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makes+generalization

  • 1 ввиду широкого разнообразия ... рискованно делать обобщения

    The wide diversity of molecular substances makes generalization somewhat risky.

    Русско-английский научно-технический словарь переводчика > ввиду широкого разнообразия ... рискованно делать обобщения

  • 2 ввиду широкого разнообразия ... рискованно делать обобщения

    The wide diversity of molecular substances makes generalization somewhat risky.

    Русско-английский научно-технический словарь переводчика > ввиду широкого разнообразия ... рискованно делать обобщения

  • 3 sweeping

    sweeping ['swi:pɪŋ]
    (a) (wide → movement, curve) large;
    with a sweeping gesture d'un geste large, d'un grand geste;
    a sweeping view une vue panoramique
    a sweeping generalization or statement une généralisation excessive;
    he makes sweeping statements about the European mentality il fait des généralisations abusives ou hâtives sur la mentalité européenne;
    that's rather a sweeping generalization là, vous généralisez un peu trop
    (c) (significant, large → amount) considérable;
    sweeping budget cuts des coupes fpl sombres dans le budget;
    the opposition has made sweeping gains l'opposition a énormément progressé
    (d) (far-reaching → measure, change) de grande portée, de grande envergure;
    sweeping reforms des réformes fpl de grande envergure
    balayures fpl

    Un panorama unique de l'anglais et du français > sweeping

  • 4 Concepts

       From a psychological perspective, concepts are mental representations of classes (e.g., one's beliefs about the class of dogs or tables), and their most salient function is to promote cognitive economy.... By partitioning the world into classes, we decrease the amount of information we must perceive, learn, remember, communicate, and reason about. Thus, if we had no concepts, we would have to refer to each individual entity by its own name; every different table, for example, would be denoted by a different word. The mental lexicon required would be so enormous that communication as we know it might be impossible. Other mental functions might collapse under the sheer number of entities we would have to keep track of.
       Another important function of concepts is that they enable us to go beyond the information given.... When we come across an object, say a wolf, we have direct knowledge only of its appearance. It is essential that we go beyond appearances and bring to bear other knowledge that we have, such as our belief that wolves can bite and inflict severe injury. Concepts are our means of linking perceptual and nonperceptual information. We use a perceptual description of the creature in front of us to access the concept wolf and then use our nonperceptual beliefs to direct our behavior, that is, run. Concepts, then, are recognition devices; they serve as entry points into our knowledge stores and provide us with expectations that we can use to guide our actions.
       A third important function of concepts is that they can be combined to form complex concepts and thoughts. Stoves and burn are two simple concepts; Stoves can burn is a full-fledged thought. Presumably our understanding of this thought, and of complex concepts in general, is based on our understanding of the constituent concepts. (Smith, 1988, pp. 19-20)
       The concept may be a butterfly. It may be a person he has known. It may be an animal, a city, a type of action, or a quality. Each concept calls for a name. These names are wanted for what may be a noun or a verb, an adjective or an adverb. Concepts of this type have been formed gradually over the years from childhood on. Each time a thing is seen or heard or experienced, the individual has a perception of it. A part of that perception comes from his own concomitant interpretation. Each successive perception forms and probably alters the permanent concept. And words are acquired gradually, also, and deposited somehow in the treasure-house of word memory.... Words are often acquired simultaneously with the concepts.... A little boy may first see a butterfly fluttering from flower to flower in a meadow. Later he sees them on the wing or in pictures, many times. On each occasion he adds to his conception of butterfly.
       It becomes a generalization from many particulars. He builds up a concept of a butterfly which he can remember and summon at will, although when he comes to manhood, perhaps, he can recollect none of the particular butterflies of past experience.
       The same is true of the sequence of sound that makes up a melody. He remembers it after he has forgotten each of the many times he heard or perhaps sang or played it. The same is true of colours. He acquires, quite quickly, the concept of lavender, although all the objects of which he saw the colour have faded beyond the frontier of voluntary recall. The same is true of the generalization he forms of an acquaintance. Later on he can summon his concept of the individual without recalling their many meetings. (Penfield, 1959, pp. 228-229)

    Historical dictionary of quotations in cognitive science > Concepts

  • 5 רבי

    רבי, רָבָה, רָבֶה(b. h.) to be much, many; to grow, increase. Yoma 87b עונותינו רָבוּוכ׳ our sins are too many to be counted. Gen. R. s. 34 אצא ואהי פרה ורָבֶהוכ׳ I may go out (of the ark) and be multiplying and increasing for curse. Bekh.44b דםר׳ שחיןר׳ if the blood is allowed to increase (if bleeding is neglected), skin disease will develop; מי רגלים רָבִיןוכ׳ if one allows the urine to increase (through neglect) Sabb.33b בעון … צרות רָבוֹתוכ׳ for the sin of obscene talk troubles increase, and new evil decrees come Num. R. s. 11, v. פָּרָה II. Gen. R. s. 48 הכתבר׳וכ׳, v. כְּתָב Sot.47b משרבו … בדיןר׳וכ׳ when the whisperers in court (secret influences) increased, the anger (of God) against Israel increased. Snh.97a העזות תִּרְבֶּה impudence shall be large. Y.Yeb.IV, 6a bot., v. אל״ף; a. fr.Gen. R. s. 98 (play on בן פרת, Gen. 49:22) בן פירות רָבִיתָה ‘a child of fruits (through interpreting Pharaohs dream about the ears of corn) thou didst grow (to high office); בן פרות רביתה יוסף ‘a child of cows (through interpreting the dream about cows) thou didst grow; בן פורת (יוסף) רָבִיתָ יוסף ‘a child of growth, thou didst grow tall (so as to protect Rachel from Esaus sight; v. Gen. R. s. 78); Yalk. ib. 133 (read:) בן פורת יוסף פָּרִיתָ רבית יוסף. Pi. רִיבָּה 1) to increase, do much, do more. Gen. R. s. 34 ר׳ בטהורים יותרוכ׳ ordered a larger number of the clean animals to be taken into the ark than of the unclean. Tosef.Dem.IV, 12 ר׳ בעיר ולאר׳ במדינה if one offers a large quantity for sale, while none is offered in the country. Ib. 13 כל שר׳ לו מותר wherever one has a large quantity for sale, it is permitted (to buy of him); a. fr.Men.89a ר׳ שמןוכ׳, v. רְבִיכָה. 2) (hermeneutics) to use an additional word for the purpose of intimating something not otherwise included; to argue from an additional word or from a generalization in the Biblical text; to widen the scope of a law; to include. Ib. אם אתה מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ if thou wert to argue an entire day on the intimation of an increase lying in the words bashshemen (Lev. 6:14; 7:12), I should not listen to thee; Zeb.82a; Nidd.72b. Shebu.26a, v. מָעַט. Ib. 27a מדאצטריך או לְרַבּוֹתוכ׳ as the word אוֹ (Lev. 5:4) is needed for the inclusion of vows for the benefit of others. Pes.22b, v. אֵת. Snh.60b יכול שאני מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ you might think that I must include ; a. v. fr.(Yalk. Ex. 348 ר׳ כלוכ׳, v. רִיקֵן.Gen. R. s. 85 (ref. to Gen. 38:29) זה רִבָּה על כל הפריצים ממך יעמודו (not יעמוד) this event implies (the prophecy) that all conquerors shall rise from thee (Perez); Yalk. ib. 145. 3) to lend or borrow on usury (רִבִּית); to make a profit. Sifra Bhar, ch. VI, Par. 5; B. Mets.V, 1 (expl. תַּרְבִּית) המְרַבֶּה בפירות he who makes a profit on lending provisions. Tosef. ib. IV, 2 מְרַבִּין על השכר ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit on renting (lending money to the money-changer merely for exhibition), but you dare not make a profit on a sale (of land as security for a loan). B. Mets.V, 2 מרבין … ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit by a reduction of rent on account of payment in advance, but you dare not make a profit by increasing the price of an object sold on account of postponed payment; a. e. Hif. הִרְבָּה to cause increase; to strengthen; to do much. Ber.17a, v. מָעַט. Ab. I, 17 וכל המַרְבֶּה דבריםוכ׳ he that talks much brings about sin. Ib. II, 7 מרבה בשרוכ׳ making much flesh (indulging in eating) makes much food for worms; מרבה צרקהוכ׳ he that does much charity, does much for peace. Ber.40a מפרין ומרבין, v. פָּרָה II. Ib. 64a ת״ח מַרְבִּיםוכ׳ scholars advance peace in the world; a. fr.B. Bath.11b בני מבוי … שמרבה עליהן את הדרך the neighbors may prevent him, because he increases the use of the way too much for them (causes many people to step upon their ground); Tosef. ib. I, 4; Y. ib. II, 13b bot. דו יכיל מימר … והן מרבין עלינווכ׳ he may say to him, they go and come, ask for thee and cannot find thee, and thus they use the way too frequently for us. Nithpa. נִתְרַבָּה to be increased; with בגדים, to be clothed with the larger number of garments designated for the high priest, v. מְרוּבֶּה. Yoma 5a נ׳ שבעה if he wore the high priestly garments during the entire week of inauguration; נ׳ יום אחד if he wore them only one day.

    Jewish literature > רבי

  • 6 רבה

    רבי, רָבָה, רָבֶה(b. h.) to be much, many; to grow, increase. Yoma 87b עונותינו רָבוּוכ׳ our sins are too many to be counted. Gen. R. s. 34 אצא ואהי פרה ורָבֶהוכ׳ I may go out (of the ark) and be multiplying and increasing for curse. Bekh.44b דםר׳ שחיןר׳ if the blood is allowed to increase (if bleeding is neglected), skin disease will develop; מי רגלים רָבִיןוכ׳ if one allows the urine to increase (through neglect) Sabb.33b בעון … צרות רָבוֹתוכ׳ for the sin of obscene talk troubles increase, and new evil decrees come Num. R. s. 11, v. פָּרָה II. Gen. R. s. 48 הכתבר׳וכ׳, v. כְּתָב Sot.47b משרבו … בדיןר׳וכ׳ when the whisperers in court (secret influences) increased, the anger (of God) against Israel increased. Snh.97a העזות תִּרְבֶּה impudence shall be large. Y.Yeb.IV, 6a bot., v. אל״ף; a. fr.Gen. R. s. 98 (play on בן פרת, Gen. 49:22) בן פירות רָבִיתָה ‘a child of fruits (through interpreting Pharaohs dream about the ears of corn) thou didst grow (to high office); בן פרות רביתה יוסף ‘a child of cows (through interpreting the dream about cows) thou didst grow; בן פורת (יוסף) רָבִיתָ יוסף ‘a child of growth, thou didst grow tall (so as to protect Rachel from Esaus sight; v. Gen. R. s. 78); Yalk. ib. 133 (read:) בן פורת יוסף פָּרִיתָ רבית יוסף. Pi. רִיבָּה 1) to increase, do much, do more. Gen. R. s. 34 ר׳ בטהורים יותרוכ׳ ordered a larger number of the clean animals to be taken into the ark than of the unclean. Tosef.Dem.IV, 12 ר׳ בעיר ולאר׳ במדינה if one offers a large quantity for sale, while none is offered in the country. Ib. 13 כל שר׳ לו מותר wherever one has a large quantity for sale, it is permitted (to buy of him); a. fr.Men.89a ר׳ שמןוכ׳, v. רְבִיכָה. 2) (hermeneutics) to use an additional word for the purpose of intimating something not otherwise included; to argue from an additional word or from a generalization in the Biblical text; to widen the scope of a law; to include. Ib. אם אתה מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ if thou wert to argue an entire day on the intimation of an increase lying in the words bashshemen (Lev. 6:14; 7:12), I should not listen to thee; Zeb.82a; Nidd.72b. Shebu.26a, v. מָעַט. Ib. 27a מדאצטריך או לְרַבּוֹתוכ׳ as the word אוֹ (Lev. 5:4) is needed for the inclusion of vows for the benefit of others. Pes.22b, v. אֵת. Snh.60b יכול שאני מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ you might think that I must include ; a. v. fr.(Yalk. Ex. 348 ר׳ כלוכ׳, v. רִיקֵן.Gen. R. s. 85 (ref. to Gen. 38:29) זה רִבָּה על כל הפריצים ממך יעמודו (not יעמוד) this event implies (the prophecy) that all conquerors shall rise from thee (Perez); Yalk. ib. 145. 3) to lend or borrow on usury (רִבִּית); to make a profit. Sifra Bhar, ch. VI, Par. 5; B. Mets.V, 1 (expl. תַּרְבִּית) המְרַבֶּה בפירות he who makes a profit on lending provisions. Tosef. ib. IV, 2 מְרַבִּין על השכר ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit on renting (lending money to the money-changer merely for exhibition), but you dare not make a profit on a sale (of land as security for a loan). B. Mets.V, 2 מרבין … ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit by a reduction of rent on account of payment in advance, but you dare not make a profit by increasing the price of an object sold on account of postponed payment; a. e. Hif. הִרְבָּה to cause increase; to strengthen; to do much. Ber.17a, v. מָעַט. Ab. I, 17 וכל המַרְבֶּה דבריםוכ׳ he that talks much brings about sin. Ib. II, 7 מרבה בשרוכ׳ making much flesh (indulging in eating) makes much food for worms; מרבה צרקהוכ׳ he that does much charity, does much for peace. Ber.40a מפרין ומרבין, v. פָּרָה II. Ib. 64a ת״ח מַרְבִּיםוכ׳ scholars advance peace in the world; a. fr.B. Bath.11b בני מבוי … שמרבה עליהן את הדרך the neighbors may prevent him, because he increases the use of the way too much for them (causes many people to step upon their ground); Tosef. ib. I, 4; Y. ib. II, 13b bot. דו יכיל מימר … והן מרבין עלינווכ׳ he may say to him, they go and come, ask for thee and cannot find thee, and thus they use the way too frequently for us. Nithpa. נִתְרַבָּה to be increased; with בגדים, to be clothed with the larger number of garments designated for the high priest, v. מְרוּבֶּה. Yoma 5a נ׳ שבעה if he wore the high priestly garments during the entire week of inauguration; נ׳ יום אחד if he wore them only one day.

    Jewish literature > רבה

  • 7 רָבָה

    רבי, רָבָה, רָבֶה(b. h.) to be much, many; to grow, increase. Yoma 87b עונותינו רָבוּוכ׳ our sins are too many to be counted. Gen. R. s. 34 אצא ואהי פרה ורָבֶהוכ׳ I may go out (of the ark) and be multiplying and increasing for curse. Bekh.44b דםר׳ שחיןר׳ if the blood is allowed to increase (if bleeding is neglected), skin disease will develop; מי רגלים רָבִיןוכ׳ if one allows the urine to increase (through neglect) Sabb.33b בעון … צרות רָבוֹתוכ׳ for the sin of obscene talk troubles increase, and new evil decrees come Num. R. s. 11, v. פָּרָה II. Gen. R. s. 48 הכתבר׳וכ׳, v. כְּתָב Sot.47b משרבו … בדיןר׳וכ׳ when the whisperers in court (secret influences) increased, the anger (of God) against Israel increased. Snh.97a העזות תִּרְבֶּה impudence shall be large. Y.Yeb.IV, 6a bot., v. אל״ף; a. fr.Gen. R. s. 98 (play on בן פרת, Gen. 49:22) בן פירות רָבִיתָה ‘a child of fruits (through interpreting Pharaohs dream about the ears of corn) thou didst grow (to high office); בן פרות רביתה יוסף ‘a child of cows (through interpreting the dream about cows) thou didst grow; בן פורת (יוסף) רָבִיתָ יוסף ‘a child of growth, thou didst grow tall (so as to protect Rachel from Esaus sight; v. Gen. R. s. 78); Yalk. ib. 133 (read:) בן פורת יוסף פָּרִיתָ רבית יוסף. Pi. רִיבָּה 1) to increase, do much, do more. Gen. R. s. 34 ר׳ בטהורים יותרוכ׳ ordered a larger number of the clean animals to be taken into the ark than of the unclean. Tosef.Dem.IV, 12 ר׳ בעיר ולאר׳ במדינה if one offers a large quantity for sale, while none is offered in the country. Ib. 13 כל שר׳ לו מותר wherever one has a large quantity for sale, it is permitted (to buy of him); a. fr.Men.89a ר׳ שמןוכ׳, v. רְבִיכָה. 2) (hermeneutics) to use an additional word for the purpose of intimating something not otherwise included; to argue from an additional word or from a generalization in the Biblical text; to widen the scope of a law; to include. Ib. אם אתה מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ if thou wert to argue an entire day on the intimation of an increase lying in the words bashshemen (Lev. 6:14; 7:12), I should not listen to thee; Zeb.82a; Nidd.72b. Shebu.26a, v. מָעַט. Ib. 27a מדאצטריך או לְרַבּוֹתוכ׳ as the word אוֹ (Lev. 5:4) is needed for the inclusion of vows for the benefit of others. Pes.22b, v. אֵת. Snh.60b יכול שאני מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ you might think that I must include ; a. v. fr.(Yalk. Ex. 348 ר׳ כלוכ׳, v. רִיקֵן.Gen. R. s. 85 (ref. to Gen. 38:29) זה רִבָּה על כל הפריצים ממך יעמודו (not יעמוד) this event implies (the prophecy) that all conquerors shall rise from thee (Perez); Yalk. ib. 145. 3) to lend or borrow on usury (רִבִּית); to make a profit. Sifra Bhar, ch. VI, Par. 5; B. Mets.V, 1 (expl. תַּרְבִּית) המְרַבֶּה בפירות he who makes a profit on lending provisions. Tosef. ib. IV, 2 מְרַבִּין על השכר ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit on renting (lending money to the money-changer merely for exhibition), but you dare not make a profit on a sale (of land as security for a loan). B. Mets.V, 2 מרבין … ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit by a reduction of rent on account of payment in advance, but you dare not make a profit by increasing the price of an object sold on account of postponed payment; a. e. Hif. הִרְבָּה to cause increase; to strengthen; to do much. Ber.17a, v. מָעַט. Ab. I, 17 וכל המַרְבֶּה דבריםוכ׳ he that talks much brings about sin. Ib. II, 7 מרבה בשרוכ׳ making much flesh (indulging in eating) makes much food for worms; מרבה צרקהוכ׳ he that does much charity, does much for peace. Ber.40a מפרין ומרבין, v. פָּרָה II. Ib. 64a ת״ח מַרְבִּיםוכ׳ scholars advance peace in the world; a. fr.B. Bath.11b בני מבוי … שמרבה עליהן את הדרך the neighbors may prevent him, because he increases the use of the way too much for them (causes many people to step upon their ground); Tosef. ib. I, 4; Y. ib. II, 13b bot. דו יכיל מימר … והן מרבין עלינווכ׳ he may say to him, they go and come, ask for thee and cannot find thee, and thus they use the way too frequently for us. Nithpa. נִתְרַבָּה to be increased; with בגדים, to be clothed with the larger number of garments designated for the high priest, v. מְרוּבֶּה. Yoma 5a נ׳ שבעה if he wore the high priestly garments during the entire week of inauguration; נ׳ יום אחד if he wore them only one day.

    Jewish literature > רָבָה

  • 8 רָבֶה

    רבי, רָבָה, רָבֶה(b. h.) to be much, many; to grow, increase. Yoma 87b עונותינו רָבוּוכ׳ our sins are too many to be counted. Gen. R. s. 34 אצא ואהי פרה ורָבֶהוכ׳ I may go out (of the ark) and be multiplying and increasing for curse. Bekh.44b דםר׳ שחיןר׳ if the blood is allowed to increase (if bleeding is neglected), skin disease will develop; מי רגלים רָבִיןוכ׳ if one allows the urine to increase (through neglect) Sabb.33b בעון … צרות רָבוֹתוכ׳ for the sin of obscene talk troubles increase, and new evil decrees come Num. R. s. 11, v. פָּרָה II. Gen. R. s. 48 הכתבר׳וכ׳, v. כְּתָב Sot.47b משרבו … בדיןר׳וכ׳ when the whisperers in court (secret influences) increased, the anger (of God) against Israel increased. Snh.97a העזות תִּרְבֶּה impudence shall be large. Y.Yeb.IV, 6a bot., v. אל״ף; a. fr.Gen. R. s. 98 (play on בן פרת, Gen. 49:22) בן פירות רָבִיתָה ‘a child of fruits (through interpreting Pharaohs dream about the ears of corn) thou didst grow (to high office); בן פרות רביתה יוסף ‘a child of cows (through interpreting the dream about cows) thou didst grow; בן פורת (יוסף) רָבִיתָ יוסף ‘a child of growth, thou didst grow tall (so as to protect Rachel from Esaus sight; v. Gen. R. s. 78); Yalk. ib. 133 (read:) בן פורת יוסף פָּרִיתָ רבית יוסף. Pi. רִיבָּה 1) to increase, do much, do more. Gen. R. s. 34 ר׳ בטהורים יותרוכ׳ ordered a larger number of the clean animals to be taken into the ark than of the unclean. Tosef.Dem.IV, 12 ר׳ בעיר ולאר׳ במדינה if one offers a large quantity for sale, while none is offered in the country. Ib. 13 כל שר׳ לו מותר wherever one has a large quantity for sale, it is permitted (to buy of him); a. fr.Men.89a ר׳ שמןוכ׳, v. רְבִיכָה. 2) (hermeneutics) to use an additional word for the purpose of intimating something not otherwise included; to argue from an additional word or from a generalization in the Biblical text; to widen the scope of a law; to include. Ib. אם אתה מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ if thou wert to argue an entire day on the intimation of an increase lying in the words bashshemen (Lev. 6:14; 7:12), I should not listen to thee; Zeb.82a; Nidd.72b. Shebu.26a, v. מָעַט. Ib. 27a מדאצטריך או לְרַבּוֹתוכ׳ as the word אוֹ (Lev. 5:4) is needed for the inclusion of vows for the benefit of others. Pes.22b, v. אֵת. Snh.60b יכול שאני מְרַבֶּהוכ׳ you might think that I must include ; a. v. fr.(Yalk. Ex. 348 ר׳ כלוכ׳, v. רִיקֵן.Gen. R. s. 85 (ref. to Gen. 38:29) זה רִבָּה על כל הפריצים ממך יעמודו (not יעמוד) this event implies (the prophecy) that all conquerors shall rise from thee (Perez); Yalk. ib. 145. 3) to lend or borrow on usury (רִבִּית); to make a profit. Sifra Bhar, ch. VI, Par. 5; B. Mets.V, 1 (expl. תַּרְבִּית) המְרַבֶּה בפירות he who makes a profit on lending provisions. Tosef. ib. IV, 2 מְרַבִּין על השכר ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit on renting (lending money to the money-changer merely for exhibition), but you dare not make a profit on a sale (of land as security for a loan). B. Mets.V, 2 מרבין … ואין מרביןוכ׳ you may make a profit by a reduction of rent on account of payment in advance, but you dare not make a profit by increasing the price of an object sold on account of postponed payment; a. e. Hif. הִרְבָּה to cause increase; to strengthen; to do much. Ber.17a, v. מָעַט. Ab. I, 17 וכל המַרְבֶּה דבריםוכ׳ he that talks much brings about sin. Ib. II, 7 מרבה בשרוכ׳ making much flesh (indulging in eating) makes much food for worms; מרבה צרקהוכ׳ he that does much charity, does much for peace. Ber.40a מפרין ומרבין, v. פָּרָה II. Ib. 64a ת״ח מַרְבִּיםוכ׳ scholars advance peace in the world; a. fr.B. Bath.11b בני מבוי … שמרבה עליהן את הדרך the neighbors may prevent him, because he increases the use of the way too much for them (causes many people to step upon their ground); Tosef. ib. I, 4; Y. ib. II, 13b bot. דו יכיל מימר … והן מרבין עלינווכ׳ he may say to him, they go and come, ask for thee and cannot find thee, and thus they use the way too frequently for us. Nithpa. נִתְרַבָּה to be increased; with בגדים, to be clothed with the larger number of garments designated for the high priest, v. מְרוּבֶּה. Yoma 5a נ׳ שבעה if he wore the high priestly garments during the entire week of inauguration; נ׳ יום אחד if he wore them only one day.

    Jewish literature > רָבֶה

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