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takes this form of oath

  • 1 iūrō

        iūrō āvī, ātus, āre    [2 ius], to swear, take an oath: si aram tenens iuraret: ex animi tui sententiā, without reservation: Boeotum in crasso iurares aëre natum, H.: falsum, swear falsely: vere: testari deos per quos iuravisset, S.: per Iovem, by Jupiter: aedilis, qui pro se iuraret, in his stead, L.: idem omnis exercitus in se quisque iurat, i. e. each soldier individually, L.: Numquam ducturum uxorem, T.: se eum non deserturum, Cs.: verissimum ius iurandum.—With in and acc, to swear to observe, swear allegiance, vow obedience, adopt under oath: in legem: in leges, L.: in haec verba iurat ipse, takes this form of oath, Cs.: cur in certa verba iurent: in haec verba iures postulo, in this form of words, L.: in verba magistri, echo the sentiments, H.—To swear by, attest, call to witness: Terram, Mare, Sidera, V.: Iovem lapidem: quaevis tibi numina, O.: Samothracum aras, Iu.: Iurandae tuum per nomen arae, H.: dis iuranda palus, the Styx, by which the gods swear, O.—To swear to, attest by an oath: morbum, to the fact of sickness: id (nomen) iurare in litem, swear to a debt.—With person. obj., to swear, bind by an oath, cause to swear (only perf pass.): iudici demonstrandum est, quid iuratus sit: lex, in quam iurati sitis: iuratus se eum interempturum, L.— To conspire: In me, O.: in facinus, O.—In the phrase: iurare calumniam, to swear that an accusation is not malicious, L.

    Latin-English dictionary > iūrō

  • 2 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 3 juro

    jūro, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. and a., and jūror, ātus, 1, v. dep. [2. jus], to swear, to take an oath.
    I.
    In gen., absol.:

    cui si aram tenens juraret, crederet nemo,

    Cic. Fl. 36, 90:

    cum ille mihi nihil, nisi ut jurarem, permitteret,

    id. Fam. 5, 2, 7:

    cum enim faciles sint nonnulli hominum ad jurandum,

    Dig. 28, 7, 8:

    posteaquam juratum est, denegatur actio,

    ib. 12, 2, 9:

    ex animi tui sententia jurāris,

    Cic. Off. 3, 29, 108.— With inf., Sil. 2, 3, 51; Claud. B. Get. 81; Dig. 12, 2, 13, § 5.—With nom. and inf., poet., Prop. 3, 4, 40.—With acc. and inf.:

    jurat, se eum non deserturum,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 13:

    se non reversurum,

    id. ib. 3, 87:

    jurarem... me et ardere studio veri reperiendi,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 65:

    nisi victores se redituros jurant,

    Liv. 2, 45:

    Boeotum in crasso jurares aëre natum,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 244:

    falsum,

    to swear falsely, Cic. Off. 3, 29, 108:

    vere,

    to swear truly, id. Fam. 5, 2, 7:

    jurarem per Jovem,

    by Jupiter, id. Ac. 2, 20, 65:

    per supremi regis regnum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 211; Verg. A. 9, 300:

    per solis radios,

    Juv. 13, 78; 6, 16.—Also with simple acc. of the being or object sworn by (mostly poet.):

    Terram, Mare, Sidera,

    Verg. A. 12, 197; 6, 324:

    quomodo tibi placebit Jovem lapidem jurare, cum scias?

    Cic. Fam. 7, 12, 2:

    quaevis tibi numina,

    Ov. H. 16, 319:

    Samothracum aras,

    Juv. 3, 144.—Hence also pass.:

    dis juranda palus,

    the Styx, by which the gods swear, Ov. M. 2, 46; cf.:

    Stygias juravimus undas,

    id. ib. 2, 101:

    Junonis numina,

    Tib. 4, 13, 15:

    caput,

    Sil. 8, 106.— Rarely with acc. of the fact sworn to:

    morbum,

    i. e. to swear to the fact of sickness, Cic. Att. 1, 1, 1; cf.:

    jurata pacta,

    Sil. 2, 274:

    ex mei animi sententia,

    with sincerity, without reservation, Liv. 22, 53, 10; so,

    ex nostri animi sententia,

    Quint. 8, 5, 1; cf. Liv. 43, 15, 8; Gell. 4, 20, 3: alicui aliquid, [p. 1019] to vow or promise to one, Stat. Th. 4, 396:

    sacramenta deis,

    Sil. 10, 448:

    alicui jurare,

    to swear allegiance to, Plin. Pan. 68, 4: in verba, to swear with certain words, i. e. to take a prescribed form of oath:

    Petreius in haec verba jurat,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 76:

    cur in certa verba jurent,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 45, 132:

    milites in verba P. Scipionis jurarunt,

    Liv. 28, 29; 7, 5; 6, 22:

    in haec verba jures postulo,

    in this form of words, id. 22, 53, 12:

    in verba magistri,

    to echo his sentiments, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 14:

    in verba ejus,

    Suet. Galb. 16:

    in verba Vitellii,

    id. Oth. 8: idem deinceps omnis exercitus in se quisque jurat, i. e. each soldier took the oath separately;

    whereas the usual practice was that one man uttered the entire oath, and the others only added, idem in me,

    Liv. 2, 45, 14:

    in litem,

    to make oath respecting the matter in dispute, to appraise under oath, Cic. Rosc. Com. 1, 4; Dig. 4, 3, 18; 8, 5, 7 al.:

    in nomen alicujus,

    to swear allegiance to one, Suet. Claud. 10:

    in legem,

    to swear to observe a law, Cic. Sest. 16, 37:

    verissimum pulcherrimumque jusjurandum,

    to take an oath, id. Fam. 5, 2, 7:

    sacramenta,

    Sil. 10, 447; cf.:

    sceleri jurato nefando sacramenta,

    Luc. 4, 228.—With de and abl.:

    de sua persona,

    in one's own behalf, Dig. 44, 5, 1, § 3:

    de calumnia,

    to clear one's self of calumny under oath, ib. 12, 2, 16; 2, 8, 8, § 5.— Pass. impers.:

    scis, tibi ubique jurari,

    Plin. Pan. 68: ne in acta sua juraretur, Suet Tib. 26.—
    (β).
    Dep. form, Plaut. Pers. 3, 2, 2; cf. id. Rud. 5, 3, 16:

    judici demonstrandum est, quid juratus sit, quid sequi debeat,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 43, 126:

    ex lege, in quam jurati sitis,

    id. ib. 2, 45, 121:

    juratus se eum sua manu interempturum,

    Liv. 32, 22, 7.—
    II.
    In partic., to conspire (cf. conjuro); with inf.: jurarunt inter se barbaros necare, Cato ap. Plin. 29, 1, 7, § 14:

    in me jurarunt somnus, ventusque, fidesque,

    Ov. H. 10, 117:

    in facinus,

    id. M. 1, 242.—Hence, jūrātus, a, um, P. a.
    A.
    Pass.
    1.
    Called upon or taken to witness in an oath:

    numina,

    Ov. H. 2, 25.—
    2.
    Under an oath, bound by an oath:

    Regulus juratus missus est ad senatum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 3, 26, 99:

    quamvis jurato metuam tibi credere testi,

    Juv. 5, 5.—
    B.
    Act., having sworn, that has sworn:

    nam injurato scio plus credet mihi quam jurato tibi,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 281; id. As. 1, 1, 8:

    haec, quae juratus in maxima contione dixi,

    Cic. Sull. 11:

    in eadem arma,

    Ov. M. 13, 50.— Sup.: juratissimi auctores, the most trustworthy, Plin. H. N. praef. § 22. — Adv.: jūrātō, with an oath, under oath (post-class.):

    promittere,

    Dig. 2, 8, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > juro

  • 4 āctiō

        āctiō ōnis, f    [1 AG-], a putting in motion; hence, a performing, doing, action: virtutis laus in actione consistit, in deeds.—Esp.: gratiarum, a rendering.—Of an orator or player, a rendering, declamation: consulis. — Public acts, official conduct, achievements: radicitus evellere omnīs actiones tuas: celebrare actiones, make their policy popular, L.: Ciceronis, S.: tribunicia, a measure, L.—A suit at law, action, process: actionem instituere: causae: actionem intendere, to bring suit: hac actione uti, this form of action: lenior. — Permission to bring a suit: actionem dare alicui: alterā, at the second trial.
    * * *
    act, action, activity, deed; incident;, plot (play); legal process, suit; plea

    Latin-English dictionary > āctiō

  • 5 admodum

    ad-mŏdum, adv. [modus], prop., to the measure or limit (scarcely found in the poets, except the comic poets);

    as, postea ubi occipiet fervere, paulisper demittito, usque admodum dum quinquies quinque numeres,

    quite to the limit till you count, until you count, Cato, R. R. 156, 2 (like fere and omnino, freq. put after its word).— Hence,
    I.
    To a (great) measure, in a high degree, much, very. —With adj., P. adj., vbs., and adv.
    (α).
    With adj.:

    admodum causam gravem,

    Lucil. 29, 19 Müll.:

    admodum antiqui,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 47:

    admodum amplum et excelsum,

    id. Verr. 4, 74:

    utrique nostrum gratum admodum feceris,

    id. Lael. 4, 16; so id. Verr. 2, 3, 10:

    nec admodum in virum honorificum,

    Liv. 6, 34, 8:

    in quo multum admodum fortunae datur,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 5, 12:

    neque admodum sunt multi,

    Nep. Reg. 1, 1:

    admodum magnis itineribus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 56:

    admodum pauci,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 36; 14, 27; id. N. D. 3, 69; Tac. G. 18:

    pauci admodum,

    Liv. 10, 41:

    iter angustum admodum,

    Sall. J. 92:

    admodum nimia ubertas,

    very excessive, Col. 4, 21:

    admodum dives,

    Suet. Caes. 1:

    brevis admodum,

    id. ib. 56.—And strengthened by quam, q. v. (only before and after the class. per.):

    hic admodum quam saevus est,

    very cruel indeed, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 43:

    voce admodum quam suavi,

    Gell. 19, 9 (on this use of quam, cf. Rudd. II. p. 307, n. 15).—
    (β).
    With part. adj.:

    admodum iratum senem,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 13:

    iratum admodum,

    id. Ad. 3, 3, 49:

    natio admodum dedita religionibus,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16:

    prorae admodum erectae,

    id. ib. 3, 13:

    admodum mitigati,

    Liv. 1, 10:

    munitus admodum,

    Tac. A. 2, 80:

    admodum fuit militum virtus laudanda,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 8.—Esp. is it joined (like komidêi in Dem.) with words denoting age; as, puer, adulescens, juvenis, senex, to enhance the idea (for which in some cases the dim. or the prefix per- is used;

    as, puellus, adulescentulus, peradulescentulus): Catulus admodum tum adulescens,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 13, 47; Tac. A. 1, 3:

    puer admodum,

    Liv. 31, 28; Sen. Brev. Vit. 7, 3; Quint. 12, 6, 1:

    admodum infans,

    Tac. A. 4, 13:

    juvenis admodum,

    id. H. 4, 5:

    fratres admodum juvenes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 12:

    admodum senex,

    Eutr. 8, 1:

    admodum parvulus,

    Just. 17, 3:

    non admodum grandem natu,

    Cic. Sen. 4, 10.— Also with dim.: neque admodum adulescentulus est, Naev. ap. Sergium ad Don. Keil, Gr. Lat. IV. p. 559 (Rib. Com. Fragm. p. 11):

    hic admodum adulescentulus est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90; so Nep. Ham. 1, 1 (cf. peradulescentulus, id. Eum. 1, 4), and Tac. A. 4, 44.—
    (γ).
    With verbs (in earlier Latin, mostly with delectare, diligere, placere): haec anus admodum frigultit, Enn. ap. Fulg. p. 175:

    irridere ne videare et gestire admodum,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 125:

    neque admodum a pueris abscessit,

    Naev. Rib. Com. Fragm. p. 11:

    me superiores litterae tuae admodum delectaverunt,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 19; id. Att. 7, 24:

    ejus familiarissimos, qui me admodum diligunt,

    id. Fam. 4, 13:

    stomacho admodum prodest,

    Plin. 20, 3, 7, § 13:

    bucinum pelagio admodum adligatur,

    id. 9, 38, 62, § 134:

    (familia) ipsa admodum floruit,

    Suet. Tib. 3:

    Marius auctis admodum copiis... vicit,

    Flor. 1, 36, 13 Halm.—
    (δ).
    With adv.:

    haec inter nos nuper notitia admodum est,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 1: si quando demersimus, aut nihil superum aut obscure admodum cernimus, Cic. Ac. ap. Non. 7, 57: acipenser, qui admodum raro capitur, id. de Fato ap. Macr. S. 2, 12:

    raro admodum admonitu amicorum... uti solebat,

    Curt. 4, 13, 25:

    ubi satis admodum suorum animos est expertus,

    Liv. 34, 13, 4 Weissenb. (Hertz cancels satis): quae maxime admodum oratori accommodata est, Auct. ad Her. 4, 12, 17 (Oudendorp regarded this as a mere pleonasm, and Hand seems to agree with him; Klotz and B. and K. adopt after Goerenz the reading maxime ad modum oratoris, but Hand condemned this form).—
    II.
    To a (full) measure, fully, completely, wholly, quite, absolutely.
    A.
    Of number (not used in this way by Cic., Tac., or Suet.): noctu turres admodum CXX. excitantur, full 120, Caes. B. G. 5, 40: sex milia hostium caesa;

    quinque admodum Romanorum,

    Liv. 22, 24. 14; 42, 65, 3;

    44, 43, 8: mille admodum hostium utràque pugnā occidit,

    id. 27, 30, 2:

    in laevo cornu Bactriani ibant equites, mille admodum,

    a round thousand, Curt. 4, 12, 3: mille admodum equites praemiserat, quorum paucitate Alexander, etc., a thousand, but not more (as the context requires), id. 4, 9, 24:

    congregati admodum quingenti sponsos hostes consectantur, trucidatisque admodum novem milibus, etc.,

    Just. 24, 1.
    The meaning, circiter, fere, about, near, or nearly, which used to be assigned to this head, as by Graevius ad Just.
    24, 26, Gronovius ad Liv. 27, 30, 2, is rejected by recent scholars, as Hand, Turs. I. p. 175 sq., and by Corradini, Lex. Lat. s. h. v.
    B.
    Of time:

    legati ex Macedonia exacto admodum mense Februario redierunt,

    when February was fully ended, Liv. 43, 11, 9:

    Alexandri filius, rex Syriae, decem annos admodum habens,

    just ten years, Liv. Epit. 55:

    post menses admodum septem occiditur,

    Just. 17, 2, 3.—
    C.
    With negatives, just, at all, absolutely:

    equestris pugna nulla admodum fuit,

    no engagement with the cavalry at all, Liv. 23, 29, 14:

    armorum magnam vim transtulit, nullam pecuniam admodum,

    id. 40, 59, 2:

    horunc illa nibilum quidquam facere poterit admodum,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 65:

    Curio litterarum admodum nihil sciebat,

    Cic. Brut. 58, 210:

    oratorem plane quidem perfectum et cui nihil admodum desit, Demosthenem facile dixeris,

    id. 9, 35: alter non multum, alter nihil admodum scripti reliquit (by the latter is meant Antonius, who indeed, acc. to Brut. 44, 163, left a treatise de ratione dicendi, but no written oration at all, by which his eloquence could be judged), id. Or. 38, 132; id. Clu. 50, 140; id. Or. 2, 2, 8; eirôneia a tropo genere ipso nihil admodum distat, Quint. 9, 2, 44;

    quia nihil admodum super vite aut arbore colenda sciret,

    Gell. 19, 12. —
    D.
    In emphatic affirmative or corroborative answers, = maxime (Gr. panu ge), exactly, just so, quite so, certainly, yes (freq. in Plaut., only twice in Ter.); cf. the remark of Cic.: scis solere, frater, in hujusmodi sermone, ut transiri alio possit, dici Admodum aut Prorsus ita est, Leg. 3, 11, 26: nempe tu hanc dicis, quam esse aiebas dudum popularem meam. Tr. Admodum, Certainly, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 36: num quidnam ad filium haec aegritudo attinet? Ni. Admodum, It does, id. Bacch. 5, 1, 24; 4, 1, 40; id. Rud. 1, 5, 10; 1, 2, 55; 3, 6, 2; id. Ps. 4, 7, 54: Advenis modo? Pa. Admodum, Yes, Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 8; id. Phorm. 2, 2, 1.
    Admodum with an adj.
    may have the same force as in II., in:

    quandam formam ingenii, sed admodum impolitam et plane rudem,

    absolutely without polish and altogether rude, Cic. Brut. 85, 294, compared with:

    (oratorem) plane perfectum et cui nihil admodum desit,

    id. ib. 9, 35, where the same adverbs occur.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > admodum

  • 6 adulo

    ădūlo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. (a rare form for adulor; hence Prisc. 791 P. ranks this form, as an exception, among the other active forms of the deponents, adipiscor, admiror, auxilior, etc.; cf. Don. p. 1756 P. and Ars Consent. p. 2054 P.), to fawn like a dog: (canes) gannitu vocis adulant, Luor. 5, 1070: caudā nostrum adulat sanguinem ( the eagle), strokes, i. e. wipes off our blood, Cic. poët. ap. Tusc. 2, 10, 24, as trans. of Aeschyl. Prometh. Solut.:

    Dionysium,

    Val. Max. 4, 3, ext. 4.— Pass., to be flattered nec adulari nos sinamus, Cic. Off. 1, 26, 91: tribunus militum adulandus erat, Val. M. 2, 7, 15: adulati erant ab amicis, Cass. ap. Prisc. p. 791 P.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adulo

  • 7 adulterio

    ădultĕrĭo, ōnis. A word formed by Laberius = adulter, acc. to Non. 70, 5; or adulterium, acc. to Gell. 16, 7, the latter of whom censures this form.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adulterio

  • 8 ambiguum

    ambĭgŭus, a, um, adj. [ambigo], going about, hither and thither.
    I.
    Lit.:

    per ambiguum favorem gratiam victoris spectare,

    i. e. in that they show equal friendliness to both sides, Liv. 21, 52:

    ambiguus Proteus,

    who sometimes takes one form, sometimes another, changeable, Ov. M. 2, 9:

    ambiguus fuerit, modo vir, modo femina, Scython,

    id. ib. 4, 280:

    Inque virum soliti vultus mutare ferinos Ambigui prosecta lupi,

    they sometimes assume the form of a wolf and sometimes that of a man, id. ib. 7, 271:

    promisit Ambiguam Salamina, h. l. = alteram,

    a second Salamis, Hor. C. 1, 7, 29. —
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Uncertain, doubtful (syn.: dubius, incertus): ambiguum est quod in ambas agi partes animo potest. Hujusmodi apud Graecos amphibola dicuntur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 17 Müll.:

    quidquid incerti mihi in animo prius aut ambiguom fuit, Nunc liquet, nunc defaecatum est,

    Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 69: etiam si dudum fuerat ambiguom hoc mihi, * Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 26:

    difficile et ambiguum,

    Vulg. Deut. 17, 8:

    haud ambiguus rex, i. e. sine dubio rex futurus,

    Liv. 40, 8.— Subst.: ambĭgŭum, i, n., doubt, uncertainty:

    in ambiguo est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 193:

    in ambiguo relinquere,

    Lucr. 4, 1133: non habui ambiguum, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 11:

    servet in ambiguo Juppiter,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 28:

    non sane alias magis in ambiguo Britannia fuit,

    Tac. Agr. 5.—Also in acc. absol. in the Gr. manner: Ambiguum Clymene precibus Phaëthontis an irā Mota magis, it being uncertain whether, etc., Ov. M. 1, 765 (so, incertum, Tac. Agr. 7:

    dubium,

    id. A. 1, 5).—
    B.
    Of discourse, obscure, dark, ambiguous:

    scriptum,

    Cic. Top. 25:

    verba ambigua distinximus,

    id. Or. 29, 102:

    oracula,

    id. Div. 2, 56:

    responsa,

    Suet. Tib. 24:

    divinatio,

    Vulg. Ezech. 12, 24.— Subst.: ambĭgŭum, i, n., an obscure, dark saying:

    ambiguorum complura sunt genera,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 26, 111; 2, 61, 250; Auct. ad Her. 1, 6; 1, 12 al.:

    voces,

    Verg. A. 2, 98.—
    C.
    Trop., uncertain, wavering; not to be relied on, untrustworthy. —So of moral conduct:

    esse ambiguā fide,

    Liv. 6, 2:

    puer acris ingenii sed ambigui,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 2:

    femina bonis atque honestis moribus, non ambiguā pudicitiā,

    Gell. 3, 16:

    per ambiguas vias,

    Ov. H. 10, 62:

    domum timet ambiguam Tyriosque bilinguis,

    Verg. A 1, 661.—Of fortune, changing, fluctuating: ambiguarum rerum sciens, Tac. A. 1, 64.
    In Tac.
    with gen.:

    ambiguus imperandi,

    irresolute, Tac. A. 1, 7:

    pudoris ac metus,

    wavering between shame and fear, id. ib. 2, 40:

    futuri,

    id. H. 3, 43.— Adv.: ambĭguē, doubtfully, ambiguously, Cic. de Or. 2, 26; id. N. D. 1, 31; Aur. Vict. 35:

    pugnare,

    with doubtful success, Tac. A. 2, 21 al.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ambiguum

  • 9 ambiguus

    ambĭgŭus, a, um, adj. [ambigo], going about, hither and thither.
    I.
    Lit.:

    per ambiguum favorem gratiam victoris spectare,

    i. e. in that they show equal friendliness to both sides, Liv. 21, 52:

    ambiguus Proteus,

    who sometimes takes one form, sometimes another, changeable, Ov. M. 2, 9:

    ambiguus fuerit, modo vir, modo femina, Scython,

    id. ib. 4, 280:

    Inque virum soliti vultus mutare ferinos Ambigui prosecta lupi,

    they sometimes assume the form of a wolf and sometimes that of a man, id. ib. 7, 271:

    promisit Ambiguam Salamina, h. l. = alteram,

    a second Salamis, Hor. C. 1, 7, 29. —
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    Uncertain, doubtful (syn.: dubius, incertus): ambiguum est quod in ambas agi partes animo potest. Hujusmodi apud Graecos amphibola dicuntur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 17 Müll.:

    quidquid incerti mihi in animo prius aut ambiguom fuit, Nunc liquet, nunc defaecatum est,

    Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 69: etiam si dudum fuerat ambiguom hoc mihi, * Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 26:

    difficile et ambiguum,

    Vulg. Deut. 17, 8:

    haud ambiguus rex, i. e. sine dubio rex futurus,

    Liv. 40, 8.— Subst.: ambĭgŭum, i, n., doubt, uncertainty:

    in ambiguo est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 193:

    in ambiguo relinquere,

    Lucr. 4, 1133: non habui ambiguum, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 11:

    servet in ambiguo Juppiter,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 28:

    non sane alias magis in ambiguo Britannia fuit,

    Tac. Agr. 5.—Also in acc. absol. in the Gr. manner: Ambiguum Clymene precibus Phaëthontis an irā Mota magis, it being uncertain whether, etc., Ov. M. 1, 765 (so, incertum, Tac. Agr. 7:

    dubium,

    id. A. 1, 5).—
    B.
    Of discourse, obscure, dark, ambiguous:

    scriptum,

    Cic. Top. 25:

    verba ambigua distinximus,

    id. Or. 29, 102:

    oracula,

    id. Div. 2, 56:

    responsa,

    Suet. Tib. 24:

    divinatio,

    Vulg. Ezech. 12, 24.— Subst.: ambĭgŭum, i, n., an obscure, dark saying:

    ambiguorum complura sunt genera,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 26, 111; 2, 61, 250; Auct. ad Her. 1, 6; 1, 12 al.:

    voces,

    Verg. A. 2, 98.—
    C.
    Trop., uncertain, wavering; not to be relied on, untrustworthy. —So of moral conduct:

    esse ambiguā fide,

    Liv. 6, 2:

    puer acris ingenii sed ambigui,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 2:

    femina bonis atque honestis moribus, non ambiguā pudicitiā,

    Gell. 3, 16:

    per ambiguas vias,

    Ov. H. 10, 62:

    domum timet ambiguam Tyriosque bilinguis,

    Verg. A 1, 661.—Of fortune, changing, fluctuating: ambiguarum rerum sciens, Tac. A. 1, 64.
    In Tac.
    with gen.:

    ambiguus imperandi,

    irresolute, Tac. A. 1, 7:

    pudoris ac metus,

    wavering between shame and fear, id. ib. 2, 40:

    futuri,

    id. H. 3, 43.— Adv.: ambĭguē, doubtfully, ambiguously, Cic. de Or. 2, 26; id. N. D. 1, 31; Aur. Vict. 35:

    pugnare,

    with doubtful success, Tac. A. 2, 21 al.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ambiguus

  • 10 anceps

    anceps (once ancipes, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 114; cf. Charis, pp. 67 and 96 P.; Prisc. p. 754 P.; with this form cf. procapis, Paul. ex Fest. p. 225 Müll., and Corss. Ausspr. II. pp. 398, 591; abl. sing. always ancipiti), cĭpĭtis, adj. [an-caput; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 19 Müll.].
    I.
    Lit., that has two heads, twoheaded (cf.: biceps, praeceps, etc.;

    so only in the poets): Janus,

    Ov. M. 14, 334; so id. F. 1, 95 (cf.:

    Janus bifrons,

    Verg. A. 7, 180). —Hence also of a mountain which has two summits, two-peaked:

    acumen,

    Ov. M. 12, 337.—
    II.
    In gen.
    A.
    1.. Of an object whose qualities have significance in two respects, double, that extends on two opposite sides (while duplex is an object that exists in separate forms, twice. Thus anceps sententia is an opinion which wavers, fluctuates between two decisions, while duplex sententia is a twofold opinion):

    Post altrinsecus ancipes securiculast,

    the axe cuts on two sides, is two-edged, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 114; so, ferrum, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 245, 17, and Lucr. 6, 168:

    securis,

    Ov. M. 8, 397 al. —Also, poet., of the contrast between great heat and cold: Ancipiti quoniam mucroni utrimque notantur, since things are marked by double point, i. e. one at one, another at the other end, Lucr. 2, 520:

    bestiae quasi ancipites in utrāque sede viventes,

    amphibious animals, Cic. N. D. 1, 37;

    so in the histt. freq. of an attack, a contest, etc., on two different sides,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 76: ita ancipiti proelio diu atque acriter pugnatum est, double, because contending with enemies both in front and in the rear, id. ib. 1, 26 Herz.; so id. B. C. 3, 63; Nep. Them. 3, 3:

    periculum,

    Sall. J. 38, 5: ancipitem pugnam hostibus facere, double, as given by horse and foot, Tac. A. 6, 35:

    ancipiti metu et ab cive et ab hoste,

    twofold, Liv. 2, 24; so,

    anceps terror,

    id. 34, 21; Tac. Agr. 26:

    tumultus,

    Liv. 32, 30: tela, shot or hurled from both sides, id. 37, 11:

    ancipitia munimenta,

    on two sides, id. 5, 1 al. —
    2.
    Trop., twofold:

    propter ancipitem faciendi dicendique sapientiam,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16:

    ancipites viae rationesque et pro omnibus et contra omnia disputandi,

    id. ib. 3, 36:

    adferre ancipitem curam cogitandi,

    a twofold care of thought, id. Off. 1, 3, 9; so Tac. A. 2, 40:

    jus anceps,

    the uncertainties of law, Hor. S. 2, 5, 34 al. —
    B.
    Wavering, doubtful, uncertain, unfixed, undecided (the prevalent signif. in Cic.):

    anceps fatorum via,

    Cic. Somn. Scip. 2:

    incertus exitus et anceps fortuna belli,

    id. Marcell. 5:

    anceps proelii fortuna,

    Tac. H. 3, 18:

    oraculum,

    Liv. 9, 3:

    proelium,

    id. 2, 62, and Tac. H. 3, 22;

    so esp. freq.: ancipiti Marte pugnare,

    to contend without deciding the contest, Liv. 7, 29; 21, 1 al.:

    causa anceps,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 44:

    genus causarum anceps,

    id. Inv. 1, 15, 20 (cf.: genus causarum dubium, Auct. ad Her. 1, 3:

    dubium vel anceps,

    Quint. 4, 1, 10):

    fides,

    uncertain, wavering, fidelity, Curt. 3, 8;

    so also, ancipites animi,

    Luc. 9, 46.—Also ellipt.: Lucanus an Apulus, anceps, doubtful whether, etc., * Hor. S. 2, 1, 34.—
    C.
    Dangerous, hazaraous, perilous, critical (post-Aug.; esp. freq. in Tac.;

    never in Cic.): viae,

    Ov. M. 14, 438:

    loca,

    Nep. Dat. 7, 3:

    dubiā et interdum ancipiti fortunā,

    Vell. 2, 79:

    anceps periculum,

    Tac. A. 4, 59:

    ancipites morbi corporis,

    Plin. 7, 45, 46, § 149:

    cujus (Antonii) operā ex ancipiti morbo convaluerat,

    Suet. Aug. 59:

    Ideo et purgationibus (labruscum) ancipitem putant,

    Plin. 23, 1, 14, § 20:

    vox pro re publicā honesta, ipsi anceps,

    pernicious, Tac. H. 1, 5:

    adulatio anceps si nulla et ubi nimia est,

    id. A. 4, 17.—So subst., danger, hazard, peril, = periculum, discrimen:

    dubiā suorum re in anceps tractus vim legionum implorabat,

    Tac. A. 4, 73:

    seu nihil militi seu omnia concederentur, in ancipiti res publica,

    id. ib. 1, 36:

    scelus inter ancipitia probatum,

    id. ib. 11, 26;

    14, 22: facilius inter ancipitia clarescunt,

    id. G. 14:

    nova ambigua ancipitia malebat,

    id. H. 2, 86:

    inter ancipitia deterrimum est media sequi,

    id. ib. 3, 40.
    Comp., sup., and adv. not used.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > anceps

  • 11 Apina

    Ăpĭna, ae, f., a poor and small town in Apulia, Plin. 3, 11, 16, § 144.—Hence, in the plur.: ăpĭnae, prov. (as tricae, q. v.), trifles, worthless things:

    apinae tricaeque,

    Mart. 14, 1, 7; 1, 113, 2 (some regard this form as from aphanês, obscure, of no account).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Apina

  • 12 apinae

    Ăpĭna, ae, f., a poor and small town in Apulia, Plin. 3, 11, 16, § 144.—Hence, in the plur.: ăpĭnae, prov. (as tricae, q. v.), trifles, worthless things:

    apinae tricaeque,

    Mart. 14, 1, 7; 1, 113, 2 (some regard this form as from aphanês, obscure, of no account).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > apinae

  • 13 Arcesilas

    Arcĕsĭlas, ae ( Arcĕsĭlāus, i, Gell. 3, 5), m. (acc. Arcesilam, Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 76:

    Arcesilan,

    Mel. 1, 18, 1), = Arkesilas (-aos).
    I.
    Arcesilas (mostly in this form), a Greek philosopher of Pitane, a pupil of Polemon, and founder of the Middle Academy, Cic. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Ac. 1, 12, 45; 2, 24, 76; id. Fin. 5, 31, 94; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; Pers. 3, 79 (cf. Diog. Laert. 4, 28).—
    II.
    Arcesilaus, a sculptor of the first century B. C., Plin. 35, 12, 45, § 155.—
    III.
    Arcesilaus, an encaustic painter of Paros, Plin. 35, 11, 38, § 122.—
    IV.
    Arcesilas, a painter, son of Tisicrates, Plin. 35, 11, 40, § 146.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Arcesilas

  • 14 Arcesilaus

    Arcĕsĭlas, ae ( Arcĕsĭlāus, i, Gell. 3, 5), m. (acc. Arcesilam, Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 76:

    Arcesilan,

    Mel. 1, 18, 1), = Arkesilas (-aos).
    I.
    Arcesilas (mostly in this form), a Greek philosopher of Pitane, a pupil of Polemon, and founder of the Middle Academy, Cic. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Ac. 1, 12, 45; 2, 24, 76; id. Fin. 5, 31, 94; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; Pers. 3, 79 (cf. Diog. Laert. 4, 28).—
    II.
    Arcesilaus, a sculptor of the first century B. C., Plin. 35, 12, 45, § 155.—
    III.
    Arcesilaus, an encaustic painter of Paros, Plin. 35, 11, 38, § 122.—
    IV.
    Arcesilas, a painter, son of Tisicrates, Plin. 35, 11, 40, § 146.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Arcesilaus

  • 15 aucella

    aucella ( aucilla), ae, f. dim. [as if for avicella, from avis], a little bird (only postclass.;

    Varro, L. L. 8, § 79 Müll., said expressly that this form was not in use, but avicella),

    App. M. p. 656 Oud., and Apic. 4, 5; 5, 3; 8, 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aucella

  • 16 columen

    cŏlŭmen, ĭnis, n., and contr. cul-men, mis, n. [root cel- of excello; cf.: celsus, culmus, calamus, collis], lit., that which rises in height, is prominent, projects; hence the point, top, summit, ridge.
    I.
    Form columen, inis, n. (only this form is used by Plautus, v. Ritschl, prol. ad Plaut. p. 65).
    A.
    An elevated object, a pillar, column: ego vitam agam sub altis Phrygiae columinibus, the lofty buildings, or perh. the mountain-heights, Cat. 63, 71 Ellis ad loc.; and of a pillar of fire: Phoebi fax, tristis nunt a belli, quae magnum ad columen flammato ardore volabat, like an ascending column, Cic. poët. Div. 1, 11, 18.—
    B.
    The highest part or top of an object, e. g. of a wall; the coping; Fr. le chaperon, Cato, R. R. 15, 1; of a building, a ridge, a roof, a gable:

    in turribus et columinibus villae,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 7, 1:

    aulae,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 1000; id. Thyest. 54 Gron.; so of the Capitol, Cic. poët. Div. 1, 12, 20, and of the culmination of heavenly bodies: oritur Canicula cum Cancro, in columen venit cum Geminis, Nigid. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 1, 218. —
    2.
    Trop., the top, crown, summit, first, chief, the height, etc.:

    columen amicorum Antonii, Cotyla Varius,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 12, 26:

    pars haec vitae jam pridem pervenit ad columen,

    Plin. 15, 15, 17, § 57; Col. 3, 4, 3:

    audaciae,

    the crown of impudence, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 211.—
    G.
    An elevated object that supports, sustains something; in archit., the top of a gable-end, a gable pillar, a prop, Vitr. 4, 2, 1; 4, 7, 5.—Esp. freq.,
    2.
    Trop., a support, prop, stay:

    familiae,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 76, § 176:

    senati, praesidium popli,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 6; cf. id. Ep. 2, 2, 7:

    rei publicae,

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; Curt. 9, 6, 8:

    imperii Romani, Div 38, 51, 3: regni Ausonii,

    Sil. 15, 385:

    Asiae,

    Sen. Troad. 6:

    rerum mearum (Maecenas),

    Hor. C. 2, 17, 4:

    doctrinarum, artium (Varro et Nigidius),

    Gell. 19, 14, 1; Col. 3, 4, 3.—
    II.
    culmen, ĭnis, n. (in Cic. only once; cf. the foll. B.; not in Cat., Lucr., or Hor.; in gen. first freq. since the Aug. per.).
    * A.
    Any thing high; poet., of the stalk of a bean, Ov. F. 4, 734.—
    B.
    The top, summit, e. g. of a building, a roof, gable, cupola, etc.:

    columen in summo fastigio culminis,

    Vitr. 4, 2, 1; Ov. M. 1, 295; 1, 289; Verg. E. 1, 69:

    tecta domorum,

    id. A. 2, 446; 2, 458; 4, 186:

    culmina hominum, deorum,

    i. e. of houses and temples, id. ib. 4, 671; Liv. 27, 4, 11; 42, 3, 7.—Of the dome of heaven, * Cic. Arat. 26. —Of mountain summits:

    Alpium,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 2:

    Tarpeium,

    Suet. Dom. 23.—Of the crown of the head of men, Liv. 1, 34, 9.—Of the top of the prow of a ship, Luc. 3, 709.—
    2.
    Trop., the summit, acme, height, point of culmination (perh. not ante-Aug.):

    a summo culmine fortunae ad ultimum finem,

    Liv. 45, 9, 7:

    principium culmenque (columenque, Sillig) omnium rerum pretii margaritae tenent,

    Plin. 9, 35, 54, § 106:

    ruit alta a culmine Troja,

    Verg. A. 2, 290 (Hom. Il. 13, 772: kat akrês); cf. id. ib. 2, 603:

    de summo culmine lapsus,

    Luc. 8, 8:

    regale,

    Claud. VI. Cons. Hon. 64. pastorale, id. B. Get. 355:

    honoris,

    App. Flor. 3.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > columen

  • 17 consulo

    consŭlo, lŭi, ltum, 3, v. n. and a. [from con and root sal-; cf. consul and consilium].
    I.
    To consider, reflect, deliberate, take counsel, reflect upon, consult.
    A. 1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    Absol.: quid nunc? etiam consulis? do you still deliberate, i. e. hesitate? Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 171; cf. id. Truc. 2, 4, 75 Speng.: ne quid in consulendo adversi eveniat, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3, 14:

    consulto opus est,

    there is need of deliberation, Sall. C. 1, 6:

    dum tempus consulendi est,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 19:

    satis facere consulentibus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    ut omnium rerum vobis ad consulendum potestas esset,

    Liv. 8, 13, 18:

    ut tot uno tempore motibus animi turbati trepidarent magis quam consulerent,

    id. 21, 16, 2:

    praesidium consulenti curiae,

    Hor. C. 2, 1, 14 et saep.—
    (β).
    With in and acc.:

    consulere in longitudinem,

    to take thought for the future, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 10:

    in commune,

    for the common good, id. And. 3, 3, 16; Liv. 32, 21, 1; Tac. A. 12, 5; id. Agr. 12; Curt. 5, 9, 14;

    and in the same sense: in medium,

    Verg. A. 11, 335; Liv. 24, 22, 15; Tac. H. 2, 5; Luc. 5, 46:

    in unum,

    Tac. H. 1, 68; 4, 70:

    in publicum (opp. suscipere proprias simultates),

    Plin. Ep. 9, 13, 21; Tac. A. 1, 24.—
    (γ).
    With de and abl.:

    bello confecto de Rhodiis consultum est,

    Sall. C. 51, 5; so,

    de communibus negotiis,

    id. J. 105, 1:

    de salute suorum,

    Cic. Sull. 22, 63:

    omnibus de rebus,

    Tac. A. 4, 40.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    consulere vivi ac prospicere debemus, ut illorum (liberorum) solitudo munita sit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 153:

    tu ne qua manus se attollere nobis A tergo possit, custodi et consule longe,

    Verg. A. 9, 322.— Impers.:

    ut urbi... satis esset praesidii, consultum atque provisum est,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 26:

    ne deficerent, consulendum esse,

    Cels. 3, 4, 31.—
    2.
    Esp., consulere alicui or alicui rei, to take care for some person or thing, to be mindful of, take care of, look to, have regard for, to counsel or consult for:

    tuae rei bene consulere cupio,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 9:

    quid me fiat, parvi pendis, dum illi consulas,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 37:

    qui parti civium consulunt, partem neglegunt,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 85: consulere eorum commodis et utilitati salutique [p. 442] servire, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 9, § 27; so,

    famae, pudicitiae tuae,

    id. Phil. 2, 2, 3:

    dignitati meae,

    id. Fam. 11, 29, 1:

    suae vitae,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 12:

    receptui sibi,

    id. B. C. 3, 69:

    reipublicae juxta ac sibi,

    Sall. C. 37, 8; id. J. 58, 2; Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 1:

    timori magis quam religioni,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 67; cf.:

    magis irae quam famae,

    Sall. C. 51, 7:

    qui mi consultum optime velit esse,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 1: mi ires consultum male? to counsel evil or badly, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 36; so,

    male patriae,

    Nep. Epam. 10, 1; id. Phoc. 2, 2.—With si:

    melius consulet (sibi), si, etc.,

    Cels. 1, 3, 55.—
    B.
    Act.
    1.
    Consulere aliquem (or aliquid), to consult with one, to ask his opinion or advice, to ask counsel of, to consult, question (for the sake of advice).
    a.
    In gen.:

    cum te consuluissem, quid mihi faciendum esse censeres,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 29, 1:

    te, qui philosophum audis,

    id. ib. 9, 26, 1:

    Apellem tragoedum, uter, etc.,

    Suet. Calig. 33 al. —Of inanim. objects:

    speculum suum,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 136; cf.:

    spectatas undas, quid se deceat,

    id. M. 4, 312:

    nares, an olerent aera Corinthōn,

    Mart. 9, 60, 11:

    diem de gemmis, etc.,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 251 sq.:

    animum nostrum,

    Quint. 4, 2, 52:

    aures meas,

    id. 9, 4, 93:

    suas vires,

    id. 10, 2, 18 al. —With two accs.:

    ibo et consulam hanc rem amicos, quid faciundum censeant,

    Plaut. Men. 4, 3, 26:

    nec te id consulo,

    Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2:

    consulere prudentiorem coepi aetates tabularum,

    Petr. 88.—Freq.,
    b.
    Esp. as t. t.
    (α).
    In the lang. of religion, to consult a deity, an oracle, omens, etc.:

    Apollinem de re,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40:

    deum consuluit auguriis, quae suscipienda essent,

    Liv. 1, 20, 7:

    deos hominum fibris,

    Tac. A. 14, 30 fin.:

    Phoebi oracula,

    Ov. M. 3, 9; Suet. Vesp. 5:

    Tiresiam conjectorem,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 76:

    haruspicem,

    Cic. Div. 2, 4, 11; Suet. Tib. 63; Cato, R. R. 5, 4:

    vates nunc extis, nunc per aves,

    Liv. 2, 42, 10:

    Cumaeam anum,

    Ov. F. 4, 158:

    avem primum visam augur,

    id. ib. 1, 180:

    spirantia exta,

    Verg. A. 4, 64; so,

    trepidantia exta,

    Ov. M. 15, 576:

    sacras sortes,

    id. ib. 11, 412:

    Etrusci haruspices male consulentes,

    Gell. 4, 5, 5.— Pass. impers.:

    si publice consuletur... sin privatim,

    Tac. G. 10. —With dependent question:

    senatus pontificum collegium consuli jussit, num omne id aurum in ludos consumi necessum esset,

    Liv. 39, 5, 9:

    consulti per ludibrium pontifices, an concepto necdum edito partu rite nuberet,

    Tac. A. 1, 10.—
    (β).
    In judic. lang., to ask advice of a lawyer, to consult, etc.:

    quam inanes domus eorum omnium, qui de jure civili consuli solent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46, § 120:

    consuli quidem te a Caesare scribis: sed ego tibi ab illo consuli mallem,

    id. Fam. 7, 11, 2:

    si jus consuleres, peritissimus,

    Liv. 39, 40, 6:

    munus hoc eorum qui consuluntur,

    i. e. who are skilled in the law, Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14; so id. Quint. 16, 53.—

    With dependent question: consulens eum, an seni jam testato suaderet ordinare suprema judicia,

    Quint. 6, 3, 92.—The formula usual in asking advice was, licet consulere? Cic. Mur. 13, 28; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 192.—
    (γ).
    In publicists' lang., to take counsel with the competent authorities, to consult:

    Quirites, utrum, etc.,

    Liv. 31, 7, 2; so,

    senatum,

    Sall. J. 28, 2:

    senatum de foedere,

    id. ib. 39, 2;

    62, 10: populum de ejus morte,

    Cic. Mil. 7, 16:

    plebem in omnia (tribuni),

    Liv. 6, 39, 2 al. —
    2.
    Aliquid.
    a.
    To take counsel or deliberate upon something, to consider:

    est consulere quiddam quod tecum volo,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 53; id. Pers. 5, 2, 63:

    rem delatam consulere ordine non licuit,

    Liv. 2, 28, 2; so,

    consulere et explorare rem,

    Cic. Att. 2, 16, 4:

    consulis rem nulli obscuram,

    Verg. A. 11, 344 al.:

    bis repulsi Galli quid agant consulunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 83.—
    b.
    To advise something, to give advice:

    tun' consulis quicquam?

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 1, 3, 22.— Absol.:

    ab re consulit blandiloquentulus,

    advises to his hurt, Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 17.
    II.
    Sometimes meton. (causa pro effectu).
    A.
    To take a resolution, resolve, conclude, determine.
    1.
    Neutr.; constr. absol. or with de aliquo or in aliquem:

    de nullis quam de vobis infestius aut inimicius consuluerunt,

    Liv. 28, 29, 8; so,

    de perfugis gravius quam de fugitivis,

    id. 30, 43, 13:

    in humiliores libidinose crudeliterque consulebatur,

    id. 3, 36, 7; so,

    crudeliter in deditos victosque,

    id. 8, 13, 15; cf. Tac. Agr. 16. —
    2.
    Act.:

    quid in concilio consuluistis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 6:

    animum ego inducam tamen, ut illud, quod tuam in rem bene conducat, consulam,

    id. Cist. 3, 4: ne quid gravius de salute tuā consulas, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 1:

    pessime istuc in te atque in illum consulis,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 28:

    quae reges irā inpulsi male consuluerint,

    Sall. C. 51, 4:

    nisi quod de uxore potuit honestius consuli,

    id. J. 95, 3.— Pass. impers.:

    aliter mihi de illis ac de me ipso consulendum est,

    Cic. Att. 7, 13, 3.—
    B.
    With the access. idea of judging, in the connection boni, optimi aliquid consulere, to excuse, take in good part, interpret favorably; be contented, pleased, or satisfied with:

    sit consul a consulendo vel a judicando: nam et hoc consulere veteres vocaverunt, unde adhuc remanet illud Rogat boni consulas, id est bonum judices,

    Quint. 1, 6, 32; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 41, 8 Müll.: nemo hoc rex ausus est facere, eane fieri bonis, bono genere gnatis boni consulitis? Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17:

    boni consulendum,

    Varr. L. L. 7, § 40 Müll.:

    tu haec quaeso consule missa boni,

    Ov. P. 3, 8, 24; cf. id. Tr. 4, 1, 106; so,

    nostrum laborem,

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 16; Plin. Ep. 7, 12, 3:

    hoc munus,

    Sen. Ben. 1, 1, 8; id. Prov. 2, 4; id. Ep. 9, 20; 17, 9; 88, 17:

    quaerebat argentum avaritia: boni consuluit interim invenisse minium,

    Plin. 33, prooem. 2, § 4;

    8, 16, 17, § 44: boni et optimi consulere,

    App. M. 8, p. 205, 28.— Hence,
    1.
    consultus, a, um, P. a.
    A.
    Well considered or weighed, deliberated upon, maturely pondered:

    bene consultum consilium surripitur saepissume, si minus, etc.,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 5 sq.:

    ipsi omnia, quorum negotium est, consulta ad nos et exquisita deferunt,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 250: neque eam usquam invenio, neque quo eam, neque quā quaeram consultum'st, I know neither, etc., Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 6:

    operā consultā,

    with mature reflection, Gell. 7 (6), 17, 3;

    in the same sense, consulto consilio,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 9, 6:

    consultius est huic poenalem quoque stipulationem subjungere,

    it is better. more advantageous, Dig. 2, 15, 15.—
    B.
    (Acc. to I. B. 1.) Knowing, skilful, experienced, practised, esp. in law; skilled or learned in the law:

    non ille magis juris consultus quam justitiae fuit,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 5, 10:

    juris atque eloquentiae,

    Liv. 10, 22, 7:

    consultissimus vir omnis divini atque humani juris,

    id. 1, 18, 1; cf. Gell. 1, 13, 10:

    insanientis sapientiae,

    Hor. C. 1, 34, 3:

    universae disciplinae,

    Col. 11, 1, 12.—Hence, subst.: consultus, i, m., a lawyer:

    tu consultus modo rusticus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 17; id. Ep 2, 2, 87; 2, 2, 159; Ov. A. A. 1, 83.— Esp. with juris, often written as one word, jūrisconsultus, i, m., v. h. v.— Absol.:

    ut natura non disciplinā consultus esse videatur,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 78:

    consultorum alterum disertissimum, disertorum alterum consultissimum fuisse,

    id. Brut. 40, 148:

    consultiores sibimet videntur Deo,

    Tert. adv. Marc. 2, 2.—
    2.
    Subst.: consultum, i, n.
    A.
    (Acc. to I. B. 1. b.) A consultation, inquiry of a deity:

    Sostratus (sacerdos) ubi laeta et congruentia exta magnisque consultis annuere deam videt, etc.,

    Tac. H. 2, 4.—
    B.
    (Acc. to II.) A decree, decision, resolution, plan; so first, Senatus consultum, or in one word, Senatusconsul-tum, a decree of the Senate (most freq. in all periods; the senatus consulta were not, like the plebiscita, the supreme law of the republic; but under the emperors, all new laws took this form, v. esp. Sandars, Introd., Just. Inst. § 15;

    1, 2, 5),

    Sall. C. 42, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66, § 149:

    senatus consultum est quod senatus jubet atque constituit, nam cum auctus esset populus Romanus... aequum visum est senatum vice populi consuli,

    Just. Inst. 1, 2, 5;

    for which, consulta Patrum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 41. —Of a decree of the Sicilian council:

    ne senatus consultum Siculi homines facere possent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65, § 146.—Also in other connections:

    facta et consulta fortium et sapientium,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 24, 62; cf.:

    facta consultaque Alexandri,

    Sall. H. 3, 7 Dietsch:

    consulta et decreta,

    id. J. 11, 5:

    consulta sese omnia cum illo integra habere,

    all objects of consultation, plans, id. ib. 108, 2; cf.:

    ab occultis cavendum hominibus consultisque,

    plans, Liv. 25, 16, 4; and:

    approbare collegam consulta,

    id. 10, 39, 10:

    dum consulta petis,

    responses, oracles, divinations, Verg. A. 6, 151:

    tua magna,

    decisions, id. ib. 11, 410; so,

    mollia,

    Tac. A. 1, 40:

    mala,

    id. ib. 6, 6:

    ex consulto factum,

    purposely, voluntarily, Auct. Her. 2, 30, 49.—Hence, adv., considerately, deliberately, designedly, on purpose.
    (α).
    Form consultō (class. in prose and poetry):

    utrum perturbatione aliquā animi an consulto et cogitata fiat injuria,

    Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; Plaut. Poen. 3, 5, 43; Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 85; id. Leg. 1, 8, 25; Caes. B. G. 5, 16; 5, 37; Sall. J. 60, 5; 64, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 19; Tac. A. 4, 16; Suet. Caes. 56; * Hor. S. 1, 10, 14 al. —
    (β).
    Form consultē (mostly ante- and post-class.):

    qui consulte, docte atque astute cavet,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 7, 14:

    caute atque consulte gesta,

    Liv. 22, 38, 11; Spart. Had. 2.— Comp., Liv. 22, 24, 3; Tac. H. 2, 24. — Sup., Capitol. Pert. 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > consulo

  • 18 fluo

    flŭo, xi, xum, 3 (archaic form of the sup.: FLUCTUM, acc. to Prisc. p. 817 P.; cf.: fluo, fluctum, Not. Tir. From this form are derived fluctio and fluctus. In Lucr. 6, 800, the correct read. is laveris, not flueris, v. Lachm. ad h. l.), v. n. [Gr. phlu-, phlusai, anaphluô, etc.; Lat. fleo, fletus; flumen, fluctus, etc.; orig. one root with fla-, to blow, q. v. and cf. Curt. Gr. Etym. p. 302], to flow (cf.: mano, labor, etc.).
    I.
    Lit.: per amoenam urbem leni fluit agmine flumen, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 4 (Ann. v. 177 ed. Vahl.); cf.:

    ut flumina in contrarias partes fluxerint,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 78:

    flumen quod inter eum et Domitii castra fluebat,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 37, 1; cf.

    also: aurea tum dicat per terras flumina vulgo Fluxisse,

    Lucr. 5, 911:

    fluvius Eurotas, qui propter Lacedaemonem fluit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    Helvetiorum inter fines et Allobrogum Rhodanus fluit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6, 2:

    Arar in utram partem fluat,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 1:

    ea, quae natura fluerent atque manarent, ut aqua,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 15, 39: fluens unda, water from a stream (opp.: putealis unda, spring-water), Col. 1, 5, 1:

    in foveam,

    Lucr. 2, 475; cf. id. 5, 271:

    fluxit in terram Remi cruor,

    Hor. Epod. 7, 19; cf. Luc. 6, 61:

    imber,

    Ov. P. 4, 4, 2:

    sanguis,

    id. M. 12, 312:

    fluit de corpore sudor,

    id. ib. 9, 173; cf.:

    sudor fluit undique rivis,

    Verg. A. 5, 200:

    aes rivis,

    id. ib. 8, 445:

    nudo sub pede musta fluunt,

    Ov. R. Am. 190:

    madidis fluit unda capillis,

    drips, id. M. 11, 656:

    cerebrum molle fluit,

    id. ib. 12, 435:

    fluunt lacrimae more perennis aquae,

    id. F. 2, 820:

    fluens nausea,

    Hor. Epod. 9, 35; cf.:

    alvus fluens,

    Cels. 2, 6:

    fluit ignibus aurum,

    becomes fluid, melts, Ov. M. 2, 251.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    Of bodies, to flow, overflow, run down, drip with any fluid.— With abl.:

    cum fluvius Atratus sanguine fluxit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 43, 98; Ov. M. 8, 400:

    cruore fluens,

    id. ib. 7, 343:

    sudore fluentia brachia,

    id. ib. 9, 57; cf.:

    fluunt sudore et lassitudine membra,

    Liv. 38, 17, 7; 7, 33, 14; cf. id. 10, 28, 4:

    pingui fluit unguine tellus,

    Val. Fl. 6, 360:

    vilisque rubenti Fluxit mulctra mero,

    overflows, Sil. 7, 190. —Without abl.:

    madidāque fluens in veste Menoetes,

    Verg. A. 5, 179:

    fluentes cerussataeque buccae,

    dripping with paint, Cic. Pis. 11, 25 (cf. Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266, 2. b. infra):

    Graeculae vites acinorum exiguitate minus fluunt,

    i. e. yield but little wine, Col. 3, 2, 24; 3, 2, 5; 12, 52, 1.—With acc. of kin. signif.:

    Oenotria vina fluens,

    Claud. Laud. Stil. 2, 264.—
    2.
    To move in the manner of fluids, to flow, stream, pour:

    inde alium (aëra) supra fluere,

    to flow, Lucr. 5, 514 and 522:

    unde fluens volvat varius se fluctus odorum,

    id. 4, 675 sq.; cf.:

    principio omnibus a rebus, quascumque videmus, Perpetuo fluere ac mitti spargique necesse est Corpora, quae feriant oculos visumque lacessant: Perpetuoque fluunt certis ab rebus odores, Frigus ut a fluviis, calor a sole, aestus ab undis Aequoris,

    id. 6, 922 sq.:

    aestus e lapide,

    id. 6, 1002:

    venti,

    id. 1, 280:

    fluit undique victor Mulciber,

    Sil. 17, 102:

    comae per levia colla fluentes,

    flowing, spreading, Prop. 2, 3, 13; cf.:

    blanditiaeque fluant per mea colla rosae,

    id. 4 (5), 6, 72:

    vestis fluens,

    flowing, loose, id. 3, 17 (4, 16), 32:

    tunicisque fluentibus,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 301:

    nodoque sinus collecta fluentes,

    Verg. A. 1, 320; cf.

    also: balteus nec strangulet nec fluat,

    Quint. 11, 3, 140:

    nec mersa est pelago, nec fluit ulla ratis,

    floats, is tossed about, Mart. 4, 66, 14:

    ramos compesce fluentes,

    floating around, spreading out, Verg. G. 2, 370:

    ad terram fluit devexo pondere cervix,

    droops, id. ib. 3, 524:

    omnisque relictis Turba fluit castris,

    pour forth, id. A. 12, 444:

    olli fluunt ad regia tecta,

    id. ib. 11, 236;

    so of a multitude or crowd of men: densatis ordinibus effuse fluentem in se aciem excepere,

    Curt. 6, 1, 6.—
    b.
    Pregn., of bodies, to pass away, fall away, to fall off or out, to vanish:

    excident gladii, fluent arma de manibus,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 3, 8:

    capilli fluunt,

    Cels. 6, 1; Plin. 27, 4, 5, § 17:

    sponte fluent (poma) matura suā,

    Ov. Am. 2, 14, 25:

    quasi longinquo fluere omnia cernimus aevo,

    Lucr. 2, 69; cf.:

    cuncta fluunt omnisque vagans formatur imago,

    Ov. M. 15, 178: dissolvuntur enim tum demum membra fluuntque, Lucr. 4, 919:

    surae fluxere,

    Luc. 9, 770:

    buccae fluentes,

    fallen in, lank, Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    In gen., to flow, spring, arise, come forth; to go, proceed:

    ex ejus (Nestoris) lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio,

    Cic. de Sen. 10, 31:

    carmen vena pauperiore fluit,

    Ov. Pont. 4, 2, 20:

    Calidii oratio ita libere fluebat, ut nusquam adhaeresceret,

    Cic. Brut. 79, 274:

    in Herodoto omnia leniter fluunt,

    Quint. 9, 4, 18; cf.

    also: grammatice pleno jam satis alveo fluit,

    id. 2, 1, 4:

    quae totis viribus fluit oratio,

    id. 9, 4, 7:

    oratio ferri debet ac fluere,

    id. 9, 4, 112.— Transf., of the writer himself:

    alter (Herodotus) sine ullis salebris quasi sedatus amnis fluit,

    Cic. Or. 12, 39; cf.:

    (Lucilius) cum flueret lutulentus,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 11; 1, 10, 50; 1, 7, 28:

    facetiis,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 12:

    multa ab ea (luna) manant et fluunt, quibus animantes alantur augescantque,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 19, 50:

    haec omnia ex eodem fonte fluxerunt,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 48:

    dicendi facultatem ex intimis sapientiae fontibus fluere,

    Quint. 12, 2, 6; 5, 10, 19; 5, 9, 14:

    omnia ex natura rerum hominumque fluere,

    id. 6, 2, 13:

    nomen ex Graeco fluxisse,

    id. 3, 4, 12:

    ab isto capite fluere necesse est omnem rationem bonorum et malorum,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 11, 34; Quint. 1, 1, 12:

    unde id quoque vitium fluit,

    id. 11, 3, 109; 7, 3, 33:

    Pythagorae doctrina cum longe lateque flueret,

    spread itself, Cic. Tusc. 4, 1, 2:

    multum fluxisse video de libris nostris variumque sermonem,

    id. N. D. 1, 3, 6:

    sic mihi tarda fluunt ingrataque tempora,

    flow, pass, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 23:

    in rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus,

    going, Cic. Off. 1, 26, 90: rebus supra votum fluentibus, Sall. H. Fragm. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 2, 169 (Hist. 1, 101 Dietsch); Tac. H. 3, 48; Just. 23, 3; cf.:

    rebus prospere fluentibus,

    succeeding, prospering, Tac. Or. 5; id. A. 15, 5: illius rationes quorsum fluant, proceed, Attic. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 10, 4; cf.:

    res fluit ad interregnum,

    Cic. Att. 4, 16, 11;

    cuncta in Mithridatem fluxere,

    Tac. A. 11, 9.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Of speech, etc., to flow uniformly, be monotonous:

    efficiendum est ne fluat oratio, ne vagetur, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 49, 190:

    quod species ipsa carminum docet, non impetu et instinctu nec ore uno fluens,

    Tac. A. 14, 16; cf. Cic. Brut. 79.—Pregn., to dissolve, vanish, perish:

    qua (voluptate) cum liquescimus fluimusque mollitia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 22, 52:

    fluens mollitiis,

    Vell. 1, 6, 2; 2, 88, 2:

    cetera nasci, occidere, fluere, labi, nec diutius esse uno et eodem statu,

    Cic. Or. 3, 10:

    fluit voluptas corporis et prima quaeque avolat,

    id. Fin. 2, 32, 106:

    fluentem procumbentemque rem publicam populi Romani restituere,

    Vell. 2, 16 fin. —Hence,
    1.
    fluens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Lax, relaxed, debauched, enervated, effeminate:

    inde soluti ac fluentes non accipiunt e scholis mala ista, sed in scholas afferunt,

    Quint. 1, 2, 8:

    Campani fluentes luxu,

    Liv. 7, 29, 5:

    incessu ipso ultra muliebrem mollitiem fluentes,

    Sen. Tranq. 15:

    fluentibus membris, incessu femineo,

    Aug. Civ. D. 7, 26.—
    B.
    Of speech,
    1.
    Flowing, fluent:

    sed in his tracta quaedam et fluens expetitur, non haec contorta et acris oratio,

    Cic. Or. 20, 66:

    lenis et fluens contextus,

    Quint. 9, 4, 127.—
    2.
    Lax, unrestrained:

    ne immoderata aut angusta aut dissoluta aut fluens sit oratio,

    Cic. Or. 58, 198:

    dissipata et inculta et fluens oratio,

    id. ib. 65, 220;

    and transf. of the speaker: in locis ac descriptionibus fusi ac fluentes sumus,

    Quint. 9, 4, 138.— Adv.: flŭenter, in a flowing, waving manner (very rare):

    res quaeque fluenter fertur,

    Lucr. 6, 935 (but not ib. 520, where the correct read. is cientur;

    v. Lachm.): capillo fluenter undante,

    App. M. 2, p. 122, 7. —
    2.
    fluxus, a, um, P. a. (mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose).
    A.
    Lit., flowing, fluid:

    elementa arida atque fluxa, App. de Mundo: sucus,

    Plin. 9, 38, 62, § 133:

    vas fluxum pertusumque,

    i. e. leaking, Lucr. 6, 20.—
    2.
    Transf., flowing, loose, slack:

    ipsa crine fluxo thyrsum quatiens,

    Tac. A. 11, 31:

    habena,

    Liv. 38, 29, 6:

    amictus,

    Luc. 2, 362; cf.:

    ut cingeretur fluxiore cinctura,

    Suet. Caes. 45 fin.:

    fluxa arma,

    hanging slack, loose, Tac. H. 2, 99.—
    (β).
    Pregn., frail, perishable, weak:

    corpora,

    Tac. H. 2, 32; cf.:

    spadone eviratior fluxo,

    Mart. 5, 41, 1:

    (murorum) aevo fluxa,

    Tac. H. 2, 22. —
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Lax, loose, dissolute, careless:

    animi molles et aetate fluxi dolis haud difficulter capiebantur,

    Sall. C. 14, 5: cf.:

    animi fluxioris esse,

    Suet. Tib. 52:

    duces noctu dieque fluxi,

    Tac. H. 3, 76:

    spectaculum non enerve nec fluxum,

    Plin. Pan. 33, 1:

    fluxa atque aperta securitas,

    Gell. 4, 20, 8.—
    2.
    Pregn., frail, weak, fleeting, transient, perishable:

    res nostrae ut in secundis fluxae, ut in adversis bonae,

    decayed, impaired, disordered, Cic. Att. 4, 2, 1: hujus belli fortuna, ut in secundis, fluxa;

    ut in adversis, bona,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 10, 2:

    res humanae fluxae et mobiles,

    Sall. J. 104, 2:

    divitiarum et formae gloria fluxa atque fragilis est,

    id. C. 1, 4; cf.:

    instabile et fluxum,

    Tac. A. 13, 19:

    fluxa auctoritas,

    id. H. 1, 21:

    cave fidem fluxam geras,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 79:

    fides,

    Sall. J. 111, 2; Liv. 40, 50, 5; cf.:

    fluxa et vana fides,

    unreliable, unstable, id. 28, 6, 11; Tac. H. 2, 75; 4, 23:

    studia inania et fluxa,

    id. A. 3, 50 fin.:

    fluxa senio mens,

    id. ib. 6, 38.— Adv.: fluxē, remissly, negligently (post-class. and rare):

    more vitae remissioris fluxius agens,

    Amm. 18, 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > fluo

  • 19 moltus

    multus (old form moltus), a, um; comp. plus; sup. plurimus (v. at the end of this art.), adj. [etym. dub.], much, great, many, of things corporeal and incorporeal.
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    In gen.: multi mortales, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17: multi suam rem [p. 1173] bene gessere: multi qui, etc., Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 sq. Vahl.):

    multi fortissimi viri,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3:

    rationes,

    id. de Or. 1, 51, 222. tam multis verbis scribere, at such length, id. Fam. 3, 8, 1:

    beneficia. Cato ap. Fest. s. v. ratissima, p. 286 Mull.: multi alii,

    Ter. And. 5, 4, 28.—When used with another adjective it is usually connected with it by a conjunction:

    multae et magnae contentiones,

    many great conlests, Cic. Phil. 2, 3, 7; 3, 10, 26:

    O multas et graves offensiones,

    id. Att. 11, 7, 3:

    multi et graves dolores,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 119:

    multi et varii timores,

    Liv. 3, 16, 3:

    multae bonaeque artes animi,

    Sall. J. 28, 5:

    multa et clara facinora,

    Tac. A. 12, 31.—But when the second adjective is used substantively the conjunction is omitted:

    multi improbi,

    Cic. Off. 2, 8, 28; 2, 19, 65:

    multi boni, docti, prudentes,

    id. Fl. 4, 8:

    multi nobiles,

    id. Planc. 20, 50:

    multa acerba habuit ille annus,

    id. Sest. 27, 58; 66, 139:

    multa infanda,

    Liv. 28, 12, 5:

    multa falsa,

    id. 35, 23, 2.—Also, when the second adjective forms with its substantive a single conception:

    multa secunda proelia,

    victories, Liv. 9, 42, 5; 35, 1, 3; 41, 17, 1:

    multa libera capita,

    freemen, id. 42, 41, 11:

    multae liberae civitates,

    republics, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 30, § 68:

    multos fortes viros,

    id. Cat. 3, 2, 7; id. Mur. 8, 17:

    multi clari viri,

    noblemen, id. Leg. 1, 5, 17:

    multi primarii viri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 149.—Similarly, et is omitted between multi and adjectives which form with their substantives familiar phrases:

    multi clarissimi viri,

    Cic. Phil. 11, 10, 24:

    multi amplissimi viri,

    id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Deiot. 14, 39; id. Fam. 10, 25, 2; id. Att. 10, 8, 7; 16, 16, 11; id. Verr. 1, 7, 19:

    multi honestissimi homines,

    id. Fam. 15, 15, 3:

    multi peritissimi homines,

    id. Caecin. 24, 69:

    multi summi homines,

    id. Arch. 12, 30; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    multi clarissimi et sapientissimi viri,

    id. Planc. 4, 11; id. Cael. 18, 43.—Et is also omitted when the substantive stands between the two adjectives:

    in veteribus patronis multis,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 2:

    multa praeterea bella gravia,

    id. Agr. 2, 33, 90:

    multis suppliciis justis,

    id. Cat. 1, 8, 20:

    multa majores nostri magna et gravia bella gesserunt,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    plurima signa pulcherrima,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 23, § 61.—When both adjectives follow the substantive, et is sometimes inserted:

    virtutes animi multae et magnae,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 64:

    causas ille multas et graves habuit,

    id. Clu. 30, 82;

    and is sometimes omitted, the emphasis then falling on the second adjective: utebatur hominibus improbis, multis,

    id. Cael. 5, 12:

    prodigia multa, foeda,

    Liv. 40, 29, 1.—With a partitive gen.:

    multi hominum,

    Plin. 16, 25, 40, § 96:

    multae silvestrium arborum,

    id. 16, 31, 56, § 128.—In neutr. plur.: multa, orum, many things, much:

    nimium multa,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 14, 3:

    nimis multa,

    id. Fin. 2, 18, 57:

    insulae non ita multae,

    not so many, not so very many, Plin. 5, 7, 7, § 41:

    parum multa scire,

    too few, Auct. Her. 1, 1, 1: bene multi, a good many, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 4:

    quam minime multa vestigia servitutis,

    as few as possible, Nep. Tim. 3, 3:

    minime multi remiges,

    exceedingly few, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 88:

    in multas pecunias alienissimorum hominum invasit,

    id. Phil. 2, 16, 41; id. Verr. 2, 5, 19, § 48:

    multae pecuniae variis ex causis a privatis detinentur,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 17, 3.—Sometimes multi stands for multi alii, many others:

    nam certe Pompeio, et a Curionibus patre et filio, et a multis exprobratum est,

    Suet. Caes. 50.—The sing. also is used poet. for the plur., many a:

    aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane Apros in obstantes plagas,

    with many dogs, Hor. Epod. 2, 31:

    multa prece prosequi,

    id. C. 4, 5, 33:

    multa victima,

    Verg. E. 1, 34: agna. Ov. F. 4, 772:

    avis,

    id. Am. 3, 5, 4:

    tabella,

    Tib. 1, 3, 28; so of persons: multus sua vulnera puppi Affixit moriens, many a one, for multi affixerunt, Luc. 3, 707.—In sing., to denote quantity, much, great, abundant: multum aurum et argentum. Plaut. Rud. 5, 2, 8; 22:

    exstructa mensa multa carne rancida,

    Cic. Pis. 27, 67:

    multo labore quaerere aliquid,

    with much labor, great exertion, Cic. Sull. 26, 73:

    cura,

    Sall. J. 7, 4:

    sol,

    much sun, Plin. 31, 7, 39, § 81: sermo, much conversalion, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 20, 1: stilus tuus multi sudoris est. Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 257: multo cibo et potione completi, id. Tusc. 5, 35, 100:

    multo sanguine ea Poenis victoria stetit,

    Liv. 23, 30, 2:

    multum sanguinem haurire,

    Curt. 4, 14, 17; 8, 14, 32:

    multam harenam mare evomit,

    id. 4, 6, 8:

    arbor,

    id. 7, 4, 26:

    silva,

    id. 8, 10, 14:

    multae vestis injectu opprimi,

    Tac. A. 6, 50:

    multa et lauta supellex,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 27, 66:

    aurum,

    Sall. J. 13, 6; Tac. A. 6, 33; Liv. 26, 11, 9; Curt. 3, 3, 12:

    libertas,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 5:

    multam salutem dicere alicui,

    to greet heartily, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 194:

    cum auro et argento multo,

    Sall. J. 13, 6.—Of time:

    Itaque multum diei processerat,

    a great part of the day, Sall. J. 51, 2:

    ad multum diem,

    till far in the day, Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1:

    multo adhuc die,

    when much of the day was still remaining, when it was still high day, Tac. H. 2, 44:

    multo denique die,

    when the day was far spent, Caes. B. G. 1, 22:

    multa nocte,

    late at night, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 2:

    multo mane,

    very early, id. Att. 5, 4, 1:

    multa opinio, for multorum,

    the general opinion, Gell. 3, 16, 1:

    velut multa pace,

    as in a general peace, as if there were peace everywhere, Tac. H. 4, 35:

    multus homo,

    one who gives himself up to the lusts of many, Cat. 112, 1.— multi, orum, m., the many, the common mass, the multitude: probis probatus potius, quam multis forem, Att. ap. Non. 519, 9:

    video ego te, mulier, more multarum utier,

    id. ib. —Esp.: unus e (or de) multis, one of the multitude, a man of no distinction:

    tenuis L. Virginius unusque e multis,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 20, 62:

    unus de multis esse,

    id. Off. 1, 30, 109: M. Calidius non fuit orator unus e multis;

    potius inter multos prope singularis fuit,

    id. Brut. 79, 274:

    numerarer in multis,

    among the herd of orators, id. ib. 97, 333:

    e multis una sit tibi,

    no better than others, Ov. R. Am. 682:

    multum est,

    it is of importance, Verg. G. 2, 272.—In neutr. absol.: ne multa, or ne multis, not to be prolix, in short:

    ne multa: perquiritur a coactoribus,

    Cic. Clu. 64, 181:

    ne multis: Diogenes emitur,

    id. ib. 16, 47:

    quid multis moror?

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 87.—Sometimes multa is used (particularly by the poets) adverbially, much, greatly, very:

    multa reluctari,

    Verg. G. 4, 301:

    gemens,

    id. ib. 3, 226; id. A. 5, 869:

    deos testatus,

    id. ib. 7, 593:

    invehi,

    Nep. Ep. 6, 1 (cf. nonnulla invehi, id. Tim. 5, 3):

    haud multa moratus,

    Verg. A. 3, 610.—Rarely in multum:

    in multum velociores,

    by far, Plin. 10, 36, 52, § 108.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Too much, overmuch, excessive:

    supellex modica, non multa,

    Nep. Att. 13, 5.—
    2.
    In speech, much-speaking, diffuse, prolix:

    qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 17:

    ne in re nota et pervulgata multus et insolens sim,

    id. ib. 2, 87, 358:

    nolo in stellarum ratione multus vobis videri,

    id. N. D. 2, 46, 119.—
    3.
    Frequent, frequently present:

    in operibus, in agmine, atque ad vigilias multus adesse,

    Sall. J. 96, 3:

    multus in eo proelio Caesar fuit,

    was in many places, Flor. 4, 2, 50:

    hen hercle hominem multum et odiosum mihi!

    troublesome, tedious, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 41:

    instare,

    Sall. J. 84, 1.—Hence, adv., in two forms.
    A.
    multum, much, very much, greatly, very, often, frequently, far, etc. (class.):

    salve multum, gnate mi,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 56:

    multum vale,

    farewell, id. Stich. 3, 2, 40:

    hominem ineptum multum et odiosum mihi,

    id. Men. 2, 2, 42:

    opinor, Cassium uti non ita multum sorore,

    not very much, Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 3:

    multum mecum municipales homines loquuntur,

    often, id. Att. 8, 13, 2:

    non multum ille quidem nec saepe dicebat,

    id. Brut. 34, 128:

    non multum confidere,

    not very much, not particularly, Caes. B. G. 3, 25:

    sunt in venationibus,

    often, frequently, id. ib. 4, 1:

    in eodem genere causarum multum erat T. Juventius,

    Cic. Brut. 48, 178:

    multum fuisse cum aliquo,

    to have had much intercourse with, id. Rep. 1, 10, 16:

    sum multum equidem cum Phaedro in Epicuri hortis,

    id. Fin. 5, 1, 3:

    gratia valere,

    to be in great favor, Nep. Con. 2, 1:

    res multum et saepe quaesita,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 33:

    longe omnes multumque superabit,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 115:

    multum et diu cogitans,

    id. Div. 2, 1, 1:

    diu multumque scriptitare,

    id. de Or. 1, 33, 152.—With an adj.:

    multum loquaces,

    very talkative, Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 5:

    mepti labores,

    very, Plin. Ep. 1, 9.— Poet. also with comp.:

    multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,

    much, far, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139:

    multum robustior illo,

    Juv. 19, 197:

    majora,

    Sil. 13, 708.— So with infra, post:

    haud multum infra viam,

    Liv. 5, 37, 7; Plin. 98, 7, § 20:

    haud multum post mortem ejus,

    Tac. A. 5, 3:

    ut multum,

    at most, Mart. 10, 11, 6; Vop. Aur. 46.—
    B.
    multō by much, much, a great deal, far, by far (class.).
    1.
    With comparatives and verbs which imply comparison:

    multo tanto carior,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 76:

    pauciores oratores,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 11:

    facilius atque expeditius iter,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6.—With verbs:

    virtutem omnibus rebus multo anteponentes,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 18, 49:

    multo ceteros anteibant,

    Tac. H. 4, 13:

    multo praestat beneficii, quam maleficii immemorem esse,

    Sall. J. 31, 28.—With malle:

    multo mavolo,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 88; id. Ps. 2, 4, 38:

    meo judicio multo stare malo, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 12, 21, 1.—
    2.
    With sup. (rare but class.), by far, by much:

    quae tibi mulier videtur multo sapientissuma,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 66; id. Am. 2, 2, 150: multo optimus hostis, by far, Lucil. ap. Non. 4, 413:

    simulacrum multo antiquissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49, § 109; 2, 4, 23, § 50; id. Cat. 4, 8, 17:

    maxima pars,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 18, 54; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 82:

    multo id bellum maximum fuit,

    Liv. 1, 11, 5:

    pars multo maxima,

    id. 30, 18, 14: multo molestissima, Cic. Div. in. Caecil. 11, 36:

    multo gratissima lux,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 39:

    foedissimum,

    Quint. 9, 4, 72:

    optimum,

    id. ib. 26:

    pulcherrimum,

    id. 1, 2, 24:

    utilissima,

    id. 2, 10, 1:

    maxime,

    Auct. Her. 4, 44, 58:

    multo maxime miserabile,

    Sall. C. 36, 4:

    multo maxime ingenio validus,

    id. J. 6, 1.—
    3.
    With particles denoting a difference, far, greatly, very:

    multo aliter,

    Ter. And. prol. 4:

    multo aliter ac sperabat,

    far otherwise than, Nep. Ham. 2:

    quod non multo secus fieret, si,

    not far otherwise, not very different, Cic. Fam. 4, 9, 1: multo infra Cyrenaicum. Plin. 19, 3, 15, § 40. —
    4.
    In specifications of time, before ante and post, long, much:

    non multo ante urbem captam,

    Cic. Div. 1, 45, 101:

    non multo ante,

    not long before, Nep. Eum. 3, 3:

    multo ante,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non multo post, quam, etc.,

    not long after, id. Att. 12, 49, 9:

    haud multo ante solis occasum,

    Liv. 5, 39, 2:

    multo ante noctem,

    id. 27, 42, 13.—
    5.
    Very rarely with the positive for multum:

    maligna multo,

    very, Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 83 Umpf.—
    6.
    Doubled, multo multoque, with comparatives:

    multo multoque longior,

    far, very much, Front. ad M. Caes. 2, 5:

    multo multoque operosius est,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 2: multo multoque magis, Front. Laud. Negl. § 3.
    II.
    Comp.: plūs, pluris; in the plur., plures, plura (in sing. anciently written plous; three times in the S. C. de Bacch. Here perh. belongs, in the plur., pleores and pleoris, for plures, in the Song of the Arval Brothers.—For the class. neuter of the plur., plura, the form pluria was used in ante-class. Latinity. Gellius cites M. Cato, Q. Claudius, Valerius Antias, L. AElius, P. Nigidius, and M. Varro as authorities for this form, Gell. 5, 21, 6; yet Plautus and Terence have only plura; and the earlier reading pluria, in Lucr. 1, 877; 2, 1135; 4, 1085, is now supplanted by the critically certain plura and plurima.—The gen. plur. plurium, however, has remained the predominant form, e. g. Quint. 7, 1, 1; 8, 4, 27; 9, 4, 66 et saep.) [from the root ple; Gr. pleon, pimplêmi; cf. plenus, plera, compleo, etc.; also locu-ples, plebes, populus, etc.], more.
    A.
    In the sing. (used both substantively and adverbially): LIBRAS FARRIS ENDO DIES DATO. SI VOLET PLVS DATO, Fragm. XII. Tab. in Gell. 20, 1, 45: SI PLVS MINVSVE SECVERVNT, SE FRAVDE ESTO, ib.;

    so (perh. in imitation of this legal phrase): ebeu, cur ego plus minusve feci quam aequom fuit!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 3, 18; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 21:

    ne plus minusve loqueretur,

    Suet. Aug. 84; cf. Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 27; and in the signif. of circiter, about: septingenti sunt paulo plus aut minus anni... postquam, etc., Enn. ap. Varr. R. R. 3, 1, 2 (Ann. v. 493 Vahl.);

    so. non longius abesse plus minus octo milibus,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 20, 1 Oud.; cf.:

    speranti plures... venerunt plusve minusve duae,

    Mart. 8, 71, 4:

    aut ne quid faciam plus, quod post me minus fecisse satius sit,

    too much... too little, Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 4:

    tantum et plus etiam ipse mihi deberet,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 7:

    vos et decem numero, et, quod plus est, Romani estis,

    and what is more, Liv. 9, 24, 8:

    verbane plus an sententia valere debeat,

    Cic. Top. 25, 96: [p. 1174] cf.:

    apud me argumenta plus quam testes valent,

    id. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    valet enim salus plus quam libido,

    id. ib. 1, 40, 63.—
    (β).
    With a partitive gen.:

    vultis pecuniae plus habere,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 47, 88; cf.:

    nostri casus plus honoris habuerunt quam laboris,

    id. Rep. 1, 4, 7; so,

    plus virium,

    id. Leg. 1, 2, 6:

    plus hostium,

    Liv. 2, 42:

    plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 51:

    in hac causa eo plus auctoritatis habent, quia, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 16, 26; cf.:

    plus ingenii,

    id. ib. 1, 14, 22:

    Albano non plus animi erat quam fidei,

    as little courage as fidelity, Liv. 1, 27, 5.—
    (γ).
    With quam (some examples of which have already been given above):

    non plus quam semel,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61:

    confiteor eos... plus quam sicarios esse,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 31:

    ne plus reddat quam acceperit,

    id. Lael. 16, 58 et saep.:

    non plus quam in tres partis posse distribui putaverunt,

    into not more than, id. Inv. 1, 34, 57:

    plus quam decem dies abesse,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 31:

    nulla (navis) plus quam triginta remis agatur,

    with more than, Liv. 38, 38, 8.—
    (δ).
    Without quam:

    HOMINES PLOVS V. OINVORSEI VIREI ATQVE MVLIERES, S. C. de Bacch. 19 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): plus mille capti,

    Liv. 24, 44:

    plus milies audivi,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 32: plus semel, Varr. ap. Plin. 14, 14, 17, § 96:

    plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 46:

    ferre plus dimidiati mensis cibaria,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 16, 37:

    non plus mille quingentos aeris,

    id. Rep. 2, 22, 40:

    paulo plus ducentos passus a castris,

    Liv. 31, 34:

    cum plus annum aeger fuisset,

    id. 40, 2:

    parte plus dimidia rem auctam,

    id. 29, 25.—
    (ε).
    With a compar. or adverbial abl., or with an abl. of measure:

    VIREI PLOVS DVOBVS, S. C. de Bacch. 20 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): de paupertate tacentes Plus poscente ferent,

    more than the importunate, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 44:

    ex his alius alio plus habet virium,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 2, 6: cave putes hoc tempore plus me quemquam cruciari, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 15, A, 2:

    alterum certe non potest, ut plus una vera sit,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 2, 5; cf.:

    in columba plures videri colores, nec esse plus uno,

    id. Ac. 2, 25, 79: HOC PLVS NE FACITO, more than this, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23, 59:

    annos sexaginta natus es Aut plus eo,

    or more than that, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 11:

    plus aequo,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 58:

    plus paulo,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 8:

    paulo plus,

    Liv. 31, 34: multo plus, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A, 1:

    plus nimio,

    overmuch, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: quam molestum est uno digito plus habere, too much by a finger, i. e. a finger too much, Cic. N. D. 1, 35, 99:

    uno plus Etruscorum cecidisse in acie,

    one man more, Liv. 2, 7, 2.—
    2.
    In the gen. pretii, pluris, of more value, of a higher price, for more, higher, dearer:

    ut plus reddant musti et olei, et pretii pluris,

    of greater value, Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 4:

    ager multo pluris est,

    is worth much more, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; cf.:

    quo pluris sint nostra oliveta,

    id. Rep. 3, 9, 16:

    pluris emere,

    dearer, id. Fam. 7, 2, 1; so,

    vendere,

    id. Off. 3, 12, 51; id. Verr. 2, 3, 19, § 48; Hor. S. 2, 3, 300:

    aedificare,

    Col. 1, 4, 7:

    pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem,

    of more value, Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8:

    mea mihi conscientia pluris est, quam omnium sermo,

    Cic. Att. 12, 28, 2:

    facio pluris omnium hominem neminem,

    id. ib. 8, 2, 4:

    facere aliquem pluris,

    make more of one, esteem him more highly, id. Fam. 3, 4, 2:

    pluris habere,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 10:

    aestimare,

    id. Par. 6, 2, 48:

    ducere,

    id. Att. 7, 3, 5:

    putare,

    id. Off. 3, 4, 18 et saep.—
    3.
    Rarely, instead of the genitive, in the abl. pretii: plure vendunt, Lucil. ap. Charis. 2, p. 189 P.: plure altero tanto, quanto ejus fundus est, velim, Plaut. ib.: plure venit, Cic. ib.—
    4.
    Plus plusque, more and more: quem mehercule plus plusque in dies diligo. Cic. Att. 6, 2, 10.—
    * 5.
    Like magis, with an adj.:

    plus formosus, for formosior,

    Nemes. Ecl. 4, 72.—
    B.
    In the plur.
    1.
    Comparatively, more in number:

    omnes qui aere alieno premantur, quos plures esse intellego quam putaram,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 5; id. Rep. 2, 22, 40:

    nemini ego plura acerba esse credo ex amore homini umquam oblata quam mihi,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 1:

    ne plura insignia essent imperii in libero populo quam in regno fuissent,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 55:

    multo plura,

    many more things, Quint. 3, 6, 28.—
    2.
    In gen., of a great number, many: qui plus fore dicant in pluribus consilii quam in uno. Cic. Rep. 1, 35, 55: cf.: quid quaeso interest inter unum et plures, si justitia est in pluribus? id. ib. 1, 39, 61;

    1, 34, 52: non possunt una in civitate multi rem ac fortunas amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem trahant calamitatem,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    quod pluribus praesentibus eas res jactari nolebat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 18:

    plura castella Pompeius tentaverat,

    id. B. C. 3, 52:

    summus dolor plures dies manere non potest,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93:

    pluribus diebus, Quint. prooem. § 7: illic plurium rerum est congeries,

    id. 8, 4, 27:

    quae consuetudo sit, pluribus verbis docere,

    Cic. Clu. 41, 115:

    eum pluribus verbis rogat, ut, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64;

    without verba: quid ego plura dicam?

    id. de Or. 1, 5, 18:

    pluribus haec exsecutus sum,

    Phaedr. 3, 10, 59;

    also elliptically, quid plura? and, ne plura, like quid multa? and ne multa: hic sacra, hic genus, hic majorum multa vestigia. Quid plura? hanc vides villam, etc.,

    what need of many words? in short, Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    sed—ne plura—dicendum enim aliquando est—Pomponium Atticum sic amo, ut alterum fratrem,

    id. Fam. 13, 1, 5.—
    b.
    Esp.: plures.
    (α).
    The mass, the multitude, opp. pauciores, = hoi oligoi, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 13.—
    (β).
    Euphemistically, acc. to the Gr. hoi pleiones, the dead:

    quin prius Me ad plures penetravi?

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 14.—
    (γ).
    The greater number, the majority:

    plures nesciebant qua ex causa convenissent,

    Vulg. Act. 19, 32.
    III.
    Sup.: plūrĭmus (archaic form, plisima plurima, Paul. ex Fest. p. 204 and 205 Mull.: PLIOIRVME (I), Epit. of Scipio), a, um [from root ple; whence also plus, q. v., ploirumus for ploisumus; and thence the predominant form plurimus], most, very much, or many (as an adj. in good prose mostly in the plur., except the standing formula of greeting: salutem plurimam dicere alicui; v. infra):

    hujus sunt plurima simulacra,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 17:

    nos plurimis ignotissimi gentibus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17, 26:

    plurimae et maximae partes,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 8:

    plurimorum seculorum memoria,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 14:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt,

    id. ib. 1, 7, 12 et saep.—In sing.:

    me plurima praeda onustum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 4:

    sermo,

    Quint. 2, 2, 5:

    risus,

    id. 6, 3, 85:

    res,

    id. 6, 1, 51:

    exercitatio,

    id. 8 prooem. §

    28: mons,

    very large, Verg. A. 1, 419:

    cervix,

    id. G. 3, 52:

    Aetna,

    Ov. Ib. 600.—Of a greeting: impertit salutem plurimam, Lucil. ap. Non. 472. 16; and esp. freq.: salutem plurimam dicit (commonly abbrev. S. P. D.) at the beginning of letters; v. salus.— Poet.:

    medio cum plurimus orbe Sol erat,

    very powerful, oppressive, Ov. M. 14, 53: plurima qua silva est. thickest, id. ib. 14, 361:

    coma plurima,

    very thick, id. ib. 13, 844:

    sed plurima nantis in ore Alcyone conjux,

    mostly, chiefly, id. ib. 11, 562.—And collect.:

    plurimus in Junonis honorem Aptum dicet equis Argos,

    many a one, very many, Hor. C. 1, 7, 8; so,

    oleaster plurimus,

    Verg. G. 2, 183:

    qua plurima mittitur ales,

    Mart. 9, 56, 1:

    plurima lecta rosa est,

    Ov. F. 4, 441.— In neutr. absol. (substant. or adverb.):

    ut haberet quam plurimum,

    as much as possible, Cic. Rab. Post. 14, 39:

    caput autem est, quam plurimum scribere,

    id. de Or. 1, 33, 150:

    ut in quoque oratore plurimum esset,

    id. Rep. 1, 27, 123.— Adv.: plūrĭmum:

    et is valebat in suffragio plurimum, cujus plurimum intererat, esse in optimo statu civitatem,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 40:

    auspiciis plurimum obsecutus est Romulus,

    id. ib. 2, 9, 16:

    si vero populus plurimum potest,

    id. ib. 3, 14, 23; cf.:

    qui apud me dignitate plurimum possunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 1, 4:

    plurimum aliis praestare,

    id. Inv. 2, 1, 1:

    ut te plurimum diligam,

    id. Fam. 1, 7, 1; id. Tusc. 5, 27, 78:

    hoc ego utor uno omnium plurimum,

    id. Fam. 11, 16, 2:

    quantum (al. quanto) plurimum possunt,

    Quint. 11, 3, 120: plurimum quantum also signifies very much indeed, exceedingly (post-class.):

    plurimum quantum veritati nocuere,

    Min. Fel. Oct. 22:

    gratulor,

    id. ib. 40:

    (elleborum) ex aqua datur plurimum drachma,

    at the most, Plin. 25, 5, 22, § 54; 9, 36, 60, § 125; 30, 6, 16, § 48; so,

    cum plurimum,

    id. 2, 17, 15, § 78 (opp. to cum minimum); 18, 7, 10, § 60: nec tam numerosa differentia; tribus ut plurimum bonitatibus distat, for the most part, commonly, usually, = plerumque, Plin. 15, 3, 4, § 18.—
    (β).
    In neutr. with a partit. gen.: sententiarum et gravitatis plurimum, Cic. Inv. 1, 18, 25:

    artis,

    Quint. 10, 5, 3:

    auctoritatis et ponderis,

    id. 9, 4, 91:

    ut laboris sic utilitatis etiam longe plurimum,

    id. 10, 3, 1:

    virtutum,

    id. 12, 1, 20 plurimum quantum favoris partibus dabat fratermtas ducum, Flor. 4, 2, 74.—
    (γ).
    In the gen. pretii:

    plurimi: immo unice unum plurimi pendit,

    values very highly, esteems very much, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 29:

    quem unum Alexander plurimi fecerat,

    Nep. Eum. 2, 2:

    ut quisque quod plurimi est possidet,

    Cic. Par. 6, 2, 48.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > moltus

  • 20 multi

    multus (old form moltus), a, um; comp. plus; sup. plurimus (v. at the end of this art.), adj. [etym. dub.], much, great, many, of things corporeal and incorporeal.
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    In gen.: multi mortales, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17: multi suam rem [p. 1173] bene gessere: multi qui, etc., Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 sq. Vahl.):

    multi fortissimi viri,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3:

    rationes,

    id. de Or. 1, 51, 222. tam multis verbis scribere, at such length, id. Fam. 3, 8, 1:

    beneficia. Cato ap. Fest. s. v. ratissima, p. 286 Mull.: multi alii,

    Ter. And. 5, 4, 28.—When used with another adjective it is usually connected with it by a conjunction:

    multae et magnae contentiones,

    many great conlests, Cic. Phil. 2, 3, 7; 3, 10, 26:

    O multas et graves offensiones,

    id. Att. 11, 7, 3:

    multi et graves dolores,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 119:

    multi et varii timores,

    Liv. 3, 16, 3:

    multae bonaeque artes animi,

    Sall. J. 28, 5:

    multa et clara facinora,

    Tac. A. 12, 31.—But when the second adjective is used substantively the conjunction is omitted:

    multi improbi,

    Cic. Off. 2, 8, 28; 2, 19, 65:

    multi boni, docti, prudentes,

    id. Fl. 4, 8:

    multi nobiles,

    id. Planc. 20, 50:

    multa acerba habuit ille annus,

    id. Sest. 27, 58; 66, 139:

    multa infanda,

    Liv. 28, 12, 5:

    multa falsa,

    id. 35, 23, 2.—Also, when the second adjective forms with its substantive a single conception:

    multa secunda proelia,

    victories, Liv. 9, 42, 5; 35, 1, 3; 41, 17, 1:

    multa libera capita,

    freemen, id. 42, 41, 11:

    multae liberae civitates,

    republics, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 30, § 68:

    multos fortes viros,

    id. Cat. 3, 2, 7; id. Mur. 8, 17:

    multi clari viri,

    noblemen, id. Leg. 1, 5, 17:

    multi primarii viri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 149.—Similarly, et is omitted between multi and adjectives which form with their substantives familiar phrases:

    multi clarissimi viri,

    Cic. Phil. 11, 10, 24:

    multi amplissimi viri,

    id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Deiot. 14, 39; id. Fam. 10, 25, 2; id. Att. 10, 8, 7; 16, 16, 11; id. Verr. 1, 7, 19:

    multi honestissimi homines,

    id. Fam. 15, 15, 3:

    multi peritissimi homines,

    id. Caecin. 24, 69:

    multi summi homines,

    id. Arch. 12, 30; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    multi clarissimi et sapientissimi viri,

    id. Planc. 4, 11; id. Cael. 18, 43.—Et is also omitted when the substantive stands between the two adjectives:

    in veteribus patronis multis,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 2:

    multa praeterea bella gravia,

    id. Agr. 2, 33, 90:

    multis suppliciis justis,

    id. Cat. 1, 8, 20:

    multa majores nostri magna et gravia bella gesserunt,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    plurima signa pulcherrima,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 23, § 61.—When both adjectives follow the substantive, et is sometimes inserted:

    virtutes animi multae et magnae,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 64:

    causas ille multas et graves habuit,

    id. Clu. 30, 82;

    and is sometimes omitted, the emphasis then falling on the second adjective: utebatur hominibus improbis, multis,

    id. Cael. 5, 12:

    prodigia multa, foeda,

    Liv. 40, 29, 1.—With a partitive gen.:

    multi hominum,

    Plin. 16, 25, 40, § 96:

    multae silvestrium arborum,

    id. 16, 31, 56, § 128.—In neutr. plur.: multa, orum, many things, much:

    nimium multa,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 14, 3:

    nimis multa,

    id. Fin. 2, 18, 57:

    insulae non ita multae,

    not so many, not so very many, Plin. 5, 7, 7, § 41:

    parum multa scire,

    too few, Auct. Her. 1, 1, 1: bene multi, a good many, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 4:

    quam minime multa vestigia servitutis,

    as few as possible, Nep. Tim. 3, 3:

    minime multi remiges,

    exceedingly few, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 88:

    in multas pecunias alienissimorum hominum invasit,

    id. Phil. 2, 16, 41; id. Verr. 2, 5, 19, § 48:

    multae pecuniae variis ex causis a privatis detinentur,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 17, 3.—Sometimes multi stands for multi alii, many others:

    nam certe Pompeio, et a Curionibus patre et filio, et a multis exprobratum est,

    Suet. Caes. 50.—The sing. also is used poet. for the plur., many a:

    aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane Apros in obstantes plagas,

    with many dogs, Hor. Epod. 2, 31:

    multa prece prosequi,

    id. C. 4, 5, 33:

    multa victima,

    Verg. E. 1, 34: agna. Ov. F. 4, 772:

    avis,

    id. Am. 3, 5, 4:

    tabella,

    Tib. 1, 3, 28; so of persons: multus sua vulnera puppi Affixit moriens, many a one, for multi affixerunt, Luc. 3, 707.—In sing., to denote quantity, much, great, abundant: multum aurum et argentum. Plaut. Rud. 5, 2, 8; 22:

    exstructa mensa multa carne rancida,

    Cic. Pis. 27, 67:

    multo labore quaerere aliquid,

    with much labor, great exertion, Cic. Sull. 26, 73:

    cura,

    Sall. J. 7, 4:

    sol,

    much sun, Plin. 31, 7, 39, § 81: sermo, much conversalion, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 20, 1: stilus tuus multi sudoris est. Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 257: multo cibo et potione completi, id. Tusc. 5, 35, 100:

    multo sanguine ea Poenis victoria stetit,

    Liv. 23, 30, 2:

    multum sanguinem haurire,

    Curt. 4, 14, 17; 8, 14, 32:

    multam harenam mare evomit,

    id. 4, 6, 8:

    arbor,

    id. 7, 4, 26:

    silva,

    id. 8, 10, 14:

    multae vestis injectu opprimi,

    Tac. A. 6, 50:

    multa et lauta supellex,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 27, 66:

    aurum,

    Sall. J. 13, 6; Tac. A. 6, 33; Liv. 26, 11, 9; Curt. 3, 3, 12:

    libertas,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 5:

    multam salutem dicere alicui,

    to greet heartily, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 194:

    cum auro et argento multo,

    Sall. J. 13, 6.—Of time:

    Itaque multum diei processerat,

    a great part of the day, Sall. J. 51, 2:

    ad multum diem,

    till far in the day, Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1:

    multo adhuc die,

    when much of the day was still remaining, when it was still high day, Tac. H. 2, 44:

    multo denique die,

    when the day was far spent, Caes. B. G. 1, 22:

    multa nocte,

    late at night, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 2:

    multo mane,

    very early, id. Att. 5, 4, 1:

    multa opinio, for multorum,

    the general opinion, Gell. 3, 16, 1:

    velut multa pace,

    as in a general peace, as if there were peace everywhere, Tac. H. 4, 35:

    multus homo,

    one who gives himself up to the lusts of many, Cat. 112, 1.— multi, orum, m., the many, the common mass, the multitude: probis probatus potius, quam multis forem, Att. ap. Non. 519, 9:

    video ego te, mulier, more multarum utier,

    id. ib. —Esp.: unus e (or de) multis, one of the multitude, a man of no distinction:

    tenuis L. Virginius unusque e multis,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 20, 62:

    unus de multis esse,

    id. Off. 1, 30, 109: M. Calidius non fuit orator unus e multis;

    potius inter multos prope singularis fuit,

    id. Brut. 79, 274:

    numerarer in multis,

    among the herd of orators, id. ib. 97, 333:

    e multis una sit tibi,

    no better than others, Ov. R. Am. 682:

    multum est,

    it is of importance, Verg. G. 2, 272.—In neutr. absol.: ne multa, or ne multis, not to be prolix, in short:

    ne multa: perquiritur a coactoribus,

    Cic. Clu. 64, 181:

    ne multis: Diogenes emitur,

    id. ib. 16, 47:

    quid multis moror?

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 87.—Sometimes multa is used (particularly by the poets) adverbially, much, greatly, very:

    multa reluctari,

    Verg. G. 4, 301:

    gemens,

    id. ib. 3, 226; id. A. 5, 869:

    deos testatus,

    id. ib. 7, 593:

    invehi,

    Nep. Ep. 6, 1 (cf. nonnulla invehi, id. Tim. 5, 3):

    haud multa moratus,

    Verg. A. 3, 610.—Rarely in multum:

    in multum velociores,

    by far, Plin. 10, 36, 52, § 108.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Too much, overmuch, excessive:

    supellex modica, non multa,

    Nep. Att. 13, 5.—
    2.
    In speech, much-speaking, diffuse, prolix:

    qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 17:

    ne in re nota et pervulgata multus et insolens sim,

    id. ib. 2, 87, 358:

    nolo in stellarum ratione multus vobis videri,

    id. N. D. 2, 46, 119.—
    3.
    Frequent, frequently present:

    in operibus, in agmine, atque ad vigilias multus adesse,

    Sall. J. 96, 3:

    multus in eo proelio Caesar fuit,

    was in many places, Flor. 4, 2, 50:

    hen hercle hominem multum et odiosum mihi!

    troublesome, tedious, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 41:

    instare,

    Sall. J. 84, 1.—Hence, adv., in two forms.
    A.
    multum, much, very much, greatly, very, often, frequently, far, etc. (class.):

    salve multum, gnate mi,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 56:

    multum vale,

    farewell, id. Stich. 3, 2, 40:

    hominem ineptum multum et odiosum mihi,

    id. Men. 2, 2, 42:

    opinor, Cassium uti non ita multum sorore,

    not very much, Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 3:

    multum mecum municipales homines loquuntur,

    often, id. Att. 8, 13, 2:

    non multum ille quidem nec saepe dicebat,

    id. Brut. 34, 128:

    non multum confidere,

    not very much, not particularly, Caes. B. G. 3, 25:

    sunt in venationibus,

    often, frequently, id. ib. 4, 1:

    in eodem genere causarum multum erat T. Juventius,

    Cic. Brut. 48, 178:

    multum fuisse cum aliquo,

    to have had much intercourse with, id. Rep. 1, 10, 16:

    sum multum equidem cum Phaedro in Epicuri hortis,

    id. Fin. 5, 1, 3:

    gratia valere,

    to be in great favor, Nep. Con. 2, 1:

    res multum et saepe quaesita,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 33:

    longe omnes multumque superabit,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 115:

    multum et diu cogitans,

    id. Div. 2, 1, 1:

    diu multumque scriptitare,

    id. de Or. 1, 33, 152.—With an adj.:

    multum loquaces,

    very talkative, Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 5:

    mepti labores,

    very, Plin. Ep. 1, 9.— Poet. also with comp.:

    multum improbiores sunt quam a primo credidi,

    much, far, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 139:

    multum robustior illo,

    Juv. 19, 197:

    majora,

    Sil. 13, 708.— So with infra, post:

    haud multum infra viam,

    Liv. 5, 37, 7; Plin. 98, 7, § 20:

    haud multum post mortem ejus,

    Tac. A. 5, 3:

    ut multum,

    at most, Mart. 10, 11, 6; Vop. Aur. 46.—
    B.
    multō by much, much, a great deal, far, by far (class.).
    1.
    With comparatives and verbs which imply comparison:

    multo tanto carior,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 76:

    pauciores oratores,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 11:

    facilius atque expeditius iter,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6.—With verbs:

    virtutem omnibus rebus multo anteponentes,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 18, 49:

    multo ceteros anteibant,

    Tac. H. 4, 13:

    multo praestat beneficii, quam maleficii immemorem esse,

    Sall. J. 31, 28.—With malle:

    multo mavolo,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 88; id. Ps. 2, 4, 38:

    meo judicio multo stare malo, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 12, 21, 1.—
    2.
    With sup. (rare but class.), by far, by much:

    quae tibi mulier videtur multo sapientissuma,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 66; id. Am. 2, 2, 150: multo optimus hostis, by far, Lucil. ap. Non. 4, 413:

    simulacrum multo antiquissimum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 49, § 109; 2, 4, 23, § 50; id. Cat. 4, 8, 17:

    maxima pars,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 18, 54; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 82:

    multo id bellum maximum fuit,

    Liv. 1, 11, 5:

    pars multo maxima,

    id. 30, 18, 14: multo molestissima, Cic. Div. in. Caecil. 11, 36:

    multo gratissima lux,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 39:

    foedissimum,

    Quint. 9, 4, 72:

    optimum,

    id. ib. 26:

    pulcherrimum,

    id. 1, 2, 24:

    utilissima,

    id. 2, 10, 1:

    maxime,

    Auct. Her. 4, 44, 58:

    multo maxime miserabile,

    Sall. C. 36, 4:

    multo maxime ingenio validus,

    id. J. 6, 1.—
    3.
    With particles denoting a difference, far, greatly, very:

    multo aliter,

    Ter. And. prol. 4:

    multo aliter ac sperabat,

    far otherwise than, Nep. Ham. 2:

    quod non multo secus fieret, si,

    not far otherwise, not very different, Cic. Fam. 4, 9, 1: multo infra Cyrenaicum. Plin. 19, 3, 15, § 40. —
    4.
    In specifications of time, before ante and post, long, much:

    non multo ante urbem captam,

    Cic. Div. 1, 45, 101:

    non multo ante,

    not long before, Nep. Eum. 3, 3:

    multo ante,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non multo post, quam, etc.,

    not long after, id. Att. 12, 49, 9:

    haud multo ante solis occasum,

    Liv. 5, 39, 2:

    multo ante noctem,

    id. 27, 42, 13.—
    5.
    Very rarely with the positive for multum:

    maligna multo,

    very, Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 83 Umpf.—
    6.
    Doubled, multo multoque, with comparatives:

    multo multoque longior,

    far, very much, Front. ad M. Caes. 2, 5:

    multo multoque operosius est,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 2: multo multoque magis, Front. Laud. Negl. § 3.
    II.
    Comp.: plūs, pluris; in the plur., plures, plura (in sing. anciently written plous; three times in the S. C. de Bacch. Here perh. belongs, in the plur., pleores and pleoris, for plures, in the Song of the Arval Brothers.—For the class. neuter of the plur., plura, the form pluria was used in ante-class. Latinity. Gellius cites M. Cato, Q. Claudius, Valerius Antias, L. AElius, P. Nigidius, and M. Varro as authorities for this form, Gell. 5, 21, 6; yet Plautus and Terence have only plura; and the earlier reading pluria, in Lucr. 1, 877; 2, 1135; 4, 1085, is now supplanted by the critically certain plura and plurima.—The gen. plur. plurium, however, has remained the predominant form, e. g. Quint. 7, 1, 1; 8, 4, 27; 9, 4, 66 et saep.) [from the root ple; Gr. pleon, pimplêmi; cf. plenus, plera, compleo, etc.; also locu-ples, plebes, populus, etc.], more.
    A.
    In the sing. (used both substantively and adverbially): LIBRAS FARRIS ENDO DIES DATO. SI VOLET PLVS DATO, Fragm. XII. Tab. in Gell. 20, 1, 45: SI PLVS MINVSVE SECVERVNT, SE FRAVDE ESTO, ib.;

    so (perh. in imitation of this legal phrase): ebeu, cur ego plus minusve feci quam aequom fuit!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 3, 18; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 21:

    ne plus minusve loqueretur,

    Suet. Aug. 84; cf. Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 27; and in the signif. of circiter, about: septingenti sunt paulo plus aut minus anni... postquam, etc., Enn. ap. Varr. R. R. 3, 1, 2 (Ann. v. 493 Vahl.);

    so. non longius abesse plus minus octo milibus,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 20, 1 Oud.; cf.:

    speranti plures... venerunt plusve minusve duae,

    Mart. 8, 71, 4:

    aut ne quid faciam plus, quod post me minus fecisse satius sit,

    too much... too little, Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 4:

    tantum et plus etiam ipse mihi deberet,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 7:

    vos et decem numero, et, quod plus est, Romani estis,

    and what is more, Liv. 9, 24, 8:

    verbane plus an sententia valere debeat,

    Cic. Top. 25, 96: [p. 1174] cf.:

    apud me argumenta plus quam testes valent,

    id. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    valet enim salus plus quam libido,

    id. ib. 1, 40, 63.—
    (β).
    With a partitive gen.:

    vultis pecuniae plus habere,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 47, 88; cf.:

    nostri casus plus honoris habuerunt quam laboris,

    id. Rep. 1, 4, 7; so,

    plus virium,

    id. Leg. 1, 2, 6:

    plus hostium,

    Liv. 2, 42:

    plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 51:

    in hac causa eo plus auctoritatis habent, quia, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 16, 26; cf.:

    plus ingenii,

    id. ib. 1, 14, 22:

    Albano non plus animi erat quam fidei,

    as little courage as fidelity, Liv. 1, 27, 5.—
    (γ).
    With quam (some examples of which have already been given above):

    non plus quam semel,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61:

    confiteor eos... plus quam sicarios esse,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 31:

    ne plus reddat quam acceperit,

    id. Lael. 16, 58 et saep.:

    non plus quam in tres partis posse distribui putaverunt,

    into not more than, id. Inv. 1, 34, 57:

    plus quam decem dies abesse,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 31:

    nulla (navis) plus quam triginta remis agatur,

    with more than, Liv. 38, 38, 8.—
    (δ).
    Without quam:

    HOMINES PLOVS V. OINVORSEI VIREI ATQVE MVLIERES, S. C. de Bacch. 19 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): plus mille capti,

    Liv. 24, 44:

    plus milies audivi,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 32: plus semel, Varr. ap. Plin. 14, 14, 17, § 96:

    plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 46:

    ferre plus dimidiati mensis cibaria,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 16, 37:

    non plus mille quingentos aeris,

    id. Rep. 2, 22, 40:

    paulo plus ducentos passus a castris,

    Liv. 31, 34:

    cum plus annum aeger fuisset,

    id. 40, 2:

    parte plus dimidia rem auctam,

    id. 29, 25.—
    (ε).
    With a compar. or adverbial abl., or with an abl. of measure:

    VIREI PLOVS DVOBVS, S. C. de Bacch. 20 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): de paupertate tacentes Plus poscente ferent,

    more than the importunate, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 44:

    ex his alius alio plus habet virium,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 2, 6: cave putes hoc tempore plus me quemquam cruciari, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 15, A, 2:

    alterum certe non potest, ut plus una vera sit,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 2, 5; cf.:

    in columba plures videri colores, nec esse plus uno,

    id. Ac. 2, 25, 79: HOC PLVS NE FACITO, more than this, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23, 59:

    annos sexaginta natus es Aut plus eo,

    or more than that, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 11:

    plus aequo,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 58:

    plus paulo,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 8:

    paulo plus,

    Liv. 31, 34: multo plus, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A, 1:

    plus nimio,

    overmuch, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: quam molestum est uno digito plus habere, too much by a finger, i. e. a finger too much, Cic. N. D. 1, 35, 99:

    uno plus Etruscorum cecidisse in acie,

    one man more, Liv. 2, 7, 2.—
    2.
    In the gen. pretii, pluris, of more value, of a higher price, for more, higher, dearer:

    ut plus reddant musti et olei, et pretii pluris,

    of greater value, Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 4:

    ager multo pluris est,

    is worth much more, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; cf.:

    quo pluris sint nostra oliveta,

    id. Rep. 3, 9, 16:

    pluris emere,

    dearer, id. Fam. 7, 2, 1; so,

    vendere,

    id. Off. 3, 12, 51; id. Verr. 2, 3, 19, § 48; Hor. S. 2, 3, 300:

    aedificare,

    Col. 1, 4, 7:

    pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem,

    of more value, Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8:

    mea mihi conscientia pluris est, quam omnium sermo,

    Cic. Att. 12, 28, 2:

    facio pluris omnium hominem neminem,

    id. ib. 8, 2, 4:

    facere aliquem pluris,

    make more of one, esteem him more highly, id. Fam. 3, 4, 2:

    pluris habere,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 10:

    aestimare,

    id. Par. 6, 2, 48:

    ducere,

    id. Att. 7, 3, 5:

    putare,

    id. Off. 3, 4, 18 et saep.—
    3.
    Rarely, instead of the genitive, in the abl. pretii: plure vendunt, Lucil. ap. Charis. 2, p. 189 P.: plure altero tanto, quanto ejus fundus est, velim, Plaut. ib.: plure venit, Cic. ib.—
    4.
    Plus plusque, more and more: quem mehercule plus plusque in dies diligo. Cic. Att. 6, 2, 10.—
    * 5.
    Like magis, with an adj.:

    plus formosus, for formosior,

    Nemes. Ecl. 4, 72.—
    B.
    In the plur.
    1.
    Comparatively, more in number:

    omnes qui aere alieno premantur, quos plures esse intellego quam putaram,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 5; id. Rep. 2, 22, 40:

    nemini ego plura acerba esse credo ex amore homini umquam oblata quam mihi,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 1:

    ne plura insignia essent imperii in libero populo quam in regno fuissent,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 55:

    multo plura,

    many more things, Quint. 3, 6, 28.—
    2.
    In gen., of a great number, many: qui plus fore dicant in pluribus consilii quam in uno. Cic. Rep. 1, 35, 55: cf.: quid quaeso interest inter unum et plures, si justitia est in pluribus? id. ib. 1, 39, 61;

    1, 34, 52: non possunt una in civitate multi rem ac fortunas amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem trahant calamitatem,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    quod pluribus praesentibus eas res jactari nolebat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 18:

    plura castella Pompeius tentaverat,

    id. B. C. 3, 52:

    summus dolor plures dies manere non potest,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93:

    pluribus diebus, Quint. prooem. § 7: illic plurium rerum est congeries,

    id. 8, 4, 27:

    quae consuetudo sit, pluribus verbis docere,

    Cic. Clu. 41, 115:

    eum pluribus verbis rogat, ut, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64;

    without verba: quid ego plura dicam?

    id. de Or. 1, 5, 18:

    pluribus haec exsecutus sum,

    Phaedr. 3, 10, 59;

    also elliptically, quid plura? and, ne plura, like quid multa? and ne multa: hic sacra, hic genus, hic majorum multa vestigia. Quid plura? hanc vides villam, etc.,

    what need of many words? in short, Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    sed—ne plura—dicendum enim aliquando est—Pomponium Atticum sic amo, ut alterum fratrem,

    id. Fam. 13, 1, 5.—
    b.
    Esp.: plures.
    (α).
    The mass, the multitude, opp. pauciores, = hoi oligoi, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 13.—
    (β).
    Euphemistically, acc. to the Gr. hoi pleiones, the dead:

    quin prius Me ad plures penetravi?

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 14.—
    (γ).
    The greater number, the majority:

    plures nesciebant qua ex causa convenissent,

    Vulg. Act. 19, 32.
    III.
    Sup.: plūrĭmus (archaic form, plisima plurima, Paul. ex Fest. p. 204 and 205 Mull.: PLIOIRVME (I), Epit. of Scipio), a, um [from root ple; whence also plus, q. v., ploirumus for ploisumus; and thence the predominant form plurimus], most, very much, or many (as an adj. in good prose mostly in the plur., except the standing formula of greeting: salutem plurimam dicere alicui; v. infra):

    hujus sunt plurima simulacra,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 17:

    nos plurimis ignotissimi gentibus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17, 26:

    plurimae et maximae partes,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 8:

    plurimorum seculorum memoria,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 14:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt,

    id. ib. 1, 7, 12 et saep.—In sing.:

    me plurima praeda onustum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 4:

    sermo,

    Quint. 2, 2, 5:

    risus,

    id. 6, 3, 85:

    res,

    id. 6, 1, 51:

    exercitatio,

    id. 8 prooem. §

    28: mons,

    very large, Verg. A. 1, 419:

    cervix,

    id. G. 3, 52:

    Aetna,

    Ov. Ib. 600.—Of a greeting: impertit salutem plurimam, Lucil. ap. Non. 472. 16; and esp. freq.: salutem plurimam dicit (commonly abbrev. S. P. D.) at the beginning of letters; v. salus.— Poet.:

    medio cum plurimus orbe Sol erat,

    very powerful, oppressive, Ov. M. 14, 53: plurima qua silva est. thickest, id. ib. 14, 361:

    coma plurima,

    very thick, id. ib. 13, 844:

    sed plurima nantis in ore Alcyone conjux,

    mostly, chiefly, id. ib. 11, 562.—And collect.:

    plurimus in Junonis honorem Aptum dicet equis Argos,

    many a one, very many, Hor. C. 1, 7, 8; so,

    oleaster plurimus,

    Verg. G. 2, 183:

    qua plurima mittitur ales,

    Mart. 9, 56, 1:

    plurima lecta rosa est,

    Ov. F. 4, 441.— In neutr. absol. (substant. or adverb.):

    ut haberet quam plurimum,

    as much as possible, Cic. Rab. Post. 14, 39:

    caput autem est, quam plurimum scribere,

    id. de Or. 1, 33, 150:

    ut in quoque oratore plurimum esset,

    id. Rep. 1, 27, 123.— Adv.: plūrĭmum:

    et is valebat in suffragio plurimum, cujus plurimum intererat, esse in optimo statu civitatem,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 40:

    auspiciis plurimum obsecutus est Romulus,

    id. ib. 2, 9, 16:

    si vero populus plurimum potest,

    id. ib. 3, 14, 23; cf.:

    qui apud me dignitate plurimum possunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 1, 4:

    plurimum aliis praestare,

    id. Inv. 2, 1, 1:

    ut te plurimum diligam,

    id. Fam. 1, 7, 1; id. Tusc. 5, 27, 78:

    hoc ego utor uno omnium plurimum,

    id. Fam. 11, 16, 2:

    quantum (al. quanto) plurimum possunt,

    Quint. 11, 3, 120: plurimum quantum also signifies very much indeed, exceedingly (post-class.):

    plurimum quantum veritati nocuere,

    Min. Fel. Oct. 22:

    gratulor,

    id. ib. 40:

    (elleborum) ex aqua datur plurimum drachma,

    at the most, Plin. 25, 5, 22, § 54; 9, 36, 60, § 125; 30, 6, 16, § 48; so,

    cum plurimum,

    id. 2, 17, 15, § 78 (opp. to cum minimum); 18, 7, 10, § 60: nec tam numerosa differentia; tribus ut plurimum bonitatibus distat, for the most part, commonly, usually, = plerumque, Plin. 15, 3, 4, § 18.—
    (β).
    In neutr. with a partit. gen.: sententiarum et gravitatis plurimum, Cic. Inv. 1, 18, 25:

    artis,

    Quint. 10, 5, 3:

    auctoritatis et ponderis,

    id. 9, 4, 91:

    ut laboris sic utilitatis etiam longe plurimum,

    id. 10, 3, 1:

    virtutum,

    id. 12, 1, 20 plurimum quantum favoris partibus dabat fratermtas ducum, Flor. 4, 2, 74.—
    (γ).
    In the gen. pretii:

    plurimi: immo unice unum plurimi pendit,

    values very highly, esteems very much, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 29:

    quem unum Alexander plurimi fecerat,

    Nep. Eum. 2, 2:

    ut quisque quod plurimi est possidet,

    Cic. Par. 6, 2, 48.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > multi

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