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lawless gentiles

  • 1 ἔθνος

    ἔθνος, ους, τό (Hom.+).
    a body of persons united by kinship, culture, and common traditions, nation, people, τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρείας the Samaritan people Ac 8:9 (cp. Jos., Ant. 18, 85). τῶν Ἰουδαίων 10:22 (Polyb. in Jos., Ant. 12, 135; Agatharchides: 86 Fgm. 20b Jac. [in Jos., Ant. 12, 6]; Diod S 34+35 Fgm. 1, 2 τὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἔθνος; Philo, Decal. 96 al.; Just., D. 56, 10 ὑμῶν al.) ἐ. the (specific) people, contextually the people of Israel (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 5, 15, 24; Did., Gen. 209, 14) J 11:48, 50ff; 18:35. δώδεκα ἔ. Hs 9, 17, 2.—B 13:2 (Gen 25:23); ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χανάαν seven nations in Canaan Ac 13:19 (Dt 7:1). The people in contrast to heads of state 9:15. ἔθνος ἐπὶ ἔθνος one nation against another Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:10 (cp. 2 Ch 15:6); πάντα τὰ ἔ. (Ar. 12, 1; Ath. 14, 2; cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 106 §440 ἐν ἔθνεσιν ἅπασι; Jos., Ant. 11, 215 ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ.) Mt 24:14; 28:19 (SKio, BT 41, ’90, 230–38, prefers 2 below); Mk 11:17 (Is 56:7); 13:10. More specif. πάντα τὰ ἔ. τοῦ κόσμου Lk 12:30; cp. ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ. 1 Cl 59:4; ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔ. 2 Cl 13:2. πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων every nation of humankind Ac 17:26. ἄρχοντες ἐθνῶν Mt 20:25; also οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν τῶν ἐ. Mk 10:42; οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐ. Lk 22:25 (cp. Ath. 34, 2 ἡγεμόνας τῶν ἐ.).—In Mt 21:43 ἔ. (not gentiles) in contrast to the leaders described vv. 23; 45.
    (τὰ) ἔθνη people groups foreign to a specific people group (corresp. to Heb. גּוֹיִם in LXX; a nationalistic expression, also usu. in Gk. for foreigners: Aristot., Pol. 1324b, 10 [opp. Ἕλληνες]; Ael. Aristid. 45, p. 3 D.; Cass. Dio 36, 41; Ps.-Callisth. 2, 7, 4 [opp. ἡ Ἑλλάς]; IG II/1, 445 Fgm. ab, 8; Fgm. c, 5; 448, 15 and 17 [c. 150 B.C.]; SIG 760; PStras 22, 19; PFay 20, 11; this is an expression favored by Appian in Rome for foreign peoples in contrast to the Italians: Bell. Civ. 2, 26 §99; 2, 28 §107; 3, 35 §140; 4, 57 §246 and oft.; s. Nägeli 46; B-D-F §254, 3) in our lit.
    those who do not belong to groups professing faith in the God of Israel, the nations, gentiles, unbelievers (in effect=‘polytheists’) w. ἡγεμόνες κ. βασιλεῖς Mt 10:18. Named w. Israelites (Jos., Ant. 13, 196; cp. SibOr 3, 663; Just., A I, 53, 3ff and D. 123, 2 al.) Ac 14:5; 21:21; 26:17; Ro 3:29; 9:24; 15:10 (Dt 32:43); ISm 1:2. They, too, are to share in salvation (Did., Gen. 182, 19); cp. Ac 11:1, 18; 14:27; 15:3, 7; cp. 2 Cl 13:3 (Just., D. 26, 1 al.) (MKiddle, The Admission of the Gentiles in Lk and Ac: JTS 36, ’35, 160–73; JJeremias, Jesu Verheissung für die Völker ’56 [lit.], Eng. tr. Jesus’ Promise to the Nations ’58). But s. Mt 10:5f (MHooker, ET 82, ’71, 361–65). Their sacrificial rites 1 Cor 10:20 v.l. Paul as διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν 1 Ti 2:7; 2 Ti 1:11 v.l. Contrasted w. Christians Hs 1:10. Offended by Christian behavior ITr 8:2.
    non-Israelite Christians, gentiles of Christian congregations composed of more than one nationality and not limited to people of Israel (οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν πιστεύοντες Orig., C. Cels. 2, 1, 9; 8, 29, 24): πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν Ro 16:4, and their members: μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν it was his custom to eat w. gentile (non-Israelite) Christians Gal 2:12; cp. vs. 14. ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν τῶν ἐθνῶν for you gentile Christians Eph 3:1. Somet. the word connotes Israelite allegations of religious and moral inferiority of gentiles Mt 6:32 (s. Goodsp., Probs., 26f); Lk 12:30; Hm 4, 1, 9; ἔ. καὶ ἁμαρτωλοί Hs 4:4 al. ἄνομα ἔ. lawless gentiles (= polytheists) MPol 9:2. Contrasted w. the δίκαιοι (w. ἀποστάται) Hv 1, 4, 2; cp. 2, 2, 5.—RFeldmeier/UHeckel, edd., Die Heiden ’94 (essays by a number of scholars); JLaGrand, Proliferation of the ‘Gentile’ in the NRSV: BR 41, ’96, 77–87 (against use of ‘Gentiles’ as a rendering of ἔθνη).—B. 1315; 1489. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἔθνος

  • 2 ἄνομος

    ἄνομος, ον (Soph., Hdt., Thu.+; IDefixAudollent 188; POxy 237 VII, 11 [II A.D.]; PGM 58, 9; 11f; LXX, En, Test12Patr; ParJer 7:24; AscIs; Ar. 15, 6; Just.; Ath. R. 73, 14; Orig., C. Cels. 7, 63, 3 [superl.]) ‘lawless’.
    pert. to behaving contrary to law, lawless, w. ref. to any law ἄ. κριτής an unjust judge, who cares nothing for the law B 20:2; D 5:2.
    pert. to being without adherence to a moral code outside law, without law.
    of obligation to God, without ref. to a moral code μὴ ὢν ἄ. θεοῦ though I am not free fr. obedience to God 1 Cor 9:21c (opp. ἔννομος; on the constr. of ἄ. θεοῦ s. Mlt. 236).
    w. ref. to the Mosaic law, used of gentiles as persons who do not know it (s. 3b), w. no criticism implied (Pla., Pol. 302e [Nägeli 14]; Esth 4:17u) τοῖς ἀ. ὡς ἄ. to those without (Mosaic) law (= ‘gentiles’) 1 Cor 9:21a. W. the phrase ὡς ἄνομος vs. 21b Paul indicates empathy for those outside Mosaic tradition.
    pert. to violating moral standards, lawless.
    w. ref. to God’s moral law. Hence wicked in gener. (oft. LXX) in personal address ἄνομε You wicked one! 1 Cl 35:9 (Ps. 49:21); w. ἀνυπότακτος 1 Ti 1:9; w. ἀσεβής (1 Macc 7:5; PGM 58, 11; IDefixAudollent 188) 1 Cl 18:13 (Ps 50:15); Dg 9:4; w. ἄδικος (Just., D. 35, 5 ἀθέους καὶ ἀσεβεῖς καὶ ἀδίκους καὶ ἀνόμους; PLond II, 358, 13 [150 A.D.] p. 172 ἄνομα καὶ ἄδικα) 1 Cl 56:11 (Job 5:22). Opp. δίκαιος (Pr 21:18) 45:4; cp. Dg 9:5; ἄγιος Dg 9:2. μετὰ ἀνόμων λογισθῆναι be classed among the criminals Mk 15:28; Lk 22:37 (SHall, Studia Evangelica ’59, 499–501); cp. 1 Cl 16:13 (all three Is 53:12). ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν ἁμαρτίαν ἀνομώτερος wicked beyond measure B 5:9. τὸ γένος ἄ. the wicked kind Hs 9, 19, 1.—Of things ἄ. βίος w. ἄδικος MPol 3; ἄ. ἔργα 2 Pt 2:8 (Nicol. Dam.: 90 Fgm. 58, 2 Jac. ἔργον ἄνομον ἐργάσασθαι). ὁ ἄ. καιρός wicked time B 4:9 (cp. 18:2).
    w. reference to those who are outside Israelite legal tradition (s. 2b) and act contrary to its moral standards (Wsd 17:2; Just., D. 123, 3 υἱοὶ ἄ.). διὰ χειρὸς ἀνόμων by lawless hands Ac 2:23. ἐκ χειρὸς ἀνόμου AcPl Ha 8, 10 (ἀνόμων Ox 1602, 2/BMM recto 10); AcPlCor 1:8. Φαραὼ … ὄντος ἀ. AcPl Ha 8, 12. οἱ ἄνομοι MPol 16:1. τὰ ἄ. ἔθνη (3 Macc 6:9) the lawless people 9:2.
    ὁ ἄ. the epitome of lawlessness, the lawless one (Ezk 18:24; 33:8; PsSol 17:11) of the Lawless One or Antichrist (s. Iren., 3, 7, 2 [Harv. II 26f ]) 2 Th 2:8 (cp. vs. 3). This prob. explains ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἀ. the time of iniquity B 15:5 (cp. 18:2; TestDan 6:6 ἐν καιρῷ τῆς ἀνομίας).—DELG s.v. νέμω. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἄνομος

  • 3 אנס

    אַנָּסm. (preced. ws.) one who acts violently, a violent man. B. Bath.45a סתם נכרי א׳ הוא as a rule the gentile is violent (lawless). Y.Kidd.I, 60c top.Pl. אַנָּסִין אַנָּסִים. Ḥull.94b מפני הא׳ on account of the lawless (among the gentiles).Esp. (law) Annas, one who is in possession of property bought from one who obtained it by force or consfiscation, owner of reclaimable property. Kil. VII, 6 (5) הא׳ שזרעוכ׳ if an Annas put seeds into a vineyard (creating Kilayim), and it is reclaimed. Ib. from what time and onward נקרא א׳ is one called an Annas (who may consider himself in undisturbed possession)? Answ. משישקע (v. Y. ib. 31a) from the time the name of the original owner is sunk (when the property is no longer named after him).Pl. as above. Y.Succ.IV, beg.54b, v. הֶפְקֵר.

    Jewish literature > אנס

  • 4 אַנָּס

    אַנָּסm. (preced. ws.) one who acts violently, a violent man. B. Bath.45a סתם נכרי א׳ הוא as a rule the gentile is violent (lawless). Y.Kidd.I, 60c top.Pl. אַנָּסִין אַנָּסִים. Ḥull.94b מפני הא׳ on account of the lawless (among the gentiles).Esp. (law) Annas, one who is in possession of property bought from one who obtained it by force or consfiscation, owner of reclaimable property. Kil. VII, 6 (5) הא׳ שזרעוכ׳ if an Annas put seeds into a vineyard (creating Kilayim), and it is reclaimed. Ib. from what time and onward נקרא א׳ is one called an Annas (who may consider himself in undisturbed possession)? Answ. משישקע (v. Y. ib. 31a) from the time the name of the original owner is sunk (when the property is no longer named after him).Pl. as above. Y.Succ.IV, beg.54b, v. הֶפְקֵר.

    Jewish literature > אַנָּס

  • 5 καιρός

    καιρός, οῦ, ὁ (Hes.+; loanw. in rabb.)
    a point of time or period of time, time, period, freq. with implication of being esp. fit for someth. and without emphasis on precise chronology
    gener. (cp. Just., D. 32, 4 τὸν γὰρ καιρὸν [Da 7:26] ἑκατὸν ἔτη ἐξηγεῖσθε λέγεσθαι) κ. δεκτός a welcome time 2 Cor 6:2a (Is 49:8); cp. vs. 2b. καιροὶ χαλεποί difficult times 2 Ti 3:1. In ref. to times of crisis for the state λοιμικοῦ καιροῦ 1 Cl 55:1 (s. JFischer ad loc. note 322) καιροὶ καρποφόροι fruitful times or seasons (so Achmes 156, 15f: καρποφόρος is the καιρός in which the tree bears fruit, in contrast to late autumn, when there is no more) Ac 14:17 (OLagercrantz, ZNW 31, ’32, 86f proposes, on the basis of Mod. Gk., the mng., ‘weather’, but the pl. is against this mng.). καιροὶ ἐαρινοί 1 Cl 20:9.—ἔσται καιρὸς ὅτε there will come a time when 2 Ti 4:3; εἰς τίνα ἢ ποῖον κ. to what time or what sort of time (some, e.g. NRSV, interpret τίνα=the person, but cp. PTebt 25, 18 [117 B.C.] καὶ διὰ τίνος καὶ ἀπὸ ποίου ἐπιδείγματος; s. ποῖος 1aα, also ποτατός) 1 Pt 1:11. ἄχρι καιροῦ until (another) time, for a while Lk 4:13; Ac 13:11; ἐν καιρῷ ὀλίγῳ in a little time 1 Cl 23:4; ἐν παντὶ κ. at all times, always (Aristot. 117a, 35; Sir 26:4) Lk 21:36; Eph 6:18; Hm 5, 2, 3. κατὰ καιρόν from time to time, regularly (TestJob 36:4; Lucian, Hermot. 10; Plut., Mor. 984d) J 5:4 (s. 2 also); 1 Cl 24:2; GJs 3:3; πρὸς κ. for a limited time (perh. also for the present moment; cp. Strabo 6, 2, 3; Ps.-Plut., Fluv. 23; BGU 265, 20 [II A.D.]; 618, 19; 780, 14; Wsd 4:4; Philo, Post. Cai. 121; Jos., Bell. 6, 190; Tat. 13, 1) Lk 8:13; 1 Cor 7:5. πρὸς καιρὸν ὥρας (a combination of πρὸς κ. and πρὸς ὥραν [2 Cor 7:8; Gal 2:5; Phlm 15; J 5:35]) for a short time (cp. our ‘for a short space of time’) 1 Th 2:17.
    a moment or period as especially appropriate the right, proper, favorable time ἐν καιρῷ at the right time (X., An. 3, 1, 39; Diod S 36, 7, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 8 §29; SIG 1268 [Praecepta Delphica II, 6; III B.C.]) Mt 24:45; Lk 12:42 (cp. on both Ps 103:27, w. v.l.). καιρῷ (Thu. 4, 59, 3 v.l.; Diog. L. 1, 41) Lk 20:10 (v.l. ἐν κ.). τῷ καιρῷ Mk 12:2. ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ἐμός, ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος the proper time for me (you) J 7:6, 8 (Eunap., Vi. Iambl. p. 459 Didot: the worker of miracles acts ὅταν καιρὸς ᾖ). νῦν κ. ταῦτα ὑμᾶς μαθεῖν οὐκ ἔστιν now is not the time for you to learn this AcPl Ha 1, 26 (Just., D. 8, 1 ἃ νῦν κ. οὐκ ἔστι λέγειν al.).—καιρὸν λαβεῖν find a favorable time, seize the opportunity (Lysias, C. Agor. 6; Cleanthes [III B.C.]: Stoic. I no. 573; Diod S 2, 6, 5; EpArist 248; Jos., Bell. 1, 527, Ant. 4, 10; cp. PTebt 332, 9). καιρὸν μεταλαβεῖν (s. μεταλαμβάνω 2) Ac 24:25. λαβεῖν κ. εὔθετον find a convenient opportunity Pol 13:1. κ. ἔχειν have opportunity (Thu. 1, 42, 3; Pla., Ep. 7, 324b; Plut., Lucull. 501 [16, 4]; PFlor 259, 3; 1 Macc 15:34; Jos., Ant. 16, 73; 335; Ath., R. 23 p. 77, 6; Did., Gen. 112, 10) Gal 6:10; Hb 11:15; 2 Cl 16:1; ISm 9:1; IRo 2:1. ὀλίγον καιρὸν ἔχειν Rv 12:12. ἐξαγοράζεσθαι τὸν κ. make the most of the opportunity Col 4:5; Eph 5:16 (s. ἐξαγοράζω 2). On Ro 12:11 v.l. s. δουλεύω 2aβ and b. κατὰ κ. Ro 5:6 is more naturally construed with ἀπέθανεν than with ἀσεβῶν (cp. κατὰ καιρὸν θεριζόμενος reaped in its proper time Job 5:26).—The concept of the appropriate time oft. blends with that of
    a defined period for an event. definite, fixed time. Abs. καιροί festal seasons (Ex 23:14, 17; Lev 23:4.—So perh. also beside θυσίαι in the Ins de Sinuri ed. LRobert ’45 no. 42) Gal 4:10 (κ. w. ἡμέρα as Polyaenus 8, 23, 17). τὰς τῶν καιρῶν ἀλλαγὰς καταδιαιρεῖν … ἃ μὲν εἰς ἑορτάς, ἃς δὲ εἰς πένθη to set up periods of fasting and mourning in accord with changes in seasons Dg 4:5.—Not infreq. w. a gen., which indicates the reason why the time is set apart (Pla., Leg. 4, 709c χειμῶνος καιρός; Aesop, Fab. 258 P.=255 H-H./206 Ch. ἀπολογίας κ., also oft. LXX; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1, 191 κ. εὐφροσύνης; Jos., Ant. 18, 74; Tat. 36, 1 κατʼ ἐκεῖνον αὐτὸν … τὸν τοῦ πολέμου κ.; Hippol., Ref. 9, 30, 27 κ. τῆς παρουσίας; Did., Gen. 175, 2 κ. τοῦ ἐξελθεῖν εἰς τὴν γῆν) κ. θερισμοῦ time of harvest Mt 13:30 (JosAs 2:19). κ. τῶν καρπῶν time when the fruit is ripe 21:34; cp. vs. 41. κ. σύκων time when the figs are ripe Mk 11:13 (ParJer 5:31; cp. Horapollo 2, 92 ὁ κ. τῶν ἀμπέλων). κ. μετανοίας time for repentance 2 Cl 8:2. κ. πειρασμοῦ Lk 8:13b. ὁ κ. τῆς ἀναλύσεως the time of death 2 Ti 4:6. κ. ἐπισκοπῆς σου Lk 19:44. κ. διορθώσεως Hb 9:10. κ. ἡλικίας 11:11. κ. τῆς ἡγεμονίας Ποντίου Πιλάτου the time of the procuratorship of P. P. IMg 11. κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦ μαρτυρίου at the time of martyrdom EpilMosq 2 (cp. Mel., HE 4, 26, 3 ᾧ Σάγαρις καιρῷ ἐμαρτύρησεν). ἐν τῷ ἑαυτοῦ καιρῷ (Num 9:7) 2 Th 2:6. ὁ κ. αὐτῶν the time set for the fulfillment of Gabriel’s words Lk 1:20; cp. Dg 11:5 (s. διαγγέλλω 2). ὁ κ. μου my time=the time of my death Mt 26:18. κ. τοῦ ἰαθῆναι time to be healed 2 Cl 9:7. κ. τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα 1 Pt 4:17; cp. the extraordinary ἦλθεν ὁ κ. τῶν νεκρῶν κριθῆναι καὶ δοῦναι = ἵνα κριθῶσιν οἱ νεκροὶ καὶ δῷς Rv 11:18.—Pl. (Num 9:3 κατὰ καιρούς; Tob 14:4 S πάντα συμβήσεται τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν; Heraclit. Sto. 11 p. 18, 18=the periods of time between; Maximus Tyr. 1, 2f πολλοὶ κ.; TestNapht 7:1 δεῖ ταῦτα πληρωθῆναι κατὰ τοὺς καιροὺς αὐτῶν; Ar. 4, 2 κατὰ καιρούς) καιροὶ ἐθνῶν times of the Gentiles (in which they may inflict harm on God’s people or themselves be converted) Lk 21:24.—κατὰ καιρόν at the appropriate time (Arrian, Anab. 4, 5, 1; PSI 433, 4 [261 B.C.]; Just., A I, 19, 4; Mel., HE 4, 26, 3) J 5:4; 1 Cl 56:15 (Job 5:26). Also ἐν καιρῷ (Himerius, Or 13 [Ecl. 14], 3): ἐν καιρῷ αὐτοῦ B 11:6, 8 (Ps 1:3). καιρῷ ἰδίῳ in due time Gal 6:9. Pl. καιροῖς ἰδίοις at the right time 1 Ti 2:6; 6:15; Tit 1:3; cp. 1 Cl 20:4 (Just., D. 131, 4 πρὸ τῶν ἰδίων κ.).—κατὰ τὸν ἴδιον καιρόν vs. 10.—πεπλήρωται ὁ κ. the time (determined by God) is fulfilled Mk 1:15. Pl. (cp. Ps 103:19) ὁρίσας προστεταγμένους καιρούς he (God) has determined allotted times (MDibelius, SBHeidAk ’38/39, 2. Abh. p. 6f, ‘seasons’; cp. 1QM 10, 12–15; FMussner, Einige Parallelen [Qumran and Areopagus speech], BZ 1, ’57, 125–30) Ac 17:26; cp. κατὰ καιροὺς τεταγμένους 1 Cl 40:1; ὡρισμένοις καιροῖς καὶ ὥραις vs. 2; τοῖς προστεταγμένοις κ. vs. 4.
    a period characterized by some aspect of special crisis, time
    gener.: the present (time) Ro 13:11; 12:11 v.l. ὁ καιρός (i.e. the crisis involving Christians) ἀπαιτεῖ σε the times call upon you IPol 2:3 (Diod S 17, 27, 2 ὑπὸ τῶν καιρῶν προεκλήθησαν=they were called out by the [critical circumstances of the] times). Also ὁ νῦν κ. (PSI 402, 7 [III B.C.] ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ) Ro 3:26; 8:18; 11:5; 2 Cor 8:14; B 4:1. κ. ὁ νῦν τῆς ἀνομίας the present godless time 18:2 (s. also b below). ὁ κ. ὁ ἐνεστηκώς (Polyb. 1, 60, 9; Jos., Ant. 16, 162) Hb 9:9; ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ κ. at that time, then (Gen 21:22; Is 38:1; τῷ κ. ἐκείνῳ TestSol D 8, 2) Mt 11:25; 12:1; 14:1; cp. Eph 2:12. Also κατʼ ἐκεῖνον τὸν κ. (Jos., Ant. 1, 171, Vi. 49; GJs 10:2.—Diod S 2, 27, 1 and Vi. Aesopi G 81 P. κατʼ ἐκείνους τοὺς καιρούς=at that time. Cp. κατʼ ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ Hippol., Ref. 9, 12, 10.) Ac 12:1; 19:23. ἔτι κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν for those who at that time were still godless Ro 5:6, though κατὰ κ. here prob.=at the right time, as in mng. 1b above (s. B-D-F §255, 3). τῷ τότε τῆς ἀδικίας καιρῷ … τὸν νῦν τῆς δικαιοσύνης Dg 9:1; cp. 9:2. Of the future κατὰ τ. καιρὸν τοῦτον at this time Ro 9:9 (Gen 18:10, 14). Cp. EpilMosq 2 in 2 above. ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ κ. just at that time (2 Esdr 5:3) Lk 13:1. W. attraction of the relative ἐν ᾧ κ. at that time, then Ac 7:20. κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ὸ̔ν καὶ πέρυσι at the same time as in the year preceding Hv 2, 1, 1.
    One of the chief terms relating to the endtime: ὁ καιρός the time of crisis, the last times (FBusch, Z. Verständnis d. synopt. Eschatol. Mk 13 neu untersucht ’38; GDelling, D. Zeitverständn. des NTs ’40; WMichaelis, D. Herr verzieht nicht d. Verheissung ’42; WKümmel, Verheissung. u. Erfüllung ’45,3 ’56; OCullmann, Christus u. d. Zeit ’46 [tr. FFilson, Christ and Time ’50, 39–45; 79; 121]) ὁ κ. ἤγγικεν Lk 21:8. ὁ κ. ἐγγύς Rv 1:3; 22:10. οὐκ οἴδατε πότε ὁ καιρός ἐστιν Mk 13:33. Cp. Ro 13:11 (s. 3a above) if it is to be interpreted as eschatological (cp. Plut., Mor. 549f). πρὸ καιροῦ before the endtime and the judgment Mt 8:29; 1 Cor 4:5. ἐν καιρῷ 1 Pt 5:6. Also ἐν καιρῷ ἐσχάτῳ 1:5; D 16:2. Pl. πλήρωμα τῶν καιρῶν Eph 1:10. ἐπηρώτων … περὶ τῶν καιρῶν, εἰ ἤδη συντέλειά ἐστιν Hv 3, 8, 9. τὰ σημεῖα τ. καιρῶν the signs of the (Messianic) times Mt 16:3. τοὺς καιροὺς καταμάνθανε learn to understand the times IPol 3:2 (s. WBauer, Hdb. Suppl. vol. ad loc.) The Messianic times described as καιροὶ ἀναψύξεως Ac 3:20.—ἔσχατοι καιροί (or ὕστεροι καιροί 1 Ti 4:1) come before the ἔσχατος κ. IEph 11:1 (cp. ἐπʼ ἐσχάτων κ. AcPl Ha 8, 26 [restoration is certain=Ox 1601, 40/BMM recto 34]); χρόνοι ἢ καιροί times and seasons (cp. Iren. 1, 17, 2 [Harv. I 168, 9] and καιρῶν κατὰ χρόνους ἀλλαγή Theoph. Ant. 1, 6 [p. 70, 1]; Artem. 4, 2 p. 203, 25f the χρόνος is divided into καιροὶ καὶ ὧραι), which must be completed before the final consummation Ac 1:7 (Straton of Lamps. in FWehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles, V Fgm. 10, 32f κατὰ τοὺς καιροὺς καὶ τοὺς χρόνους; quoted in JBarr, Biblical Words for Time, ’62, 33; see also Diog. L. 5, 64); cp. 1 Th 5:1. συντέμνειν τοὺς καιρούς shorten the (last) times B 4:3. Sim. in sg. ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν 1 Cor 7:29.—The expr. καιρὸν καὶ καιροὺς κ. ἥμισυ καιροῦ also belongs to the eschatol. vocab.; it means the apocalyptic time of 1 + 2 + ½ = 3½ years, during which acc. to Da 12:7 (cp. 7:25) a tyrranical enemy of God and God’s people is to reign on earth Rv 12:14 (in imagery of a serpentine monster, δράκων)—ὁ κ. οὗτος the present age (cp. αἰών 2a) Mk 10:30; Lk 12:56; 18:30. Also ὁ νῦν κ. B 4:1. As ruled by the devil: ὁ ἄνομος κ. 4:9. καταργεῖν τὸν κ. τοῦ ἀνόμου destroy the age of the lawless one 15:5. The soul seeks και[ρο]ῦ χρόνου αἰ̣ῶ̣νος ἀνάπαυσιν ἐ̣[ν] σιγῇ peace in silence, at the time of the aeon crisis GMary 463, 1.—On Dg 12:9 s. the editions of vGebh.-Harnack and Bihlmeyer.—JMánek, NTS 6, ’59, 45–51; JBarr, Biblical Words for Time, ’62.—B. 954. Schmidt, Syn. II 54–72. DELG. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > καιρός

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