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polytheists

  • 1 idólatra

    adj.
    idolatrous, iconolatric.
    m.
    1 idolater, idolator.
    2 idolatress.
    * * *
    1 idolatrous
    1 (hombre) idolater; (mujer) idolatress
    * * *
    1.
    2.
    SMF idolator/idolatress
    * * *
    I
    adjetivo idolatrous
    II
    masculino y femenino idolater
    * * *
    = idolater, idolatrous.
    Ex. Paul advised Christians that they should not be polytheists ( idolaters) and that they must confine sex to marriage.
    Ex. In colonial history, racism was expressed as a view of the Indian as savage, barbarous, & idolatrous.
    * * *
    I
    adjetivo idolatrous
    II
    masculino y femenino idolater
    * * *
    = idolater, idolatrous.

    Ex: Paul advised Christians that they should not be polytheists ( idolaters) and that they must confine sex to marriage.

    Ex: In colonial history, racism was expressed as a view of the Indian as savage, barbarous, & idolatrous.

    * * *
    idolatrous
    ( masculine) idolater; ( feminine) idolater, idolatress
    * * *

    Del verbo idolatrar: ( conjugate idolatrar)

    idolatra es:

    3ª persona singular (él/ella/usted) presente indicativo

    2ª persona singular (tú) imperativo

    Multiple Entries:
    idolatrar    
    idólatra
    idolatrar verbo transitivo to idolize, to worship: idolatra a su mujer, he idolizes his wife
    idólatra
    I adjetivo idolatrous
    II mf idolater
    ' idólatra' also found in these entries:
    Spanish:
    idolatrar
    * * *
    adj
    idolatrous
    nmf
    1. [pagano] idolater, f idolatress
    2. [fanático] idolizer
    * * *
    I adj idolatrous tb fig
    II m/f idolater; fig
    worshipper
    * * *
    : idolatrous
    : idolater

    Spanish-English dictionary > idólatra

  • 2 politeísta

    adj.
    polytheistic, polytheistical.
    f. & m.
    polytheist.
    * * *
    1 polytheistic
    1 polytheist
    * * *
    * * *
    = polytheist, polytheistic.
    Ex. Paul advised Christians that they should not be polytheists (idolaters) and that they must confine sex to marriage.
    Ex. I dont think that killing in polytheistic societies gives monotheistic religion the right to do the same, that's not a justified excuse.
    * * *
    = polytheist, polytheistic.

    Ex: Paul advised Christians that they should not be polytheists (idolaters) and that they must confine sex to marriage.

    Ex: I dont think that killing in polytheistic societies gives monotheistic religion the right to do the same, that's not a justified excuse.

    * * *
    polytheistic
    polytheist
    * * *
    adj
    polytheistic
    nmf
    polytheist

    Spanish-English dictionary > politeísta

  • 3 ἔθνος

    ἔθνος, ους, τό (Hom.+).
    a body of persons united by kinship, culture, and common traditions, nation, people, τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρείας the Samaritan people Ac 8:9 (cp. Jos., Ant. 18, 85). τῶν Ἰουδαίων 10:22 (Polyb. in Jos., Ant. 12, 135; Agatharchides: 86 Fgm. 20b Jac. [in Jos., Ant. 12, 6]; Diod S 34+35 Fgm. 1, 2 τὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἔθνος; Philo, Decal. 96 al.; Just., D. 56, 10 ὑμῶν al.) ἐ. the (specific) people, contextually the people of Israel (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 5, 15, 24; Did., Gen. 209, 14) J 11:48, 50ff; 18:35. δώδεκα ἔ. Hs 9, 17, 2.—B 13:2 (Gen 25:23); ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χανάαν seven nations in Canaan Ac 13:19 (Dt 7:1). The people in contrast to heads of state 9:15. ἔθνος ἐπὶ ἔθνος one nation against another Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:10 (cp. 2 Ch 15:6); πάντα τὰ ἔ. (Ar. 12, 1; Ath. 14, 2; cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 106 §440 ἐν ἔθνεσιν ἅπασι; Jos., Ant. 11, 215 ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ.) Mt 24:14; 28:19 (SKio, BT 41, ’90, 230–38, prefers 2 below); Mk 11:17 (Is 56:7); 13:10. More specif. πάντα τὰ ἔ. τοῦ κόσμου Lk 12:30; cp. ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ. 1 Cl 59:4; ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔ. 2 Cl 13:2. πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων every nation of humankind Ac 17:26. ἄρχοντες ἐθνῶν Mt 20:25; also οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν τῶν ἐ. Mk 10:42; οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐ. Lk 22:25 (cp. Ath. 34, 2 ἡγεμόνας τῶν ἐ.).—In Mt 21:43 ἔ. (not gentiles) in contrast to the leaders described vv. 23; 45.
    (τὰ) ἔθνη people groups foreign to a specific people group (corresp. to Heb. גּוֹיִם in LXX; a nationalistic expression, also usu. in Gk. for foreigners: Aristot., Pol. 1324b, 10 [opp. Ἕλληνες]; Ael. Aristid. 45, p. 3 D.; Cass. Dio 36, 41; Ps.-Callisth. 2, 7, 4 [opp. ἡ Ἑλλάς]; IG II/1, 445 Fgm. ab, 8; Fgm. c, 5; 448, 15 and 17 [c. 150 B.C.]; SIG 760; PStras 22, 19; PFay 20, 11; this is an expression favored by Appian in Rome for foreign peoples in contrast to the Italians: Bell. Civ. 2, 26 §99; 2, 28 §107; 3, 35 §140; 4, 57 §246 and oft.; s. Nägeli 46; B-D-F §254, 3) in our lit.
    those who do not belong to groups professing faith in the God of Israel, the nations, gentiles, unbelievers (in effect=‘polytheists’) w. ἡγεμόνες κ. βασιλεῖς Mt 10:18. Named w. Israelites (Jos., Ant. 13, 196; cp. SibOr 3, 663; Just., A I, 53, 3ff and D. 123, 2 al.) Ac 14:5; 21:21; 26:17; Ro 3:29; 9:24; 15:10 (Dt 32:43); ISm 1:2. They, too, are to share in salvation (Did., Gen. 182, 19); cp. Ac 11:1, 18; 14:27; 15:3, 7; cp. 2 Cl 13:3 (Just., D. 26, 1 al.) (MKiddle, The Admission of the Gentiles in Lk and Ac: JTS 36, ’35, 160–73; JJeremias, Jesu Verheissung für die Völker ’56 [lit.], Eng. tr. Jesus’ Promise to the Nations ’58). But s. Mt 10:5f (MHooker, ET 82, ’71, 361–65). Their sacrificial rites 1 Cor 10:20 v.l. Paul as διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν 1 Ti 2:7; 2 Ti 1:11 v.l. Contrasted w. Christians Hs 1:10. Offended by Christian behavior ITr 8:2.
    non-Israelite Christians, gentiles of Christian congregations composed of more than one nationality and not limited to people of Israel (οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν πιστεύοντες Orig., C. Cels. 2, 1, 9; 8, 29, 24): πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν Ro 16:4, and their members: μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν it was his custom to eat w. gentile (non-Israelite) Christians Gal 2:12; cp. vs. 14. ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν τῶν ἐθνῶν for you gentile Christians Eph 3:1. Somet. the word connotes Israelite allegations of religious and moral inferiority of gentiles Mt 6:32 (s. Goodsp., Probs., 26f); Lk 12:30; Hm 4, 1, 9; ἔ. καὶ ἁμαρτωλοί Hs 4:4 al. ἄνομα ἔ. lawless gentiles (= polytheists) MPol 9:2. Contrasted w. the δίκαιοι (w. ἀποστάται) Hv 1, 4, 2; cp. 2, 2, 5.—RFeldmeier/UHeckel, edd., Die Heiden ’94 (essays by a number of scholars); JLaGrand, Proliferation of the ‘Gentile’ in the NRSV: BR 41, ’96, 77–87 (against use of ‘Gentiles’ as a rendering of ἔθνη).—B. 1315; 1489. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἔθνος

  • 4 αἰνέω

    αἰνέω fut. αἰνέσω, 1 aor. ᾔνεσα LXX to praise (so Hom. et al.; LXX; TestSol 12:5; TestAbr, Just. The primary idea: ‘express approval’ cp. IG IX/1, 119, 8.) in our lit. used only of the praise of God (Diog. L. 1, 39; very oft. LXX; TestAbr B 14, p. 119, 2 [Stone p. 86]; Just., A I, 13, 1, D. 106, 1; PGM 4, 1146) αἰ. τὸν θεόν Lk 2:13, 20; 19:37; 24:53 D; Ac 2:47; 3:8f; cp. MPol 14:3. τὸν κύριον Ro 15:11 (Ps 116:1). τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν Rv 19:5 (the dat. corresp. to לְ w. הוֹדָה and הִלֵּל LXX e.g. Jer 20:13; 1 Ch 16:36; 2 Ch 5:13; B-D-F §187, 4); cp. B 7:1. W. εὐλογεῖν (Da 5:23) Lk 24:53 v.l. (s. GKilpatrick in Essays in Memory of GHCMacgregor ’65, 19). Of praise of gods by polytheists Dg 2:7 (cp. Judg 16:24 A; Da 5:23). Cp. αἶνος.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > αἰνέω

  • 5 διαλογισμός

    διαλογισμός, οῦ, ὁ (s. διαλογίζομαι; since Demosth. 36, 23; Polyb., Epict., Plut., ins, pap [incl. POxy 3313, 7 (II A.D.)], LXX; TestJob 22:6; TestJud 14:3).
    the process of reasoning, reasoning of polytheists ἐματαιώθησαν ἐν τοῖς δ. αὐτῶν Ro 1:21.
    content of reasoning or conclusion reached through use of reason, thought, opinion, reasoning, design (Ps.-Pla., Axioch. 367a φροντίδες καὶ διαλογισμοί; mostly LXX; EpArist 216; Jos., Bell. 1, 320; TestJud 14:3) Lk 2:35; 5:22; 6:8; 9:47 (for the nuance in vs. 46 s. 3) Ro 14:1 (διάκρισις 2). διαλογισμοὺς ποιεῖσθαι devise plans (PEdg 60 verso, 2; 7=PCairZen 362 verso, 2; 7 [243/242 B.C.]) 1 Cl 21:3. The thoughts of the wise of this world are known to God 1 Cor 3:20 (Ps 93:11); evil machinations Mt 15:19; Mk 7:21. κριταὶ δ. πονηρῶν judges w. evil thoughts Js 2:4 (but here δ. can also be the legal t.t. decision [BGU 19 I, 13; 226, 22; PTebt 27:35 (113 B.C.)]: judges who give corrupt decisions).
    verbal exchange that takes place when conflicting ideas are expressed, dispute, argument εἰσῆλθεν δ. an argument arose Lk 9:46 (cp. the nuance in vs. 47 s. 2); χωρὶς δ. without dispute Phil 2:14; 1 Ti 2:8.
    reasoning that gives rise to uncertainty, doubt δ. ἀναβαίνουσιν doubts arise Lk 24:38—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διαλογισμός

  • 6 εἰδωλόθυτος

    εἰδωλόθυτος, ον (s. εἴδωλον and θύω; 4 Macc 5:2), only subst. τὸ εἰδωλόθυτον, someth. offered to a cultic image/idol, food sacrificed to idols an expr. which (s. εἴδωλον 2) was possible only within Israelite tradition (cp. Ps.-Phoc. 31 [an interpolation prob. based on Ac 15:29]; Just., D. 34, 8; 35, 1), where it was used in a derogatory sense. Polytheists said ἱερόθυτον (s. ἱερόθυτος). It refers to sacrificial meat, part of which was burned on the altar as the deities’ portion (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 8, 30, 1: τό εἰδωλόθυτον θύεται δαιμονίοις), part was eaten at a solemn meal in the temple, and part was sold in the market (so Artem. 5, 2) for home use. Within the Mosaic tradition it was unclean and therefore forbidden. Ac 15:29 (for lit. s. πνικτός); 21:25; 1 Cor 8:1, 4, 7, 10; 10:19, 28 v.l.; Rv 2:14, 20; D 6:3. (Iren. 6, 3 [Harv. I 55, 10]).—MRauer, D. ‘Schwachen’ in Korinth u. Rom 1923, 40–52; HvSoden, Sakrament u. Ethik b. Pls: Marburger Theol. Stud. 1, ’31, 1ff; GFee, Biblica 61, ’80, 172–97; WWillis, Idol Meat in Corinth: SBLDS 68, ’85; PTomson, Paul and the Jewish Law: CRINT III/1, ’90, 187–220; BWitherington III, Why Not Idol Meat?: BRev 10/3, ’94, 38–43; 54f.—EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἰδωλόθυτος

  • 7 εἴδωλον

    εἴδωλον, ου, τό (Hom. et al. ordinarily in the sense: form, image, shadow, phantom; cp. Ath. 27, 1; Hippol., Ref. 4, 50, 2; AcJ 28 [Aa II/1] 166, 13 used by a Christian of his bodily appearance as opposed to his real Christian self; LexGrMin 53, 20–24). In the LXX εἴδωλον bridges two views: the deities of the nations have no reality, and so are truly the products of fantasy; and they are manufactured by human hands (cp. the satire expressed, e.g., 3 Km 18:27; Jer 2:27f; Is 44:12–17).
    cultic image/representation of an alleged transcendent being, image, representation (cp. Chaeremon Fgm. 25 Db p. 38 H.: the falcon as εἰ. of the sun signifies a deity; Is 30:22; 2 Ch 23:17; Tob 14:6; EpJer 72; Just., A I, 64, 1 τὸ εἰ. τῆς λεγομένης Κο͂ρης; Ath. 15, 1; Orig., C. Cels. 3, 15, 15 [w. ἀγάλματα]; cp. Polyb. 30, 25, 13 θεῶν ἢ δαιμόνων εἴδωλα ‘images of gods or demi-gods’; Vett. Val. 67:5; 113, 17; Cat. Cod. Astr. VII p. 176, 22; OGI 201, 8; PStras 91, 10; PSI 901, 13 and 22). Sacrifices were made to it (Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 13, 23 p. 407, 31 Jac. πρὸς τῷ εἰδώλῳ ἀποσφάττεσθαι; Num 25:2; 1 Macc 1:43; cp. Orig., C. Cels. 1, 36, 32 ἀπὸ τῶν εἰ. μαντείαν λαβεῖν; since Mosaic law forbade material representation of God, all references in our lit. to a divine image, usu. transliterated ‘idol’, relate to polytheistic Gr-Rom. depiction) Ac 7:41; gold and silver (Ps 113:12) Rv 9:20. εἴδωλα ἄφωνα images that cannot speak 1 Cor 12:2 (but s. 2 below; cp. Hab 2:18; 3 Macc 4:16; JosAs 3:10 πρόσωπα τῶν εἰ.; 8:5 εἴ. νεκρὰ καὶ κωφά al.; Ar. 13, 1 θεοποιούμενοι τὰ κωφὰ καὶ ἀναίσθητα εἴ. ‘making gods out of mute and insensible images’.—Polytheists also know that the images of the gods are lifeless: e.g. Artem. 4, 36 ταῦτα οὐ ζῇ; for Ancient Near East s. MGruber, DDD 240. τούτων εἰδώλων τῶν πλάνων ‘these deceptive [deified] images’ ApcPt Bodl. ἵνα μηκέτι εἰδώλοις λατρεύῃς καὶ κνίσαις ‘so that you might no longer devote yourselves to images and sacrificial smoke’ AcPl Ha 2, 32. Cp. εἴδωλα, ἔργα χειρῶν ἀνθρώπων Theoph. Ant. 2, 34 [p.184, 25]).
    through metonymy the image and the deity or divinity alleged to be represented are freq. associated in such manner that the image factor is less significant than the component of unreality or spuriousness of what is represented (cp. Is 44:6–20; 46;1–7; Wsd 13–14) fabricated/imaged deity, idol (oft. LXX, also Philo; Jos., Ant. 9, 273; 10, 50; TestReub 4:6; TestSol; TestJos 4:5; 6:5; JosAs; Just., A I, 49, 5 al.; Iren. 1, 15, 4 [Harv. I 153, 7] al.; Orig., C. Cels. 5, 43, 11 [w. δαίμονες]) βδελύσσεσθαι τὰ εἴ. abhor idols Ro 2:22; cp. B 4:8. … ὅτι εἴ. τί ἐστιν; (do I mean to say) that an imaged deity is anything? 1 Cor 10:19 (i.e. the cult object as alleged image is evident, but its subject has no real existence as a god; Paul means that if any transcendent reality is at all to be assigned to an εἴδωλον, its status is not that of a god but of the lesser beings known as δαίμονες 1 Cor 10:20). Cp. 1 Cor 12:2 (s. 1 above). Contrasted w. the temple of God, i.e. God’s people 2 Cor 6:16. Contrasted w. God (cp. θεοὶ δὲ οὐ τὰ εἴδωλα ἢ δαίμονες Did., Gen. 248, 6) 1 Th 1:9. ἀπὸ τῶν εἰ. ἀποσπᾶν tear away fr. imaged deities 2 Cl 17:1; οὐδὲν εἴ. ἐν κόσμῳ (in wordplay w. οὐδεὶς θεός) no idol has any real existence in the universe (Twentieth Century NT) 1 Cor 8:4 (cp. the contrast between humanity as being οὐδέν and heaven that abides for the immortals Pind., N. 6, 3). τῇ συνηθείᾳ (v.l. συνειδήσει) because of their consciousness, up to now, that this is an imaged deity vs. 7; Ac 15:20; ἱερεῖς τῶν εἰ. priests of the imaged deities B 9:6. φυλάσσειν ἑαυτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν εἰ. keep oneself fr. deified illusions or ghosts (i.e. views of God that are divorced from the truth of God’s self-revelation in Jesus Christ; in contrast to this ἀλήθεια, the εἴδωλα are but phantoms in the Gr-Rom. sense of the term) 1J 5:21. JSuggit, JTS 36, ’85, 386–90. TPodella, Das Lichtkleid ’96, esp. 164–85.—B. 1491. DELG s.v. εἶδος. DDD s.v.‘AZZABIM and GILLULIM’. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἴδωλον

  • 8 εἶδος

    εἶδος, ους, τό (Hom.+.—CRitter, Neue Unters. über Plato 1910, 228–320)
    the shape and structure of someth. as it appears to someone, form, outward appearance (X., Cyr. 1, 2, 1; Pla., Symp. 210b; Philostrat., Ep. 51; Gen 41:2–4; Ezk 1:26; Philo; Jos., Ant. 6, 296; TestSim 5:1; Mel., P. 47, 334 [Perler]) σωματικῷ εἴδει in bodily form Lk 3:22; cp. GEb 18, 36 (Just., D. 88, 4 ἐν εἴδει περιστερᾶς and oft.). τὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ the appearance of his face Lk 9:29 (ApcEsdr 4:29 p. 29, 3 Tdf.). Of God (cp. Ex 24:17; Theoph. Ant. 1, 3 [p. 62, 8]) εἶδος αὐτοῦ (w. φωνή) J 5:37. Of the form of polytheists’ gods Dg 2:1. οὐκ ἔχειν εἶδος have no comeliness 1 Cl 16:3 (Is 53:2). τὸ πῦρ καμάρας εἶδος ποιῆσαν formed the shape of a vaulted room MPol 15:2.
    a variety of someth., kind (X., Pla. et al.; PTebt 58, 20f [111 B.C.]; PFay 34, 6; POxy 905, 6; Sir 23:16; 25:2; Philo; Jos., Ant. 10, 37 πᾶν εἶδος πονηρίας; Just., Tat., Ath. [here the ‘form’ of matter]) ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ fr. every kind of evil 1 Th 5:22 (Unknown Sayings, p. 92 [money-changing?])
    the act of looking/seeing, seeing, sight (Num 12:8; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 17, 18 στόμα κατὰ στόμα, ἐν εἴδει καὶ οὐ διʼ ὁραμάτων καὶ ἐνυπνίων. So also the interpr. of 2 Cor 5:7 in Severian of Gabala [Pauluskomm. aus d. griech. Kirche ed. KStaab ’33, 291] and in Theodoret III 314 Noesselt) διὰ πίστεως, οὐ διὰ εἴδους by faith, not by sight 2 Cor 5:7 (the same contrast betw. πιστεύειν and ἰδεῖν [s. εἶδον 1a] also J 20:29).—PBrommer, ΕΙΔΟΣ et ΙΔΕΑ ’40. DELG and Frisk. B. 874. EDNT. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > εἶδος

  • 9 κατά

    κατά (Hom.+) prep. (s. the lit. s.v. ἀνά beg., also LfgrE s.v. κατά 1346; with the gen. 74 times in NT; w. acc. 391 times in NT).
    A. w. the gen.
    of location that is relatively lower, down from someth. (Hom. et al.; LXX; Ath. 1, 4 κ. κόρρης προπηλακίζειν=to smack on one side of the head) ὁρμᾶν κ. τοῦ κρημνοῦ rush down (from) the bank (cp. Polyb. 38, 16, 7 κ. τῶν κρημνῶν ῥίπτειν; Jos., Bell. 1, 313) Mt 8:32; Mk 5:13; Lk 8:33. κ. κεφαλῆς ἔχειν have someth. on one’s head (lit. hanging down fr. the head, as a veil. Cp. Plut., Mor. 200f ἐβάδιζε κ. τῆς κεφαλῆς ἔχων τὸ ἱμάτιον.; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 499, 5 of a mummy ἔχων τάβλαν κ. τοῦ τραχήλου) 1 Cor 11:4.
    of position relatively deep, into someth. (Od. 9, 330 κ. σπείους ‘into the depths of the cave’; Hdt. 7, 235; X., An. 7, 1, 30) ἡ κ. βάθους πτωχεία extreme (lit. ‘reaching down into the depths’; cp. Strabo 9, 3, 5 [419] ἄντρον κοῖλον κ. βάθους) or abysmal poverty 2 Cor 8:2. This may perh. be the mng. of πλήσσειν τινὰ κ. τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν strike someone deep into the eyes ApcPt 11:26 (cp. Demosth. 19, 197 ξαίνει κ. τοῦ νώτου; PPetr II, 18 [2b], 15 [246 B.C.] ἔτυπτεν αὐτὸν κ. τοῦ τραχήλου).—κ. γαστρός Just., D. 78, 3 for ἐν γαστρί Mt 1:18 (cp. Ath. 35, 2 τὸ κ. γαστρὸς ζῶον εἶναι).
    extension in various directions within an area, throughout (so in Luke’s writings; Polyb. 3, 19, 7 κ. τῆς νήσου διεσπάρησαν; PGiss 48, 8 κ. κυριακῆς γῆς; Jos., Ant. 8, 297; SibOr 3, 222; 4, 24; 5, 305) γνωστὸν γενέσθαι καθʼ ὅλης Ἰόππης become known throughout all Joppa Ac 9:42. καθʼ ὅλης τῆς Ἰουδαίας 9:31; 10:37; Lk 23:5. φήμη ἐξῆλθεν καθʼ ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου 4:14.
    down upon, toward, against someone or someth, fig. ext. of 1.
    w. verbs of swearing, to denote what one swears by (Thu. 5, 47, 8; Lysias 32, 13; Isaeus 7, 28; Demosth. 21, 119; 29, 26; SIG 526, 4ff; 685, 25; UPZ 110, 39 [164 B.C.]; BGU 248, 13; Jdth 1:12; Is 45:23; 2 Ch 36:13) by ἐξορκίζειν (q.v.) Mt 26:63. ὀμνύναι (q.v.) Hb 6:13, 16. ὁρκίζειν (q.v.) Hs 9, 10, 5. Sim. ἐρωτᾶν κ. τινος request, entreat by someone Hv 3, 2, 3.
    in a hostile sense, against
    α. after verbs that express hostile action, etc. διχάζειν Mt 10:35. ἐπαίρεσθαι 2 Cor 10:5. ἰσχύειν Ac 19:16. κακοῦν 14:2. στρατεύεσθαι 1 Pt 2:11. φυσιοῦσθαι 1 Cor 4:6
    β. after words and expressions that designate hostile speech, esp. an accusation ἔχειν (τι) κ. τινος have or hold someth. against someone Rv 2:4, 14, 20. φέρειν J 18:29. ἐγκαλεῖν Ro 8:33. ἐντυγχάνειν τινὶ κ. τινος 11:2 (TestJob 17:5). κατηγορεῖν Lk 23:14. ποιεῖν κρίσιν Jd 15a. τὸ κ. ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον the bond that stands against us Col 2:14. ἐμφανίζειν Ac 24:1; 25:2. αἰτεῖσθαί τι 25:3, 15. αἱ κ. τινος αἰτίαι vs. 27. εἰπεῖν πονηρόν Mt 5:11 (cp. Soph., Phil. 65 κακὰ λέγειν κ. τινος. X., Hell. 1, 5, 2; Isocr., C. Nic. 13; Plut., Mor. 2a λέγειν κ.; SIG 1180, 1 λέγειν κ. τινος; Just., A I, 23, 3; 49, 6 κ. τῶν … ὁμολογούντων). λαλεῖν ῥήματα Ac 6:13; cp. Jd 15b (TestDan 4:3; JosAs 23:15). μαρτυρεῖν κ. τ. θεοῦ give testimony in contradiction to God 1 Cor 15:15. ζητεῖν μαρτυρίαν κ. τινος testimony against someone Mk 14:55. ψευδομαρτυρεῖν 14:56f. ψευδομαρτυρία Mt 26:59. γογγύζειν 20:11. στενάζειν Js 5:9. διδάσκειν Ac 21:28. συμβούλιον διδόναι (ποιεῖν v.l.) Mk 3:6; ς. λαβεῖν Mt 27:1. ψεύδεσθαι Js 3:14 (Lysias 22, 7; X., Ap. 13; Ath. 35, 1 καθʼ ἡμῶν … κατεψεύσατο).
    γ. after expressions that designate such a position or state of mind in a different way εἶναι κ. τινος be against someone (opp. ὑπέρ) Mk 9:40 (WNestle, ZNW 13, 1912, 84–87; AFridrichsen, ibid., 273–80); Ro 8:31; (opp. μετά) Mt 12:30; Lk 11:23. δύνασθαί τι κ. τινος be able to do someth. against someone 2 Cor 13:8. ἔχειν τι κ. τινος have someth. against someone (in one’s heart) Mt 5:23; Mk 11:25; Hs 9, 24, 2; cp. ibid. 23, 2, where the acc. is to be supplied. ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν J 19:11. ἐπιθυμεῖν Gal 5:17. μερίζεσθαι καθʼ ἑαυτῆς Mt 12:25. Cp. 1 Cl 39:4 (Job 4:18).—κατά prob. means against also in ἔβαλεν κατʼ αὐτῆς ἄνεμος Ac 27:14. ἐτελείωσαν κ. τ. κεφαλῆς αὐτῶν τὰ ἁμαρτήματα they completed the full measure of sins against their own head GPt 5:17.
    B. w. acc. (so in the NT 399 times [besides καθʼ εἷς and κατὰ εἷς])
    of extension in space, along, over, through, in, upon (Hom. et al.; OGI 90, 7 ἐκ τῶν κ. τ. χώραν ἱερῶν; PHib 82, 19; PTebt 5, 188; LXX; Just.; Mel., HE 4, 26, 5) Ac 24:12. καθʼ ὅλην τ. πόλιν throughout the city Lk 8:39 (cp. Diod S 4, 10, 6 καθʼ ὅλην τὴν Ἐλλάδα). ἐγένετο λιμὸς κ. τὴν χώραν ἐκείνην 15:14. κ. τὰς κώμας 9:6. κ. πόλεις καὶ κώμας 13:22 (Appian., Maced. 9 §1 and 4 κ. πόλεις; Just., A I, 67, 3 κ. πόλεις ἢ ἀγρούς).—κ. τόπους in place after place Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:11 (Theophr., περὶ σημ. 1, 4 p. 389 W.; Cat. Cod. Astr. III 28, 11 ἐν μέρει τ. ἀνατολῆς κ. τόπους, VIII/3, 186, 1 λιμὸς καὶ λοιμὸς καὶ σφαγαὶ κ. τόπους). οἱ ὄντες κ. τὴν Ἰουδαίαν those throughout Judea or living in Judea Ac 11:1. διασπαρῆναι κ. τὰς χώρας τῆς Ἰουδαίας be scattered over the regions of Judea 8:1. κ. τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν in the congregation there 13:1. τοῖς κ. τὴν Ἀντιόχειαν καὶ Συρίαν καὶ Κιλικίαν ἀδελφοῖς 15:23. τοὺς κ. τὰ ἔθνη Ἰουδαίους the Judeans (dispersed) throughout the nations 21:21. τοῖς κ. τὸν νόμον γεγραμμένοις throughout the law = in the law 24:14b. κ. τὴν ὁδόν along or on the way (Lucian, Catapl. 4; Jos., Ant. 8, 404) Lk 10:4; Ac 25:3; 26:13. τὸ κ. Κιλικίαν καὶ Παμφυλίαν πέλαγος the sea along the coast of Cilicia and Pamphylia 27:5; but the geographical designation τὰ μέρη τ. Λιβύης τῆς κ. Κυρήνην 2:10 prob. belongs to b: the parts of Libya toward Cyrene.
    of extension toward, toward, to, up to ἐλθεῖν (γίνεσθαι v.l.) κ. τὸν τόπον come up to the place (Jos., Vi. 283) Lk 10:32. ἐλθόντες κ. τὴν Μυσίαν to Mysia Ac 16:7; cp. 27:7. πορεύεσθαι κ. μεσημβρίαν (s. μεσημβρία 2) toward the south 8:26 (cp. Jos., Bell. 5, 505). κ. σκοπὸν διώκειν run (over the course) toward the goal Phil 3:14. λιμὴν βλέπων κ. λίβα καὶ κ. χῶρον a harbor open to the southwest and northwest Ac 27:12 (s. βλέπω 8).—κ. πρόσωπον to the face (cp. Jos., Ant. 5, 205) Gal 2:11. ἔχειν τινὰ κ. πρόσωπον meet someone face to face (Thieme 19 has reff. for the use of κατὰ πρόσωπον as a legal formula) Ac 25:16. κ. πρόσωπον ταπεινός humble when personally present 2 Cor 10:1. κ. πρόσωπόν τινος in the presence of someone Lk 2:31; Ac 3:13. τὰ κ. πρόσωπον what lies before one’s eyes, i.e. is obvious 2 Cor 10:7. κ. ὀφθαλμοὺς προγράφειν portray before one’s eyes Gal 3:1.
    of isolation or separateness, by (Thu. 1, 138, 6 οἱ καθʼ ἑαυτοὺς Ἕλληνες ‘the Greeks by themselves’; Polyb. 1, 24, 4; 5, 78, 3; 11, 17, 6; Diod S 13, 72, 8; Gen 30:40; 43:32; 2 Macc 13:13; Philo, Migr. Abr. 87; 90; Just., D. 4, 5 αὐτὴ καθʼ ἑαυτήν γενομένη; Tat. 13, 1 ἡ ψυχὴ καθʼ ἑαυτήν; Ath. 15, 2 ὁ πηλὸς καθʼ ἑαυτόν) ἔχειν τι καθʼ ἑαυτόν keep someth. to oneself Ro 14:22 (cp. Jos., Ant. 2, 255; Heliod. 7, 16, 1). καθʼ ἑαυτὸν μένειν live by oneself of the private dwelling of Paul in Rome Ac 28:16. πίστις νεκρὰ καθʼ ἑαυτήν faith by itself is dead Js 2:17 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 3, 43 τὸ σῶμα καθʼ αὑτὸ νεκρόν ἐστιν). ἡ κατʼ οἶκον ἐκκλησία the congregation in the house Ro 16:5; 1 Cor 16:19. κατʼ ἰδίαν s. ἴδιος 5. κ. μόνας (Thu. 1, 32, 5; Menand., Epitr. 988 S. [658 Kö.], Fgm. 146 Kö. [158 Kock]; Polyb. 4, 15, 11; Diod S 4, 51, 16; BGU 813, 15 [s. APF 2, 1903, 97]; LXX) alone, by oneself Mk 4:10; Lk 9:18; Hm 11:8 (here, as well as BGU loc. cit. and LXX, written as one word καταμόνας).
    of places viewed serially, distributive use w. acc., x by x (Arrian., Anab. 4, 21, 10 κ. σκηνήν=tent by tent) or from x to x: κατʼ οἶκον from house to house (PLond III, 904, 20 p. 125 [104 A.D.] ἡ κατʼ οἰκίαν ἀπογραφή) Ac 2:46b; 5:42 (both in ref. to various house assemblies or congregations; w. less probability NRSV ‘at home’); cp. 20:20. Likew. the pl. κ. τοὺς οἴκους εἰσπορευόμενος 8:3. κ. τὰς συναγωγάς 22:19. κ. πόλιν (Jos., Ant. 6, 73) from city to city IRo 9:3, but in every (single) city Ac 15:21; 20:23; Tit 1:5. Also κ. πόλιν πᾶσαν (cp. Herodian 1, 14, 9) Ac 15:36; κ. πᾶσαν πόλιν 20:23 D. κ. πόλιν καὶ κώμην Lk 8:1; cp. vs. 4.
    marker of temporal aspect (Hdt. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, apolog.)
    in definite indications of time: at, on, during (Hdt. 8, 17; Polemon Soph. B 43 Reader κατʼ ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν ‘in the course of that day’) κατʼ ἀρχάς in the beginning (cp. ἀρχή 1b) Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26). κ. τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ in the day of trial 3:8 (Ps 94:8.—Cp. Antig. Car. 173 κ. τὸν σπόρου καιρόν). νεκροῦ … ἀνάστασιν κατʼ αὐτὸν γεγονυῖαν ἱστορεῖ (Papias) reports that a resurrection from the dead occurred in his time Papias (2, 9; so, with personal names, Hdt.; Just., D. 23, 1 τοῦ θεοῦ … τοῦ κ. τὸν Ἐνώχ; Tat. 31, 2 Θεαγένης … κ. Καμβύσην γεγονώς). Of the future: κ. τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον at that time, then Ro 9:9 (Gen 18:10). Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, then (2 Macc 3:5; TestJos 12:1; Jos., Ant. 8, 266; cp. κατʼ ἐκεῖνο τοῦ καιροῦ Konon: 26 Fgm. 3 p. 191, 25 Jac.; Just., A I, 17, 2; 26, 3 al.) Ac 12:1; 19:23. κ. καιρόν at that time, then Ro 5:6 (Just., D. 132, 1; cp. OGI 90, 28 καθʼ ὸ̔ν καιρόν), unless καιρός here means the right time (s. καιρός 1b end). κατʼ ὄναρ (as καθʼ ὕπνον Gen 20:6; Just., D 60, 5 κ. τοὺς ὕπνους) during a dream, in a dream Mt 1:20; 2:12 (s. s.v. ὄναρ for ins).
    with indefinite indications of time: toward, about κ. τὸ μεσονύκτιον about midnight Ac 16:25; cp. 27:27.—8:26 (s. μεσημβρία 1).
    distributively (cp. 1d): x period by x period: κατʼ ἔτος every year (s. ἔτος) Lk 2:41. Also κατʼ ἐνιαυτόν (s. ἐνιαυτός 1) Hb 9:25; 10:1, 3. καθʼ ἡμέραν daily, every day (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Mt 26:55; Mk 14:49; Lk 16:19; 22:53; Ac 2:46f; 3:2; 16:5; 17:11; 19:9; 1 Cor 15:31; Hb 7:27; 10:11. Also τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Lk 11:3; 19:47; Ac 17:11 v.l. ἡ ἐπίστασις ἡ καθʼ ἡμέραν (s. ἐπίστασις) 2 Cor 11:28. κ. πᾶσαν ἡμέραν every day (Jos., Ant. 6, 49) Ac 17:7. Also καθʼ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν (s. ἡμέρα 2c) Hb 3:13. κ. μίαν σαββάτου on the first day of every week 1 Cor 16:2. κ. πᾶν σάββατον every Sabbath Ac 13:27; 15:21b; 18:4. κ. μῆνα ἕκαστον each month Rv 22:2 (κ. μῆνα as SIG 153, 65; POxy 275, 18; 2 Macc 6:7). κ. ἑορτήν at each festival Mt 27:15; Mk 15:6.
    marker of division of a greater whole into individual parts, at a time, in detail, distributive use apart from indications of place (s. above 1d) and time (s. 2c)
    w. numerals: κ. δύο ἢ τὸ πλεῖστον τρεῖς two or, at the most, three at a time (i.e. in any one meeting, cp. ἀνὰ μέρος) 1 Cor 14:27 (Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 42 κ. δύο καὶ τρεῖς; Jos., Ant. 3, 142 κ. ἕξ; 5, 172 κ. δύο καὶ τρεῖς). καθʼ ἕνα (on this and the foll. s. εἷς 5e) singly, one after the other vs. 31. κ. ἕνα λίθον each individual stone Hs 9, 3, 5; καθʼ ἕνα λίθον 9, 6, 3. κ. ἓν ἕκαστον one by one, in detail Ac 21:19; 1 Cl 32:1 (Ath. 28, 4 καθʼ ἕκαστον). εἷς καθʼ εἷς Mk 14:19; J 8:9; cp. Ro 12:5 (B-D-F §305; Rob. 460). κ. ἑκατὸν καὶ κ. πεντήκοντα in hundreds and in fifties Mk 6:40.
    περί τινος λέγειν κ. μέρος speak of someth. in detail Hb 9:5 (s. μέρος 1c). κατʼ ὄνομα (each one) by name (ἀσπάζομαι … τοὺς ἐνοίκους πάντες κα[τʼ] ὄνομα PTebt [III A.D.] 422, 11–16; Jos., Vi. 86) J 10:3; 3J 15 (cp. BGU 27, 18); ISm 13:2.
    marker of intention or goal, for the purpose of, for, to (Thu. 6, 31, 1 κ. θέαν ἥκειν=to look at something; cp. Sb 7263, 6 [254 B.C.]; X., An. 3, 5, 2 καθʼ ἁρπαγὴν ἐσκεδασμένοι; Arrian, Anab. 1, 17, 12; 4, 5, 1; 21, 9; 6, 17, 6; 26, 2; Lucian, Ver. Hist. 2, 29; Anton. Lib., Fab. 24, 1 Δημήτηρ ἐπῄει γῆν ἅπασαν κ. ζήτησιν τῆς θυγατρός; 38; Jdth 11:19) κ. τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων for the Jewish ceremonial purification J 2:6. κατὰ ἀτιμίαν λέγω to my shame 2 Cor 11:21 (cp. Jos., Ant. 3, 268 κ. τιμὴν τ. θεοῦ τοῦτο ποιῶν). ἀπόστολος … κ. πίστιν … καὶ ἐπίγνωσιν an apostle … for the faith … and the knowledge Tit 1:1 (but the mng. ‘in accordance with’ is also prob.).
    marker of norm of similarity or homogeneity, according to, in accordance with, in conformity with, according to
    to introduce the norm which governs someth.
    α. the norm of the law, etc. (OGI 56, 33; Mitt-Wilck., I/2, 352, 11 κ. τὰ κελευσθέντα [as Just., D. 78, 7]; POxy 37 II, 8) κ. τὸν νόμον (Jos., Ant. 14, 173; 15, 51; Just., D. 10, 1 al.; Ath. 31, 1; κ. τοὺς νόμους Ἀρεοπαγείτης, letter of MAurelius: ZPE 8, ’71, 169, ln. 27) Lk 2:22; J 18:31; 19:7; Hb 7:5. τὰ κ. τ. νόμον what is to be done according to the law Lk 2:39 (cp. EpArist 32). κ. τὸ ὡρισμένον in accordance w. what has been determined 22:22. Cp. 1:9; 2:24, 27, 42; Ac 17:2; 22:3. κ. τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου Ro 2:16; 16:25a; 2 Ti 2:8. κ. τὸ εἰρημένον Ro 4:18 (cp. Ath. 28, 1 κ. τὰ προειρημένα). κ. τὰς γραφάς (Just., D. 82, 4; cp. Paus. 6, 21, 10 κ. τὰ ἔπη=according to the epic poems; Just., A I, 32, 14 κ. τὸ λόγιον, D. 67, 1 κ. τὴν προφητείαν ταύτην) 1 Cor 15:3; cp. Js 2:8. κ. τὴν παράδοσιν Mk 7:5 (Tat. 39, 1 κ. τὴν Ἑλλήνων παράδοσιν).—κ. λόγον as one wishes (exx. in Dssm., B 209 [not in BS]; also PEleph 13, 1; 3 Macc 3:14) Ac 18:14 (though 5bβ below is also prob.).—It can also stand simply w. the acc. of the pers. according to whose will, pleasure, or manner someth. occurs κ. θεόν (cp. Socrat., Ep. 14, 5 κ. θεόν; 26, 2; Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 4 p. 332, 1 Jac. and Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 84 §352 κ. δαίμονα; Jos., Ant. 4, 143 ὁ κ. τοῦτον[=θεόν] βίος; Just., D. 5, 1 κ. τινας … Πλατωνικούς; Tat. 1, 3 κ. … τὸν κωμικόν) Ro 8:27; 2 Cor 7:9–11; κ. Χριστὸν Ἰ. Ro 15:5. κ. κύριον 2 Cor 11:17. Cp. 1 Pt 1:15. κ. τ. Ἕλληνας in the manner of the Greeks, i.e. polytheists PtK 2, p. 14, 1; 7. κ. Ἰουδαίους ln. 25.
    β. the norm according to which a judgment is rendered, or rewards or punishments are given ἀποδοῦναι τινι κ. τ. πρᾶξιν or ἔργα αὐτοῦ (Ps 61:13; Pr 24:12; Just., A I, 12, 1; 17, 4 al.; κατʼ ἀξίαν τῶν πράξεων) Mt 16:27; Ro 2:6; 2 Ti 4:14; Rv 2:23. μισθὸν λήμψεται κ. τ. ἴδιον κόπον 1 Cor 3:8. κρίνειν κ. τι J 7:24; 8:15; 1 Pt 1:17; cp. Ro 2:2.
    γ. of a standard of any other kind κ. τ. χρόνον ὸ̔ν ἠκρίβωσεν in accordance w. the time which he had ascertained Mt 2:16. κ. τ. πίστιν ὑμῶν acc. to your faith 9:29. κ. τ. δύναμιν acc. to his capability 25:15 (Just., D. 139, 4; Tat. 12, 3; cp. Just., A II, 13, 6 κ. δύναμιν). Cp. Lk 1:38; 2:29; Ro 8:4; 10:2; Eph 4:7. ἀνὴρ κ. τ. καρδίαν μου Ac 13:22 (καρδία 1bε).
    δ. Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged: οἱ κ. πρόθεσιν κλητοί Ro 8:28. κατʼ ἐπιταγὴν θεοῦ 16:26; 1 Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Eph 3:3 (Just., D. 78, 2). οἱ καθʼ ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ Ro 2:7. κατʼ ἐκλογήν 11:5 (Just., D. 49, 1). Cp. κ. τὴν βουλήν Eph 1:11 (Just., A I, 63, 16 al.); 2 Th 2:9; Hb 7:16. κ. τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο; by what shall I know this? (cp. Gen 15:8) Lk 1:18.—Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis of (Ael. Aristid. 46 p. 219 D.: κ. τοὺς νόμους; Jos., Ant. 1, 259; 278; Just., A I, 54, 1 κατʼ ἐνέργειαν τῶν φαύλων δαιμόνων; Ath. 7, 1 κ. συμπάθειαν τῆς παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ πνοῆς; 32, 1 κ. χρησμόν). κ. πᾶσαν αἰτίαν for any and every reason (αἰτία 1) Mt 19:3. κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2. Cp. Ro 2:5; 1 Cor 12:8 (κ. τ. πνεῦμα = διὰ τοῦ πν.); Eph 1:5; 4:22b; Phil 4:11; 1 Ti 5:21; 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 3:5; κ. ἀνάγκην Phlm 14 (Ar. 1, 2; 4, 2 al.; Just., A I, 30, 1; 61, 10; Ath. 24, 2); IPol 1:3. ὁ κ. τὸ πολὺ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς 1 Pt 1:3.—καθʼ ὅσον (Thu. 4, 18, 4) in so far as, inasmuch as Hb 3:3. καθʼ ὅσον …, κ. τοσοῦτο in so far as …, just so far (Lysias 31, 8; Galen, De Dignosc. Puls. 3, 2, VIII 892 K.) 7:20, 22.
    as a periphrasis to express equality, similarity, or example in accordance with, just as, similar(ly) to (TestJob 32:6 τίς γὰρ κ. σε ἐν μέσῳ τῶν τέκνων σου; Tat. 25, 1 κ. … τὸν Πρωτέα like Proteus; schol. on Nicander, Ther. 50: sheep are not burden-bearers κ. τοὺς ὄνους=as donkeys are).
    α. κ. τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν μὴ ποιεῖτε do not do as they do Mt 23:3. κ. Ἰσαάκ just as Isaac Gal 4:28. κ. θεὸν κτισθείς Eph 4:24 (Synes., Prov. 2, 2 p. 118c κ. θεόν=just as a god). Cp. Col 3:10. κ. τὸν τύπον Hb 8:5 (Ex 25:40; Mel., P. 58, 424 [νόμον v.l.]). Cp. 5:6 (Ps 109:4); 8:9 (Jer 38: 32); Js 3:9.—κ. τὰ αὐτά in (just) the same way (OGI 56, 66; PEleph 2, 6; 1 Macc 8:27; 12:2; Just., D. 1, 2; 3, 5; 113, 3) Lk 6:23, 26; 17:30; Dg 3:1. On the other hand, the sing. κ. τὸ αὐτό Ac 14:1 means together (marriage contract PEleph 1, 5 [IV B.C.] εἶναι ἡμᾶς κ. ταὐτό; 1 Km 11:11). καθʼ ὸ̔ν τρόπον just as (2 Macc 6:20; 4 Macc 14:17) Ac 15:11; 27:25. καθʼ ὅσον …, οὕτως (just) as …, so Hb 9:27. κ. πάντα τρόπον in every way (PSI 520, 16 [250 B.C.]; PCairZen 631, 2; 3 Macc 3:24) Ro 3:2. κ. μηδένα τρόπον (PMagd 14, 9 [221 B.C.]; PRein 7, 31; 3 Macc 4:13; 4 Macc 4:24; Just., D. 35, 7; s. Reader, Polemo 262) 2 Th 2:3. Cp. Johannessohn, Kasus, 1910, 82. κατά w. acc. serves in general
    β. to indicate the nature, kind, peculiarity or characteristics of a thing (freq. as a periphrasis for the adv.; e.g. Antiochus of Syracuse [V B.C.]: 555 Fgm. 12 Jac. κ. μῖσος=out of hate, filled with hate) κατʼ ἐξουσίαν with authority or power Mk 1:27. κ. συγκυρίαν by chance Lk 10:31. κ. ἄγνοιαν without knowing Ac 3:17 (s. ἄγνοια 2a). κ. ἄνθρωπον 1 Cor 3:3 al. (s. Straub 15; Aeschyl., Th. 425; ἄνθρωπος 2b). κ. κράτος powerfully, Ac 19:20 (κράτος 1a). κ. λόγον reasonably, rightly (Pla.; Polyb. 1, 62, 4; 5; 5, 110, 10; Jos., Ant. 13, 195; PYale 42, 24 [12 Jan., 229 B.C.]) 18:14 (but s. above 5aα). λέγειν τι κ. συγγνώμην οὐ κατʼ ἐπιταγήν say someth. as a concession, not as a command 1 Cor 7:6; cp. 2 Cor 8:8. κ. τάξιν in (an) order(ly manner) 1 Cor 14:40 (τάξις 2). κατʼ ὀφθαλμοδουλίαν with eye-service Eph 6:6. μηδὲν κατʼ ἐριθείαν μηδὲ κ. κενοδοξίαν Phil 2:3. κ. ζῆλος zealously 3:6a, unless this pass. belongs under 6 below, in its entirety. κ. σάρκα on the physical plane Ro 8:12f; 2 Cor 1:17; also 5:16ab, if here κ. ς. belongs w. οἴδαμεν or ἐγνώκαμεν (as Bachmann, JWeiss, H-D Wendland, Sickenberger take it; s. 7a below). καθʼ ὑπερβολήν (PTebt 42, 5f [c. 114 B.C.] ἠδικημένος καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπὸ, Ἁρμιύσιος; 4 Macc 3:18) beyond measure, beyond comparison Ro 7:13; 1 Cor 12:31; 2 Cor 4:17. καθʼ ὁμοιότητα (Aristot.; Gen 1:12; Philo, Fug. 51; Tat. 12, 4 κ. τὸ ὅμοιον αὐτῇ) in a similar manner Hb 4:15b. κ. μικρόν in brief B 1:5 (μικρός 1eγ).
    denoting relationship to someth., with respect to, in relation to κ. σάρκα w. respect to the flesh, physically of human descent Ro 1:3; 4:1; 9:3, 5 (Ar. 15, 7 κ. σάρκα … κ. ψυχήν; Just., D. 43, 7 ἐν τῷ γένει τῷ κ. σάρκα τοῦ Ἀβραάμ al.). κ. τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον 7:22 (cp. POxy 904, 6 πληγαῖς κατακοπτόμενον κ. τὸ σῶμα). Cp. Ro 1:4; 11:28; Phil 3:5, 6b (for vs. 6a s. 5bβ above); Hb 9:9b. τὰ κ. τινα (Hdt. 7, 148; Diod S 1, 10, 73; Aelian, VH 2, 20; PEleph 13, 3; POxy 120, 14; Tob 10:9; 1 Esdr 9:17; 2 Macc 3:40; 9:3 al.) someone’s case, circumstances Ac 24:22 (cp. PEleph 13, 3 τὰ κ. σε; Just., A I, 61, 13 τὰ κ. τὸν Ἰησοῦν πάντα, D. 102, 2 τὰ κ. αὐτόν; Ath. 24, 4 τὸ κ. τοὺς ἀγγέλους); 25:14; Eph 6:21; Phil 1:12; Col 4:7. κ. πάντα in all respects (since Thu. 4, 81, 3; Sb 4324, 3; 5761, 22; SIG 834, 7; Gen 24:1; Wsd 19:22; 2 Macc 1:17; 3 Macc 5:42; JosAs 1:7; Just., A II, 4, 4, D. 35, 8 al.); Ac 17:22; Col 3:20, 22a; Hb 2:17 (Artem. 1, 13 αὐτῷ ὅμοιον κ. π.); 4:15a.
    Somet. the κατά phrase, which would sound cumbersome in the rendering ‘such-and-such’, ‘in line with’, or ‘in accordance with’, is best rendered as an adj., a possessive pron., or with a genitival construction to express the perspective from which something is perceived or to be understood. In translation it thus functions as
    an adj. (Synes., Kingdom 4 p. 4d τὰ κατʼ ἀρετὴν ἔργα i.e. the deeds that are commensurate with that which is exceptional = virtuous deeds; PHib 27, 42 ταῖς κ. σελήνην ἡμέραις; 4 Macc 5:18 κ. ἀλήθειαν=ἀληθής; Just., A I, 2, 1 τοὺς κ. ἀλήθειαν εὐσεβεῖς; Tat. 26, 2 τῆς κ. ἀλήθειαν σοφίας) οἱ κ. φύσιν κλάδοι the natural branches Ro 11:21. ἡ κατʼ εὐσέβειαν διδασκαλία 1 Ti 6:3; cp. Tit 1:1b. οἱ κ. σάρκα κύριοι the earthly masters (in wordplay, anticipating the κύριος who is in the heavens, vs. 9) Eph 6:5. Cp. 2 Cor 5:16b, in case (s. 5bβ above) κ. ς. belongs w. Χριστόν (as the majority, incl. Ltzm., take it): a physical Christ, a Christ in the flesh, in his earthly relationships (σάρξ 5). Correspondingly in vs. 16a κ. ς. would be taken w. οὐδένα: no one simply as a physical being.—JMartyn, JKnox Festschr., ’67, 269–87.
    a possessive pron., but with limiting force (Demosth. 2, 27 τὰ καθʼ ὑμᾶς ἐλλείμματα [i.e. in contrast to the activities of others: ‘your own’]; Aelian, VH 2, 42 ἡ κατʼ αὐτὸν ἀρετή; 3, 36; OGI 168, 17 παραγεγονότες εἰς τοὺς καθʼ ὑμᾶς τόπους; SIG 646, 6; 807, 15 al.; UPZ 20, 9 [II B.C.] ἐπὶ τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς λειτουργίας; PTebt 24, 64; 2 Macc 4:21; Tat. 42, 1 τίς ὁ θεὸς καὶ τίς ἡ κατʼ αὐτὸν ποίησις; Mel., HE 4, 26, 7 ἡ καθʼ ἡμᾶς φιλοσοφία) τῶν καθʼ ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν τινες some of your (own) poets Ac 17:28. ἡ καθʼ ὑμᾶς πίστις Eph 1:15. ὁ καθʼ ὑμᾶς νόμος Ac 18:15. τὸ κατʼ ἐμὲ πρόθυμον my eagerness Ro 1:15.
    a gen. w. a noun (Polyb. 3, 113, 1 ἡ κ. τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατολή; 2, 48, 2; 3, 8, 1 al.; Diod S 14, 12 ἡ κ. τὸν τύραννον ὠμότης; Dionys. Hal. 2, 1; SIG 873, 5 τῆς κ. τ. μυστήρια τελετῆς; 569, 22; 783, 20; PTebt 5, 25; PLond III, 1164k, 20 p. 167 [212 A.D.] ὑπὸ τοῦ κ. πατέρα μου ἀνεψιοῦ) τὰ κ. Ἰουδαίους ἔθη the customs of the Judeans Ac 26:3 (Tat. 12, 5 τῇ κ. Βαβυλωνίους προγνωστικῇ; 34, 2 ἡ κ. τὸν Ἀριστόδημον πλαστική). Cp. 27:2. ἡ κ. πίστιν δικαιοσύνη the righteousness of faith Hb 11:7. ἡ κατʼ ἐκλογὴν πρόθεσις purpose of election Ro 9:11.—Here also belong the titles of the gospels εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον etc., where κατά is likew. periphrasis for a gen. (cp. JLydus, De Mag. 3, 46 p. 136, 10 Wünsch τῆς κ. Λουκανὸν συγγραφῆς; Herodian 2, 9, 4 of an autobiography ἐν τῷ καθʼ αὑτὸν βίῳ; Jos., C. Ap. 1, 18 τ. καθʼ αὐτὸν ἱστορίαν; 2 Macc 2:13. Cp. B-D-F §163; 224, 2; Zahn, Einleitung §49; BBacon, Why ‘According to Mt’? Exp., 8th ser., 16, 1920, 289–310).—On the periphrasis of the gen. by κατά s. Rudberg (ἀνά beg.) w. many exx. fr. Pla. on. But it occurs as early as Thu. 6, 16, 5 ἐν τῷ κατʼ αὐτοὺς βίῳ.—M-M. DELG. EDNT. TW.

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  • 10 κατεργάζομαι

    κατεργάζομαι mid. dep., Att. fut. 2 sg. κατεργᾷ Dt 28:39; 1 aor. κατειργασάμην; perf. κατείργασμαι. Pass.: fut. 2 pl. κατεργασθήσεσθε Ezk 36:9; aor. κατειργάσθην (on κατηργασάμην and κατηργάσθην s. B-D-F §67, 3; W-S. §12, 1; Mlt-H. 189) (Soph., Hdt.+).
    to bring about a result by doing someth., achieve, accomplish, do τὶ someth. (Hdt. 5, 24 πρήγματα μεγάλα; X., Mem. 3, 5, 11; Jos., Vi. 289) Ro 7:15, 17f, 20; 1 Cor 5:3; 1 Cl 32:3f. τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην κατεργαζόμενοι committing shameless acts Ro 1:27. τὸ κακόν do what is wrong 2:9; 13:10 v.l. τὸ βούλημα τῶν ἐθνῶν do what the gentiles (i.e. polytheists) like to do 1 Pt 4:3. δικαιοσύνην θεοῦ does what is right in the sight of God or (s. ἐργάζεσθαι 2c) achieves the uprightness that counts before God Js 1:20 v.l. ἅπαντα κατεργασάμενοι after you have done or accomplished everything (in this case the reference would be to the individual pieces of armor mentioned in what follows, which the reader is to employ as is prescribed; but s. 4 below) Eph 6:13. ὧν οὐ κατειργάσατο Χριστὸς διʼ ἐμοῦ of anything except what Christ has accomplished through me Ro 15:18. Pass. τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου κατειργάσθη ἐν ὑμῖν the signs by which an apostle demonstrates his authority have been done among you 2 Cor 12:12.
    to cause a state or condition, bring about, produce, create (Hdt. 7, 102 ἀρετὴ ἀπὸ σοφίης κατεργασμένη; Philo, Plant. 50; TestJos 10:1) τὶ someth. νόμος ὀργήν Ro 4:15. θλῖψις ὑπομονήν 5:3 (TestJos 10:1 πόσα κατεργάζεται ἡ ὑπομονή); cp. Js 1:3. λύπη μετάνοιαν 2 Cor 7:10a v.l. (for ἐργάζεται). λύπη θάνατον vs. 10b; cp. vs. 11 (where a dat. of advantage is added). φθόνος ἀδελφοκτονίαν 1 Cl 4:7. μνησικακία θάνατον Hv 2, 3, 1. ἡ ἁμαρτία κ. ἐν ἐμοὶ πᾶσαν ἐπιθυμίαν sin called forth every desire within me Ro 7:8. τινί τι bring about someth. for someone (Eur., Her. 1046 πόλει σωτηρίαν) μοι θάνατον 7:13. αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης ἡμῖν 2 Cor 4:17. εὐχαριστίαν τῷ θεῷ bring about thankfulness to God 9:11; θάνατον ἑαυτῷ κ. bring death upon oneself Hm 4, 1, 2; cp. Hs 8, 8, 5 ἐργάζεσθαι.— Work out τὶ someth. (Pla., Gorg. 473d ὁ κατειργασμένος τὴν τυραννίδα ἀδίκως) τὴν ἑαυτῶν σωτηρίαν κατεργάζεσθε Phil 2:12 (JMichael, Phil 2:12: Exp. 9th ser., 2, 1924, 439–50).
    to cause to be well prepared, prepare someone κ. τινα εἴς τι prepare someone for someth. (cp. Hdt. 7, 6, 1; X., Mem. 2, 3, 11) ἡμᾶς εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο for this very purpose 2 Cor 5:5.
    to be successful in the face of obstacles, overpower, subdue, conquer (Hdt. 6, 2 νῆσον; Thu. 6, 11, 1 al. τινά; 1 Esdr 4:4; Philo, Sacr. Abel. 62; Jos., Ant. 2, 44) ἅπαντα κατεργασάμενοι στῆναι after proving victorious over everything, to stand your ground Eph 6:13 (but s. 1 above).—M-M. TW.

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  • 11 κοινωνός

    κοινωνός, οῦ, ὁ and (s. κοινός and cognates; Trag. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, Philo, Joseph., Just.)
    one who takes part in someth. with someone, companion, partner, sharer.
    with someone, expressed
    α. by the dat. (Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 131 θεῷ τινος [‘in someth.’]; Jos., Ant. 8, 239 σοί τινος; Himerius, Or. 48 [=Or. 14], 15 κ. ἐκείνοις τῆς γνώμης=with those men [the seven wise men] in knowledge) ἦσαν κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι (who) were partners (in business) with Simon Lk 5:10 (not a t.t. here, but cp. PAmh 100, 4: Hermes the fisherman takes Cornelius as his κ.=partner; sim. Diod S 8, 5, 3 ὁ κ.=partner; BGU 1123, 4; s. New Docs 1, 85; 3, 19).
    β. by the gen. (Pr 28:24; Is 1:23; Mal 2:14; Orig., C. Cels. 3, 69, 33) κ. τῶν οὕτως ἀναστρεφομένων γενηθέντες Hb 10:33. Of a martyr (who shares a bloody death w. Christ) Χριστοῦ MPol 6:2; cp. 17:3. κ. τῶν δαιμονίων be a partner w. the divinities (of polytheists) (in the sacrifices offered to them) 1 Cor 10:20 (κ. τραπέζης τῶν δαιμονίων Orig., C. Cels. 8, 24, 32.—HGressmann, ῾Η κοινωνία τῶν δαιμονίων: ZNW 20, 1921, 224–30; Clemen2 182–88).
    γ. by μετά and gen. μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος κ. Hs 5, 6, 6.
    in someth., expressed
    α. by the gen. of thing (Diod S 14, 61, 5; Epict. 3, 22, 63 κ. τῆς βασιλείας [of the Cynic]; Plut., Mor. 45e; 819c, Brut. 13, 5; Aelian, VH 2, 24; Appian, Samn. 10 §12 τ. ἀγαθῶν; Maximus Tyr. 31, 5c; Sir 6:10; Esth 8:12n; Jos., Vi. 142, Ant. 4, 177 κ. τῆς ταλαιπωρίας; Just., A II, 2, 6 κ. τῶν ἀδικημάτων). κ. τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου 1 Cor 10:l8 (Pla., Ep. 7, 350c κοινωνὸς ἱερῶν; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 221 κοινωνὸν τοῦ βωμοῦ). τῶν παθημάτων (Diod S 4, 20, 2 τῶν κακοπαθειῶν κ.), τῆς παρακλήσεως 2 Cor 1:7. ὁ τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης κ. 1 Pt 5:1. θείας φύσεως 2 Pt 1:4 (cp. the ins fr. Commagene under κοινωνέω 1a; on the subj. s. also Plut., Mor. 781a). τῆς μοιχείας a partner in adultery Hm 4, 1, 5 (Socrat., Ep. 7, 1 κοι. τ. ἀδικήματος; Polyaenus 2, 14, 1 κ. τῆς ἐπαναστάσεως in the uprising). ἀμφότεροι κοινωνοὶ τοῦ ἔργου τ. δικαίου Hs 2:9 (Pla., Ep. 7, 325a ἀνοσίων αὐτοῖς ἔργων κοι.).
    β. by ἐν: D 4:8. ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ κ. in what is imperishable B 19:8.
    with someone in someth. αὐτῶν κ. ἐν τῷ αἵματι τῶν προφητῶν Mt 23:30.
    abs. (4 Km 17:11) κ. ἐμὸς καὶ συνεργός 2 Cor 8:23 (for the combination of κ. and συνεργός cp. the first two Plut.-pass. given under bα; also X., Mem. 2, 6, 26). ἔχειν τινὰ κοινωνόν consider someone a partner Phlm 17 (of Eve: κοινωνὸν δὲ καὶ τὸν ἄνδρα δέχεται Did., Gen. 82, 28; cp. Diod S 18, 53, 6 ἔσχε κοινωνοὺς τ. αὐτῶν ἐλπίδων).
    one who permits someone else to share in someth., sharer τινί τινος: τῶν ἀποκαλυφθέντων ἡμῖν γινόμεθα ὑμῖν κοινωνοί we let you share in what has been revealed to us Dg 11:8.—The concrete mng. ‘member’ (Idomeneus Hist. [III B.C.]: 338 Fgm. 8 Jac. κ. τῆς προαιρέσεως=‘member of the party’) does not seem to be found in our lit.—DELG s.v. κοινός. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κοινωνός

  • 12 κολάζω

    κολάζω fut. κολάσω; 1 aor. mid. ἐκολασάμην. Pass.: 1 fut. κολασθήσομαι; aor. 3 pl. ἐκολάσθησαν LXX; pf. inf. κεκολάσθαι (s. three next entries) penalize, punish (so Trag., Pla.+; also OGI 90, 28; PSI 446, 14; PRyl 62, 9) act. τινά someone lit., of the punishment of slaves Hs 9, 28, 8. In imagery do someone an injury, of polytheists who penalize their cult images by locking them up Dg 2:8. In an apocalyptic place of punishment are οἱ κολάζοντες ἄγγελοι ApcPt 6:21b (Chariton 4, 2, 7 οἱ κολάζοντες=‘constables, police’; Sallust. 19 p. 34, 15 δαίμονες κολάζοντες).—Mid. (Aristoph., Vesp. 405; Pla., Protag. 324c; 3 Macc 7:3; ApcEsdr 1:11 p. 25, 4 Tdf.; Just., A II, 2, 9; 11; 16) Ac 4:21.—Mostly pass. of the punishment of Christians 1 Pt 2:20 v.l.; Dg 5:16; 6:9; 7:8; 10:7; MPol 2:4. Of the Last Judgment 2 Pt 2:9. βασάνοις 2 Cl 17:7 (on the dat., cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 90 §377 κ. θανάτῳ; Polyaenus 3, 9, 56; Lucian, Dial. Mort. 17, 2; Jos., Ant. 18, 314 κ. πληγαῖς.—Just., A II, 1, 2 ἐν πυρί). δισσῶς be punished doubly Hs 9, 18, 2. Of hell οἱ κολαζόμενοι ἐκεῖ ApcPt 6:21a. (Of punishment by God: TestAsh 6:2; ApcEsdr 1:11; Just., D. 88, 5; Diod S 16, 32, 1; Epict. 3, 11, 3; Dio Chrys. 59 [76], 5; Aesop, Fab. 77 P.=127 H. ὑπὸ θεῶν κολάζονται; oft. in ins in FSteinleitner, D. Beicht 1913, p. 10ff; LRobert, Nouvelles Inscriptions de Sardes ’64, 24ff; LXX; Jos., Bell. 2, 163; cp. Theoph. Ant., 2, 36 [p. 196, 24]). Aristotle’s limitation of the term κόλασις to disciplinary action Rhet. 1, 10, 17 is not reflected in gener. usage.—DELG s.v. κόλος 3. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > κολάζω

  • 13 κόλασις

    κόλασις, εως, ἡ (s. prec. three entries; ‘punishment, chastisement’ so Hippocr.+; Diod S 1, 77, 9; 4, 44, 3; Aelian, VH 7, 15; SIG2 680, 13; LXX; TestAbr, Test12Patr, ApcEsdr, ApcSed; AscIs 3:13; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 7, Mos. 1, 96; Jos., Ant. 17, 164; SibOr 5, 388; Ar. [Milne 76, 43]; Just.)
    infliction of suffering or pain in chastisement, punishment so lit. κ. ὑπομένειν undergo punishment Ox 840, 6; δειναὶ κ. (4 Macc 8:9) MPol 2:4; ἡ ἐπίμονος κ. long-continued torture ibid. Of the martyrdom of Jesus (Orig., C. Cels. 1, 48, 95; 8, 43, 12) PtK 4 p. 15, 34. The smelling of the odor arising fr. sacrifices by polytheists ironically described as punishment, injury (s. κολάζω) Dg 2:9.
    transcendent retribution, punishment (ApcSed 4:1 κόλασις καὶ πῦρ ἐστιν ἡ παίδευσίς σου.—Diod S 3, 61, 5; 16, 61, 1; Epict. 3, 11, 1; Dio Chrys. 80 [30], 12; 2 Macc 4:38 al. in LXX; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 55; 2, 196; Jos., Ant. 1, 60 al.; Just.; Did., Gen., 115, 28; 158, 10) ApcPt 17:32; w. αἰκισμός 1 Cl 11:1. Of eternal punishment (w. θάνατος) Dg 9:2 (Diod S 8, 15, 1 κ. ἀθάνατος). Of hell: τόπος κολάσεως ApcPt 6:21 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 13, 1 εἰς ἐκεῖνον τὸν τόπον αἱ κολάσεως δεόμεναι ψυχαὶ καταπέμπονται); ἐν τῇ κ. ἐκείνῃ 10:25; ibid. ἐφορῶσαι τὴν κ. ἐκείνων (cp. ApcEsdr 5:10 p. 30, 2 Tdf. ἐν τῇ κ.). ἐκ τῆς κ. ApcPt Rainer (cp. ἐκ τὴν κ. ApcSed 8:12a; εἰς τὴν κ. 12b and TestAbr B 11 p. 116, 10 [Stone p. 80]). ἀπέρχεσθαι εἰς κ. αἰώνιον go away into eternal punishment Mt 25:46 (οἱ τῆς κ. ἄξιοι ἀπελεύσονται εἰς αὐτήν Iren. 2, 33, 5 [Harv. I 380, 8]; κ. αἰώνιον as TestAbr A 11 p. 90, 7f [Stone p. 28]; TestReub 5:5; TestGad 7:5; Just., A I, 8, 4; D. 117, 3; Celsus 8, 48; pl. Theoph. Ant. 1, 14 [p. 90, 13]). ῥύεσθαι ἐκ τῆς αἰωνίου κ. rescue fr. eternal punishment 2 Cl 6:7. τὴν αἰώνιον κ. ἐξαγοράζεσθαι buy one’s freedom fr. eternal pun. MPol 2:3 v.l. κακαὶ κ. τοῦ διαβόλου IRo 5:3. κ. τινος punishment for someth. (Ezk 14:3, 4, 7; 18:30; Philo, Fuga 65 ἁμαρτημάτων κ.) ἔχειν κόλασίν τινα τῆς πονηρίας αὐτοῦ Hs 9, 18, 1. ἀναπαύστως ἕξουσιν τὴν κ. they will suffer unending punishment ApcPt Bodl. 9–12. ὁ φόβος κόλασιν ἔχει fear has to do with punishment 1J 4:18 (cp. Philo, In Flacc. 96 φόβος κολάσεως).—M-M. TW.

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  • 14 μοιχάω

    μοιχάω (X. et al.: JWackernagel, Hellenistica 1907, 7ff; B-D-F §101 p. 46f) ‘cause to commit adultery’, in our lit. (as well as LXX; PsSol 8:10) only pass.
    be caused to commit adultery, be an adulterer/adulteress, commit adultery
    of a woman (Ezk 16:32) ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχᾶσθαι (the man who divorces his wife) causes her to commit adultery (if she contracts a new marriage) Mt 5:32a v.l. αὐτὴ μοιχᾶται she commits adultery Mk 10:12. But also
    of a man (PsSol 8, 10), who marries a divorced woman Mt 5:32b; 19:9 v.l. or who marries again after divorcing his wife 19:9; Hm 4, 1, 6. μοιχᾶται ἐπʼ αὐτήν commits adultery against her (his first wife) Mk 10:11 (NTurner, Bible Translator 7, ’56, 151f: associates w. Jer 5:9); if understood as a Semitism (Rehkopf §233, 2 note 4; s. BSchaller, in Festschr. JJeremias, ’70, 239ff: in Aramaic the corresponding verb w. prep. is used in the sense of ‘with’, not ‘against’), this phrase can be rendered commits adultery with her (the second wife).
    of a man or woman 2 Cl 4:3.
    be guilty of infidelity in a transcendent relationship, be unfaithful, ὸ̔ς ἂν τὰ ὁμοιώματα ποιῇ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, μοιχᾶται whoever acts as the gentiles do (i.e. polytheists with their image-worship:NBrox, Der Hirt des Hermas ’91, 208), commits adultery (and it cannot be expected of the other marriage-partner to maintain marital relations) Hm 4, 1, 9.—DELG s.v. μοιχός. M-M. s.v. μοιχάομαι. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > μοιχάω

  • 15 νοῦς

    νοῦς, νοός, νοί̈, νοῦν, ὁ (contracted fr. νόος.—Hom. et al.; pap, LXX, TestSol, Test12Patr; SibOr 3, 574; EpArist 276; Philo [oft.]; Jos., Ant. 3, 65, Vi. 122 al.; apolog. exc. Mel.—On its declension s. B-D-F §52; W-S. §8, 11; Mlt-H. 127; 142) in the NT only in Pauline lit. except for Lk 24:45; Rv 13:18; 17:9.
    mind, intellect as the side of life contrasted w. physical existence, the higher, mental part of a human being that initiates thoughts and plans (Apollonius of Tyana [I A.D.] in Eus., PE 4, 13; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 38, 21; 52, 24; Did., Gen. 57, 26): ὁ νόμος τοῦ νοός (μου) the law of (my) intellect Ro 7:22 v.l., 23. (Opp. σάρξ) τῷ ν. δουλεύειν νόμῳ θεοῦ serve the law of God w. one’s intellect vs. 25.
    understanding, mind as faculty of thinking (Hippol., Ref. 4, 43, 2; Did., Gen. 44, 11 [w. λογισμός]) διανοίγειν τὸν ν. τινος open someone’s mind Lk 24:45. ὁ ἔχων νοῦν whoever has understanding Rv 13:18 (ν. ἔχειν as Aristoph., Equ. 482; Hyperid. 3, 23; Dio Chrys. 17 [34], 39; 23 [40], 26; Ael. Aristid. 23, 12 K.=42 p. 771 D.; EpArist 276; Philo, Mos. 1, 141; TestReub 3:8; Ar. 9, 5; Just., D. 30, 1; 60, 2; Tat. 1, 2). ὧδε ὁ ν. ὁ ἔχων σοφίαν here is (i.e. this calls for) a mind with wisdom 17:9. νοῦν διδόναι grant understanding Dg 10:2. Also παρέχειν νοῦν 11:5. ὁ σοφίαν καὶ νοῦν θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν τῶν κρυφίων αὐτοῦ who has placed in us wisdom and understanding of his secrets 6:10. ποικίλος τῇ φρονήσει καὶ τῷ ν. diverse in thought and understanding Hs 9, 17, 2a; cp. vs. 2b. Of the peace of God ἡ ὑπερέχουσα πάντα ν. which surpasses all power of thought Phil 4:7. In contrast to the divine Pneuma which inspires the ‘speaker in tongues’: ὁ ν. μου ἄκαρπός ἐστιν my mind is unfruitful, because it remains inactive during the glossolalia 1 Cor 14:14. προσεύχεσθαι τῷ ν. (opp. τῷ πνεύματι.—νόῳ as instrumental dat. as Pind., P. 1, 40) pray w. the understanding vs. 15a; ψάλλειν τῷ ν. vs. 15b. θέλω πέντε λόγους τῷ ν. μου λαλῆσαι I would rather speak five words w. my understanding vs. 19 (cp. 1QS 10:9).—As a designation of Christ (cp. SibOr 8, 284) in a long series of expressions (w. φῶς) Dg 9:6 (cp. Epict. 2, 8, 2 τίς οὖν οὐσία θεοῦ; νοῦς, ἐπιστήμη, λόγος ὀρθός. Theoph. Ant. 1, 3 [p. 62, 14] νοῦν ἐὰν εἴπω, φρόνησιν αὐτοῦ [sc. τοῦ θεοῦ] λέγω; Ath. 10, 2 νοῦς καὶ λόγος τοῦ πατρὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. The god Νοῦς in the Herm. Wr.: Rtzst., Mysterienrel3 47 al.; JKroll, D. Lehren des Hermes Trismegistos 1914, 10ff; 60ff al.; PGM 5, 465 ὁ μέγας Νοῦς; Iren. 1, 1, 1 [Harv. I 9, 7], 1, 2, 1 [Harv. I 13, 7]: names of Aeons in gnostic speculation).—Also the state of sensibleness, composure in contrast to the disturbances of soul brought about by the expectation of the Parousia, σαλευθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ νοός be shaken, and thereby lose your calmness of mind 2 Th 2:2.
    way of thinking, mind, attitude, as the sum total of the whole mental and moral state of being (Just., A I, 15, 16)
    as possessed by every person μεταμορφοῦσθαι τῇ ἀνακαινώσει τοῦ ν. be transformed by the renewing of the mind, which comes about when Christians have their natural νοῦς penetrated and transformed by the Spirit which they receive at baptism Ro 12:2 (s. Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.). W. the same sense ἀνανεοῦσθαι τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ ν. ὑμῶν you must adopt a new attitude of mind Eph 4:23 (the piling up of synonyms is a distinctive feature of Eph; s. MDibelius, Hdb. exc. on Eph 1:14). Of polytheists παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον ν. God abandoned them to depraved thoughts Ro 1:28. τὰ ἔθνη περιπατεῖ ἐν ματαιότητι τοῦ ν. αὐτῶν the nations/gentiles live w. their minds fixed on futile things Eph 4:17. Of one who is in error: εἰκῇ φυσιούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ ν. τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ groundlessly conceited (lit. ‘puffed up’) by his mind, fixed on purely physical things Col 2:18. κατεφθαρμένος τὸν ν. with depraved mind 2 Ti 3:8; also διεφθαρμένος τὸν ν. 1 Ti 6:5 (B-D-F §159, 3; Rob. 486). μεμίανται αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ ν. καὶ ἡ συνείδησις their minds and consciences are unclean Tit 1:15. ὁ ν. αὐτῶν περὶ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτῶν καταγίνεται their mind is fixed on their own business Hm 10, 1, 5.
    specif. of the Christian attitude or way of thinking κατηρτισμένοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ νοί̈ 1 Cor 1:10. Through baptism believers receive μίαν φρόνησιν καὶ ἕνα νοῦν Hs 9, 17, 4; cp. 9, 18, 4. εἷς νοῦς, μία ἐλπίς is to rule in the church IMg 7:1.
    result of thinking, mind, thought, opinion, decree (Hom. et al. of gods and humans; cp. Hippol., Ref. 9, 10, 8) ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ν. πληροφορείσθω each pers. is to be fully convinced in his own mind Ro 14:5. τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου; who has known the Lord’s thoughts? (Is 40:13) 11:34; 1 Cor 2:16a. When Paul continues in the latter passage vs. 16b w. ἡμεῖς νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν, he is using the scriptural word νοῦς to denote what he usu. calls πνεῦμα (vs. 14f). He can do this because his νοῦς (since he is a ‘pneumatic’ person) is filled w. the Spirit (s. 2a above), so that in his case the two are interchangeable. Such a νοῦς is impossible for a ‘psychic’ person.—OMoe, Vernunft u. Geist im NT: ZST 11, ’34, 351–91; RJewett, Paul’s Anthropological Terms, ’71, 358–90; TKrischer, Glotta 62, ’84, 141–49. S. καρδία end; νοέω end.—B. 1198. DELG s.v. νόος. Schmidt, Syn. III 621–55. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > νοῦς

  • 16 ξύλον

    ξύλον, ου, τό (Hom.+).
    wood as a plant substance in unmanufactured form, wood (the wood for the offering of Isaac linked typologically with the cross of Christ: Iren. 4, 5, 4 [Harv. II 157, 2]; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 70, 12) Dg 2:2; Ox 1 recto, 8 (ASyn. 171, 5; cp. GTh 77; s. λίθος 1). πᾶν ξ. θύϊνον every kind of citron wood Rv 18:12a. ξ. τιμιώτατον very precious wood vs. 12b. Pl. wood as building material (Diod S 5, 21, 5 κάλαμοι and ξύλα; PFlor 16, 23; Just., D. 86, 6 εἰς οἰκοδομήν; Tat. 37, 1) 1 Cor 3:12; for making cult images ξύλα κ. λίθους (Sextus 568; Tat.4, 2) together w. other materials 2 Cl 1:6; PtK 2 p. 14, 13 (Ath. 15, 1). As fuel (POxy 1144, 15 ξύλα εἰς θυσίαν; Gen 22:3, 6; Lev 1:7) MPol 13:1; Hs 4:4.
    object made of wood (of polytheists’ reverence for cult images: σέβονται λίθους καὶ ξύλα Theoph. Ant. 1, 10 [p. 80, 5])
    of a piece of wood designed for a specific purpose
    α. a relatively long piece that can be set in the ground, pole (Diod S 5, 18, 4; Maximus Tyr. 2, 8b), as of the one on which Moses raised the brass serpent (Num 21:8f) B 12:7.
    β. club, cudgel (Hdt. 2, 63; 4, 180; Polyb. 6, 37, 3; Herodian 7, 7, 4; PHal 1, 187; PTebt 304, 10; Jos., Bell. 2, 176, Vi. 233) pl. (w. μάχαιραι) Mt 26:47, 55; Mk 14:43, 48; Lk 22:52.
    a device for confining the extremeties of a prisoner, stocks (Hdt. 6, 75; 9, 37; Lysias 10, 16; Aristoph., Eq. 367; 394; 705; also Chariton 4, 2, 6; OGI 483, 181 [s. the note]; Job 33:11) τοὺς πόδας ἠσφαλίσατο αὐτῶν εἰς τὸ ξύλον he fastened their feet in the stocks Ac 16:24.
    a wooden structure used for crucifixion, cross (Alexis Com. [IV B.C.] 220, 10 ἀναπήγνυμι ἐπὶ τοῦ ξύλου; Philo, Somn. 2, 213; Just., A II, 3, 1 ξύλῳ ἐμπαγῆναι, D. 138, 2 διʼ ὕδατος καὶ πίστεως καὶ ξύλου; Iren. 1, 14, 6 [Harv. I 140, 10]; διὰ ξύλου θάνατος καὶ διὰ ξ. ζωή, θ. μὲν κατὰ τὸν Ἀδάμ, ζ. δὲ κατὰ τὸν χριστόν Orig., C. Cels. 6, 36, 28.—Outside the NT also ‘gallows’: the scholiast on Aristoph., Ran. 736 cites a proverb ἀπὸ καλοῦ ξύλου κἂν ἀπάγξασθαι=if you must hang yourself choose a decent tree; Esth 5:14; 6:4, reproduced Jos., Ant. 11, 246: a ξ. sixty cubits high is to be cut down. Most often OT refers to hanging or impalement of a criminal’s corpse on a post ἐπὶ (τοῦ) ξύλου Gen 40:19; Dt 21:22f; Josh 10:26).—ἡ βασιλεία Ἰησοῦ ἐπὶ ξύλῳ the reign of Jesus is based on the wood (of the cross) B 8:5, cp. vs. 1; 12:1 (fr. an apocr. prophetic writing, perh. 4 Esdr 5:5. S. UHolzmeister, Verb Dom 21, ’41, 69–73). κρεμάσαι ἐπὶ ξύλου hang on the cross Ac 5:30; 10:39. ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου Gal 3:13 (Dt 21:23; cp, Mel., P. 70, 507; 104, 805 ἐπὶ ξύλου κρεμασθείς). καθελεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ξ. take down fr. the cross (cp. Josh 10:27) Ac 13:29. πάσχειν ἐπὶ ξύλου B 5:13. τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀναφέρειν ἐπὶ τὸ ξ. bear the sins on (or to) the cross, to destroy them on the cross 1 Pt 2:24=Pol 8:1.—WSvLeeuwen, NThSt 24, ’41, 68–81.
    tree (this usage is perceptible in Eur., Hdt.; Ctesias [IV B.C.]: 688 Fgm. 45n p. 500 Jac., in Apollon. Paradox. 17 παρʼ Ἰνδοῖς ξύλον γίνεσθαι; Theophr., HP 5, 4, 7; Fgm. Iamb. Adesp. 17 Diehl; Plut., Lycurgus 47 [13, 7]; Harpocration s.v. ὀξυθυμία; PTebt 5, 205 [118 B.C.]; PFlor 152, 4; Gen 1:29; 2:9; 3:1ff; Is 14:8; Eccl 2:5; PsSol 11:5; GrBar 4:8, 16; ApcSed 8:3; Tat. 919, 3 ξύλῳ μαντικῷ) Dg 12:8. ὑγρόν, ξηρὸν ξ. a green, a dry tree Lk 23:31 (s. ξηρός 1 and cp. Polyaenus 3, 9, 7 ξύλα ξηρά [opp. χλωρά].—AHiggins, ET 57, ’45/46, 292–94). πάγκαρπον ξ. a tree bearing all kinds of fruit Dg 12:1. ξ. ἄκαρπον a tree without (edible) fruit (of the elm) Hs 2:3. ξύλῳ ἑαυτὸν συμβάλλειν compare oneself to a tree 1 Cl 23:4a; 2 Cl 11:3 (both script. quots. of unknown orig.). τὰ φύλλα τοῦ ξ. Rv 22:2b; καρπὸς τοῦ ξ. 1 Cl 23:4b. Of trees by watercourses B 11:6 (Ps 1:3). ξ. γνώσεως Dg 12:2a (cp. Gen 2:9, 17; ApcMos 7 al.; Did., Gen. 94, 16); ξ. (τῆς) ζωῆς (Gen 2:9; TestLevi 18:11; ApcEsdr 2:11 p. 26, 5 Tdf.; ApcSed 4:5; ApcMos 19, 22, 28; Did., Gen. 110, 26; τὰ δὲ δύο ξ. τὸ τῆς ζωῆς καὶ τὸ τῆς γνώσεως Theoph. Ant. 2, 24 [p. 156, 19]) Rv 2:7; 22:2a (RSchran, BZ 24, ’38/39, 191–98), 14, 19; Dg 12:2b (cp. vs. 3 and PsSol 14:3 ξύλα τῆς ζωῆς; s. ζωή 2bβ; LvSybel, Ξύλον ζωῆς: ZNW 19, 1920, 85–91; UHolmberg, D. Baum d. Lebens 1923; HBergema, De Boom des Levens in Scrift en Historie, diss. Hilversum ’38; CHemer, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting ’89 [’86] 41–47; RAC II 1–34; VIII 112–41).—B. 50; 1385. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ξύλον

  • 17 οἶδα

    οἶδα (Hom.+) really the perf. of the stem εἰδ-(Lat. video), but used as a pres.; 2 sing. οἶδας (1 Cor 7:16; J 21:15f), οἶσθα (Dt 9:2 4 Macc 6:27), 1 pl. οἴδαμεν LXX, 2 pl. οἴδατε, 3 pl. οἴδασιν (ἴσασιν only Ac 26:4. The form οἴδασιν is found as early as Hdt. 2, 43, 1; X., Oec. 20, 14; SIG 182, 8 [362/361 B.C.]; PCairGoodsp 3, 7 [III B.C.]; οἶδαν GJs 17:1). ἴστε Eph 5:5; Hb 12:17; Js 1:19 can be indic. (so 3 Macc 3:14) or impv.; subj. εἰδῶ; inf. εἰδέναι; εἰδῆσαι Dt 4:35; Jdth 9:14; ptc. εἰδώς, εἰδυῖα Mk 5:33; Ac 5:7. Plpf. ᾔδειν, 2 sg. ᾔδεις Mt 25:26; Lk 19:22, 3 pl. ᾔδεισαν (W-S. §13, 20). Fut. εἰδήσω Hb 8:11 (Jer 38:34) and εἴσομαι (Dg 12:1). B-D-F §99, 2; 101 p. 45 (εἰδέναι); W-S. §14, 7; Mlt-H. 220–22; Helbing p. 108; Mayser 321, 2; 327, 17; 372f; on relation to γινώσκω s. SPorter, Verbal Aspect in the Greek of the NT ’89, 282–87.
    to have information about, know
    w. acc. of pers. know someone, know about someone Mk 1:34; J 1:26, 31, 33; 6:42; 7:28a; Ac 3:16; 7:18 (Ex 1:8); Hb 10:30; 10:11. (τὸν) θεόν (Herm. Wr. 14, 8; Ar. 3, 2; Just., D. 10, 4; Tat. 19, 2) of polytheists, who know nothing about God (the one God described in vss. 6–7, and in contrast to the plurality of gods that have previously enslaved the Galatians vs. 8) Gal 4:8; 1 Th 4:5 (cp. Jer 10:25).
    w. acc. of thing: οὐ τὴν ἡμέραν οὐδὲ τὴν ὥραν Mt 25:13; cp. 2 Cl 12:1. τὰς ἐντολάς Mk 10:19; Lk 18:20. βρῶσιν J 4:32. τ. ἐνθυμήσεις Mt 9:4 v.l. (cp. Jos., Vi. 283). τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν Ro 7:7. τὰ μυστήρια πάντα 1 Cor 13:2. τὰ ἐγκάρδια 2 Cl 9:9. τὰ κρύφια IMg 3:2. τὴν πόλιν Hs 1:1.
    w. acc. of pers. and ptc. in place of the predicate (X., An. 1, 10, 16; TestJob 28:5; Just., A I, 12, 7.—B-D-F §416, 2; s. Rob. 1103) οἶδα ἄνθρωπον ἐν Χριστῷ … ἁρπαγέντα τὸν τοιοῦτον ἕως τρίτου οὐρανοῦ I know of a person in Christ … that he was transported into the third heaven 2 Cor 12:2. Also without the ptc. εἰδὼς αὐτὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον (sc. ὄντα) because he knew that he was a just man Mk 6:20 (Chion, Ep. 3, 5 ἴσθι με προθυμότερον [ὄντα]). The obj. more closely defined by a declarative or interrog. clause: οἴδατε τὴν οἰκίαν Στεφανᾶ ὅτι ἐστὶν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀχαί̈ας = οἴδατε ὅτι ἡ οἰκία Στεφανᾶ ἐστιν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀ. 1 Cor 16:15.—Ac 16:3 v.l. An indirect quest. may take the place of ὅτι: οἶδά σε τίς εἶ Mk 1:24; Lk 4:34. οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς πόθεν ἐστέ I do not know where you come from 13:25; cp. vs. 27 (ὑμᾶς is not found in all the mss. here); 2 Cl 4:5. τοῦτον οἴδαμεν πόθεν ἐστίν J 7:27; 9:29b.
    foll. by acc. and inf. (Just., A I, 26, 4; 59, 6, D. 75, 4.—B-D-F §397, 1; s. Rob. 1036ff) Lk 4:41; 1 Pt 5:9; 1 Cl 62:3.
    foll. by ὅτι (Aeneas Tact. 579; Dio Chrys. 31 [48], 1; Maximus Tyr. 16, 2b; TestAbr A 6 p. 83, 14 [Stone p. 14]; JosAs 6:6 al.; Just., A I, 12, 11; D. 4, 4 al.—B-D-F §397, 1; Rob. 1035) Mt 6:32; 9:6; 15:12; 20:25; Mk 10:42; Lk 2:49; 8:53; J 4:25; Ac 3:17 and very oft.; GJs 4:4; 5:1; 17:1; 20:2 codd.; 23:2. εἰδὼς (εἰδότες) ὅτι Ac 2:30; 1 Cl 45:7; 2 Cl 7:1; 10:5; B 10:11; 19:6; IMg 14; ISm 4:1; Hs 8, 6, 1; 10, 3, 4 [Ox 404 recto, 15]; Pol 1:3; 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; D 3:10; AcPl Ha 1, 25; AcPlCor 2:29.—τοῦτο, ὅτι 1 Ti 1:9; 2 Ti 1:15. ἓν οἶδα, ὅτι I know just this one thing, that J 9:25b (Vi. Aesopi I c. 17 p. 269, 16f Eb. οὐκ οἶδα, τί γέγονεν. ἓν δʼ οἶδα μόνον, ὅτι …).—The formula οἴδαμεν ὅτι is freq. used to introduce a well-known fact that is generally accepted Mt 22:16; Lk 20:21; J 3:2; 9:31; Ro 2:2; 3:19; 7:14; 8:22, 28; 2 Cor 5:1; 1 Ti 1:8; 1J 3:2; 5:18ff. Paul also uses for this purpose the rhetorical question (ἢ) οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι; Ro 6:16; 1 Cor 3:16; 5:6; 6:2f, 9, 15f, 19; 9:13, 24.
    w. indirect quest. foll.: (TestAbr B 2 p. 106, 1 [Stone p. 60] μὴ εἰδὼς τίς ἐστίν; Just., D. 65, 1 οὐκ οἶδα τί φῶ) τίς, τί Mt 20:22; Mk 9:6 (HBaltensweiler, D. Verklärung Jesu ’59, 114f; on the grammar as well as the theme of inappropriateness in the face of transcendence cp. Eur., Bacch. 506, s. also 358); 10:38; 14:40; J 5:13; 6:6; 9:21b; 13:18; 15:15; Ro 8:27; 11:2; 1 Th 4:2; 2 Ti 3:14; IEph 12:1. ποῖος Mt 24:42f; Lk 12:39. ἡλίκος Col 2:1. οἷος 1 Th 1:5. ποῦ (ParJer 5:13) J 3:8; 8:14; 12:35 14:5; 20:2, 13. πῶς (BGU 37, 7; ApcMos 31) J 9:21a; Col 4:6; 2 Th 3:7; 1 Ti 3:15; GJs 23:3. πότε Mk 13:33, 35. πόθεν J 2:9a; 3:8; 7:28b; 8:14; 9:30. Foll. by εἰ whether (Lucian, Tox. 22) J 9:25; 1 Cor 7:16ab (JJeremias, Bultmann Festschr. ’54, 255–66 understands τί οἶδας εἰ as ‘perhaps’; CBurchard, ZNW 61, ’70, 170f); Hm 12, 3, 4.—εἴτε 2 Cor 12:2f.
    followed by a relat. (PPetr II, 11 [1], 7 [III B.C.]) οἶδεν ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε Mt 6:8; cp. Mk 5:33; 2 Ti 1:12.
    foll. by περί τινος (Just., D. 5, 1) know about someth. Mt 24:36; Mk 13:32 (RBrown, Jesus, God and Man ’67, 59–79).
    abs. (Just., A I, 21, 4 πρὸς εἰδότας λέγειν οὐκ ἀνάγκη) Mt 21:27; Mk 4:27; Lk 11:44; J 2:9b; 1 Cl 43:6. καθὼς (αὐτοὶ) οἴδατε as you (yourselves) know Ac 2:22; 1 Th 2:2, 5; cp. 3:4. καίπερ εἰδ. though you know (them) 2 Pt 1:12. ὁ θεὸς οἶδεν God knows (that I do) 2 Cor 11:11; cp. 9:9. ἴστε Js 1:19 (indic.: HermvSoden; BWeiss; Weymouth; W-S. §14, 7; impv: Hollmann; MDibelius; Windisch; OHoltzmann; Hauck; Meinertz; NRSV ‘You must understand this’; B-D-F §99, 2; Mlt. 245).
    be intimately acquainted with or stand in a close relation to, know οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον I don’t know the man Mt 26:72, 74; cp. Mk 14:71; Lk 22:57. ὥστε ἡμεῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν οὐδένα οἴδαμεν κατὰ σάρκα 2 Cor 5:16. οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει αὐτὸν ἐν σαρκί AcPl Ant 13, 16 (for this εἶδεν ἀυτὸν σαρκί Aa I 237, 2).— To know God, i.e. not only to know theoretically of God’s existence, but to have a positive relationship with God, or not to know God, i.e. wanting to know nothing about God: 2 Th 1:8; Tit 1:16.—J 7:28b; 8:19 al.—οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς I have nothing to do with you Mt 25:12. Cp. the formula of similar mng. by which a teacher excluded a scholar for seven days: Billerb. I 469; IV 293.
    to know/understand how, can, be able w. inf. foll. (X., Cyr. 1, 6, 46; Philosoph. Max. p. 497, 7 εἰδὼς εὔχεσθαι; Herodian 3, 4, 8; Jos., Bell. 2, 91; 5, 407) οἴδατε δόματα ἀγαθὰ διδόναι you know how to give good gifts Mt 7:11; Lk 11:13 (cp. TestJob 44:3 ᾔδεισαν εὖ ποιεῖν). οἴδατε δοκιμάζειν you understand how to interpret 12:56ab. οἶδα καὶ ταπεινοῦσθαι, οἶδα καὶ περισσεύειν Phil 4:12. εἰδέναι ἕκαστον ὑμῶν τὸ ἑαυτοῦ σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι ἐν ἁγιασμῷ each one of you is to know how to possess his own vessel (s. σκεῦος 3) in consecration 1 Th 4:4. τοῦ ἰδίου οἴκου προστῆναι οὐκ οἶδεν does not know how to manage his own household 1 Ti 3:5. εἰδὼς καλὸν ποιεῖν Js 4:17. οἶδεν κύριος εὐσεβεῖς ἐκ πειρασμοῦ ῥύεσθαι 2 Pt 2:9. οἴδασιν διὰ κόπου … πορίζειν ἑαυτοῖς τὴν τροφήν 10:4. εἰδὼς φέρειν μαλακίαν one who knew how to endure pain 1 Cl 16:3 (Is 53:3).—Abs. ἀσφαλίσασθε ὡς οἴδατε make it (=the tomb) as secure as you can Mt 27:65.
    to grasp the meaning of someth., understand, recognize, come to know, experience (Just., D. 114, 1 ἣν τέχνην ἐὰν μὴ εἰδῶσιν [of allegorizing]; Sallust. 3 p. 4, 8 τοῖς δυναμένοις εἰδέναι=to those who can understand it) w. acc. of thing τὴν παραβολήν Mk 4:13. τὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ πυροῦ σπόρον … ὅτι the sowing of wheat … that AcPlCor 2:26. τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου understand what is really human 1 Cor 2:11. τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν vs. 12. τὰ συνέχοντά με IRo 6:3. W. indir. quest. foll. εἰδέναι τίς ἐστιν ἡ ἐλπίς come to know what the hope is Eph 1:18. οὐκ οἶδα τί λέγεις I do not understand what you mean (Philostrat., Vi. Soph. 1, 7, 4; TestAbr A 16, p. 98, 10 [Stone p. 44] οἶδα τί λέγεις) Mt 26:70; cp. J 16:18; 1 Cor 14:16. Lk 22:60 (Oenomaus in Eus., PE 6, 7, 9 οὐκ οἶσθα ἃ λέγεις; Just., D. 9, 1 οὐ γὰρ οἶδας ὅ λέγεις). εἴσεσθε ὅσα παρέχει ὁ θεός you will experience what God bestows Dg 12:1.—Esp. of Jesus’ ability to fathom people’s thoughts: τὰς ἐνθυμήσεις αὐτῶν Mt 12:25. τὴν ὑπόκρισιν Mk 12:15. τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς αὐτῶν Lk 6:8; cp. 11:17. PEg2 50 (=ASyn. 280, 45). W. ἐν ἑαυτῷ added and ὅτι foll. J 6:61.
    to remember, recollect, recall, be aware of λοιπὸν οὐκ οἶδα εἴ τινα ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα I don’t recall baptizing anyone else 1 Cor 1:16 (cp. Lucian, Dial. Meretr. 1, 1 οἶσθα αὐτόν, ἢ ἐπιλέλησαι τὸν ἄνθρωπον; οὐκ, ἀλλʼ οἶδα, ὦ Γλυκέριον; Field, Notes 187).
    to recognize merit, respect, honor εἰδέναι τοὺς κοπιῶντας ἐν ὑμῖν respect the people who work among you 1 Th 5:12 (εἰδέναι τινά can mean recognize or honor someone [Ael. Aristid. 35, 35 K.=9 p. 111 D. τοὺς κρείττους εἰδέναι] but can also mean take an interest in someone, care for someone: Witkowski 30, 7 οἱ θεοί σε οἴδασιν). θεὸν καὶ ἐπίσκοπον εἰδέναι honor God and the bishop ISm 9:1.—τοῦτο ἴστε γινώσκοντες Eph 5:5 has been viewed as a Hebraism (so ARobinson 1904 ad loc., calling attention to LXX 1 Km 20:3 γινώσκων οἶδεν and Sym. Jer 49 [42]: 22 ἴστε γινώσκοντες), but against this view SPorter, ZNW 81, ’90, 270–76.—B. 1209. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οἶδα

  • 18 οὐρανός

    οὐρανός, οῦ, ὁ 24:31 (Hom.+; ‘heaven’ in various senses)
    the portion or portions of the universe gener. distinguished from planet earth, heaven (so mostly in the sing.; s. B-D-F §141, 1)
    mentioned w. the earth
    α. forming a unity w. it as the totality of creation (Pla., Euthyd. 296d οὐρανὸς καὶ γῆ; Gen 1:1; 14:19, 22; Tob 7:17 BA; Jdth 9:12; Bel 5; 1 Macc 2:37 al.; PsSol 8:7; ParJer 5:32; Just., D. 74, 1; PGM 13, 784 ὁ βασιλεύων τῶν οὐρανῶν κ. τῆς γῆς κ. πάντων τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἐνδιατριβόντων; Orig., C. Cels. 6, 59, 6; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 13]) ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ Mt 5:18; 11:25; 24:35; Mk 13:31; Lk 10:21; 16:17; 21:33; Ac 4:24; 14:15; 17:24 (on the absence of the art. s. B-D-F §253, 3); Rv 14:7; 20:11; Dg 3:4; AcPlCor 2:9; 19.
    β. standing independently beside the earth or contrasted w. it: Mt 5:34f; Ac 7:49 (cp. on both Is 66:1). ἐν (τῷ) οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ (τῆς) γῆς Mt 6:10; 28:18; Lk 11:2 v.l.; Rv 5:13.—1 Cor 8:5; Rv 5:3; ISm 11:2. τὸ πρόσωπον τ. γῆς καὶ τ. οὐρανοῦ Lk 12:56. Cp. Hb 12:26 (Hg 2:6); Js 5:12.—τὰ ἔσχατα τ. γῆς as extreme contrast to heaven 1 Cl 28:3. By God’s creative word the heaven was fixed and the earth founded on the waters Hv 1, 3, 4. Neither heaven nor earth can be comprehended by human measure 16:2 (Is 40:12). On ἀπʼ ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ Mk 13:27 s. under ἄκρον. ὁ πρῶτος οὐρ. καὶ ἡ πρώτη γῆ will give way in the last times to the οὐρ. καινός and the γῆ καινή Rv 21:1 (cp. Is 65:17; 66:22).
    as firmament or sky over the earth; out of reach for humans Hm 11:18. Hence ἕως οὐρανοῦ (ApcEsdr 4:32) Mt 11:23; Lk 10:15 or εἰς τὸν οὐρ. Hv 4, 1, 5 as an expr. denoting a great height. Likew. ἀπὸ τ. γῆς ἕως τ. οὐρανοῦ 1 Cl 8:3 (scripture quot. of unknown origin); GPt 10:40 (for a transcendent being who walks on the earth and whose head touches the sky, s. Il. 4, 443). Since the heaven extends over the whole earth, ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. under (the) heaven = on earth, throughout the earth (Pla., Tim. 23c, Ep. 7, 326c; UPZ 106, 14 [99 B.C.]; Eccl 1:13; 3:1; Just., A II, 5, 2) Ac 2:5; 4:12; Col 1:23; Hs 9, 17, 4; m 12, 4, 2. ὑποκάτωθεν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ throughout the earth 1 Cl 53:3 (Dt 9:14). ἐκ τῆς (i.e. χώρας) ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. εἰς τὴν ὑπʼ οὐρανόν from one place on earth to another Lk 17:24 (cp. Dt 29:19; Bar 5:3; 2 Macc 2:18 ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρ. εἰς τὸν ἅγιον τόπον).—In the last days there will appear τέρατα ἐν τ. οὐρανῷ ἄνω wonders in the heaven above Ac 2:19 (Jo 3:3 v.l.). σημεῖον ἐν τῷ οὐρ. Rv 12:1, 3 (cp. Diod S 2, 30, 1 τὰ ἐν οὐρανῷ γινόμενα=what takes place in the heavens; Ael. Aristid. 50, 56 K.=26 p. 519 D., where the statue of Asclepius from Pergamum appears ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ). The sky can even be rolled up; s. ἑλίσσω.—Rain falls fr. heaven (X., An. 4, 2, 2) and heaven is closed to bring about a drought Lk 4:25.—Rv 11:6; Js 5:18 (cp. 2 Ch 6:26; 7:13; Sir 48:3). Lightning also comes fr. heaven (Bacchylides 17, 55f ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ … ἀστραπάν [=Attic-ήν]) Lk 10:18. Likew. of other things that come down like rain to punish sinners: fire Lk 9:54 (cp. 4 Km 1:10; TestAbr A 10 p. 88, 14 [Stone p. 24]); Rv 20:9; fire and brimstone Lk 17:29 (cp. Gen 19:24); apocalyptic hail Rv 16:21; AcPl Ha 5, 7.
    as starry heaven IEph 19:2. τὰ ἄστρα τοῦ οὐρ. (cp. ἄστρον and s. Eur., Phoen. 1; Diod S 6, 2, 2 ἥλιον κ. σελήνην κ. τὰ ἄλλα ἄστρα τὰ κατʼ οὐρανόν; Ael. Aristid. 43, 13 K.=1 p. 5 D.; TestAbr A 1 p. 78, 1 [Stone p. 4]; JosAs 2:11) Hb 11:12. οἱ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρ. 1 Cl 32:2 (Gen 22:17); cp. 10:6 (Gen 15:5). In the time of tribulation at the end of the world the stars will fall fr. heaven Mt 24:29a; Mk 13:25a; Rv 6:13; 12:4. Cp. 8:10; 9:1. ἡ στρατιὰ τοῦ οὐρ. (s. οὐράνιος) the host of heaven, of the stars, which some Israelites illicitly worshipped Ac 7:42 (worship of the στρατιὰ τοῦ οὐρ. in enmity to Yahweh also Jer 7:18; 19:13; Zeph 1:5; 2 Ch 33:3, 5). These are also meant by the δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν Mt 24:29b; Lk 21:26; cp. Mk 13:25b (cp. δύναμις 4).
    as place of atmosphere (cp. TestAbr A 9 p. 87, 15 [Stone p. 22] εἰς τὴν αἰθέρα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ); clouds hover in it, the νεφέλαι τοῦ οὐρ. (s. νεφέλη) Mt 24:30b; 26:64; Mk 14:62; D 16:8. Likew. the birds, τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (Gen 1:26; Ps 8:9; Jdth 11:7; ParJer 7:3; cp. Bar 3:17) Mt 6:26; 8:20; 13:32; Mk 4:32; Lk 8:5; 9:58; Ac 10:12; 11:6; 6:12 (Gen 1:26), 18; Hs 9, 24, 1; GJs 3:2 codd.; 18:2 codd.—πυρράζει ὁ οὐρανός Mt 16:2, 3.—In connection w. τὸν σατανᾶν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα Lk 10:18 the atmosphere may well be thought of as an abode of evil spirits. On Satan as the ἄρχων τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, s. ἀήρ. Cp. also the λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρ. εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς 1 Cor 8:5. In any case Rv 12:7f speaks of the dragon and his angels as being in heaven.
    The concept of more than one heaven (the idea is Semitic; but s. FTorm, ZNW 33, ’34, 48–50, who refers to Anaximander and Aristot. Also Ps.-Apollod. 1, 6, 1, 2 ms. and Achilles Tat. 2, 36, 4 and 37, 2 ms. have οὐρανοί; Himerius, Or. 66 [=Or. 20], 4 οὐρανοί as the abode of the gods; also Hesychius Miles. [VI A.D.] c. 66 JFlach of the ‘godless heathen’ Tribonian.—Schlatter, Mt2 p. 58 on 3:2: ‘The pl. οὐρανοί is found neither in Philo nor Joseph.’ Cp. PKatz, Philo’s Bible ’50, 141–46; Mussies 84) is also found in our lit. (s. 1aα; Theoph. Ant. 1, 4 [p. 64, 15]), but it is not always possible to decide with certainty just where the idea is really alive and where it simply survives in a formula (in J’s Gospel the pl. is entirely absent; Rv has it only 12:12 [fr. LXX]. Eph always has the pl. In others the sing. and pl. are interchanged for no apparent reason [cp. Hb 9:23 w. 24 or Hv 1, 1, 4 w. 1, 2, 1; also GPt 10:40f; Ps. 113:11 lines 1 and 2; TestAbr, TestJob, Just., Tat.]): the third heaven (cp. Ps.-Lucian, Philopatris 12 ἐς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀεροβατήσας [s. on ἀνακαινίζω and πνεῦμα 8]; PSI 29, 2ff [IV A.D.?] ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὸν καθήμενον ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ οὐρανῷ … ἐν τῷ β´ οὐρ. … ἐν τῷ γ´ οὐρ.; Simplicius, In Epict. p. 100, 13 Düb. ὀκτὼ οὐρανοί; TestLevi 3:3; GrBar 11:1 εἰς πέμπτον οὐ. Combination of the third heaven and paradise, GrBar 10:1ff; ApcMos 37. S. τρίτος 1a) 2 Cor 12:2 (s. JohJeremias, Der Gottesberg 1919, 41ff; Ltzm., Hdb.4 ’49, exc. on 2 Cor 12:3f [lit.]). ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν Eph 4:10. τ. πάντα ἐν τ. οὐρανοῖς κ. ἐπὶ τ. γῆς Col 1:16; cp. vs. 20. ἔργα τ. χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρ. Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26).—4:14; 7:26; 2 Pt 3:5, 7, 10, 12f (of the heavens, their destruction in the final conflagration, and their replacement by the καινοὶ οὐρ.); 1 Cl 20:1; 33:3. τακήσονταί τινες τῶν οὐρανῶν 2 Cl 16:3.—S. also Lampe s.v. 2.—From the concept of various celestial levels a transition is readily made to
    transcendent abode, heaven (the pl. is preferred for this mng.: B-D-F §141, 1; Rob. 408)
    as the dwelling-place (or throne) of God (Sappho, Fgm. 56 D.2 [=Campbell 54] of Eros; Solon 1, 22 D.3 of Zeus; Hom. Hymn to Aphrodite 291 [all three οὐρ. in the sing. as the seat of the gods]; Pla., Phdr. 246e ὁ μέγας ἐν οὐρανῷ Ζεύς; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 2, 2; 3, 4 ὁ οὐρ. as οἰκητήριον θεοῦ or θεῶν; Dio Chrys. 19[36], 22 θεῶν μακάρων κατʼ οὐρανόν; Artem. 2, 68 p. 159, 13 ὁ οὐρανὸς θεῶν ἐστὶν οἶκος; Ael. Aristid. 43, 14 K.=1 p. 5 D.; Maximus Tyr. 11, 11b; ins from Saïtaï in Lydia [δύναμις 5]; IAndrosIsis, Cyrene 8 p. 129.—On the OT: GWestphal, Jahwes Wohnstätten 1908, 214–73) Mt 23:22; Ac 7:55f; Hb 8:1; 16:2b (Is 66:1); Dg 10:7. ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρ. Hv 1, 1, 6 (cp. Tob 5:17 S). ὁ θεὸς τοῦ οὐρ. (Gen 24:3) Rv 11:13; 16:11. ὁ κύριος ἐν οὐρανοῖς Eph 6:9; cp. Col 4:1. ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν (μου, ἡμῶν) ὁ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρ. (silver tablet fr. Amisos: ARW 12, 1909, 25 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ μέγας ὁ ἐν οὐρανῷ καθήμενος) Mt 5:16, 45; 6:1, 9; 7:11, 21b; 10:33; 12:50; 16:17; 18:10b, 14, 19; Mk 11:25f; Lk 11:2 v.l.; D 8:2 (here the sing. ὁ ἐν τῷ οὐρ. Cp. PGM 12, 261 τῷ ἐν οὐρανῷ θεῷ). ὁ πατὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ the Father who (gives) from heaven Lk 11:13 (Jos., Ant. 9, 73 ἐκχέαι τὸν θεὸν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ). God dwells in τὰ ὕψη τῶν οὐρ. 1 Cl 36:2. Therefore the one who prays looks up toward heaven: ἀναβλέπειν εἰς τὸν οὐρ. (s. ἀναβλέπω 1) Mt 14:19; Mk 6:41; 7:34; Lk 9:16; MPol 9:2; 14:1. ἀτενίσας εἰς τὸν οὐρ. εἶδεν δόξαν θεοῦ Ac 7:55; ἐπάρας τ. ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν οὐρ. J 17:1.—The Spirit of God comes fr. (the open) heaven Mt 3:16; Mk 1:10; Lk 3:21; J 1:32; Ac 2:2(–4); 1 Pt 1:12; AcPlCor 2:5. The voice of God resounds fr. it (Maximus Tyr. 35, 7b Διὸς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ μέγα βοῶντος, the words follow) Mt 3:17; Mk 1:11; Lk 3:22; J 12:28; Ac 11:9; MPol 9:1 (cp. Just., D. 88, 8), and it is gener. the place where divine pronouncements originate Ac 11:5 and their end vs. 10. The ὀργὴ θεοῦ reveals itself fr. heaven Ro 1:18 (s. Jos., Bell. 1, 630 τὸν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ δικαστήν). Also, a σημεῖον ἐκ (ἀπὸ) τοῦ οὐρ. is a sign given by God Mt 16:1; Mk 8:11; Lk 11:16; cp. 21:11.—Lampe s.v. 4.
    Christ is ἐξ οὐρανοῦ from heaven, of a heavenly nature 1 Cor 15:47 (s. ἄνθρωπος 1d. On this HKennedy, St. Paul and the Conception of the ‘Heavenly Man’: Exp. 8th ser., 7, 1913, 97–110; EGraham, CQR 113, ’32, 226) and has come down from heaven J 3:13b, 31; 6:38, 42, 50 (Ar. 15, 1 ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς; Mel., P. 66, 467 ἀφικόμενος ἐξ οὐρανῶν), as ὁ ἄρτος ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (s. ἄρτος 2). Cp. Ro 10:6. He returned to heaven (τὴν ἔνσαρκον εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺ ἀνάληψιν Iren. 1, 10, 1 [Harv. I 91, 2]; on the ascension s. CHönn, Studien zur Geschichte der Hf. im klass. Altertum: Progr. Mannheim 1910; EPfister, Der Reliquienkult im Altertum II 1912, 480ff; HDiels, Himmels u. Höllenfahrten v. Homer bis Dante: NJklA 49, 1922, 239–53; RHolland, Zur Typik der Himmelfahrt: ARW 23, 1925, 207–20; JKroll, Gott u. Hölle ’32, 533 [ind.: Ascensus]; WMichaelis, Zur Überl. der Hf.s-geschichte: ThBl 4, 1925, 101–9; AFridrichsen, D. Hf. bei Lk: ibid. 6, 1927, 337–41; GBertram, Die Hf. Jesu vom Kreuz: Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 187–217 [UHolzmeister, ZKT 55, ’31, 44–82]; HSchlier, Christus u. d. Kirche im Eph 1930, 1ff; VLarrañaga, L’Ascension de Notre-Seigneur dans le NT ’38 [fr. Spanish]. S. also at ἀνάστασις 2 end, and διά A 2a) to live there in glory: Mk 16:19; Lk 24:51; Ac 1:10f (AZwiep, The Ascension of the Messiah in Lukan Christology ’97); 2:34; 7:55f; 9:3; 22:6; 1 Pt 3:22; 15:9. Christians await his return fr. heaven: Ac 1:11; Phil 3:20; 1 Th 1:10; 4:16; 2 Th 1:7 (Just., A I, 51, 8 al.).—When Messianic woes have come to an end, τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ υἱοῦ τ. ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ then the sign of the Human One (who is) in heaven will appear; acc. to the context, the sign consists in this, that he appears visibly in heavenly glory Mt 24:30.—Lampe s.v. 10b.
    as the abode of angels (Gen 21:17; 22:11; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 8, 12; TestAbr A 4 p. 80, 34 [Stone p. 8]; ParJer 3:2; ApcMos 38; Just., D. 57, 2) Mt 18:10a; 22:30; 24:36; 28:2; Mk 12:25; 13:32; Lk 2:15; 22:43; J 1:51; Gal 1:8; Rv 10:1; 18:1; 19:14; 20:1. Cp. Eph 3:15.—Lampe s.v. 7.
    Christians who have died also dwell in heaven (cp. Dio Chrys. 23 [40], 35 οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ θείων κ. μακαρίων αἰώνιον τάξιν; Libanius, Or. 21 p. 459, 9 F. πόρρω τοῦ τὸν οὐρανὸν οἰκοῦντος χοροῦ; Oenomaus in Eus., PE 5, 33, 5; 12; Artem. 2, 68 p. 160, 25 τὰς ψυχὰς ἀπαλλαγείσας τῶν σωμάτων εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνιέναι τάχει χρωμένας ὑπερβάλλοντι; Himerius, Or. 8 [=23], 23: the daemon of the dead holds the σῶμα of the dead person, τὴν ψυχὴν ὁ οὐρανός; Quintus Smyrn. 7, 88; TestAbr A 20 p. 103, 26 [Stone p. 54]; TestJob 39:13; ApcEsdr 7:3). Their life, τὸ ἀληθῶς ἐν οὐρανῷ ζῆν, stands in strong contrast to the ὄντως θάνατος, that leads to the everlasting fire Dg 10:7b. Rhoda, who greets Hermas from heaven Hv 1, 1, 4, need not have died (s. MDibelius, Hdb. ad loc.), and still she shows us that heaven is open to the devout. Furthermore, the true citizenship of Christians is in heaven (Tat. 16, 1 τὴν ἐν οὐρανοῖς πορείαν; s. πολίτευμα) Phil 3:20; cp. Dg 5:9. Their names are enrolled in heaven (s. βίβλος 2) Lk 10:20; Hb 12:23. In heaven there await them their glorified body 2 Cor 5:1f, their reward Mt 5:12; Lk 6:23, their treasure Mt 6:20; Lk 12:33, the things they hoped for Col 1:5, their inheritance 1 Pt 1:4. It is a place of peace Lk 19:38.—ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ the New Jerusalem (s. Ἱεροσόλυμα 2) will come down to earth Rv 3:12; 21:2, 10.
    The concept of a heaven in which God, attendant spirits of God, and the righteous dead abide, makes it easy to understand the taking over of certain OT expressions in which heaven is personified εὐφραίνεσθε οἱ οὐρανοί (cp. Is 44:23; 49:13; Mel., P. 98, 747) Rv 12:12; cp. 18:20; 9:3 (Is 1:2); 11:2 (Jer 2:12); 1 Cl 27:7 (Ps 18:2).
    an indirect reference to God, God fig. ext. of 2 (s. βασιλεία 1b.—A common Hebrew practice, but not unknown among polytheists: Philippides Com. [IV/III B.C.] 27 νὴ τὸν οὐρανόν. Acc. to Clem. Al., Protr. 5, 66, 4 Θεόφραστος πῇ μὲν οὐρανὸν, πῇ δὲ πνεῦμα τὸν θεὸν ὑπονοεῖ=Theophrastus at one time thinks of God as heaven and at another time as spirit; Appian, Hann. 56 §233 σημεῖα ἐκ Διός [ln. 14 Viereck-R.]=ἐξ οὐρανοῦ [ln. 16]; JosAs 19:2; SEG XXVIII, 1251, 3 [III/IV A.D.; s. New Docs 3, 49f]). ἁμαρτάνειν εἰς τὸν οὐρ. sin against God Lk 15:18, 21. ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἢ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων Mt 21:25; Mk 11:30f; Lk 20:4f. βασιλεία τῶν οὐρ. (GrBar 11:2) in Mt=βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19f; 7:21; 8:11; 10:7; 11:11f; 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44f, 47, 52; 16:19; 18:1, 3f, 23; 19:12, 14, 23; 20:1; 22:2; 23:13; 25:1: J 3:5 v.l.; AcPl Ha 8, 31 (restored)=BMM verso 3.—B. 53; 1484. DELG. M-M. DLNT 439–43. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > οὐρανός

  • 19 σεβάζομαι

    σεβάζομαι (σέβας ‘reverential awe’; s. four next entries; dep. (Hom. et al.) 1 aor. ἐσεβάσθην; =σέβομαι to show reverence to, worship (Orph., Argon. 550; oracular saying in Eus., PE 9, 10, 4 σεβαζόμενοι θεὸν ἁγνῶς; Ar. 12, 7 [of certain polytheists ἐσεβάσθησαν πρόβατον; cp. Hos 10:5 Aq.]) 1 aor. pass. in act. sense (JosAs 12:6 σεβασθεῖσα εἴδωλα νεκρὰ καὶ κωφά; Sib-Or 5, 405; 8, 46; s. Aristid. above) ἐσεβάσθησαν καὶ ἐλάτρευσαν τῇ κτίσει παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα Ro 1:25.—DELG s.v. σέβομαι II. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σεβάζομαι

  • 20 σέβω

    σέβω (s. four prec. entries)
    to express in gestures, rites, or ceremonies one’s allegiance or devotion to deity, worship
    act. (since Pind.) worship (X., Mem. 4, 4, 19 θεοὺς σέβειν; Epict. 3, 7, 26 θεὸν σέβειν; POxy 1464, 5; Philo, Virt. 34; Just., Tat.; Ath. 30, 1; Hippol., Ref. 1, preface 1; Orig., C. Cels. 3, 77, 7; on Hellenic view of respect for deity s. e.g. VLeinieks, the city of Dionysos ’96, 243–56.—But τὴν ἀρετὴν ς. 5, 39, 14) θεὸν σέβειν Dg 3:2; cp. 2:7.Elsewh. always
    mid. (Hom.+; ins, pap, LXX, TestSol; TestJos 4:6; JosAs, Ar., Just.) worship (Pind.+; Pla., Phd. 251a ὡς θεὸν σέβεται, Leg. 11 p. 917b; X., Hell. 3, 4, 18; Diod S 1, 35, 6; 2, 59, 2 θεούς; Plut., Mor. 368 [44] σεβόμενοι τὸν Ἄνουβιν; SIG 611, 24 τοὺς θεούς; 557, 7 [207/206 B.C.] οἱ σεβόμενοι Ἀπόλλωνα; 559, 6; 560, 17; PTebt 59, 10 [I B.C.] σέβεσθαι τὸ ἱερόν; LXX; TestJos 4:6; JosAs; SibOr Fgm. 1, 15; 3, 28; 30; EpArist 16 al.; Jos., Ant. 9, 205 εἴδωλα; 8, 192 θεούς; Ar. 2, 1 al.; Just., A I, 13, 1; 25, 1; Iren. 3, 12, 7 [Harv. II 60, 5]; τὸ πλῆθος ὧν σέβονται ζώων Ἀιγύπτοι Theoph. Ant. 1, 10 [p. 80, 1]) w. the acc. of that which is worshiped Mt 15:9; Mk 7:7 (both Is 29:13); Ac 18:13; 19:27; PtK 2.—σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν God-fearers, worshipers of God is a term applied to former polytheists who accepted the ethical monotheism of Israel and attended the synagogue, but who did not obligate themselves to keep the whole Mosaic law; in particular, the males did not submit to circumcision (Jos., Ant. 14, 110 πάντων τῶν κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην Ἰουδαίων καὶ σεβομένων τὸν θεόν; RMarcus, The Sebomenoi in Josephus ’52.—JBernays, Gesammelte Abhandlungen 1885 II 71–80; EvDobschütz, RE XVI 120f; Schürer III 161–71, Die Juden im Bosporanischen Reiche u. die Genossenschaften der σεβόμενοι θεὸν ὕψιστον: SBBerlAk 1897, 200–225; FCumont, Hypsistos: Suppl. à la Revue de l’instruction publ. en Belgique 1897; Dssm., LO 391f [LAE 451f]; Moore, Judaism I 323–53; JKlausner, From Jesus to Paul, tr. WStinespring, ’43, 31–49; New Docs 3, 24f; 54f; GLüdemann, Early Christianity According to the Traditions in Acts ’87, 155f; TCallan, CBQ 55, ’93, 291–95). In our lit. it is limited to Ac, where the expr. takes various forms: σεβ. τὸν θεόν 16:14; 18:7. Simply σεβ. 13:50; 17:4, 17. Once σεβόμενοι προσήλυτοι 13:43; s. φοβέω 2a and προσήλυτος; MWilcox, the ‘God-Fearers’ in Acts, A Reconsideration: JSNT 13, ’81, 102–22 (emphasis on piety, not on a distinct group).—Of the worship of Christ by the faithful MPol 17:2b; cp. vs. 2a.
    to have a reverent attitude toward human beings, show reverence/respect for (Aeschyl. et al.; X., Cyr. 8, 8, 1 Κῦρον ὡς πατέρα, Hell. 7, 3, 12; Pla., Leg. 7, 813d; Polyb. 6, 39, 7; Chilon in Stob. III 116, 7 H. πρεσβύτερον σέβου; PSI 361, 9 [III B.C.] ὅσοι αὐτὸν σέβονται) πρεσβύτας σέβεσθαι Hm 8:10.—AMichels, ClJ 92, ’97, 399–416 (on ‘pius’ and ‘pietas’ in Rom. lit.).—B. 1469. DELG s.v. σέβομαι. M-M s.v. σέβομαι. TW. S. θεοσεβής.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > σέβω

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