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  • 1 accipiō

        accipiō cēpī, ceptus, ere    [ad+capio], to take without effort, receive, get, accept. — Of voluntary taking, to take, accept, take into possession, receive: obsides, Cs.: divitias, N.: aliquid a patre, inherit, N.: suspitio acceptae pecuniae ob rem iudicandam (of a bribe): pecuniam per Volcatium, by the hands of: alqm gremio, V.: milites urbe tectisve, L.: sucos ore aut volnere, O. — Fig.: oculis aut pectore noctem, V.—To admit, let in: armatos in arcem, L.: alqm in amicitiam: (parentes) in civitatem, to citizenship, L.— To take under protection: (virginem) accepi, acceptam servabo, T.: taedā accepta iugali, i. e. wedded, O.—To receive as a guest, entertain, welcome: Laurentes nymphae, accipite Aenean, V.: quam Delos orantem accepit, O.: (eum) in vestram fidem, into your confidence.— Ironically, to entertain, deal with, treat: indignis modis, T.: quo te modo accepissem, nisi iratus essem: eum male acceptum... coegit, etc. (of a defeated enemy), N.—In busines, to collect (money): a praetore pecuniam. — acceptus, P., received, collected: accepta pecunia. — Esp. in the phrase, referre acceptum (alqd), to credit, give credit for: amplius sestertium ducentiens acceptum hereditatibus rettuli, entered to the credit of inheritance, i. e. owe to bequests: alcui vitam suam referre acceptam, acknowledge that he owes his life, etc.: salutem imperi uni omnes acceptam relaturos, Cs. — In law: sponsionem acceptam facere, to discharge the bond, acknowledge payment of the sponsio.—Of involuntary taking, to receive, get, be the recipient of, take, submit to, suffer, bear: volnera tergo, V.: graviore volnere accepto, Cs.: cum semel accepit solem (leo), has felt the power of, H.: hunc metum, i. e. take this risk, T.: contumeliam, T. — Esp. of places, to admit, take in, receive, open to: Strophadum me litora primum Accipiunt, V.: nullae eum urbes accipiunt, nulla moenia, L.: illum unda accipit sinu vasto, V. — Fig., of perception and thought: quae accepi auribus, T.: mandata auribus: quem ipse accepi oculis animoque sensum, hunc, etc., the impression I received.—In gen., to take, hear, attend to, perceive, understand, learn: Accipe nunc Danaum insidias, listen to, V.: sicut ego accepi, as I have heard, S.: ut accepi a senibus: accipite... veterem orationem Archytae: quae postea acciderant, Cs.: reliquos ne famā quidem acceperunt, have not heard of them, Cs.: si te aequo animo ferre accipiet, T.: hoc sic fieri solere accepimus: ex parente ita accepi, munditias mulieribus convenire, S.: ut celeriter acciperet quae tradebantur, understood, N.— Absol: non recte accipis, T.: volenti animo de ambobus acceperant, had eagerly welcomed news of both, S.—In partic., of a word or pledge, take: accipe daque fidem, i. e. exchange solemn assurances, V.—Praegn., to take, interpret, explain: ad contumeliam omnia, to regard as an insult, T.: his in maius acceptis, being exaggerated, L.: hoc in bonam partem, take kindly: alqd durius: facinus severe accipere, with displeasure: aliter tuom amorem atque est, T.: aequo animo, S. — Accipere aliquid in omen, to regard a thing as an omen, accept the omen: id a plerisque in omen magni terroris acceptum, L.; but accipere omen, to receive as a ( favorable) omen, L.—With ellips. of omen: Accipio, adgnoscoque deos, I accept ( the omen) and, etc., V.—To accept, be satisfied with, approve: dos, Pamphile, est decem talenta. Pam. Accipio, T.: ‘equi te esse feri similem, dico.’ Ridemus et ipse Messius, ‘accipio,’ I allow it, exactly so, H.: ab hoste armato condicionem, Cs.— To take upon one, undertake, assume, undergo: bellum, quod novus imperator noster accipiat, in which... succeeds to the command: causam: eos (magistratūs): iudicium (of the defendant), stand the trial: iudicium accipere pro Quinctio, i. e. agree for Q. to stand trial.
    * * *
    accipere, accepi, acceptus V TRANS
    take, grasp, receive, accept, undertake; admit, let in, hear, learn; obey

    Latin-English dictionary > accipiō

  • 2 accepte

    ac-cĭpĭo, cēpi, ceptum, 3, v. a. ( fut. perf. accepso = accepero, Pac. ap. Non. 74, 31, or Rib. Trag. Rel. 118) [capio], to accept.
    I.
    In gen., to take a person or thing to one's self: leno ad se accipiet hominem et aurum, will take the man and his money to himself (into his house), Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 51.
    a.
    Of things received by the hand, to take, receive: cette manus vestras measque accipite, Enn. ap. Non. 85, 1 (Trag. v. 320 ed. Vahl.):

    ex tua accepi manu pateram,

    Plaut. Amph. 2, 2, 132; hence, trop. of the word given, the promise, with which a grasping of the hand was usually connected: accipe daque fidem, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 33 ed. Vahl.; so in the Gr. pista dounai kai labein); cf. Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 87; so Verg. A. 8, 150;

    in Ter. of a person to be protected: hanc (virginem) accepi, acceptam servabo,

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 62; cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 5, and Sall. C. 6, 5, —
    b.
    Of things received or taken by different parts of the body: accipite hoc onus in vestros collos, Cato ap. Non. 200, 23:

    gremio,

    Verg. A. 1, 685:

    oculis aut pectore noctem (i. e. somnum),

    id. ib. 4, 531.—
    c.
    In gen., very freq.,
    (α).
    as implying action, to take, to take possession of, to accept (Gr. dechesthai);
    (β).
    of something that falls to one's share, to get, to receive, to be the recipient of (Gr. lambanein).—
    (α).
    To take, accept:

    hanc epistulam accipe a me,

    take this letter from me, Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 52; 4, 2, 26; cf. id. Ep. 3, 4, 26:

    persuasit aliis, ut pecuniam accipere mallent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 82:

    condicionem pacis,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 15:

    armis obsidibusque acceptis Crassus profectus est,

    after he had taken into his possession the arms and hostages, id. ib. 3, 23:

    divitias,

    Nep. Epam. 4, 3:

    aliquid a patre,

    to inherit, id. Timoth. 1, 1; id. Att. 1:

    accipe et haec, manuum tibi quae monumenta mearum sint,

    Verg. A. 3, 486 al. —Hence to receive or entertain as guest:

    haec (tellus) fessos placidissima portu accipit,

    Verg. A. 3, 78:

    Laurentes nymphae, accipite Aenean,

    id. ib. 8, 71; 155; Ov. M. 8, 655 al.—Of admittance to political privileges:

    Nomentani et Pedani in civitatem accepti,

    Liv. 8, 14; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 11, 35:

    magnifice volo summos viros accipere,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 34:

    in loco festivo sumus festive accepti,

    id. ib. 5, 19; so id. Cist. 1, 1, 12; id. Men. 5, 2, 44; id. Pers. 1, 1, 32, etc.; Ter. Eun. 5, 9, 52; Lucr. 3, 907; Cic. Att. 16, 6; Ov. F. 2, 725 al.—Hence also ironically, to entertain, to treat, deal with:

    ego te miseris jam accipiam modis,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 3:

    hominem accipiam quibus dictis maeret,

    id. Men. 5, 1, 7:

    indignis acceptus modis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 12. Perh. also Lucil. ap. Non. 521, 1: adeo male me accipiunt decimae, treat or use me ill, deal harshly with me; and ib. 240, 8: sic, inquam, veteratorem illum vetulum lupum Hannibalem acceptum (Non. explains the latter in a very unusual manner, by deceptum).—
    (β).
    To get, to receive, to be the recipient of, Pac. ap. Non. 74, 31; Lucr. 1, 819, 909; 2, 762, 885, 1009:

    ictus,

    id. 4, 1048 (cf. Verg. A. 3, 243: vulnera accipiunt tergo): aridior nubes accipit ignem, takes or catches fire, Lucr. 6, 150; Caes. B. G. 1, 48:

    humanitatem iis tribuere debemus, a quibus accepimus,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 9:

    pecuniam ob rem judicandam,

    id. Verr. 1, 38:

    luna lumen solis accipit,

    id. de Or. 3, 45; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 17:

    praeclarum accepimus a majoribus morem,

    Cic. Off. 3, 10, 44: praecepta, Caes. B. G. 2, 6: accepi tuas litteras (in another sense than above), I have received your letter, it has reached me (allatae sunt ad me), Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 14; 2, 1, 1; 10, 1 al.:

    acceptā injuriā ignoscere quam persequi malebant,

    Sall. C. 9, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 33:

    calamitatem,

    ib. 1, 31:

    detrimenta,

    ib. 5, 22; cf. Cic. Mur. 21, 44 al. So often of dignities and offices:

    provinciam,

    id. Fam. 2, 10, 2:

    consulatum,

    Suet. Aug. 10:

    Galliam,

    id. Caes. 22 al.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    To take a thing by hearing, i. e.,
    1.
    To hear, to perceive, to observe, to learn (cf. opp. do = I give in words, i. e. I say): hoc simul accipe dictum, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204): quod ego inaudivi, accipite, Pac. ap. Non. 126, 22 (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 81): hoc etiam accipe quod dico, Lucil. ap. Non. 240, 1:

    carmen auribus,

    Lucr. 4, 983 (so id. 6, 164); 1, 270; cf. Verg. A. 2, 65:

    voces,

    Lucr. 4, 613 (so 6, 171):

    si te aequo animo ferre accipiet,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 23:

    quae gerantur, accipies ex Pollione,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 6; 1, 9, 4; Liv. 1, 7. —Hence very freq. in the histt., to get or receive intelligence of any thing, to learn:

    urbem Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Trojani,

    as I have learned, Sall. C. 6, 1, and so al.—
    2.
    To comprehend or understand any thing communicated:

    haud satis meo corde accepi querelas tuas,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 18:

    et si quis est, qui haec putet arte accipi posse,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 114:

    ut non solum celeriter acciperet, quae tradebantur, etc.,

    Nep. Att. 1, 3; so Quint. 1, 3, 3; 2, 9, 3 al.—
    3.
    With the accessory idea of judging, to take a thing thus or thus, to interpret or explain, usually constr. with ad or in c. acc.:

    quibus res sunt minus secundae... ad contumeliam omnia accipiunt magis,

    the more unfortunate one is, the more inclined is he to regard every thing as an insult, Ter. Ad. 4, 3, 15:

    in eam partem accipio,

    id. Eun. 5, 2, 37; cf. Cic. Fam. 10, 6; id. Att. 16, 6; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 2:

    non recte accipis,

    you put a wrong construction upon this, id. And. 2, 2, 30:

    quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo animo accipit,

    Sall. C. 3, 2.— Hence: accipere aliquid omen, or in omen, to regard a thing as a ( favorable) omen, to accept the omen (cf. dechesthai ton oiônon), Cic. Div. 1, 46, 103; 2, 40, 83; Liv. 1, 7, 11; 21, 63 fin.; Tac. H. 1, 62; id. A. 1, 28; 2, 13; Flor. 4, 12, 14 al.—Hence poet.:

    accipio agnoscoque deos,

    Verg. A. 12, 260; cf. Ov. M. 7, 620.—
    B.
    To take a thing upon one's self, to undertake (syn. suscipio):

    accipito hanc ad te litem,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 23: meā causā causam accipite, Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 47; cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 24; so id. Verr. 2, 3, 22; Quint. 20 al.—Hence also,
    C.
    To bear, endure, suffer any thing disagreeable or troublesome:

    hanccine ego ut contumeliam tam insignem ad me accipiam!

    Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 1:

    nil satis firmi video, quamobrem accipere hunc me expediat metum,

    id. Heaut. 2, 3, 96; 5, 1, 59; id. Eun. 4, 6, 24; id. Ad. 2, 1, 53; id. Ph. 5, 2, 4; Cic. Tusc. 5, 19, 56:

    calamitatem,

    id. Off. 3, 26:

    injuriam,

    id. ib. 1, 11 al.—
    D.
    To accept a thing, to be satisfied with, to approve: dos, Pamphile, est decem talenta; Pam.:

    Accipio,

    Ter. And. 5, 4, 48:

    accepit condicionem, dein quaestum accipit,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 52:

    visa ista... accipio iisque interdum etiam assentior, nec percipio tamen,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 66:

    preces suas acceptas ab dis immortalibus ominati,

    Liv. 42, 30, 8 Drak. Cf. Herz, Caes. B. G. 5, 1: “equi te esse feri similem, dico.” Ridemus et ipse Messius: “accipio.” I allow it, Exactly so, Hor. S. 1, 5, 58.—
    E.
    In mercant. lang., t. t., to receive or collect a sum:

    pro quo (frumento) cum a Varinio praetore pecuniam accepisset,

    Cic. Fl. 45; hence subst.: acceptum, i, n., the receipt, and in account-books the credit side:

    in acceptum referre alicui,

    to carry over to the credit side, to place to one's credit, Cic. Verr. 1, 36, 57; id. Rosc. Com. 2; id. Phil. 2, 16; id. Caec. 6, 17; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 234 (opp. datum or expensum).—Hence also trop., to owe or be indebted to one, in a good or a bad sense:

    ut esset nemo qui non mihi vitam suam, liberos, remp. referret acceptam,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5:

    omnia mala, quae postea vidimus, uni accepta referemus Antonio,

    ascribe, id. ib. 22; Caes. B. G. 8, 58; id. B. C, 3, 57: Acceptum [p. 18] refero versibus, esse nocens, Ov. Trist. 2, 10. —
    F.
    In the gram m., to take a word or phrase thus or thus, to explain a word in any manner:

    adversus interdum promiscue accipitur,

    Charis. p. 207 P. al.—(Syn. nanciscor and adipiscor: he to whom something is given, accipit; he who gets by a fortunate occurrence, nanciscitur; he who obtains it by exertion, adipiscitur. Sumimus ipsi: accipimus ab alio,” Vel. Long. p. 2243 P.—“Inter tenere, sumere et accipere hoc interest, quod tenemus quae sunt in nostra potestate: sumimus posita: accipimus data,” Isid. Diff. 1).—Hence, acceptus, a, um, P. a., welcome, agreeable, acceptable (syn. gratus. Acceptus is related to gratus, as the effect to the cause; he who is gratus, i. e. dear, is on that account acceptus, welcome, acceptable;

    hence the usual position: gratus atque acceptus).—First, of persons: essetne apud te is servus acceptissimus?

    Plaut. Cap. 3, 5, 56:

    plebi acceptus erat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13;

    acceptus erat in oculis,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5.—

    Of things: dis et hominibus est acceptum quod, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 5:

    quod vero approbaris. id gratum acceptumque habendum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 15, 45:

    munus eorum gratum acceptumque esse,

    Nep. Hann. 7, 3:

    quorum mihi dona accepta et grata habeo,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 56:

    rem populo Romano gratam acceptamque,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 50;

    tempore accepto exaudivi,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 6, 2.— Comp., Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 96; Cic. Rep. 6, 13; Tac. A. 6, 45 al.— Sup., see above.— Adv. accepte does not occur.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > accepte

  • 3 accipio

    ac-cĭpĭo, cēpi, ceptum, 3, v. a. ( fut. perf. accepso = accepero, Pac. ap. Non. 74, 31, or Rib. Trag. Rel. 118) [capio], to accept.
    I.
    In gen., to take a person or thing to one's self: leno ad se accipiet hominem et aurum, will take the man and his money to himself (into his house), Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 51.
    a.
    Of things received by the hand, to take, receive: cette manus vestras measque accipite, Enn. ap. Non. 85, 1 (Trag. v. 320 ed. Vahl.):

    ex tua accepi manu pateram,

    Plaut. Amph. 2, 2, 132; hence, trop. of the word given, the promise, with which a grasping of the hand was usually connected: accipe daque fidem, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 33 ed. Vahl.; so in the Gr. pista dounai kai labein); cf. Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 87; so Verg. A. 8, 150;

    in Ter. of a person to be protected: hanc (virginem) accepi, acceptam servabo,

    Ter. And. 1, 5, 62; cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 5, and Sall. C. 6, 5, —
    b.
    Of things received or taken by different parts of the body: accipite hoc onus in vestros collos, Cato ap. Non. 200, 23:

    gremio,

    Verg. A. 1, 685:

    oculis aut pectore noctem (i. e. somnum),

    id. ib. 4, 531.—
    c.
    In gen., very freq.,
    (α).
    as implying action, to take, to take possession of, to accept (Gr. dechesthai);
    (β).
    of something that falls to one's share, to get, to receive, to be the recipient of (Gr. lambanein).—
    (α).
    To take, accept:

    hanc epistulam accipe a me,

    take this letter from me, Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 52; 4, 2, 26; cf. id. Ep. 3, 4, 26:

    persuasit aliis, ut pecuniam accipere mallent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 82:

    condicionem pacis,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 15:

    armis obsidibusque acceptis Crassus profectus est,

    after he had taken into his possession the arms and hostages, id. ib. 3, 23:

    divitias,

    Nep. Epam. 4, 3:

    aliquid a patre,

    to inherit, id. Timoth. 1, 1; id. Att. 1:

    accipe et haec, manuum tibi quae monumenta mearum sint,

    Verg. A. 3, 486 al. —Hence to receive or entertain as guest:

    haec (tellus) fessos placidissima portu accipit,

    Verg. A. 3, 78:

    Laurentes nymphae, accipite Aenean,

    id. ib. 8, 71; 155; Ov. M. 8, 655 al.—Of admittance to political privileges:

    Nomentani et Pedani in civitatem accepti,

    Liv. 8, 14; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 11, 35:

    magnifice volo summos viros accipere,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 34:

    in loco festivo sumus festive accepti,

    id. ib. 5, 19; so id. Cist. 1, 1, 12; id. Men. 5, 2, 44; id. Pers. 1, 1, 32, etc.; Ter. Eun. 5, 9, 52; Lucr. 3, 907; Cic. Att. 16, 6; Ov. F. 2, 725 al.—Hence also ironically, to entertain, to treat, deal with:

    ego te miseris jam accipiam modis,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 3:

    hominem accipiam quibus dictis maeret,

    id. Men. 5, 1, 7:

    indignis acceptus modis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 12. Perh. also Lucil. ap. Non. 521, 1: adeo male me accipiunt decimae, treat or use me ill, deal harshly with me; and ib. 240, 8: sic, inquam, veteratorem illum vetulum lupum Hannibalem acceptum (Non. explains the latter in a very unusual manner, by deceptum).—
    (β).
    To get, to receive, to be the recipient of, Pac. ap. Non. 74, 31; Lucr. 1, 819, 909; 2, 762, 885, 1009:

    ictus,

    id. 4, 1048 (cf. Verg. A. 3, 243: vulnera accipiunt tergo): aridior nubes accipit ignem, takes or catches fire, Lucr. 6, 150; Caes. B. G. 1, 48:

    humanitatem iis tribuere debemus, a quibus accepimus,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 9:

    pecuniam ob rem judicandam,

    id. Verr. 1, 38:

    luna lumen solis accipit,

    id. de Or. 3, 45; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 17:

    praeclarum accepimus a majoribus morem,

    Cic. Off. 3, 10, 44: praecepta, Caes. B. G. 2, 6: accepi tuas litteras (in another sense than above), I have received your letter, it has reached me (allatae sunt ad me), Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 14; 2, 1, 1; 10, 1 al.:

    acceptā injuriā ignoscere quam persequi malebant,

    Sall. C. 9, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 33:

    calamitatem,

    ib. 1, 31:

    detrimenta,

    ib. 5, 22; cf. Cic. Mur. 21, 44 al. So often of dignities and offices:

    provinciam,

    id. Fam. 2, 10, 2:

    consulatum,

    Suet. Aug. 10:

    Galliam,

    id. Caes. 22 al.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    To take a thing by hearing, i. e.,
    1.
    To hear, to perceive, to observe, to learn (cf. opp. do = I give in words, i. e. I say): hoc simul accipe dictum, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204): quod ego inaudivi, accipite, Pac. ap. Non. 126, 22 (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 81): hoc etiam accipe quod dico, Lucil. ap. Non. 240, 1:

    carmen auribus,

    Lucr. 4, 983 (so id. 6, 164); 1, 270; cf. Verg. A. 2, 65:

    voces,

    Lucr. 4, 613 (so 6, 171):

    si te aequo animo ferre accipiet,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 23:

    quae gerantur, accipies ex Pollione,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 6; 1, 9, 4; Liv. 1, 7. —Hence very freq. in the histt., to get or receive intelligence of any thing, to learn:

    urbem Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Trojani,

    as I have learned, Sall. C. 6, 1, and so al.—
    2.
    To comprehend or understand any thing communicated:

    haud satis meo corde accepi querelas tuas,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 18:

    et si quis est, qui haec putet arte accipi posse,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 114:

    ut non solum celeriter acciperet, quae tradebantur, etc.,

    Nep. Att. 1, 3; so Quint. 1, 3, 3; 2, 9, 3 al.—
    3.
    With the accessory idea of judging, to take a thing thus or thus, to interpret or explain, usually constr. with ad or in c. acc.:

    quibus res sunt minus secundae... ad contumeliam omnia accipiunt magis,

    the more unfortunate one is, the more inclined is he to regard every thing as an insult, Ter. Ad. 4, 3, 15:

    in eam partem accipio,

    id. Eun. 5, 2, 37; cf. Cic. Fam. 10, 6; id. Att. 16, 6; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 2:

    non recte accipis,

    you put a wrong construction upon this, id. And. 2, 2, 30:

    quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo animo accipit,

    Sall. C. 3, 2.— Hence: accipere aliquid omen, or in omen, to regard a thing as a ( favorable) omen, to accept the omen (cf. dechesthai ton oiônon), Cic. Div. 1, 46, 103; 2, 40, 83; Liv. 1, 7, 11; 21, 63 fin.; Tac. H. 1, 62; id. A. 1, 28; 2, 13; Flor. 4, 12, 14 al.—Hence poet.:

    accipio agnoscoque deos,

    Verg. A. 12, 260; cf. Ov. M. 7, 620.—
    B.
    To take a thing upon one's self, to undertake (syn. suscipio):

    accipito hanc ad te litem,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 23: meā causā causam accipite, Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 47; cf. Cic. Fam. 7, 24; so id. Verr. 2, 3, 22; Quint. 20 al.—Hence also,
    C.
    To bear, endure, suffer any thing disagreeable or troublesome:

    hanccine ego ut contumeliam tam insignem ad me accipiam!

    Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 1:

    nil satis firmi video, quamobrem accipere hunc me expediat metum,

    id. Heaut. 2, 3, 96; 5, 1, 59; id. Eun. 4, 6, 24; id. Ad. 2, 1, 53; id. Ph. 5, 2, 4; Cic. Tusc. 5, 19, 56:

    calamitatem,

    id. Off. 3, 26:

    injuriam,

    id. ib. 1, 11 al.—
    D.
    To accept a thing, to be satisfied with, to approve: dos, Pamphile, est decem talenta; Pam.:

    Accipio,

    Ter. And. 5, 4, 48:

    accepit condicionem, dein quaestum accipit,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 52:

    visa ista... accipio iisque interdum etiam assentior, nec percipio tamen,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 20, 66:

    preces suas acceptas ab dis immortalibus ominati,

    Liv. 42, 30, 8 Drak. Cf. Herz, Caes. B. G. 5, 1: “equi te esse feri similem, dico.” Ridemus et ipse Messius: “accipio.” I allow it, Exactly so, Hor. S. 1, 5, 58.—
    E.
    In mercant. lang., t. t., to receive or collect a sum:

    pro quo (frumento) cum a Varinio praetore pecuniam accepisset,

    Cic. Fl. 45; hence subst.: acceptum, i, n., the receipt, and in account-books the credit side:

    in acceptum referre alicui,

    to carry over to the credit side, to place to one's credit, Cic. Verr. 1, 36, 57; id. Rosc. Com. 2; id. Phil. 2, 16; id. Caec. 6, 17; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 234 (opp. datum or expensum).—Hence also trop., to owe or be indebted to one, in a good or a bad sense:

    ut esset nemo qui non mihi vitam suam, liberos, remp. referret acceptam,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5:

    omnia mala, quae postea vidimus, uni accepta referemus Antonio,

    ascribe, id. ib. 22; Caes. B. G. 8, 58; id. B. C, 3, 57: Acceptum [p. 18] refero versibus, esse nocens, Ov. Trist. 2, 10. —
    F.
    In the gram m., to take a word or phrase thus or thus, to explain a word in any manner:

    adversus interdum promiscue accipitur,

    Charis. p. 207 P. al.—(Syn. nanciscor and adipiscor: he to whom something is given, accipit; he who gets by a fortunate occurrence, nanciscitur; he who obtains it by exertion, adipiscitur. Sumimus ipsi: accipimus ab alio,” Vel. Long. p. 2243 P.—“Inter tenere, sumere et accipere hoc interest, quod tenemus quae sunt in nostra potestate: sumimus posita: accipimus data,” Isid. Diff. 1).—Hence, acceptus, a, um, P. a., welcome, agreeable, acceptable (syn. gratus. Acceptus is related to gratus, as the effect to the cause; he who is gratus, i. e. dear, is on that account acceptus, welcome, acceptable;

    hence the usual position: gratus atque acceptus).—First, of persons: essetne apud te is servus acceptissimus?

    Plaut. Cap. 3, 5, 56:

    plebi acceptus erat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13;

    acceptus erat in oculis,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5.—

    Of things: dis et hominibus est acceptum quod, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 5:

    quod vero approbaris. id gratum acceptumque habendum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 15, 45:

    munus eorum gratum acceptumque esse,

    Nep. Hann. 7, 3:

    quorum mihi dona accepta et grata habeo,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 56:

    rem populo Romano gratam acceptamque,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 50;

    tempore accepto exaudivi,

    Vulg. 2 Cor. 6, 2.— Comp., Plaut. Pers. 4, 4, 96; Cic. Rep. 6, 13; Tac. A. 6, 45 al.— Sup., see above.— Adv. accepte does not occur.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > accipio

  • 4 aestimatio

    aestĭmātĭo, ōnis, f. [id.].
    I.
    The estimating a thing according to its extrinsic (money) value, valuation, appraisement:

    in censu habendo potestas omnis aestimationis habendae censori permittitur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53: aestimatio frumenti, the determination of the prœtor ( legate or quœstor), how much ready money one should pay, instead of the corn which he was to furnish, id. ib. 2, 3, 92:

    erat Athenis reo damnato, si fraus non capitalis esset, quasi poenae aestimatio,

    i. e. a commutation of corporal punishment for a fine, id. de Or. 1, 54, 232.—So esp. litis or litium aestimatio, in Roman civil law, an estimating, valuation of the contested matter; in criminal law also, the stating how much the convicted person had to pay, an assessment of damages, Cic. Clu. 41, 116; id. Verr. 2, 2, 18, § 45 (cf. lis aestimata, id. ib. 1, 13):

    lex de multarum aestimatione,

    Liv. 4, 30.— After the civil war, Cæsar, in order to enable debtors to cancel the demands against them, decreed an aestimatio possessionum, i. e. an estimation or appraisement of real estate, according to the value which it had before the war, and compelled the creditors to take this in payment instead of money; they were also obliged to deduct from the sum demanded any interest that had been paid; v. Caes. B. C. 3, 1; and Suet. Caes. 42. Hence, in aestimationem accipere, to accept or agree to such a valuation, or payment by real estate at a high price:

    a Marco Laberio C. Albinius praedia in aestimationem accepit,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 8.—And meton., with an allusion to the law of Cæsar: aestimationes [p. 62] = praedia, the real estate received in payment:

    quando aestimationes tuas vendere non potes,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 18. Since the creditor was a loser by this regulation, aestimationem accipere, to suffer injury or loss, id. ib. 16.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    A valuation, i. e. an estimation of a thing according to its intrinsic worth (while existimatio denotes the consideration, regard due to an object on account of its nominal value):

    bonum hoc est quidem plurimi aestimandum, sed ea aestimatio genere valet, non magnitudine,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 10, 34; so 3, 13, 44;

    3, 6: semper aestimationem arbitriumque ejus honoris penes senatum fuisse,

    Liv. 3, 63:

    semper infra aliorum aestimationes se metiens,

    Vell. 1, 127; 97; Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 67:

    aestimatione rectā severus, deterius interpretantibus tristior habebatur,

    Tac. H. 1, 14 al. —
    B.
    Poet., the worth or value of a thing:

    Quod me non movet aestimatione,

    Cat. 12, 12.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aestimatio

  • 5 Cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum

  • 6 cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cum

  • 7 Cum2

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum2

  • 8 reseco

    rĕ-sĕco, cŭi, ctum (resecavi, Symm. Ep. 10, 73:

    resecata,

    Eum. Grat. Act. ad Const. 11 fin.), 1, v. a., to cut loose, cut off (class.; esp. in the trop. signif.; cf. praecido).
    I.
    Lit.:

    ut linguae scalpello resectae liberarentur,

    Cic. Div. 2, 46, 96:

    os,

    id. Leg. 2, 22, 55:

    palpebras,

    id. Pis. 19, 43:

    enodes truncos,

    Verg. G. 2, 78:

    radices,

    Ov. M. 7, 264:

    longos ferro capillos,

    id. ib. 11, 182:

    de tergore partem Exiguam,

    id. ib. 8, 650:

    barba resecta,

    id. Tr. 4, 10, 58:

    alas,

    id. R. Am. 701:

    extremam partem ipsius unguis ad vivum,

    to the quick, Col. 6, 12, 3; 5, 9, 15:

    ungues,

    Val. Max. 3, 2, 15.—
    II.
    Trop., to cut off, curtail; to check, stop, restrain:

    quod aiunt, nimia resecari oportere, naturalia relinqui (shortly after, circumcidere and amputare),

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 26, 57; cf. id. ib. 4, 20, 46:

    quae resecanda erunt, non patiar ad perniciem civitatis manere,

    id. Cat. 2, 5, 11:

    libidinem,

    id. Att. 1, 18, 2:

    audacias et libidines,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 89, § 208:

    crimina quaedam cum primā barbā,

    Juv. 8, 166:

    spatio brevi Spem longam reseces,

    Hor. C. 1, 11, 7; cf.:

    haec (dicta),

    Plin. Ep. 2, 5, 4; Juv. 8, 166:

    neque id ad vivum reseco, ut illi qui haec subtilius disserunt,

    i. e. nor do I take this in too strict a sense, Cic. Lael. 5, 18 (v. supra, I.):

    de vivo aliquid erat resecandum,

    was to be cut from the quick, id. Verr. 2, 3, 50, § 118.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > reseco

  • 9 agō

        agō ēgī, āctus (old inf pass. agier), ere    [1 AG-], to put in motion, move, lead, drive, tend, conduct: bos Romam acta, L.: capellas, V.: pecus visere montīs, H.: ante se Thyum, N.: in exsilium, L.: Iris nubibus acta, borne on, V.: alqm in crucem, to crucify: Illum aget Fama, will carry, H.: quo hinc te agis? whither are you going? T.: se primus agebat, strode in front, V.: capellas potum, V.—Prov.: agas asellum, i. e. if you can't afford an ox, drive an ass. — Pass., to go, march: quo multitudo agebatur, L.: citius agi vellet agmen, march on quicker, L.: raptim agmine acto, L.— Esp., to drive away, carry off, steal, rob, plunder: pecoris praedas, S.; freq. with ferre, to rob, plunder: ferre agere plebem plebisque res, L.: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, L.—To chase, pursue, hunt: apros, V.: cervum, V. — Fig.: dum haec crimina agam ostiatim, track out from house to house: ceteros ruerem, agerem, T.: palantīs Troas, V.—To move, press, push forward, advance, bring up: multa undique portari atque agi, Cs.: vineis ad oppidum actis, pushed forward, Cs.: moles, Cu.: cloaca maxima sub terram agenda, to be carried under ground, L.: cuniculos ad aerarium, drive: per glaebas radicibus actis, O.: pluma in cutem radices egerit, struck deep root, O.: vera gloria radices agit: tellus Fissa agit rimas, opens in fissures, O.: in litus navīs, beached, L.: navem, to steer, H.: currūs, to drive, O.: per agmen limitem ferro, V.: vias, make way, V.: (sol) amicum Tempus agens, bringing the welcome hour (of sunset), H.—To throw out, stir up: spumas ore, V.: spumas in ore: se laetus ad auras Palmes agit, shoots up into the air, V.—Animam agere, to expire: nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus; cf. et gestum et animam ageres, i. e. exert yourself in gesturing and risk your life. — Fig., to lead, direct, guide: (poëmata), animum auditoris, H.— To move, impel, excite, urge, prompt, induce, rouse, drive: quae te Mens agit in facinus? O.: ad illa te, H.: eum praecipitem: viros spe praedae diversos agit, leads astray, S.: bonitas, quae nullis casibus agitur, N.: quemcunque inscitia veri Caecum agit, blinds, H.: quibus actus fatis, V.: seu te discus agit, occupies, H.: nos exquirere terras, V.: desertas quaerere terras agimur, V. — To pursue for harm, persecute, disturb, vex, attack, assail: reginam stimulis, V.: agentia verba Lycamben, H.: diris agam vos, H.: quam deus ultor agebat, O.—To pursue, carry on, think, reflect, deliberate, treat, represent, exhibit, exercise, practise, act, perform, deliver, pronounce: nihil, to be idle: omnia per nos, in person: agendi tempus, a time for action: industria in agendo: apud primos agebat, fought in the van, S.: quae continua bella agimus, are busy with, L.: (pes) natus rebus agendis, the metre appropriate to dramatic action, H.: Quid nunc agimus? what shall we do now? T.: quid agam, habeo, i. e. I know what to do, T.: quid agitur? how are you? T.: quid agis, dulcissime rerum? i. e. how are you? H.: vereor, quid agat Ino, what is to become of: quid agis? what do you mean? nihil agis, it is of no use, T.: nihil agis, dolor, quamvis, etc.: cupis abire, sed nihil agis, usque tenebo, you cannot succeed, H.: ubi blanditiis agitur nihil, O.—Esp., hoc or id agere, to give attention to, mind, heed: hocine agis, an non? are you attending? T.: id quod et agunt et moliuntur, their purpose and aim: qui id egerunt, ut gentem conlocarent, etc., aimed at this: sin autem id actum est, ut, etc., if it was their aim: summā vi agendum esse, ut, etc., L.: certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur, it was planned, N.: Hoc age, ne, etc., take care, H.: alias res agis, you are not listening, T.: aliud agens ac nihil eius modi cogitans, bent on other plans: animadverti eum alias res agere, paid no attention: vides, quam alias res agamus, are otherwise occupied: populum aliud nunc agere, i. e. are indifferent.—To perform, do, transact: ne quid negligenter: suum negotium, attend to his own business: neque satis constabat, quid agerent, what they were at, Cs.: agentibus divina humanaque consulibus, busy with auspices and affairs, L.: per litteras agere, quae cogitas, carry on, N.: (bellum) cum feminis, Cu.: conventum, to hold an assize: ad conventūs agendos, to preside at, Cs.: census actus eo anno, taken, L.— Of public transactions, to manage, transact, do, discuss, speak, deliberate: quae (res) inter eos agi coeptae, negotiations begun, Cs.: de condicionibus pacis, treat, L.: quorum de poenā agebatur, L.— Hence, agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people on a law or measure (cf. agere ad populum, to propose, bring before the people): cum populo de re p.—Of a speaker or writer, to treat, discuss, narrate: id quod agas, your subject: bella per quartum iam volumen, L.: haec dum agit, during this speech, H.—In law, to plead, prosecute, advocate: lege agito, go to law, T.: causam apud iudices: aliter causam agi, to be argued on other grounds: cum de bonis et de caede agatur, in a cause relating to, etc.: tamquam ex syngraphā agere cum populo, to litigate: ex sponso egit: agere lege in hereditatem, sue for: crimen, to press an accusation: partis lenitatis et misericordiae, to plead the cause of mercy: ii per quos agitur, the counsel: causas, i. e. to practise law: me agente, while I am counsel: ii apud quos agitur, the judges; hence, of a judge: rem agere, to hear: reos, to prosecute, L.: alqm furti, to accuse of theft. —Pass., to be in suit, be in question, be at stake: non capitis eius res agitur, sed pecuniae, T.: aguntur iniuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum.—To represent, act, perform, of an orator: cum dignitate.—Of an actor: fabulam, T.: partīs, to assume a part, T.: Ballionem, the character of: gestum agere in scena, appear as actors: canticum, L. — Fig.: lenem mitemque senatorem, act the part of, L.: noluit hodie agere Roscius: cum egerunt, when they have finished acting: triumphum, to triumph, O.: de classe populi R. triumphum, over, etc.: ex Volscis et ex Etruriā, over, etc., L.: noctu vigilias, keep watch: alta silentia, to be buried in silence, O.: arbitria victoriae, to exercise a conqueror's prerogative, Cu.: paenitentiam, to repent, Cu.: oblivia, to forget, O.: gratias (poet. grates) agere, to give thanks, thank: maximas tibi gratias: alcui gratias quod fecisset, etc., Cs.: grates parenti, O. — Of time, to spend, pass, use, live through: cum dis aevom: securum aevom, H.: dies festos, celebrate: ruri vitam, L.: otia, V.: quartum annum ago et octogesimum, in my eightyfourth year: ver magnus agebat orbis, was experiencing, V.— Pass: mensis agitur hic septimus, postquam, etc., going on seven months since, T.: bene acta vita, well spent: tunc principium anni agebatur, L.: melior pars acta (est) diei, is past, V. — Absol, to live, pass time, be: civitas laeta agere, rejoiced, S.—Meton., to treat, deal, confer, talk with: quae (patria) tecum sic agit, pleads: haec inter se dubiis de rebus, V.: Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut, etc., tried to persuade C., N.: agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit, L.—With bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with, treat or use well or ill: praeclare cum eis: facile est bene agere cum eis.— Pass impers., to go well or ill with one, be well or badly off: intelleget secum esse actum pessime: in quibus praeclare agitur, si, etc., who are well off, if, etc.—Poet.: Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur, will be treated, V.— Pass, to be at stake, be at hazard, be concerned, be in peril: quasi mea res minor agatur quam tua, T.: in quibus eorum caput agatur: ibi rem frumentariam agi cernentes, L.: si sua res ageretur, if his interests were involved: agitur pars tertia mundi, is at risk, O.: non agitur de vectigalibus, S.—Praegn., to finish, complete, only pass: actā re ad fidem pronius est, after it is done, L.: iucundi acti labores, past: ad impediendam rem actam, an accomplished fact, L.— Prov.: actum, aiunt, ne agas, i. e. don't waste your efforts, T.: acta agimus: Actum est, it is all over, all is lost, T.: iam de Servio actum rati, L.: acta haec res est, is lost, T.: tantā mobilitate sese Numidae agunt, behave, S.: ferocius agunt equites, L.: quod nullo studio agebant, because they were careless, Cs.: cum simulatione agi timoris iubet, Cs.—Imper. as interj, come now, well, up: age, da veniam filio, T.: en age, rumpe moras, V.: agite dum, L.: age porro, tu, cur, etc.? age vero, considerate, etc.: age, age, iam ducat: dabo, good, T.: age, sit ita factum.
    * * *
    agere, egi, actus V
    drive, urge, conduct; spend (time w/cum); thank (w/gratias); deliver (speech)

    Latin-English dictionary > agō

  • 10 sum

    1.
    sum, fui, esse (2d pers. es, but usu. es in Plaut and Ter; old forms, indic. pres. esum for sum, acc. to Varr. L. L. 9, § 100 Mull.: essis for es, Att. ap. Non. 200, 30, or Trag. Rel. p. 283 Rib.: simus for sumus, used by Augustus, acc. to Suet. Aug. 87; fut. escit for erit, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 25:

    esit, XII. Tab. ap. Fest. s. v. nec, p. 162 Mull.: escunt for erunt,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 24, 60, 3, 3, 9; Lucr. 1, 619; perf. fuvimus for fuimus, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 42, 168:

    FVVEIT, C. I. L. 1, 1051: fuit,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 23; id. Mil. 3, 1, 159:

    fuerim,

    id. ib. 4, 8, 54:

    fuerit,

    id. As. 4, 1, 37; subj. pres. siem, sies, siet, etc., very freq., esp. in Plaut.; e. g. siem, Am. prol. 57; Ter. And. 3, 4, 7:

    sies,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 43; Ter. And. 2, 5, 13:

    siet,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 58; Ter. And. 1, 4, 7; Lucr. 3, 101:

    sient,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 54; Ter. And. 2, 3, 16; cf. Cic. Or. 47, 157; also,

    fuam, fuas, etc., regarded by G. Curtius, de Aorist. Lat. Rel. in Studien zur Gr. u. Lat. Gram. 1, 431 sqq., as an aorist: fuam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 48; id. Mil. 2, 6, 112: fuas, Liv. Andron. ap. Non 111, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 71; 2, 3, 83; id. Pers. 1, 1, 52; id. Trin. 2, 1, 32: fuat, Pac. ap. Non. 111, 8; Carm. ap. Liv. 25, 12; Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 2; id. Aul. 2, 2, 56; id. Capt. 2, 2, 10 et saep.; Ter. Hec. 4, 3, 4; Lucr. 4, 639; Verg. A. 10, 108:

    fuant,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 110; id. Ep. 5, 1, 13; id. Ps. 4, 3, 12: fuvisset, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4, 4; part. pres. ens, used by Caesar, acc. to Prisc. p. 1140 P.; and by Sergius Flavius, acc. to Quint. 8, 3, 33; fut. inf. fore for futurum esse, very freq., and so always with partt.; cf. Madv. Gram. § 108; whence, subj. imperf. forem fores, etc., for essem; esp. in conditional sentences and in the histt., but very rare in Cic.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 597 sqq.), v. n. [root es; Sanscr. as-mi, and the Greek es-mi, whence eimi; perf. fui; root in Sanscr. bhu, to become; bhavas, condition; Gr. phuô, to beget; cf.: fetus, futuo, etc.], to be, as a verb substantive or a copula.
    I.
    As a verb substantive, to be.
    A.
    In gen.
    1.
    Asserting existence, to be, exist, live:

    definitionum duo sunt genera prima: unum earum rerum quae sunt: alterum earum quae intelleguntur. Esse ea dico, quae cerni tangive possunt, ut fundum, aedes, parietem, cetera. Non esse rursus ea dico, quae tangi demonstrarive non possunt, cerni tamen animo atque intellegi possunt, ut si usucapionem, si tutelam, etc.... definias,

    Cic. Top. 5, 26 sq.:

    si abest, nullus est,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 16:

    nunc illut est, quom me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim,

    id. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    ita paene nulla sibi fuit Phronesium ( = paene mortuus est),

    id. Truc. 1, 2, 95:

    omne quod eloquimur sic, ut id aut esse dicamus aut non esse,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 157:

    non statim, quod esse manifestum est, etiam quid sit apparet,

    Quint. 3, 6, 81: est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 23 Vahl.):

    flumen est Arar, quod, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 12:

    homo nequissimus omnium qui sunt, qui fuerunt, qui futuri sunt!

    Cic. Fam. 11, 21, 1; cf. id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    si quos inter societas aut est aut fuit aut futura est,

    id. Lael. 22, 83:

    nec enim, dum ero, angar ulla re, cum omni vacem culpa: et, si non ero, sensu omnino carebo,

    id. Fam. 6, 3, 4:

    si modo futuri sumus, erit mihi res opportuna,

    id. Att. 11, 4, 1:

    si quando erit civitas, erit profecto nobis locus: sin autem non erit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 16, 6:

    nolite arbitrari, me cum a vobis discessero, nusquam aut nullum fore,

    id. Sen. 22, 79:

    si erit ulla res publica... sin autem nulla erit,

    id. Fam. 2, 16, 5:

    fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium,

    Verg. A. 2, 325:

    sive erimus seu nos fata fuisse volunt,

    Tib. 3, 5, 32: per quinquennia decem fuimus, Prud. Cath. praef. 2.—
    2.
    Of events, to be, happen, occur, befall, take place:

    illa (solis defectio) quae fuit regnante Romulo,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    neque enim est periculum, ne, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 23, 37:

    amabo, quid tibi est?

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 24:

    quid se futurum esset,

    Liv. 33, 27. —
    3.
    Of location, to be present, to be at a place.
    (α).
    With adv., or other expressions of place:

    cum non liceret quemquam Romae esse, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 41, § 100:

    cum Athenis decem ipsos dies fuissem,

    id. Fam. 2, 8, 3; id. de Or. 2, 7, 27:

    cum Africanus constituisset in hortis esse,

    id. Rep. 1, 9, 14:

    cum essemus in castris,

    id. ib. 1, 15:

    nonne mavis sine periculo tuae domi esse quam cum periculo alienae?

    id. Fam. 4, 7, 4:

    vos istic commodissime sperem esse,

    id. ib. 14, 7, 2: te hic tutissime puto fore, Pompon. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 11, A.—
    (β).
    Of passages in a book or writing, with in and abl., to be, stand, be written, etc.:

    deinceps in lege est, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40:

    quid enim in illis (litteris) fuit praeter querelam temporum,

    id. Fam. 2, 16, 1.—
    (γ).
    Of personal relations, with ad or apud and acc., or cum and abl. of person:

    cum esset (Sulpicius Gallus) casu apud M. Marcellum,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21:

    eram cum Stoico Diodoto: qui cum habitavisset apud me mecumque vixisset, etc.,

    id. Brut. 90, 309:

    erat nemo, quicum essem libentius quam tecum et pauci, quibuscum essem aeque libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1:

    qui me admodum diligunt multumque mecum sunt,

    id. ib. 4, 13, 6; cf. with simul:

    Smyrnae cum simul essemus complures dies,

    id. Rep. 1, 8, 13.—Hence, esp.: esse cum aliquo (aliqua), to be with, i. e. live with, associate with, as husband or wife:

    cujus soror est cum P. Quintio,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    ea nocte mecum illa hospitis jussu fuit,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 101; Ov. A. A. 3, 664:

    cum hac (meretrice) si qui adulescens forte fuerit,

    Cic. Cael. 20, 49; Ov. Am. 2, 8, 27: tum ad me fuerunt, qui, etc., Varr. ap. Non. 133, 28:

    Curio fuit ad me sane diu,

    Cic. Att. 10, 4, 8:

    cum ad me bene mane Dionysius fuit,

    id. ib. 10, 16, 1; cf.:

    esse sub uno tecto atque ad eosdem Penates,

    Liv. 28, 18.—
    4.
    Of relations analogous to place, of dress, condition, position, office, etc., to be, live, be found, etc., with in and abl.:

    cum est in sagis civitas,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 32:

    in laxa toga,

    Tib. 2, 3, 78: sive erit in Tyriis, Tyrios laudabis amictus;

    Sive erit in Cois, Coa decere puta,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 297: hominem non modo in aere alieno nullo, sed in suis nummis multis esse et semper fuisse, Cic. Verr [p. 1798] 2, 4, 6, §

    11: in servitute,

    id. Clu. 7, 21:

    in illa opinione populari,

    id. ib. 51, 142:

    in magno nomine et gloria,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 31:

    in spe,

    id. Fam. 14, 3, 2:

    in tanta moestitia,

    id. Phil. 2, 15, 37:

    in odio,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 1:

    in probris, in laudibus,

    id. Off. 1, 18, 61:

    in officio,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 49:

    in injustitia,

    id. ib. 1, 14, 42:

    in vitio,

    id. ib. 1, 19, 62; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 19:

    ne in mora quom opus sit, sies,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 13:

    ne in mora illi sis,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 9:

    hic in noxia'st,

    id. Phorm. 2, 1, 36:

    quae (civitas) una in amore atque in deliciis fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 3:

    in ingenti periculo,

    Liv. 5, 47:

    in pace,

    id. 31, 29.—So with abl. without in, when qualified by an adj.:

    (statua) est et fuit tota Graecia summo propter ingenium honore et nomine,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 87:

    si quis asperitate ea est et inmanitate naturae,

    id. Lael. 23, 87:

    ne quo periculo proprio existimares esse,

    id. Fam. 4, 15, 2 (B. and K. ex conj.:

    in periculo): ego sum spe bona,

    id. ib. 12, 28, 3:

    res nunc difficili loco mihi videtur esse,

    id. ib. 12, 28, 3:

    incredibili sum sollicitudine de tua valetudine,

    id. ib. 16, 15, 1; esp. in phrase periculo alicujus esse, to be at the risk of any one:

    rem illam suo periculo esse,

    id. Att. 6, 1, 6:

    ut quae in naves inposuissent, ab hostium tempestatisque vi publico periculo essent,

    Liv. 23, 49, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    dare nummos meo periculo,

    Dig. 46, 1, 24:

    communi periculo,

    ib. 13, 6, 21, § 1 (cf. II. B. 1. b. infra).—
    5.
    To depend upon, rest with, with in and abl.:

    res erat non in opinione dubia,

    Cic. Dom. 5, 11:

    sed totum est in eo, si, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 5:

    omnem reliquam spem in impetu esse equitum,

    Liv. 10, 14, 12:

    quoniam totum in eo sit, ne contrectentur pocula,

    Col. 12, 4, 3. —
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Esse (est, sunt, etc.) often stands without a subject expressed, or with an indef. subj., as antecedent of a rel.-clause, whose verb may be in the indic. or subj.; the former only when the subject is conceived as particular or limited, and actually existing; the latter always when it is conceived as indefinite; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 562 sq.; Roby, Gram. § 1686 sq.; Madv. Gram. § 365; but the distinctions usually drawn by grammarians are not always observed by the best writers; and the subjunctive is always admissible, being the prevailing construction after sunt qui in class. prose, and nearly universal in postAug. writers: sunt, qui (quae), there are those ( people or things) who ( that), or simply some.
    a.
    With indic.
    (α).
    Without subject expressed:

    mulier mane: sunt Qui volunt te conventam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 37:

    sunt hic quos credo inter se dicere,

    id. Cas. prol. 67:

    sunt quae te volumus percontari,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 47:

    quid est, quod tu gestas tabellas?

    id. ib. 1, 1, 10:

    quid est, quod tu me nunc optuere?

    id. Most. 1, 1, 69; cf.:

    quid hoc est, quod foris concrepuit?

    id. ib. 5, 1, 15:

    tun' is es, Qui in me aerumnam obsevisti?

    id. Ep. 4, 1, 34:

    quid est, quod tuo animo aegre est?

    id. Cas. 2, 2, 9; id. Cist. 4, 1, 3:

    at ego est quod volo loqui,

    id. As. 1, 3, 79:

    est quod te volo secreto,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 30:

    sunt quos scio amicos esse, sunt quos suspicor,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 54:

    ita subitum'st, quod eum conventum volo,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 51:

    sunt quae ego ex te scitari volo,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 13:

    sed est quod suscenset tibi,

    Ter. And. 2, 6, 17:

    est quod me transire oportet,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 31:

    quid sit quapropter te jussi, etc.,

    id. ib. 5, 1, 7:

    sunt item quae appellantur alces,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 27 init.:

    (nationes) ex quibus sunt qui ovis vivere existimantur,

    id. ib. 4, 10 fin.:

    sunt qui putant posse te non decedere,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 25:

    sunt autem, qui putant non numquam complexione oportere supersederi,

    id. Inv. 1, 40, 72:

    quamquam sunt, qui propter utilitatem modo petendas putant amicitias,

    id. ib. 2, 55, 167:

    sunt autem quae praeterii,

    id. Att. 10, 4, 11:

    sunt, qui abducunt a malis ad bona, ut Epicurus. Sunt, qui satis putant ostendere, nihil inopinati accidisse... Sunt etiam qui haec omnia genera consolandi colligunt,

    id. Tusc. 3, 31, 76 Kuhn. N. cr.:

    sunt, qui, quod sentiunt, non audent dicere,

    id. Off. 1, 24, 84:

    Argiletum sunt qui scripserunt ab Argola, etc.,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 157 Mull.:

    sunt qui ita dicunt,

    Sall. C. 19, 4:

    sunt qui spiritum non recipiunt sed resorbent,

    Quint. 11, 3, 55:

    sunt, quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum Collegisse juvat,

    Hor. C. 1, 1, 3; cf. id. S. 1, 4, 24: sunt quibus unum opus est, etc., id. C. 1, 7, 5:

    sunt quibus in satira videor nimis acer,

    id. S. 2, 1, 1:

    sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 47.—
    (β).
    With a subject expressed by an indefinite word or clause:

    sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64:

    est genus hominum qui se primos omnium esse volunt,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17:

    multae sunt causae, quam ob rem cupio abducere,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 65 Fleck. (Ussing, cupiam):

    erat quidam eunuchus, quem mercatus fuerat,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 21:

    multaeque res sunt in quibus de suis commodis viri boni multa detrahunt,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 57:

    sunt ejus aliquot orationes, ex quibus lenitas ejus perspici potest,

    id. Brut. 48, 177:

    fuerunt alia genera philosophorum, qui se omnes Socraticos esse dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62:

    nonnulli sunt, qui aluerunt, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 12, 301:

    sunt quidam, qui molestas amicitias faciunt, cum ipsi se contemni putant,

    id. Lael. 20, 72:

    sunt vestrum, judices, aliquam multi, qui L. Pisonem cognoverunt,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 56:

    multae et pecudes et stirpes sunt, quae sine procuratione hominum salvae esse non possunt,

    id. N. D. 2, 52, 130:

    sunt bestiae quaedam, in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis, etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 14, 38:

    permulta sunt, quae dici possunt, quare intellegatur, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 33, 94; cf. id. Div. in Caecil. 7, 22; id. Off. 1, 14, 43; 1, 20, 69; id. Div. 1, 54, 123:

    fuere complures, qui ad Catilinam initio profecti sunt,

    Sall. C. 39, 5: haec sunt, quae clamores et admirationes in bonis oratoribus efficiunt. Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 152:

    alia fuere, quae illos magnos fecere,

    Sall. C. 52, 21.—
    b.
    With. subj.: sunt, qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem;

    sunt qui nullum censeant fieri discessum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    sunt qui in rebus contrariis parum sibi constent,

    id. Off. 1, 21, 71:

    de impudentia singulari sunt qui mirentur,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 2, § 6:

    est eisdem de rebus quod dici potest subtilius,

    id. Tusc. 3, 15, 32:

    praesto est qui neget rem ullam percipi esse sensibus,

    id. Ac. 2, 32, 101:

    quicquid est quod deceat, id, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sunt qui nolint tetigisse nisi illas, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 28:

    sunt qui Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras,

    id. Ep. 1, 1, 78:

    vestes Gaetulo murice tinctas Sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curet habere,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 182 et saep.—
    (β).
    With a more or less indefinite expression of the subject:

    sunt quidam e nostris, qui haec subtilius velint tradere et negent satis esse, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 31:

    rarum est quoddam genus eorum, qui se a corpore avocent,

    id. Div. 1, 49, 111:

    quotus igitur est quisque qui somniis pareat?

    id. ib. 2, 60, 125; id. de Or. 2, 50, 196:

    solus est hic, qui numquam rationes ad aerarium referat,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 38, § 98:

    quae quibusdam admirabilia videntur, permulti sunt, qui pro nihilo putent,

    id. Lael. 23, 86:

    erat nemo in quem ea suspicio conveniret,

    id. Rosc. Am. 23, 65, cf.:

    quis enim miles fuit, qui Brundisii illam non viderit? quis, qui nescierit, etc.,

    id. Phil. 2, 25, 61:

    sit aliquis, qui nihil mali habeat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae, quae officium omne pervertant,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5:

    est quaedam animi sanitas quae in insipientem quoque cadat,

    id. Tusc. 4, 13, 30:

    Syracusis lex est de religione, quae jubeat,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 51, § 126:

    unus est qui curet constantia magis quam consilio,

    id. Att. 1, 18, 7:

    si est una ex omnibus quae sese moveat,

    id. Rep. 6, 26, 28:

    multi sunt, qui non acerbum judicent vivere, sed supervacuum,

    Sen. Ep. 24, 26:

    erant sententiae quae castra Vari oppugnanda censerent,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 30:

    fuere cives qui seque remque publicam obstinatis animis perditum irent,

    Sall. C. 36, 4:

    sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem Possis,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 34:

    sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus,

    id. A. P. 347.—
    * c.
    Poet.: est, quibus (acc. to the Gr. estin hois):

    est quibus Eleae concurrit palma quadrigae: est quibus in celeres gloria nata pedes,

    Prop. 3, 9 (4, 8), 17.—
    2.
    With dat., to belong or pertain to; or, rendering the dative as the subject of the verb, to have ( possess, = the Fr. etre a used of property, and of permanent conditions or characteristics, not of temporary states, feelings, etc.; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 417 sq.): aliquid reperiret, fingeret fallacias, Unde esset adulescenti, amicae quod daret, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 23:

    nomen Mercurio'st mihi, Plaut Am. prol. 19: nisi jam tum esset honos elo quentiae,

    Cic. Brut. 10, 40:

    est igitur homini cum deo similitudo,

    id. Leg. 1, 8, 25:

    familiaritas, quae mihi cum eo est,

    id. Att. 8. 3, 2:

    privatus illis census erat brevis,

    Hor. C. 2, 15, 13; cf.:

    Trojae et huic loco nomen est,

    Liv. 1, 1, 5:

    Hecyra est huic nomen fabulae,

    Ter. Hec. prol. 1:

    cui saltationi Titius nomen esset,

    Cic. Brut. 62, 225:

    cui (fonti) nomen Arethusa est,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 118:

    Scipio, cui post Africano fuit cognomen,

    Liv. 25, 2, 6.—With ellips. of dat. ( poet.):

    nec rubor est emisse palam (sc. ei),

    nor is she ashamed, Ov. A. A. 3, 167:

    neque testimonii dictio est (sc. servo),

    has no right to be a witness, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 63.—
    b.
    Esse alicui cum aliquo, to have to do with, to be connected with a person:

    tecum nihil rei nobis, Demipho, est,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 74:

    sibi cum illa mima posthac nihil futurum,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 31, 77:

    jussit bona proscribi ejus, quicum familiaritas fuerat, societas erat,

    id. Quint. 6, 25:

    si mihi tecum minus esset, quam est cum tuis omnibus,

    id. Fam. 15, 10, 2.—
    3.
    Esse with certain prepp. and their cases (cf. also I. A. 2. 3. 4. supra).
    (α).
    Esse ab aliquo, to be of a person, to be the servant, disciple, adherent, partisan, etc., of:

    es ne tu an non es ab illo milite e Macedonia?

    do you belong to? Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 21:

    ab Andria est ancilla haec,

    Ter. And. 3, 1, 3; 4, 4, 17:

    erat enim ab isto Aristotele,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 160:

    sed vide ne hoc, Scaevola, totum sit a me,

    makes for me, id. de Or 1, 13, 55 (cf. ab, I. B. 3., II. B. 2. o.). —
    (β).
    Esse pro aliquo, to be in favor of, make for:

    (judicia) partim nihil contra Habitum valere, partim etiam pro hoc esse,

    Cic. Clu. 32, 88.—
    (γ).
    Esse ex aliqua re, to consist of, be made up of:

    (creticus) qui est ex longa et brevi et longa,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 183; cf.:

    duo extremi chorei sunt, id est, e singulis longis et brevibus,

    id. Or. 63, 212:

    etsi temeritas ex tribus brevibus et longa est,

    id. ib. 63, 214; 64, 215 (v. also 6. infra). —
    4.
    Euphem., in perf. tempp., of one who has died or a thing that has perished, to be no more, to be gone, departed, dead ( poet.):

    horresco misera, mentio quoties fit partionis: Ita paene tibi fuit Phronesium,

    i. e. had almost died, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 92:

    nunc illud est, cum me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim,

    id. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    sive erimus, seu nos fata fuisse velint,

    Tib. 3, 5, 32:

    fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens Gloria Teucrorum,

    Verg. A. 2, 325:

    certus in hospitibus non est amor: errat ut ipsi, Cumque nihil speres firmius esse, fuit,

    Ov. H. 16, (17), 192.—
    5.
    Pregn., to be real or a fact, to be the case; so esp.: est, esto, it is even so, be it so, such is or let such be the case, granted, well, etc.:

    quid tibi vis dicam, nisi quod est?

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 17:

    sunt ista, Laeli,

    Cic. Lael. 2, 6:

    ista esse credere,

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 10: est vero, inquit, Africane, id. Fragm. ap. Lact. 1, 18:

    est ut dicis, inquam,

    id. Fin. 3, 5, 19:

    sit quidem ut sex milia seminum intereant,

    Col. 3, 3, 13:

    esto: ipse nihil est, nihil potest,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 47; cf.:

    verum esto,

    id. Fin. 2, 23, 75:

    esto,

    Verg. A. 7, 313; 10, 67; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 81; 1, 17, 37 al.—Hence,
    b.
    The connections est ut, ubi, cum, quod, or with a subject-clause, it happens or chances that, it is the case that, there is cause or reason why, there is a time when, it is allowed or permissible that, one may, etc.
    (α).
    Est ut, it is the case or fact, that, etc.:

    sin est, ut velis Manere illam apud te, dos hic maneat,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 7 (8), 32:

    si est, ut dicat velle se, Redde,

    id. Hec. 4, 1, 43:

    si est, culpam ut Antipho in se admiserit,

    id. Phorm. 2, 1, 40:

    est, ut id maxime deceat,

    Cic. Or. 59, 199:

    quando fuit, ut, quod licet, non liceret?

    id. Cael. 20, 48:

    non est igitur, ut mirandum sit, ea praesentiri, etc.,

    id. Div 1, 56, 128:

    non erat, ut fieri posset, mirarier umquam,

    Lucr. 5, 979:

    futurum esse ut omnes pellerentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    non est, ut copia major Ab Jove donari possit tibi,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 2:

    est ut viro vir latius ordinet Arbusta sulcis,

    id. C. 3, 1, 9; Dig. 38, 7, 2.—Cf. esse after a neg., with quin:

    numquam est enim, quin aliquid memoriae tradere velimus,

    Auct. Her. 3, 24, 40.—Also, est ut, there is reason, that, etc.:

    magis est ut ipse moleste ferat errasse se, quam ut, etc.,

    Cic. Cael. 6, 14 fin.: ille erat ut odisset primum defensorem salutis meae, he had good reason for hating [p. 1799] id. Mil. 13, 35; cf.:

    quid erat cur Milo optaret,

    id. ib. 13, 34:

    neque est ut putemus ignorari ea ab animalibus,

    Plin. 18, 1, 1, § 3. —
    (β).
    Est ubi, sometime or another, sometimes:

    erit, ubi te ulciscar, si vivo,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 26:

    est, ubi id isto modo valeat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 8, 23.—
    (γ).
    Est cum, sometimes:

    est cum non est satius, si, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 26, 36.—
    (δ).
    Est quod, there is reason to, I have occasion:

    est quod visam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 26:

    etsi magis est, quod gratuler tibi quam quod te rogem,

    I have more reason to, Cic. Att. 16, 5, 2:

    est quod referam ad consilium: sin, etc.,

    Liv. 30, 31, 9:

    quod timeas non est,

    Ov. H. 19, 159:

    nil est illic quod moremur diutius,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 6:

    non est quod multa loquamur,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 30.—Cf. with cur:

    non est cur eorum spes infragatur,

    Cic. Or. 2, 6:

    nihil est cur,

    id. Fam. 6, 20, 1.—
    (ε).
    Est, sit, etc., with infin. in Gr. constr., it is possible, is allowed, permitted, one may, etc. (mostly poet. and post-class.):

    est quadam prodire tenus, si non datur ultra,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 32:

    Cato, R. R. prooem. § 1: scire est liberum Ingenium atque animum,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 42:

    nec non et Tityon terrae omniparentis alumnum Cernere erat,

    Verg. A. 6, 596; 8, 676; Sil. 2, 413:

    neque est te fallere quicquam,

    Verg. G. 4, 447:

    unde Plus haurire est,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 79:

    est Gaudia prodentem vultum celare,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 103:

    quod versu dicere non est,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 87:

    quod tangere non est,

    Ov. M. 3, 478:

    quae verbo objecta, verbo negare sit,

    Liv. 42, 41, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    ut conjectare erat intentione vultus,

    Tac. A. 16, 34:

    est videre argentea vasa,

    id. G. 5; Val. Max. 2, 6, 8; v. Zumpt, Gram. § 227.— With dat.:

    ne tibi sit frigida saxa adire,

    Prop. 1, 20, 13; Tib. 1, 6, 24 (32):

    tu procul a patria (nec sit mihi credere tantum!) Alpinas nives Me sine vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46:

    fuerit mihi eguisse aliquando amicitiae tuae,

    Sall. J. 110, 3; Dig. 46, 3, 72, § 4.—
    (ζ).
    In eo ease ut, etc., to be in a condition to reach the point that, to be possible, etc., to be about to, on the point of, etc. ( impers. or with res, etc., as subj.):

    cum jam in eo esset, ut in muros evaderet miles,

    Liv. 2, 17, 5:

    si viderent in eo jam esse ut urbs caperetur,

    id. 28, 22, 8:

    jamque in eo rem fore, ut Romani aut hostes aut domini habendi sint,

    id. 8, 27, 3:

    cum res non in eo essent ut, etc.,

    id. 33, 41, 9:

    non in eo esse Carthaginiensium res, ut, etc.,

    id. 30, 19, 3; 34, 41. —With person. subj. (late Lat.):

    cum ab Ulixe adducta Iphigenia in eo esset, ut immolaretur,

    Hyg. Fab. 261. —
    6.
    Like the Engl. to be, for to come, fall, reach, to have arrived, etc. (hence also with in and acc.):

    ecquid in mentem est tibi, Patrem tibi esse?

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 54:

    nam numero mi in mentem fuit,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    ex eo tempore res esse in vadimonium coepit,

    Cic. Quint. 5, 22:

    portus in praedonum fuisse potestatem sciatis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33:

    ut certior fieret, quo die in Tusculanum essem futurus,

    id. Att. 15, 4, 2:

    qui neque in provinciam cum imperio fuerunt,

    id. Fam. 8, 8, 8:

    quae ne in potestatem quidem populi Romani esset,

    Liv. 2, 14, 4:

    nec prius militibus in conspectum fuisse,

    Suet. Aug. 16:

    esse in amicitiam populi Romani dicionemque,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 20, 66; cf.:

    in eorum potestatem portum futurum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 98; v. Gell. 1, 7, 16 sq.; Zumpt, Gram. § 316.—
    7.
    Of time, to pass, elapse (rare but class.):

    diem scito nullum esse, quo, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 3, 1.
    II.
    As a copula, to be any thing or in any manner.
    A.
    In gen.
    1.
    With an adj., subst., or pron.:

    et praeclara res est et sumus otiosi,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 17:

    quod in homine multo est evidentius,

    id. ib. 8, 27:

    sperare videor Scipionis et Laelii amicitiam notam posteritati fore,

    id. ib. 4, 15:

    non sum ita hebes, ut istud dicam,

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 12:

    cum, ignorante rege, uter esset Orestes, Pylades Orestem se esse diceret, Orestes autem ita ut erat, Orestem se esse perseveraret,

    id. Lael. 7, 24:

    consul autem esse qui potui? etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 6, 10:

    nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati,

    are a mere number, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 27:

    pars non minima triumphi est victimae praecedentes,

    Liv. 45, 49:

    nobile erit Romae pascua vestra forum,

    Prop. 4 (5), 9, 20:

    sanguis erant lacrimae,

    Luc. 9, 811:

    ego tu sum, tu es ego: unanimi sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 49:

    tuos sum,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 60: domus non ea est, quam parietes nostri cingunt, Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 19:

    is enim fueram, cui, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 7.—
    2.
    Less freq. with adv. (esp. in colloq. language): Am. Satin' tu sanus es? Sos. Sic sum ut vides, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 57:

    sic, inquit, est,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 60:

    est, inquit, ut dicis,

    id. ib. 1, 40, 63:

    quod ita cum sit,

    id. ib. 1, 45, 69:

    quia sunt haud procul ab hujus aetatis memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 1 B. and K.:

    nec vero habere virtutem satis est,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 2: frustra id inceptum Volscis fuit. Liv. 2, 25:

    dato qui bene sit: ego, ubi bene sit, tibi locum lepidum dabo,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 51:

    apud matrem recte est,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    cum in convivio comiter et jucunde fuisses,

    id. Deiot. 7, 19:

    omnes hanc quaestionem haud remissius sperant futuram,

    id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11:

    dicta impune erant,

    Tac. A. 1, 72.—Esp.: facile alicubi (in aliqua re) esse, with pleasure, glad to be:

    quod in maritimis facillime sum,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 2:

    locum habeo nullum ubi facilius esse possum,

    id. Att. 13, 26, 2 (on esse with an adverb, v. Haase ap. Reisig, Vorles. p. 394; cf. also bene under bonus fin.).—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    With gen. part., to be of, belong to a class, party, etc.:

    in republica ita est versatus, ut semper optimarum partium et esset et existimaretur,

    Nep. Att. 6, 1:

    qui ejusdem civitatis fuit,

    id. Them. 9, 1:

    qui Romanae partis erant, urbe excesserunt,

    Liv. 35, 51, 7: ut aut amicorum aut inimicorum Campani simus;

    si defenditis, vestri, si deseritis, Samnitium erimus,

    id. 7, 30, 9 sq. —
    2.
    With gen. or abl. denoting quality.
    (α).
    With gen.:

    nimium me timidum, nullius animi, nullius consilii fuisse confiteor,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36:

    disputatio non mediocris contentionis est,

    id. de Or. 1, 60, 257:

    magni judicii, summae etiam facultatis esse debebit,

    id. Or. 21, 70:

    (virtus) nec tantarum virium est, ut se ipsa tueatur,

    id. Tusc. 5, 1, 2; id. Fin. 5, 12, 36:

    Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit,

    Sall. J. 95, 3:

    summi ut sint laboris,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 2:

    civitas magnae auctoritatis,

    id. ib. 5, 54:

    refer, Cujus fortunae (sit),

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 54:

    se nullius momenti apud exercitum futurum,

    Nep. Alcib. 8, 4:

    qui ejusdem aetatis fuit,

    id. ib. 11, 1:

    invicti ad laborem corporis erat,

    Liv. 9, 16:

    nec magni certaminis ea dimicatio fuit,

    id. 21, 60:

    somni brevissimi erat,

    Suet. Claud. 33.—So of extent, number, etc.:

    classis centum navium,

    Nep. Them. 2, 2; 2, 5:

    annus trecentarum sexaginta quinque dierum,

    Suet. Caes. 40.—
    (β).
    With abl.:

    bono animo es,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4:

    jam aetate ea sum, ut, etc.,

    id. Hec. 5, 1, 11:

    bellum varia victoria fuit,

    Sall. J. 5, 1:

    L. Catilina nobili genere natus fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, set ingenio malo,

    id. C. 5, 1:

    Sulla animo ingenti,

    id. J. 95, 3:

    esse magna gratia,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 8:

    tenuissima valetudine esse,

    id. ib. 5, 40:

    si fuerit is injustus, timidus, hebeti ingenio atque nullo,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 15, 45:

    mira sum alacritate ad litigandum,

    id. Att. 2, 7, 2:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    id. Fam. 6, 18, 1:

    ut bono essent animo,

    id. Rep. 1, 17, 29:

    ut uxores eodem jure sint quo viri,

    id. ib. 1, 43, 67:

    qui capite et superciliis semper est rasis,

    id. Rosc. Com. 7, 20:

    abi, quaere, unde domo quis, Cujus fortunae, quo sit patre quove patrono,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 54 (cf. I. A. 4. supra). —
    3.
    With gen. or abl. of price or value.
    (α).
    With gen.:

    pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8:

    videtur esse quantivis pretii,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15:

    a me argentum, quanti (servus) est, sumito,

    id. Ad. 5, 9, 20:

    si ullo in loco frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194:

    ager nunc multo pluris est, quam tunc fuit,

    id. Rosc. Com. 12, 33:

    ut quisque, quod plurimi sit, possideat, ita, etc.,

    id. Par. 6, 2, 48:

    magni erunt mihi tuae litterae,

    id. Fam. 15, 15, 4:

    parvi sunt foris arma, nisi, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 22, 76:

    an emat denario quod sit mille denarium,

    id. ib. 3, 23, 92:

    parvi pretii est quod nihili est,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 4:

    mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo,

    is worth more to me, weighs more with me, id. Att. 12, 28, 2:

    neque pluris pretii cocum quam vilicum habeo,

    Sall. J. 85, 39:

    erat (agellus) centum milium nummum,

    Plin. Ep. 6, 3, 1. —
    (β).
    With abl.: sextante sal et Romae et per totam I i aliam erat, was worth, stood at, Liv. 29, 37.—
    4.
    With gen. of possession, etc., it belongs, pertains to; or it is the part, property, nature, mark, sign, custom, or duty of, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    audiant eos, quorum summa est auctoritas apud, etc.,

    who possess, Cic. Rep. 1, 7, 12:

    ea ut civitatis Rhodiorum essent,

    Liv. 37, 55, 5:

    teneamus eum cursum, qui semper fuit optimi cujusque,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2, 3:

    quamobrem neque sapientis esse accipere habenas,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 9; id. de Or. 2, 20, 86:

    sapientis est consilium explicare suum, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 333:

    temeritas est florentis aetatis, prudentia senescentis,

    id. Sen. 6, 20:

    est adulescentis majores natu vereri,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 122:

    Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant,

    Liv. 8, 12, 13:

    tota tribuniciae potestatis erat,

    id. 3, 48:

    alterius morientis prope totus exercitus fuit,

    id. 22, 50:

    jam me Pompeii totum esse scis,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 13, 2:

    hominum, non causarum, toti erant,

    Liv. 3, 36:

    plebs novarum, ut solet, rerum atque Hannibalis tota esse,

    were devoted to, favored, id. 23, 14:

    Dolopes numquam Aetolorum fuerant: Philippi erant,

    id. 38, 3:

    Ptolemaeus propter aetatem alieni arbitrii erat,

    id. 42, 29:

    est miserorum ut malevolentes sint,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 51:

    quod alterum divinitatis mihi cujusdam videtur,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86:

    negavit moris esse Graecorum, ut, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66:

    non est gravitatis ac sapientiae tuae, ferre immoderatius casum incommodorum tuorum,

    id. Fam. 5, 16, 5:

    est hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 5.—Rarely with pronom. posses.:

    est tuum, Cato, videre quid agatur,

    Cic. Mur. 38, 83:

    fuit meum quidem jam pridem rem publicam lugere,

    id. Att. 12, 28, 2.—
    (β).
    Esp., with gerundive, to denote tendency, effect, etc.:

    quae res evertendae rei publicae solerent esse,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 132:

    regium inperium, quod initio conservandae libertatis fuerat,

    Sall. C. 6, 7:

    qui utilia ferrent, quaeque aequandae libertatis essent,

    Liv. 3, 31, 7:

    ea prodendi imperii Romani, tradendae Hannibali victoriae esse,

    id. 27, 9, 12:

    nihil tam aequandae libertatis esse quam potentissimum quemque posse dicere causam,

    id. 38, 51, 8:

    frustrationem eam legis tollendae esse,

    id. 3, 24, 1 Weissenb. ad loc.; 3, 39, 8; 5, 3, 5; 40, 29, 11.—
    5.
    With dat. of the end, object, purpose, etc.:

    vitam hanc rusticam tu probro et crimini putas esse oportere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 17, 48:

    etiam quae esui potuique non sunt, contineri legato,

    Dig. 33, 9, 3; Gell. 4, 1, 20:

    ut divites conferrent, qui essent oneri ferendo,

    Liv. 2, 9:

    magis vis morbi curae esset, maxime quod, etc.,

    id. 4, 21, 5:

    cum solvendo aere (i. e. aeri) alieno res publica non esset,

    id. 31, 13:

    iniciuntur ea, quae umori extrahendo sunt,

    Cels. 4, 10 fin. — Esp. in phrase solvendo esse, to be solvent, able to pay:

    tu nec solvendo eras,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 4:

    cum solvendo civitates non essent,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2 (v. solvo).—
    6.
    With predicative dat. sing., denoting that which the subject is, becomes, appears to be, etc.
    (α).
    Without second dat. of pers.:

    auxilio is fuit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 94:

    magis curae'st,

    id. Bacch. 4, 10, 3; id. Curc. 4, 2, 15; id. As. 1, 3, 23; id. Capt. 5, 2, 13 sq.:

    cui bono fuerit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    eo natus sum ut Jugurthae scelerum ostentui essem,

    Sall. J. 24, 10: cupis me esse nequam;

    tamen ero frugi bonae,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 51:

    magnoque esse argumento, homines scire pleraque antequam nati sint, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 21, 78:

    multi Indicioque sui facti persaepe fuere, Lucr 4, 1019: ejus rei ipsa verba formulae testimonio sunt,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 4, 11:

    haec res ad levandam annonam impedimento fuit,

    Liv. 4, 13:

    cujus rei Demosthenes atque Aeschines possunt esse documento,

    Quint. 7, 1, 2.—
    (β).
    With second dat. of pers.:

    obsecro vos ego mi auxilio sitis,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 9, 5; id. Ep. 5, 2, 11; id. Most. 1, 2, 68:

    ne quid Captioni mihi sit,

    id. ib. 3, 3, 19:

    mihi cordi est,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 110:

    ubi eris damno molestiae et dedecori saepe fueris,

    id. As. 3, 2, 25:

    metuo illaec mihi res ne malo magno fuat,

    id. Mil. 2, 6, 12:

    nec Salus nobis saluti jam esse potest,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 4:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    id. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    quae sint nobis morbo mortique,

    Lucr. 6, 1095:

    quo magis quae agis curae sunt mihi,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 46:

    omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: ut mihi magnae curae tuam vitam ac dignitatem esse scires, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A fin.:

    accusant ei, quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13: haec tam parva [p. 1800] civitas praedae tibi et quaestui fuit, id. Verr. 2, 3, 37, § 85:

    ea dictitare, quae detrimento, maculae, invidiae, infamiae nobis omnibus esse possint,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 62, §

    144: minus ea bella curae patribus erant, quam, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 23, 1:

    sciant patribus aeque curae fuisse, ne, etc.,

    id. 4, 7, 6:

    si hoc perinde curae est tibi quam illud mihi,

    Plin. Ep. 6, 8, 9:

    quantaeque curae tibi fuit, ne quis, etc.,

    id. Pan. 25, 3:

    quantae sit mihi curae,

    id. Ep. 6, 8, 2:

    si judicibus ipsis aut gloriae damnatio rei aut deformitati futura absolutio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 12.—Rarely with dat. gerund:

    nec tamen impedimento id rebus gerundis fuit,

    Liv. 26, 24 (for a full account of this dative, v. Roby, Gram. 2, praef. pp. xxv.-lvi., and § 1158 sq.).—
    7.
    Esse ad aliquid, to be of use for, to serve for:

    vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,

    Cato, R. R. 125:

    completae naves taeda et pice reliquisque rebus quae sunt ad incendia,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101:

    valvae, quae olim ad ornandum templum erant maxime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—
    8.
    Id est or hoc est, with predic.-clause by way of explanatory addition, that is, that is to say; sometimes also with a climax in the sense, which is as much as to say, or which is the same thing:

    sed domum redeamus, id est ad nostros revertamur,

    Cic. Brut. 46, 172:

    quodsi in scena, id est in contione verum valet, etc.,

    id. Lael. 26, 97:

    meos amicos, in quibus est studium, in Graeciam mitto, id est ad Graecos ire jubeo,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 8:

    si Epicurum, id est si Democritum probarem,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 6:

    ut (sapiens) aegritudine opprimatur, id est miseria,

    id. Tusc. 3, 13, 27: a parte negotiali, hoc est pragmatikêi, Quint. 3, 7, 1:

    cum in bona tua invasero, hoc est, cum te docuero,

    id. 8, 3, 89.—
    9.
    Poet., with Greek inf. pleonastically:

    esse dederat monumentum,

    Verg. A. 5, 572 (cf.: dôke xeinêion einai, Hom. Il. 10, 269).
    2.
    sum = eum, Enn. ap. Fest., v. is.
    3.
    sum- in composition, for sub before m; v. sub fin.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > sum

  • 11 ante-vertō (-vor-)

        ante-vertō (-vor-) tī, —, ere,    to take a place before, go before, precede: tum antevertens, tum subsequens.—Fig., to anticipate: huic, T.: mihi. —To prefer, place before: omnibus consiliis antevertendum existimavit, ut, etc., that this plan must be adopted in preference to others, Cs.

    Latin-English dictionary > ante-vertō (-vor-)

  • 12 cōnstituō

        cōnstituō uī, ūtus, ere    [com-+statuo], to put, place, set, station: eo (Helvetios), fix their abode, Cs.: impedimenta, put away, L.: hominem ante pedes: vobis taurum ante aras, V.—To place, station, post, array, form, draw up: legionem passibus CC ab eo tumulo, Cs.: cohortes in fronte, S.: aperto litore navīs, Cs.: legiones contra hostem, Cs.: exercitum contra vos: exadversum Athenas apud Salamina classem, N.—To halt, cause to halt, stop: agmen paulisper, S.: novitate rei signa, L. —To form, constitute: legiones, Cs.: legio constituta ex veteranis. — To erect, set up, build, construct, fix, found: turrīs duas, Cs.: oppidum, Cs.: vineas ac testudines, N.: locis certis horrea, Cs.: moenia in terrā, O.: domicilium sibi Magnesiae, N.—Fig., to put, set, place: vobis ante oculos senectutem. — To prepare, make, establish, effect, constitute: amicitiam: accusationem: victoriam: ius nobis, civitati legem: iudicium de pecuniis repetundis: iudicium capitis in se.—To designate, select, assign, appoint: accusatorem: testīs: locus ab iudicibus Fausto non est constitutus, i. e. a trial: alqm apud eos regem, Cs.: legibus agrariis curatores: patronum causae: constitutus imperator belli gerundi.—To establish, set in order, organize, manage, administer, regulate, arrange, dispose: legiones, Cs.: civitates: maiestatis constituendae gratiā, S.: mores civitatis. L.: his constitutis rebus, after making these arrangements, Cs.: regnum ei, N. — To fix, appoint, determine, define, decide, decree: ad constitutam non venire diem, L.: tempus constitutumst, T.: finīs imperi singulis, S.: pretium frumento: conloquio diem, Cs.: tempus ei rei, Cs.: in hunc (diem) constitutae nuptiae, T.: tempus in posterum diem, L.: grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum: bona possessa non esse constitui: constituendi sunt qui sint in amicitiā fines.—To appoint, fix by agreement, settle, agree upon, concert: vadimonia constituta: tempore ac loco constituto, S.: die constitutā, on the day appointed, Cs.: venturum ad me domum, T.: (diem) cum legatis, Cs.: pactam et constitutam esse cum Manlio diem: cum quodam hospite Me esse, etc., T.: cum hominibus quo die praesto essent: amicae, make an appointment, Iu.: sic constituunt, such is their custom, Ta.: introire, S.: in diem tertium constituunt, S.: quid agi placeat inter se, Cs.—To determine, take a resolution, resolve: ut ante constituerat, Cs.: his constitutis rebus, having formed this resolution, Cs.: bellum cum Germanis gerere, Cs.: desciscere a rege, N.: Quaerere, V.: constitutum esse Pompeio me mittere: quid vectigalis Britannia penderet, Cs.: ut Aquini manerem: ut arbitri darentur, Cs.: optimum esse reverti, Cs.—To decide, arbitrate, judge, decree: de controversiis, Cs.: de hoc solus, N.: sententiis dictis, constituunt ut, etc., Cs.
    * * *
    constituere, constitui, constitutus V
    set up/in position, erect; place/dispose/locate; (call a) halt; plant (trees); decide/resolve; decree/ordain; appoint, post/station (troops); settle (colony); establish/create/institute; draw up, arrange/set in order; make up, form; fix

    Latin-English dictionary > cōnstituō

  • 13 corripiō (conr-)

        corripiō (conr-) ripuī, reptus, ere    [com- + rapio], to seize, snatch up, grasp, collect, take hold of, arrest: quos corripi atque interfici iussit, Cs.: arcum manu, V.: fascibus conreptis, S.: me, to start up, T.: a somno corpus, V.: Flumina correptos torquentia montīs, carried away, V.—To carry off, take as plunder, snatch away: in corripiendis pecuniis: effigiem, V. — To attack, seize, catch, sweep, carry away: flamma Corripuit tabulas, V.: morbi Corpora corripiunt, V.: imber (segetes), O.—To contract, shorten: numina corripiant moras, O.—To hurry over, make haste over: viam, V.: campum, V.— To quicken: gradum. H. —Fig., to reproach, reprove, chide, blame: omnes convicio Lentuli correpti, Cs.: correptus voce magistri, H.: hunc dictis, O.: correpti consules cum percunctarentur, under this rebuke, L. — To seize upon, attack: hunc plausus Corripuit, V.: correpta cupidine, O.: militiā (i. e. militiae studio), V.: imagine visae formae, fascinated, O.

    Latin-English dictionary > corripiō (conr-)

  • 14 habeō

        habeō uī (old perf subj. habessit for habuerit, C.), itus, ēre    [HAB-], to have, hold, support, carry, wear: arma: anulum: arma hic paries habebit, H.: coronam in capite: soccos et pallium: catenas: Faenum in cornu, H.: aquilam in exercitu, S.— To have, hold, contain: quod (fanum) habebat auri: non me Tartara habent, V.: quem quae sint habitura deorum Concilia, etc., V.: Quae regio Anchisen habet? V.: quod habet lex in se: suam (nutricem) cinis ater habebat, V.— To have, hold, occupy, inhabit: urbem, S.: arcem: quā Poeni haberent (sc. castra), L.: Hostis habet muros, V. —Of relation or association, to have: in matrimonio Caesenniam: eos in loco patrui: uxores: patrem: (legionem) secum, Cs.: apīs in iubā: mecum scribas: quibus vendant, habere, Cs.: conlegam in praeturā Sophoclem: civitates stipendiarias, Cs.: cognitum Scaevolam: inimicos civīs: duos amicissimos: eum nuptiis adligatum: quem pro quaestore habuit.— To have, be furnished with: voltum bonum, S.: pedes quinque: Angustos aditūs, V.: manicas, V.— To have, hold, keep, retain, detain: haec cum illis sunt habenda (opp. mittenda), T.: si quod accepit habet: Bibulum in obsidione, Cs.: in liberis custodiis haberi, S.: in vinculis habendi, S.: mare in potestate, Cs.: in custodiam habitus, lodged, L.: ordines, preserve, S.: alios in eā fortunā, ut, etc., L.: exercitus sine inperio habitus, S.: Marium post principia, station, S.: Loricam Donat habere viro, gives to keep, V.: inclusum senatum.—Of ownership or enjoyment, to have, own, possess, be master of: agros: Epicratis bona omnia: in Italiā fundum: quod non desit, H.: (divitias) honeste, enjoy, S.: (leges) in monumentis habemus, i. e. are extant: sibi hereditatem: illam suas res sibi habere iussit (the formula of divorcing a wife): in vestrā amicitiā divitias, S.: nos Amaryllis habet, has my love, V.: habeo, non habeor a Laide: habet in nummis, in praediis, is rich: ad habendum nihil satis esse: amor habendi, V.: Unde habeas, quaerit nemo, sed oportet habere, Iu.— To have, get, receive, obtain: a me vitam, fortunas: imperium a populo R.: habeat hoc praemi tua indignitas: granum ex provinciā: plus dapis, H.: Partem opere in tanto, a place, V.: graviter ferit atque ita fatur, Hoc habet, it reaches him, V.: certe captus est, habet! (i. e. volneratus est) T.— To find oneself, be, feel, be situated, be off, come off: se non graviter: bene habemus nos: praeclare se res habebat: quo pacto se habeat provincia: bene habent tibi principia, T.: bene habet, it is well: atqui Sic habet, H.: credin te inpune habiturum? escape punishment, T.: virtus aeterna habetur, abides, S.— To make, render: uti eos manifestos habeant, S.: pascua publica infesta, L.—With P. perf. pass., periphrast. for perf act.: vectigalia redempta, has brought in and holds, Cs.: domitas libidines: quae conlecta habent Stoici: de Caesare satis dictum: pericula consueta, S.: neque ea res falsum me habuit, S.: edita facinora, L.— To treat, use, handle: duriter se, T.: equitatu agmen adversariorum male, Cs.: exercitum luxuriose, S.: eos non pro vanis hostibus, sed liberaliter, S.: saucii maiore curā habiti, L.— To hold, direct, turn, keep: iter hac, T.: iter ad legiones, Cs.— To hold, pronounce, deliver, utter, make: orationem de ratione censoriā: contionem ad urbem: post habitam contionem: gratulationibus habendis celebramur: quae (querelae) apud me de illo habebantur: verba.— To hold, convene, conduct, cause to take place: comitia haberi siturus: senatum, Cs.: censum: Consilium summis de rebus, V.— To hold, govern, administer, manage, wield: rem p., S.: qui cultus habendo Sit pecori, V.: animus habet cuncta, neque ipse habetur, S.: aptat habendo Ensem, V.—Of rank or position, to hold, take, occupy: priores partīs Apud me, T.: Statum de tribus secundarium.—Fig., to have, have in mind, entertain, cherish, experience, exhibit, be actuated by: si quid consili Habet, T.: alienum animum a causā: tantum animi ad audaciam: plus animi quam consili: amorem in rem p.: in consilio fidem: gratiam, gratias habere; see gratia.— To have, have in mind, mean, wish, be able: haec habebam fere, quae te scire vellem, this was in substance what, etc.: haec habui de amicitiā quae dicerem: quod huic responderet, non habebat: haec fere dicere habui de, etc.: illud adfirmare pro certo habeo, L.—Prov.: quā digitum proferat non habet.—With P. fut. pass., to have, be bound: utrumne de furto dicendum habeas, Ta.: si nunc primum statuendum haberemus, Ta. — To have, have in mind, know, be acquainted with, be informed of: regis matrem habemus, ignoramus patrem: habes consilia nostra, such are: In memoriā habeo, I remember, T.: age, si quid habes, V.—With in animo, to have in mind, purpose, intend, be inclined: rogavi, ut diceret quid haberet in animo: istum exheredare in animo habebat: hoc (flumen) transire, Cs.: bello eum adiuvare, L. — To have in mind, hold, think, believe, esteem, regard, look upon: neque vos neque deos in animo, S.: haec habitast soror, T.: alquos magno in honore, Cs.: Iunium (mensem) in metu, be afraid of: omnīs uno ordine Achivos, all alike, V.: hi numero inpiorum habentur, Cs.: quem nefas habent nominare: deos aeternos: habitus non futtilis auctor, V.: cum esset habendus rex: non nauci augurem: cuius auctoritas magni haberetur, Cs.: id pro non dicto habendum, L.: sic habeto, non esse, etc.: non necesse habeo dicere: eam rem habuit religioni, a matter of conscience: ludibrio haberi, T.: duritiam voluptati, regard as pleasure, S.— To have, have received, have acquired, have made, have incurred: a me beneficia, Cs.: tantos progressūs in Stoicis.—With satis, to have enough, be content, be satisfied: sat habeo, T.: a me satis habent, tamen plus habebunt: non satis habitum est, quaeri, etc.— To have, be characterized by, exercise, practise: salem, T.: habet hoc virtus, ut, etc., this is characteristic of merit: locus nihil habet religionis: celerem motum, Cs.: neque modum neque modestiam, S.: silentium haberi iussit, observed, S.: habebat hoc Caesar, quem cognorat, etc., this was Caesar's way: ornamenta dicendi.— To have, involve, bring, render, occasion, produce, excite: primus adventus equitatūs habuit interitum: habet amoenitas ipsa inlecebras: latrocinia nullam habent infamiam, Cs.— To hold, keep, occupy, engage, busy, exercise, inspire: hoc male habet virum, vexes, T.: animalia somnus habebat, V.: sollicitum te habebat cogitatio periculi: Qui (metus) maior absentīs habet, H.— To take, accept, bear, endure: eas (iniurias) gravius aequo, S.: aegre filium id ausum, L.— To keep, reserve, conceal: Non clam me haberet quod, etc., T.: secreto hoc audi, tecum habeto.— To keep, spend, pass: adulescentiam, S.: aetatem procul a re p., S.—With rem, to have to do, be intimate: quocum uno rem habebam, T.
    * * *
    habere, habui, habitus V
    have, hold, consider, think, reason; manage, keep; spend/pass (time)

    Latin-English dictionary > habeō

  • 15 hinc

        hinc adv.,    from this place, hence: quae (via) est hinc in Indiam: hinc Romā venire: Illam hinc civem esse aiunt, T.—With iam, from this point onward, henceforth: maiora iam hinc bella dicentur, L.: iam hinc populi R. res gestas peragam, L.—In antithesis to hinc or illinc, on one side... on the other, here... there, on this side... on that: hinc fides, illinc fraudatio, etc.: pudor est, qui suadeat illinc; Hinc dissuadet amor, O.: hinc atque illinc volneribus acceptis, on each side, L.: hinc patres, hinc viros orantīs, L.: Hinc atque hinc rupes minantur, on either side, V.—From this source, from this cause, hence, on this account: hinc sicae, hinc falsa testamenta nascuntur: Hinc illae lacrumae! that's what's the matter! H.: Sed eccum Syrum...! hinc scibo, from him, T.: Hinc canere incipiam (i. e. ex his), will take my theme, V.—Next, afterwards: hinc in urbem digressus, Ta.
    * * *
    from here, from this source/cause; hence, henceforth

    Latin-English dictionary > hinc

  • 16 incumbō

        incumbō cubuī, cubitus, ere    [CVB-], to lay oneself, lean, press, support oneself: in scuta, L.: in gladium, fall on: toro, V.: validis incumbere remis, bend to, V.: tecto incubuit bubo, perched on, O.: ferro, fall on, O.—To lean, incline, overhang: silex incumbebat ad amnem, V.: ad vos, O.: laurus Incumbens arae, V.—In war, to press upon, throw oneself: in hostem, L.: unum in locum totam periculi molem incubuisse, L.—Fig., to press upon, settle on, burden, oppress, weigh upon: Incubuere (venti) mari, V.: tempestas silvis Incubuit, V.: febrium Terris incubuit cohors, H.—To make an effort, apply oneself, exert oneself, take pains with, pay attention to: Tum Teucri incumbunt, V.: nunc, nunc incumbere tempus, O.: huc incumbe, attend to this: et animo et opibus in id bellum, Cs.: omni studio ad bellum: acrius ad ulciscendas rei p. iniurias: ut inclinato (iudici) incumbat oratio, influence: fato urguenti, i. e. accelerate, V.: sarcire ruinas, V.: suis viribus incubuit, ut, etc., L.—To incline, choose, be inclined to, lean towards: eos, quocumque incubuerit, impellere, whithersoever he may try: eodem incumbunt municipia, are inclined: inclinatio incubuit ad virum bonum: in cupiditatem.
    * * *
    incumbere, incumbui, incumbitus V
    lean forward/over/on, press on; attack, apply force; fall on (one's sword)

    Latin-English dictionary > incumbō

  • 17 inter-sum

        inter-sum fuī, futūrus, esse,    to be between, lie between: quas (segetes) inter et castra unus collis intererat, Cs.: ut Tiberis inter eos et pons interesset: via interest perangusta, L.—To intervene, elapse: inter primum et sextum consulatum sex anni interfuerunt: inter Laviniam et Albam Longam coloniam deductam interfuere, etc., L.—To be different, differ: ut inter eos ne minimum quidem intersit, there is not the slightest difference: inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime interest, quod, etc., differ chiefly in this: in his rebus nihil omnino interest, there is no difference whatever: Hoc pater ac dominus interest, there is this difference, T.: tantum id interest, veneritne an, etc., L.: negant (ea) quidquam a falsis interesse: quod ab eo nihil intersit, etc.: stulto intellegens Quid interest? T.: ut matrona Intererit Satyris paulum, H.—To be present, take part, attend, assist, intervene: audierunt alii, qui interfuerant: Nec deus intersit, nisi, etc., H.: epulis: lacrimis patris, V.: populo Quirini, live with, H.: proelio, Cs.: in convivio: in testamento faciendo.—3d pers. impers., it makes a difference, it interests, it concerns, it is of interest: quasi paulum intersiet, T.: Paulum interesse censes, ex animo facias, an, etc., T.: neque interesse... -ne... -ne, makes no difference, Cs.: novis coniunctionibus interest, qualis primus aditus sit: Divesne natus Nil interest an pauper, H.: quid interfuit utrum hoc decerneres, an, etc., what mattered it? nihil interest nunc, an violaverim, etc., L.: quantum interesset Clodii, se perire: quid eius intererat?: meā video quid intersit: quod ego et meā et rei p. interesse arbitror: illud meā magni interest, te ut videam: utriusque nostrum magni interest ut te videam: ad honorem interesse: ad beate vivendum; cf. with defin. subj.: non quo meā interest natura loci, is of interest to me.

    Latin-English dictionary > inter-sum

  • 18 iūrō

        iūrō āvī, ātus, āre    [2 ius], to swear, take an oath: si aram tenens iuraret: ex animi tui sententiā, without reservation: Boeotum in crasso iurares aëre natum, H.: falsum, swear falsely: vere: testari deos per quos iuravisset, S.: per Iovem, by Jupiter: aedilis, qui pro se iuraret, in his stead, L.: idem omnis exercitus in se quisque iurat, i. e. each soldier individually, L.: Numquam ducturum uxorem, T.: se eum non deserturum, Cs.: verissimum ius iurandum.—With in and acc, to swear to observe, swear allegiance, vow obedience, adopt under oath: in legem: in leges, L.: in haec verba iurat ipse, takes this form of oath, Cs.: cur in certa verba iurent: in haec verba iures postulo, in this form of words, L.: in verba magistri, echo the sentiments, H.—To swear by, attest, call to witness: Terram, Mare, Sidera, V.: Iovem lapidem: quaevis tibi numina, O.: Samothracum aras, Iu.: Iurandae tuum per nomen arae, H.: dis iuranda palus, the Styx, by which the gods swear, O.—To swear to, attest by an oath: morbum, to the fact of sickness: id (nomen) iurare in litem, swear to a debt.—With person. obj., to swear, bind by an oath, cause to swear (only perf pass.): iudici demonstrandum est, quid iuratus sit: lex, in quam iurati sitis: iuratus se eum interempturum, L.— To conspire: In me, O.: in facinus, O.—In the phrase: iurare calumniam, to swear that an accusation is not malicious, L.

    Latin-English dictionary > iūrō

  • 19 perīculum or (poet.) perīclum

       perīculum or (poet.) perīclum ī, n    [1 PAR-], a trial, experiment, attempt, test, proof, essay: fac periculum in litteris, T.: priusquam periclum faceret, Cs.: meae fidei periculum facere. — An attempt, essay: in isto periculo veritatem exigere (of a poem).— Risk, hazard, danger, peril: Non fit sine periclo facinus magnum, T.: salus sociorum summum in periculum vocatur: obire pericula ac labores, L.: periculum adire capitis, run the risk of life: suscipere, take upon oneself: facessere innocenti: aliis facere, S.: si mihi periculum crearetur ab eo: periculis vobiscum adero, S.: erat magni periculi res dimicare, etc., Cs.: non est periculum, ne id facere non possit: in periculum se committere, get into danger: extrahere ex periculo, release from danger: esse in periculo: a securi negat ei periculum esse, that danger threatens him: meo periculo, at my risk.—A trial, action, suit at law: meus labor in privatorum periculis: hunc in periculis defendere, N.— A judicial record, judgment-roll: petivit, ut in periculo suo inscriberent, etc., N.: pericula magistratuum.

    Latin-English dictionary > perīculum or (poet.) perīclum

  • 20 possideō

        possideō sēdī, sessus, ēre    [por (for pro)+sedeo], to have and hold, be master of, own, possess: ex edicto bona: partem agri, Cs.: solum bello captum, L.: plus Pallante, Iu.— To hold possession of, occupy: ferro saeptus possidet sedes sacras, Poët. ap. C.: Zephyri possidet aura nemus, Pr.— Fig., to possess, have: plus fidei quam artis in se: hunc diem, i. e. is worshipped on this day, O.
    * * *
    possidere, possedi, possessus V
    seize, hold, be master of; possess, take/hold possession of, occupy; inherit

    Latin-English dictionary > possideō

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