietas et mutatio,

    Col. 11, 2, 1:

    qualitas,

    Quint. 5, 9, 15:

    caeli solique clementia,

    Flor. 3, 3, 13:

    subita mutatio,

    id. 4, 10, 9 al. —With adj.:

    bonum,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 2:

    tenue,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    salubre,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    serenum,

    Verg. G. 1, 260:

    palustre,

    Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    austerum,

    Plin. 18, 12, 31, § 123:

    foedum imbribus ac nebulis,

    Tac. Agr. 12:

    atrox,

    Flor. 3, 2, 2 et saep.:

    hibernum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 47, § 122:

    austrinum,

    id. 16, 26, 46, § 109:

    Italum,

    Hor. C. 2, 7, 4:

    Sabinum,

    id. Ep. 1, 7, 77; cf.:

    quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum Salerni,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 1. —
    C.
    Daytime, day (very rare): albente caelo, at break of day, Sisenn. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 35; Caes. B. C. 1, 68; Auct. B. Afr. 11; 80; cf.:

    eodem die albescente caelo,

    Dig. 28, 2, 25, § 1:

    vesperascente caelo,

    in the evening twilight, Nep. Pelop. 2, 5.—
    D.
    Height:

    mons in caelum attollitur,

    toward heaven, heavenwards, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 6; cf.

    Verg.: aequata machina caelo,

    Verg. A. 4, 89.—So of the earth or upper world in opposition to the lower world:

    falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes,

    Verg. A. 6, 896.—
    E.
    Heaven, the abode of the happy dead, etc. (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Apoc. 4, 2; 11, 15 et saep.; cf.:

    cum (animus) exierit et in liberum caelum quasi domum suam venerit,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 22, 51:

    ut non ad mortem trudi, verum in caelum videretur escendere,

    id. ib. 1, 29, 71.—
    F.
    Trop, the summit of prosperity, happiness, honor, etc.:

    Caesar in caelum fertur,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 3, 6; cf. id. Att. 14, 18, 1; 6, 2, 9:

    Pisonem ferebat in caelum,

    praised, id. ib. 16, 7, 5:

    te summis laudibus ad caelum extulerunt,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 1; 12, 25, 7; Hor. Ep 1, 10, 9; Tac. Or. 19.—Of things:

    omnia, quae etiam tu in caelum ferebas,

    extolled, Cic. Att. 7, 1, 5:

    caelo tenus extollere aliquid,

    Just. 12, 6, 2:

    in caelo ponere aliquem,

    id.,4,14; and: exaequare aliquem caelo, Lucr 1, 79; Flor. 2, 19, 3:

    Catonem caelo aequavit,

    Tac. A. 4, 34:

    caelo Musa beat,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 29; cf.:

    recludere caelum,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 22;

    the opp.: collegam de caelo detraxisti,

    deprived of his exalted honor, Cic. Phil. 2, 42, 107: in caelo sum, I am in heaven, i. e. am very happy, id. Att. 2, 9, 1:

    digito caelum attingere,

    to be extremely fortunate, id. ib. 2, 1, 7:

    caelum accepisse fatebor,

    Ov. M. 14, 844:

    tunc tangam vertice caelum,

    Aus. Idyll. 8 fin.; cf.:

    caelum merere,

    Sen. Suas. 1 init.
    G.
    In gen., a vault, arch, covering:

    caelum camerarum,

    the interior surface of a vault, Vitr. 7, 3, 3; Flor. 3, 5, 30 dub.:

    capitis,

    Plin. 11, 37, 49, § 134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > caelum

  • 10 celum

    1.
    caelum ( cēlum, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 640), i, n. [caedo], the chisel or burin of the sculptor or engraver, a graver:

    caelata vasa... a caelo vocata, quod est genus ferramenti, quem vulgo cilionem vocant,

    Isid. Orig. 20, 4, 7; Quint. 2, 21, 24; Varr. ap. Non. p. 99, 18; Stat. S. 4, 6, 26; Mart. 6, 13, 1.— Plur., Aus. Epigr. 57, 6.
    2.
    caelum ( coelum; cf. Aelius ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 18 Müll.; Plin. 2, 4, 3, § 9; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 129), i, n. (old form cae-lus, i, m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; and ap. Charis. p. 55 P.; Petr. 39, 5 sq.; 45, 3; Arn. 1, 59; cf. the foll. I. 2.; plur. caeli, only poet., Lucr. 2, 1097, caelos, cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 331; and in eccl. writers freq. for the Heb., v. infra, cf. Caes. ap Gell. 19, 8, 3 sq., and Charis. p. 21 P., who consider the plur. in gen. as not in use, v. Rudd. I. p. 109. From Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 3: unum caelum esset an innumerabilia, nothing can be positively inferred.—Form cael: divum domus altisonum cael, Enn. ap. Aus. Technop. 13, 17, or Ann. v. 561 Vahl.) [for cavilum, root in cavus; cf. Sanscr. çva-, to swell, be hollow; Gr. kuô, koilos], the sky, heaven, the heavens, the vault of heaven (in Lucr alone more than 150 times): hoc inde circum supraque, quod complexu continet terram, id quod nostri caelum memorant, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 17 Müll.:

    ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum,

    Ov. M. 1, 5; cf.:

    quis pariter (potis est) caelos omnīs convortere,

    Lucr. 2, 1097:

    boat caelum fremitu virum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 78; cf. Tib. 2, 5, 73; Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 1; cf. Cat. 62, 26:

    quicquid deorum in caelo regit,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1 et saep.:

    lapides pluere, fulmina jaci de caelo,

    Liv. 28, 27, 16.—Hence the phrase de caelo tangi, to be struck with lightning, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; Liv. 26, 23, 5 Drak.; 29, 14, 3; Verg. E. 1, 17; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Galb. 1; Tac. A. 13, 24; 14, 12;

    so also, e caelo ictus,

    Cic. Div. 1, 10, 16.—
    2.
    Personified: Caelus (Caelum, Hyg. Fab. praef.), son of Aether and Dies, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 44; father of Saturn, Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 63; of Vulcan, id. ib. 3, 21, 55; of Mercury and the first Venus, id. ib. 3, 23, 59, Serv ad Verg. A. 1, 297 al.—
    3.
    In the lang. of augury:

    de caelo servare,

    to observe the signs of heaven, Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3; so,

    de caelo fieri, of celestial signs,

    to appear, occur, id. Div. 1, 42, 93.—
    4.
    Prov.:

    quid si nunc caelum ruat? of a vain fear,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 41 Don.; cf. Varr ap. Non. p. 499, 24: delabi caelo, to drop down from the sky, of sudden or unexpected good fortune, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41; cf.. caelo missus, Tib 1, 3, 90; Liv. 10, 8, 10; Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 13:

    decidere de caelo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 6 al.: caelum ac terras miscere, to confound every thing, overturn all, raise chaos, Liv 4, 3, 6; cf. Verg. A. 1, 133; 5, 790; Juv. 2, 25: findere caelum aratro, of an impossibility, Ov Tr 1, 8, 3: toto caelo errare, to err very much, be much or entirely mistaken, Macr. S. 3, 12, 10.—
    5.
    Gen. caeli in a pun with Caeli, gen. of Caelius, Serv. et Philarg. ad Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    6.
    In eccl. Lat. the plur caeli, ōrum, m., is very freq., the heavens, Tert. de Fuga, 12; id. adv. Marc. 4, 22; 5, 15; Lact. Epit. 1, 3; Cypr. Ep. 3, 3; 4, 5; Vulg. Psa. 32, 6; 21, 32; id. Isa. 1, 2.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    Heaven, in a more restricted sense; the region of heaven, a climate, zone, region:

    cuicumque particulae caeli officeretur, quamvis esset procul, mutari lumina putabat,

    to whatever part of the horizon, however distant, the view was obstructed, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 179; cf. Quint. 1, 10, 45:

    hoc caelum, sub quo natus educatusque essem,

    Liv. 5, 54, 3; so Plin. 8, 54, 80, § 216; 17, 2, 2, §§ 16 and 19 sq.; Flor. 4, 12, 62:

    caelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 27.—
    B.
    The air, sky, atmosphere, temperature, climate, weather (very freq.):

    in hoc caelo, qui dicitur aër,

    Lucr. 4, 132; Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 102:

    caelum hoc, in quo nubes, imbres ventique coguntur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43:

    pingue et concretum caelum,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130: commoda, quae percipiuntur caeli temperatione, id. N. D. 2, 5, 13; cf.:

    caell intemperies,

    Liv. 8, 18, 1; Quint. 7, 2, 3;

    Col. prooem. 1' intemperantia,

    id. ib. 3:

    spiritus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15:

    gravitas,

    id. Att. 11, 22, 2; Tac. A. 2, 85:

    varium caeli morem praediscere,

    Verg. G. 1, 51:

    varietas et mutatio,

    Col. 11, 2, 1:

    qualitas,

    Quint. 5, 9, 15:

    caeli solique clementia,

    Flor. 3, 3, 13:

    subita mutatio,

    id. 4, 10, 9 al. —With adj.:

    bonum,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 2:

    tenue,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    salubre,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    serenum,

    Verg. G. 1, 260:

    palustre,

    Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    austerum,

    Plin. 18, 12, 31, § 123:

    foedum imbribus ac nebulis,

    Tac. Agr. 12:

    atrox,

    Flor. 3, 2, 2 et saep.:

    hibernum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 47, § 122:

    austrinum,

    id. 16, 26, 46, § 109:

    Italum,

    Hor. C. 2, 7, 4:

    Sabinum,

    id. Ep. 1, 7, 77; cf.:

    quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum Salerni,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 1. —
    C.
    Daytime, day (very rare): albente caelo, at break of day, Sisenn. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 35; Caes. B. C. 1, 68; Auct. B. Afr. 11; 80; cf.:

    eodem die albescente caelo,

    Dig. 28, 2, 25, § 1:

    vesperascente caelo,

    in the evening twilight, Nep. Pelop. 2, 5.—
    D.
    Height:

    mons in caelum attollitur,

    toward heaven, heavenwards, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 6; cf.

    Verg.: aequata machina caelo,

    Verg. A. 4, 89.—So of the earth or upper world in opposition to the lower world:

    falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes,

    Verg. A. 6, 896.—
    E.
    Heaven, the abode of the happy dead, etc. (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Apoc. 4, 2; 11, 15 et saep.; cf.:

    cum (animus) exierit et in liberum caelum quasi domum suam venerit,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 22, 51:

    ut non ad mortem trudi, verum in caelum videretur escendere,

    id. ib. 1, 29, 71.—
    F.
    Trop, the summit of prosperity, happiness, honor, etc.:

    Caesar in caelum fertur,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 3, 6; cf. id. Att. 14, 18, 1; 6, 2, 9:

    Pisonem ferebat in caelum,

    praised, id. ib. 16, 7, 5:

    te summis laudibus ad caelum extulerunt,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 1; 12, 25, 7; Hor. Ep 1, 10, 9; Tac. Or. 19.—Of things:

    omnia, quae etiam tu in caelum ferebas,

    extolled, Cic. Att. 7, 1, 5:

    caelo tenus extollere aliquid,

    Just. 12, 6, 2:

    in caelo ponere aliquem,

    id.,4,14; and: exaequare aliquem caelo, Lucr 1, 79; Flor. 2, 19, 3:

    Catonem caelo aequavit,

    Tac. A. 4, 34:

    caelo Musa beat,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 29; cf.:

    recludere caelum,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 22;

    the opp.: collegam de caelo detraxisti,

    deprived of his exalted honor, Cic. Phil. 2, 42, 107: in caelo sum, I am in heaven, i. e. am very happy, id. Att. 2, 9, 1:

    digito caelum attingere,

    to be extremely fortunate, id. ib. 2, 1, 7:

    caelum accepisse fatebor,

    Ov. M. 14, 844:

    tunc tangam vertice caelum,

    Aus. Idyll. 8 fin.; cf.:

    caelum merere,

    Sen. Suas. 1 init.
    G.
    In gen., a vault, arch, covering:

    caelum camerarum,

    the interior surface of a vault, Vitr. 7, 3, 3; Flor. 3, 5, 30 dub.:

    capitis,

    Plin. 11, 37, 49, § 134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > celum

  • 11 coctura

    coctūra, ae, f. [id.], a cooking; a melting; a manner or style of cooking, Col. 11, 3, 23, p. 453 Bip.:

    Apiciana,

    Plin. 19, 8, 41, § 143; 34, 8, 20, § 96; Apic. 6, 2 al.; Pall. Nov. 1, 3.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A. B.
    (Abstr. pro concr.) A boiling liquid, Col. 12, 20, 4; 12, 18, 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > coctura

  • 12 coelum

    1.
    caelum ( cēlum, Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 640), i, n. [caedo], the chisel or burin of the sculptor or engraver, a graver:

    caelata vasa... a caelo vocata, quod est genus ferramenti, quem vulgo cilionem vocant,

    Isid. Orig. 20, 4, 7; Quint. 2, 21, 24; Varr. ap. Non. p. 99, 18; Stat. S. 4, 6, 26; Mart. 6, 13, 1.— Plur., Aus. Epigr. 57, 6.
    2.
    caelum ( coelum; cf. Aelius ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 18 Müll.; Plin. 2, 4, 3, § 9; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 129), i, n. (old form cae-lus, i, m., Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; and ap. Charis. p. 55 P.; Petr. 39, 5 sq.; 45, 3; Arn. 1, 59; cf. the foll. I. 2.; plur. caeli, only poet., Lucr. 2, 1097, caelos, cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 1, 331; and in eccl. writers freq. for the Heb., v. infra, cf. Caes. ap Gell. 19, 8, 3 sq., and Charis. p. 21 P., who consider the plur. in gen. as not in use, v. Rudd. I. p. 109. From Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 3: unum caelum esset an innumerabilia, nothing can be positively inferred.—Form cael: divum domus altisonum cael, Enn. ap. Aus. Technop. 13, 17, or Ann. v. 561 Vahl.) [for cavilum, root in cavus; cf. Sanscr. çva-, to swell, be hollow; Gr. kuô, koilos], the sky, heaven, the heavens, the vault of heaven (in Lucr alone more than 150 times): hoc inde circum supraque, quod complexu continet terram, id quod nostri caelum memorant, Pac. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 17 Müll.:

    ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum,

    Ov. M. 1, 5; cf.:

    quis pariter (potis est) caelos omnīs convortere,

    Lucr. 2, 1097:

    boat caelum fremitu virum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 78; cf. Tib. 2, 5, 73; Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 1; cf. Cat. 62, 26:

    quicquid deorum in caelo regit,

    Hor. Epod. 5, 1 et saep.:

    lapides pluere, fulmina jaci de caelo,

    Liv. 28, 27, 16.—Hence the phrase de caelo tangi, to be struck with lightning, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; Liv. 26, 23, 5 Drak.; 29, 14, 3; Verg. E. 1, 17; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Galb. 1; Tac. A. 13, 24; 14, 12;

    so also, e caelo ictus,

    Cic. Div. 1, 10, 16.—
    2.
    Personified: Caelus (Caelum, Hyg. Fab. praef.), son of Aether and Dies, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 44; father of Saturn, Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 63; of Vulcan, id. ib. 3, 21, 55; of Mercury and the first Venus, id. ib. 3, 23, 59, Serv ad Verg. A. 1, 297 al.—
    3.
    In the lang. of augury:

    de caelo servare,

    to observe the signs of heaven, Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3; so,

    de caelo fieri, of celestial signs,

    to appear, occur, id. Div. 1, 42, 93.—
    4.
    Prov.:

    quid si nunc caelum ruat? of a vain fear,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 41 Don.; cf. Varr ap. Non. p. 499, 24: delabi caelo, to drop down from the sky, of sudden or unexpected good fortune, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41; cf.. caelo missus, Tib 1, 3, 90; Liv. 10, 8, 10; Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 13:

    decidere de caelo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 6 al.: caelum ac terras miscere, to confound every thing, overturn all, raise chaos, Liv 4, 3, 6; cf. Verg. A. 1, 133; 5, 790; Juv. 2, 25: findere caelum aratro, of an impossibility, Ov Tr 1, 8, 3: toto caelo errare, to err very much, be much or entirely mistaken, Macr. S. 3, 12, 10.—
    5.
    Gen. caeli in a pun with Caeli, gen. of Caelius, Serv. et Philarg. ad Verg. E. 3, 105.—
    6.
    In eccl. Lat. the plur caeli, ōrum, m., is very freq., the heavens, Tert. de Fuga, 12; id. adv. Marc. 4, 22; 5, 15; Lact. Epit. 1, 3; Cypr. Ep. 3, 3; 4, 5; Vulg. Psa. 32, 6; 21, 32; id. Isa. 1, 2.—
    II.
    Meton.
    A.
    Heaven, in a more restricted sense; the region of heaven, a climate, zone, region:

    cuicumque particulae caeli officeretur, quamvis esset procul, mutari lumina putabat,

    to whatever part of the horizon, however distant, the view was obstructed, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 179; cf. Quint. 1, 10, 45:

    hoc caelum, sub quo natus educatusque essem,

    Liv. 5, 54, 3; so Plin. 8, 54, 80, § 216; 17, 2, 2, §§ 16 and 19 sq.; Flor. 4, 12, 62:

    caelum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 27.—
    B.
    The air, sky, atmosphere, temperature, climate, weather (very freq.):

    in hoc caelo, qui dicitur aër,

    Lucr. 4, 132; Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 102:

    caelum hoc, in quo nubes, imbres ventique coguntur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43:

    pingue et concretum caelum,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130: commoda, quae percipiuntur caeli temperatione, id. N. D. 2, 5, 13; cf.:

    caell intemperies,

    Liv. 8, 18, 1; Quint. 7, 2, 3;

    Col. prooem. 1' intemperantia,

    id. ib. 3:

    spiritus,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15:

    gravitas,

    id. Att. 11, 22, 2; Tac. A. 2, 85:

    varium caeli morem praediscere,

    Verg. G. 1, 51:

    varietas et mutatio,

    Col. 11, 2, 1:

    qualitas,

    Quint. 5, 9, 15:

    caeli solique clementia,

    Flor. 3, 3, 13:

    subita mutatio,

    id. 4, 10, 9 al. —With adj.:

    bonum,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 2:

    tenue,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    salubre,

    id. Div. 1, 57, 130:

    serenum,

    Verg. G. 1, 260:

    palustre,

    Liv. 22, 2, 11:

    austerum,

    Plin. 18, 12, 31, § 123:

    foedum imbribus ac nebulis,

    Tac. Agr. 12:

    atrox,

    Flor. 3, 2, 2 et saep.:

    hibernum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 47, § 122:

    austrinum,

    id. 16, 26, 46, § 109:

    Italum,

    Hor. C. 2, 7, 4:

    Sabinum,

    id. Ep. 1, 7, 77; cf.:

    quae sit hiems Veliae, quod caelum Salerni,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 1. —
    C.
    Daytime, day (very rare): albente caelo, at break of day, Sisenn. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 35; Caes. B. C. 1, 68; Auct. B. Afr. 11; 80; cf.:

    eodem die albescente caelo,

    Dig. 28, 2, 25, § 1:

    vesperascente caelo,

    in the evening twilight, Nep. Pelop. 2, 5.—
    D.
    Height:

    mons in caelum attollitur,

    toward heaven, heavenwards, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 6; cf.

    Verg.: aequata machina caelo,

    Verg. A. 4, 89.—So of the earth or upper world in opposition to the lower world:

    falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes,

    Verg. A. 6, 896.—
    E.
    Heaven, the abode of the happy dead, etc. (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Apoc. 4, 2; 11, 15 et saep.; cf.:

    cum (animus) exierit et in liberum caelum quasi domum suam venerit,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 22, 51:

    ut non ad mortem trudi, verum in caelum videretur escendere,

    id. ib. 1, 29, 71.—
    F.
    Trop, the summit of prosperity, happiness, honor, etc.:

    Caesar in caelum fertur,

    Cic. Phil. 4, 3, 6; cf. id. Att. 14, 18, 1; 6, 2, 9:

    Pisonem ferebat in caelum,

    praised, id. ib. 16, 7, 5:

    te summis laudibus ad caelum extulerunt,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 1; 12, 25, 7; Hor. Ep 1, 10, 9; Tac. Or. 19.—Of things:

    omnia, quae etiam tu in caelum ferebas,

    extolled, Cic. Att. 7, 1, 5:

    caelo tenus extollere aliquid,

    Just. 12, 6, 2:

    in caelo ponere aliquem,

    id.,4,14; and: exaequare aliquem caelo, Lucr 1, 79; Flor. 2, 19, 3:

    Catonem caelo aequavit,

    Tac. A. 4, 34:

    caelo Musa beat,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 29; cf.:

    recludere caelum,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 22;

    the opp.: collegam de caelo detraxisti,

    deprived of his exalted honor, Cic. Phil. 2, 42, 107: in caelo sum, I am in heaven, i. e. am very happy, id. Att. 2, 9, 1:

    digito caelum attingere,

    to be extremely fortunate, id. ib. 2, 1, 7:

    caelum accepisse fatebor,

    Ov. M. 14, 844:

    tunc tangam vertice caelum,

    Aus. Idyll. 8 fin.; cf.:

    caelum merere,

    Sen. Suas. 1 init.
    G.
    In gen., a vault, arch, covering:

    caelum camerarum,

    the interior surface of a vault, Vitr. 7, 3, 3; Flor. 3, 5, 30 dub.:

    capitis,

    Plin. 11, 37, 49, § 134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > coelum

  • 13 inaequalis

    ĭn-aequālis, e, adj.
    I.
    Uneven (in post-Aug. prose):

    loca,

    Tac. Agr. 36:

    mensae,

    i. e. not nicely finished, rough, Mart. 1, 56, 11; cf.:

    inaequalia et confragosa (sc loca),

    Quint. 8, 5, 29:

    inaequales beryllo Virro tenet phialas,

    Juv. 5, 38.—
    II.
    Unequal, unlike ( poet. and in post - Aug. prose):

    portus,

    of different sizes, Ov. M. 5, 408; cf.:

    triangula inaequalibus lateribus (opp. aequa),

    Quint. 1, 10, 41:

    siccat inaequales calices conviva,

    Hor. S. 2, 6, 68:

    auctumni,

    changeable, variable in temperature, Ov. M. 1, 117:

    vixit inaequalis, clavum ut mutaret in horas,

    inconstant, inconsistent, Hor. S. 2, 7 10:

    stulti et inaequales,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 12:

    tonsor,

    that cuts unevenly, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 94:

    procellae,

    that roughen the sea, id. C. 2, 9, 3.— Comp.:

    nihil est ipsa aequalitate inaequalius,

    Plin. Ep. 9, 5, 3.— Sup.:

    inaequalissimarum rerum sortes,

    Suet. Aug. 75. — Adv.: ĭnaequālĭter, unevenly, disproportionately:

    ova maturescunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 8 Bonon. (al. inaequabiliter):

    censuram gerere,

    Suet. Claud. 15; id. Galb. 9:

    findi,

    Col. Arbor. 7, 5:

    dispergere bracchia,

    Cels. 2, 6:

    deprimere alios, alios extollere,

    Liv. 37, 53, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > inaequalis

  • 14 Jupiter

    Jūppĭter ( Jūpĭter; in all good MSS. double p; v. Wagner, Orthogr. Vergl. s. h. v.), Jŏvis (nom. Jovis, Enn. ap. App. de Deo Socr. p. 42; Ann. v. 64 Vahl.), m. [Jovis-pater; Jovis for Djovis, kindred to Sanscr. dyō, splendere; Gr. Zeus; cf. Bopp. Gloss. p. 177, a], Jupiter or Jove, a son of Saturn, brother and husband of Juno, the chief god among the Romans; corresp. to the Gr. Zeus, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 89; Cic. N. D. 2, 26, 64; 3, 21, 53: Juppiter pater, old formula ap. Liv. 1, 18 ext.:

    Jovis satelles,

    the eagle, Cic. Div. 1, 47, 106; so,

    Jovis ales,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 420.—As the god of omens, etc.:

    te prodigiali Iovi conprecatam oportuit,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 108.—Prov.: Jovem lapidem jurare, said of one who swore by Jupiter (holding in one hand a knife with which he pierced the sacrificial sow, and in the other hand a stone);

    of gossips: sciunt quod Juno fabulata'st cum Jove,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 171; Paul. ex Fest. s v. lapidem, p. 115 Müll.; Cic. Fam. 7, 12, 2; Gell. 1, 21, 4.—In plur.:

    Varro trecentos Joves (sive Juppiteres dicendum) introducit,

    Tert. Apol. 14;

    and, trop.: repente ut emoriantur humani Joves,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 26:

    Joves quoque plures in priscis Graecorum litteris invenimus,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 16, 42.—
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    As the god of heaven, his name is freq. used by the poets as i. q. Heaven, sky, air: aspice hoc sublimen candens, quem invocant omnes Jovem, Enn. ap. Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 65:

    Chrysippus disputat, aethera esse eum, quem homines Jovem appellarent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 15, 40:

    sub Jove frigido,

    Hor. C. 1, 1, 25:

    malus,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 20:

    metuendus, i. e. pluvius,

    Verg. G. 2, 419:

    hibernus,

    Stat. Th. 3, 26:

    sub Jove pars durat,

    in the open air, Ov. F. 3, 527:

    loci,

    the temperature, id. M. 13, 707.—
    B.
    Juppiter Stygius, i. e. Pluto, Verg. A. 4, 638; cf.

    terrestris,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 20; of the planet Jupiter, Cic. N. D. 2, 20; Luc. 10, 207.—
    C.
    As an exclamation of surprise, i. q. our My heavens! good heavens! Juppiter! estne illic Charinus? Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 24.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Jupiter

  • 15 Juppiter

    Jūppĭter ( Jūpĭter; in all good MSS. double p; v. Wagner, Orthogr. Vergl. s. h. v.), Jŏvis (nom. Jovis, Enn. ap. App. de Deo Socr. p. 42; Ann. v. 64 Vahl.), m. [Jovis-pater; Jovis for Djovis, kindred to Sanscr. dyō, splendere; Gr. Zeus; cf. Bopp. Gloss. p. 177, a], Jupiter or Jove, a son of Saturn, brother and husband of Juno, the chief god among the Romans; corresp. to the Gr. Zeus, Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 89; Cic. N. D. 2, 26, 64; 3, 21, 53: Juppiter pater, old formula ap. Liv. 1, 18 ext.:

    Jovis satelles,

    the eagle, Cic. Div. 1, 47, 106; so,

    Jovis ales,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 420.—As the god of omens, etc.:

    te prodigiali Iovi conprecatam oportuit,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 108.—Prov.: Jovem lapidem jurare, said of one who swore by Jupiter (holding in one hand a knife with which he pierced the sacrificial sow, and in the other hand a stone);

    of gossips: sciunt quod Juno fabulata'st cum Jove,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 171; Paul. ex Fest. s v. lapidem, p. 115 Müll.; Cic. Fam. 7, 12, 2; Gell. 1, 21, 4.—In plur.:

    Varro trecentos Joves (sive Juppiteres dicendum) introducit,

    Tert. Apol. 14;

    and, trop.: repente ut emoriantur humani Joves,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 26:

    Joves quoque plures in priscis Graecorum litteris invenimus,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 16, 42.—
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    As the god of heaven, his name is freq. used by the poets as i. q. Heaven, sky, air: aspice hoc sublimen candens, quem invocant omnes Jovem, Enn. ap. Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 65:

    Chrysippus disputat, aethera esse eum, quem homines Jovem appellarent,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 15, 40:

    sub Jove frigido,

    Hor. C. 1, 1, 25:

    malus,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 20:

    metuendus, i. e. pluvius,

    Verg. G. 2, 419:

    hibernus,

    Stat. Th. 3, 26:

    sub Jove pars durat,

    in the open air, Ov. F. 3, 527:

    loci,

    the temperature, id. M. 13, 707.—
    B.
    Juppiter Stygius, i. e. Pluto, Verg. A. 4, 638; cf.

    terrestris,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 20; of the planet Jupiter, Cic. N. D. 2, 20; Luc. 10, 207.—
    C.
    As an exclamation of surprise, i. q. our My heavens! good heavens! Juppiter! estne illic Charinus? Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 24.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Juppiter

  • 16 meliores

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > meliores

  • 17 optimum

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > optimum

  • 18 temperamentum

    tempĕrāmentum, i, n. [id.], a mixing in due proportion, a proper measure, disposition, or constitution; a measure, mean, moderation; temperament, temperature (mostly post-Aug.; cf. on the other hand, temperatio): inventum est temperamentum, quo tenuiores cum principibus aequari se putarunt, * Cic. Leg. 3, 10, 24; cf.:

    tanto temperamento inter plebem senatumque egit, ut, etc.,

    Just. 2, 7, 5; 44, 4, 3:

    egregium principatus temperamentum, si demptis utriusque vitiis solae virtutes miscerentur,

    Tac. H. 2, 5:

    fortitudinis,

    id. ib. 1, 83:

    senatus Caesar orationem habuit meditato temperamento,

    with studied moderation, strictness, id. A. 3, 12:

    quod temperamentum omnes in illo subito pietatis calore servavimus,

    Plin. Pan. 3, 1:

    opus est inter has tam diversas inaequalitates magno temperamento,

    Col. 3, 12, 3 sq. eruca jungitur lactucae fere in cibis, ut nimio frigori par fervor immixtus temperamentum aequet, Plin. 19, 8, 44, § 155 eadem est materia, sed distat temperamento, proportion, combination, id. 9, 36, 61, § 130, 12, 25, 54, § 115 caeli, temperateness, Just. 2, 1, 10:

    linistis absque temperamento,

    without having tempered the mortar, Vulg. Ezech. 13, 14; 22, 28.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > temperamentum

  • 19 temperatura

    tempĕrātūra, ae, f. [id.], due measure, proportion, composition, or quality; temper, temperament, temperature (anteclass. and post-Aug. for the class. temperatio): caeli temperatura, Varr. ap. Non. 179, 12:

    corporis,

    Sen. Ep. 11, 6:

    minii,

    Vitr. 7, 9:

    aeris,

    Plin. 34, 9, 20, § 97; cf. id. 34, 2, 5, § 10; 34, 8, 19, § 75:

    utilis ac salubris (in balneis),

    Sen. Ep. 86, 10:

    linire absque temperatura,

    with untempered mortar, Vulg. Ezech. 13, 11.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > temperatura

  • 20 temperies

    tempĕrĭes, ēi, f. [tempero], a due mingling, mixture, or tempering, temperature, temper ( poet. and in post - Aug. prose for the class. temperatio):

    in quo (aere) aequalis omnium temperies fuit,

    Plin. 34, 2, 3, § 8:

    magna et in colore temperies,

    id. 2, 78, 80, § 190; 16, 11, 22, § 54:

    ubi temperiem sumpsere umorque calorque,

    Ov. M. 1, 430:

    nix tegit alta duas (caeli zonas): totidem inter utramque locavit, Temperiemque dedit, mixtā cum frigore flammā,

    i. e. temperateness, moderate temperature, id. ib. 1, 51:

    caeli,

    id. P. 2, 7, 71; Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 3:

    caeli mira temperies, verno tepori maxime similis,

    Curt. 4, 7, 17; 9, 1, 11; cf.:

    auctumnus mitis inter juvenemque senemque Temperie medius,

    Ov. M. 15, 211:

    temperie blandarum captus aquarum,

    id. ib. 4, 344:

    temperiem servant oculi,

    a due proportion, Claud. Cons. Mall. Theod. 217:

    tranquilla morum,

    Stat. S. 2. 6, 48:

    temperies (docet), ut casta petas,

    moderation, temperance, Claud. Laud. Stil. 2, 103.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > temperies

См. также в других словарях:

  • the temperature is falling — the temperature is becoming lower, the temperature is getting colder …   English contemporary dictionary

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  • lower the temperature — raise/lower the ˈtemperature idiom to increase/decrease the amount of excitement, emotion, etc. in a situation • His angry refusal to agree raised the temperature of the meeting. • The government tried to lower the political temperature by… …   Useful english dictionary

  • lowering the temperature — reduced the temperature, made the temperature lower …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Temperature coefficient — The temperature coefficient is the relative change of a physical property when the temperature is changed by 1 K. In the following formula, let R be the physical property to be measured and T be the temperature at which the property is… …   Wikipedia

  • Temperature record of the past 1000 years — The temperature record of the past 1,000 years describes the reconstruction of temperature for the last 1000 years on the Northern Hemisphere. A reconstruction is needed because a reliable surface temperature record exists only since about 1850.… …   Wikipedia

  • Temperature measurement — using modern scientific thermometers and temperature scales goes back at least as far as the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheit adapted a thermometer (switching to mercury) and a scale both developed by Ole Christensen Røemer. Fahrenheit …   Wikipedia

  • Temperature range — is the numerical difference between the minimum and maximum values of temperature observed in a system, such as atmospheric temperature in a given location.Atmospheric Temperature RangeA temperature range may refer to a period of time (e.g., in a …   Wikipedia

  • Temperature-dependent sex determination — (TSD), also called environmental sex determination [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nature06519.html The adaptive significance of temperature dependent sex determination in a reptile] from Nature ] , is where the… …   Wikipedia

  • Temperature — Tem per*a*ture, n. [F. temp[ e]rature, L. temperatura due measure, proportion, temper, temperament.] 1. Constitution; state; degree of any quality. [1913 Webster] The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opinion,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Temperature sense — Temperature Tem per*a*ture, n. [F. temp[ e]rature, L. temperatura due measure, proportion, temper, temperament.] 1. Constitution; state; degree of any quality. [1913 Webster] The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Книги

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