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quadratic contrast

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  • Quadratic form — In mathematics, a quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of degree two in a number of variables. For example, is a quadratic form in the variables x and y. Quadratic forms occupy a central place in various branches of mathematics, including… …   Wikipedia

  • Quadratic residue — In number theory, an integer q is called a quadratic residue modulo n if it is congruent to a perfect square modulo n; i.e., if there exists an integer x such that: Otherwise, q is called a quadratic nonresidue modulo n. Originally an abstract… …   Wikipedia

  • Isotropic quadratic form — In mathematics, a quadratic form over a field F is said to be isotropic if there is a non zero vector on which it evaluates to zero. Otherwise the quadratic form is anisotropic. More precisely, if q is a quadratic form on a vector space V over F …   Wikipedia

  • QMR effect — Quadratic Magnetic Rotation of Polarization of Light is called also QMR or QMR effect.QMR is a type of magneto optic effect, discovered in the mid 1980 s by a team of Ukrainian physicists. QMR, like the Faraday effect, establishes a relationship… …   Wikipedia

  • mathematics — /math euh mat iks/, n. 1. (used with a sing. v.) the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. 2. (used with a sing. or pl. v.) mathematical procedures,… …   Universalium

  • Linear programming — (LP, or linear optimization) is a mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships.… …   Wikipedia

  • Completing the square — In elementary algebra, completing the square is a technique for converting a quadratic polynomial of the form to the form In this context, constant means not depending on x. The expression inside the parenthesis is of the… …   Wikipedia

  • History of mathematics — A proof from Euclid s Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Kalman filter — Roles of the variables in the Kalman filter. (Larger image here) In statistics, the Kalman filter is a mathematical method named after Rudolf E. Kálmán. Its purpose is to use measurements observed over time, containing noise (random variations)… …   Wikipedia

  • Split-complex number — A portion of the split complex number plane showing subsets with modulus zero (red), one (blue), and minus one (green). In abstract algebra, the split complex numbers (or hyperbolic numbers) are a two dimensional commutative algebra over the real …   Wikipedia

  • List of important publications in mathematics — One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid s Elements, found at Oxyrhynchus and dated to circa AD 100. The diagram accompanies Book II, Proposition 5.[1] This is a list of important publications in mathematics, organized by field. Some… …   Wikipedia