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later than might be expected

  • 1 tum

    tum, adv. demonstr., of time [pronom. demonstr. stems to-, ta-; Gr. to, seen in ita, tam, etc.; cf. quom or cum], then.
    I.
    Absol.
    A.
    Referring to a time previously specified.
    1.
    To a definite past time.
    (α).
    To a period of time in which something was or happened (opp. later periods) = illis temporibus:

    is dictu'st ollis popularibus olim Qui tum vivebant homines,

    Enn. Ann. v. 308 Vahl.:

    quod tum erat res in pecore et locorum possessionibus, i. e. Romuli temporibus,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 16:

    cum illi male dicerent, quod tum fieri licebat, i. e. Periclis temporibus,

    id. de Or. 3, 34, 138:

    erat omnino tum mos ut faciles essent in suum cuique tribuendo,

    id. Brut. 21, 85; cf. id. Tusc. 1, 46, 111:

    vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant,

    Liv. 1, 4, 6; 2, 6, 8; 3, 29, 3; 4, 6, 12; 42, 62, 11;

    44, 9, 4: ut tum erant tempora,

    Nep. Att. 1, 2; 12, 3; Liv. 1, 3, 3; 1, 8, 4; 2, 7, 4; 2, 9, 8; 2, 50, 2; 2, 63, 6;

    39, 6, 7 and 9.—With illis temporibus: nam jam tum illis temporibus fortius... loquebantur quam pugnabant,

    Nep. Thras. 2, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to a point of time, then, at that time:

    insigneita fere tum milia militum octo Duxit,

    Enn. Ann. v. 336 Vahl.: ut jacui exsurgo;

    ardere censui aedis: ita tum confulgebant,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 15:

    jam duo restabant fata tum,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 35; id. Cist. 1, 3, 14: quot eras annos gnatus tum, quom, etc.? Me Septuennis, nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum, id. Men. 5, 9, 56; id. Merc. prol. 66; id. Most. 1, 2, 49; id. Am. 2, 1, 56; Ter. And. 1, 1, 82: sic igitur tum se levis ac diffusilis aether... undique flexit. Lucr. 5, 467; 5, 837; 5, 911; 5, 432;

    5, 942: atque huic anno proximus Sulla consule et Pompejo fuit. Tum P. Sulpicii in tribunatu, cottidie contionantis, totum genus dicendi cognovimus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 306; id. Ac. 2, 22, 69:

    scribit Eudemum Pheras venisse, quae erat urbs in Thessalia tum admodum nobilis,

    id. Div. 1, 25, 53; id. Rep. 2, 37, 63:

    hi tum in Asia rhetorum principes,

    id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Sest. 11, 26; id. Planc. 37, 90; id. Quint. 61, 170; id. Fam. 9, 21, 2:

    hoc tum veritus Caesar Pharum prehendit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 112:

    eodem anno a Campanis Cumae, quam Graeci tum urbem tenebant, capiuntur,

    Liv. 4, 44, 13; 1, 7, 14; 2, 9, 5;

    2, 37, 7: praetores tum duos Latium habebat,

    id. 8, 3, 9:

    Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant, dictatorem dixit,

    id. 8, 12, 13; 5, 8, 4; 22, 46, 6;

    1, 7, 12: tum Athenis perpetui archontes esse desierunt,

    Vell. 1, 8, 3:

    tum Cimbri et Teutoni transcendere Rhenum,

    id. 2, 8, 3; Val. Max. 1, 5, 3; Tac. H. 4, 49; 3, 57:

    non timido, non ignavo cessare tum licuit,

    Curt. 3, 11, 5:

    Archiae, qui tum maximum magistratum Thebis obtinebat,

    Nep. Pelop. 3, 2; id. Phoc. 3, 3.—With in eo tempore: eum quem virile secus tum in eo tempore habebat, Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 5.—Repeated by anaphora:

    quae nox omnium temporum conjurationis acerrima fuit. Tum Catilinae dies exeundi, tum ceteris manendi condicio, tum descriptio... constituta est, tum tuus pater, etc.,

    Cic. Sull. 18, 52; cf. Lucr. 5, 1377; 5, 1399.—
    (γ).
    Esp., referring to a former state, implying that it no longer exists:

    quaesivit ex lege illa Cornelia quae tum erat,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 55:

    cum sententias Oppianicus, quae tum erat potestas, palam ferri velle dixisset,

    id. ib. 27, 75:

    Caere, opulento tum oppido,

    Liv. 1, 2, 3; 3, 52, 3:

    praetores aerarii (nam tum a praetoribus tractabatur aerarium), etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 9.—
    (δ).
    Expressly opposed to present time (hodie, nunc, hoc tempore, etc.; class. and very freq.; but in post-Aug. writers tunc is regularly used): prius non is eras qui eras;

    nunc is factu's qui tum non eras,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 138:

    tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopia?

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 25; id. Hec. 3, 3, 48:

    quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revulsa, nunc a me tamen reportata est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 46, § 112:

    tum imperator populi Romani deos patrios reportabat, nunc praetor ejusdem populi eosdem illos deos... auferebat,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 77; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 78; 2, 5, 20, § 51; id. Clu. 31, 86; id. Planc. 9, 22; id. Quint. 22, 71; id. Phil. 14, 8, 21; id. Leg. 2, 22, 57; Caes. B. C. 3, 17; Liv. 5, 3, 5; 6, 15, 11; 10, 9, 6.—
    (ε).
    Opposed to another time specified:

    itaque tum eos exire jussit. Post autem e provincia litteras ad conlegium misit, se, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11:

    itaque ut tum carere rege, sic pulso Tarquinio nomen regis audire non poterat,

    id. Rep. 2, 30, 53; id. Mil. 21, 55:

    sicut legatorum antea, ita tum novorum colonorum caede imbutis armis,

    Liv. 4, 31, 7; 39, 22, 10; 9, 36, 1; 2, 52, 7; 4, 2, 10; 4, 57, 11;

    21, 17, 1: et tum sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide,

    Ov. M. 2, 218; Verg. A. 11, 33; Nep. Arist. 2, 3; id. Ham. 11, 7.—
    (ζ).
    In the historians in applying general statements or truths to the state of affairs spoken of: communi enim fit vitio naturae ut invisis atque incognitis rebus... vehementius exterreamur;

    ut tum accidit,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 4; 3, 68; id. B. G. 7, 3; 2, 6; id. B. C. 1, 80:

    foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus,

    Liv. 1, 24, 4; 1, 32, 14; 21, 31, 12.—
    (η).
    Denoting coincidence or inner connection with an action before mentioned = a temporal clause (tum = cum hoc fieret), then, on that occasion:

    quis tum non ingemuit?

    Cic. Vatin. 13, 31:

    ne tum quidem hominum venustatem et facetias perspicere potuisti? i. e. cum coronam auream imponebant,

    id. Fl. 31, 76: apud imperitos tum illa dicta sunt;

    nunc agendum est subtilius,

    id. Fin. 4, 27, 74:

    itaque tum Stajenus condemnatus est,

    i. e. in that trial, id. Clu. 36, 101; id. Sen. 7, 22:

    M. Porcius Cato qui, asper ingenio, tum lenem mitemque senatorem egit,

    Liv. 45, 25; Val. Max. 8, 3, 3:

    sed tum supplicia dis... decernuntur,

    Tac. A. 3, 64; 3, 72:

    Graecia tum potuit Priamo quoque flenda videri,

    Ov. M. 14, 474.—

    With the occasion referred to specified in the same clause: Manlius... ex petulanti scurra in discordiis civitatis ad eam columnam tum suffragiis populi pervenerat,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 39:

    emisti tum in naufragio hujus urbis... tum, inquam, emisti ut, etc.,

    id. Prov. Cons. 4, 7.—Repeated by anaphora: et Capitolinis injecit sedibus ignes. Tum statua Nattae, tum simulacra deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice belua vi fulminis icti conciderunt, Cic. Div. 2, 20, 45;

    so repeated seven times,

    id. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—
    (θ).
    Redundant, the time of the action being clear without it (esp. in Cic.):

    atque hoc tum judicio facto... tamen Avitus Oppianicum reum statim non facit,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 56:

    itaque tum ille inopia et necessitate coactus ad Caepasios confugit,

    id. ib. 20, 57; id. Brut. 23, 90; 39, 145; 43, 161; cf. id. Sull. 18, 51, where tum redundant occurs six times successively.—
    2.
    In oblique discourse, referring to the time of the speaker, = nunc in direct discourse:

    quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore?

    if they were not now so, Liv. 3, 62, 1:

    (dixit Sempronius)... nec tum agrum plebi, sed sibi invidiam quaeri,

    id. 4, 44, 9; 4, 57, 4:

    moenia eos tum transcendere non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romanae,

    id. 21, 35, 9; 5, 21, 7 (in this use nunc is also freq.).—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    (α).
    Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc., at such a season:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo (after Lyra rises),

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 12; 1, 35 fin.; Col. 11, 2, 87.—
    (β).
    With the force of an indefinite temporal clause, at such a time, in such circumstances, i. e. when such a thing happens as has happened:

    qui (porci) a partu decimo die habentur puri, ab eo appellantur sacres, quod tum ad sacrificium idonei habentur primum,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 16; 2, 7, 13:

    deinde cibum sequitur somnus... quia plurima tum se corpora conturbant (i. e. cum cibum ceperunt),

    Lucr. 4, 957; 3, 599; 4, 892; 4, 919;

    4, 1030: quam regionem cum superavit animus... finem altius se efferendi facit. Tum enim sui similem et levitatem et calorem adeptus... nullam in partem movetur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43; 1, 31, 75; 3, 23, 55; 4, 24, 54; Tac. Dial. 7.—
    (γ).
    With the force of a conditional clause, then, in this instance, if so: immo res omnis relictas habeo prae quod tu velis. Ph. Tum tu igitur, qua causa missus es ad portum, id expedi (i. e. si ita est), Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 39; id. Most. 5, 1, 55; id. As. 1, 1, 93; 2, 2, 64; 3, 3, 36; id. Aul. 3, 6, 31; id. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 2, 78: non potitus essem;

    fuisset tum illos mi aegre aliquot dies,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 7; id. Eun. 2, 2, 50; 5, 1, 23; id. Hec. 3, 5, 12:

    ego C. Caesaris laudibus desim, quas, etc.? Tum hercule me confitear non judicium aliquod habuisse,

    Cic. Planc. 39, 93: scribant aliquid Isocrateo more...;

    tum illos existimabo non desperatione formidavisse genus hoc,

    id. Or. 70, 235; id. Font. 21, 49 (17, 39); id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85; id. Fam. 9, 8, 2; Ov. H. 18 (19), 81: vellem tam ferax saeculum haberemus...;

    tum ego te primus hortarer, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 15, 8.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    To a definite time before mentioned:

    ut sit satius perdere Quam aut nunc manere tam diu, aut tum persequi,

    i. e. after my future return, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 27:

    jam nunc mente prospicio quae tum studia hominum, qui concursus futuri sint,

    Cic. Div. in Caecin. 13, 42; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37; 1, 10, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 17; id. Marcell. 9, 30:

    tum meae... Vocis accedet bona pars,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 45.—
    (β).
    With the force of a conditional clause (cf. 3. b, supra), then, in this instance, if so: specta, tum scies. Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 100; cf.:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 37: tuom incendes genus;

    Tum igitur aquae erit tibi cupido, etc.,

    id. Trin. 3, 2, 50; id. Curc. 2, 3, 17:

    confer sudantes, ructantes, refertos epulis... tum intelleges, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 100; id. Planc. 18, 45; id. Phil. 2, 45, 115:

    agedum, dictatorem creemus... Pulset tum mihi lictorem qui sciet, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 29, 12; Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 6; id. Or. 23, 78; 71, 235; Liv. 4, 22, 11; 5, 16, 10; 9, 11, 4.—
    B.
    Referring to a time subsequent to a time mentioned, then, thereupon.
    1.
    Simple sequence in time.
    (α).
    Time proper (only of an immediate sequence;

    otherwise deinde, postea, etc., are used): tum cum corde suo divum pater atque hominum rex Effatur, etc.,

    Enn. Ann. 179:

    dico ei quo pactod eam viderim erilem nostram filiam sustollere. Extimuit tum illa,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 9; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 58: tum ille egens forte adplicat Primum ad Chrysidis patrem se. Ter. And. 5, 4, 21; id. Eun. 3, 1, 17; Cato, R. R. 48 (49); 135 (136); so id. ib. 112 (113): equos quinto anno... amittere binos (dentes);

    tum renascentes eis sexto anno impleri,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 2 sq.: collo [p. 1909] cari jussit hominem in aureo lecto, abacosque complures ornavit... Tum ad mensam eximia forma pueros jussit consistere, eosque, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 61:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum puer nuntiavit venire ad eum Laelium... Tum Scipio e cubiculo est egressus, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18; id. Div. 2, 66, 135; id. Clu. 14, 40; id. Cat. 3, 5, 10; id. Ac. 2, 5, 13; id. Div. 1, 35, 77:

    hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum suo more conclamaverunt ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 26; cf. id. ib. 7, 64; 5, 43 fin.;

    5, 48: adsurgentem ibi regem cuspide ad terram adfixit. Tum spolia caputque abscisum spiculo gerens... hostes fudit,

    Liv. 4, 19, 5; 5, 21, 1; 1, 26, 9; 1, 18, 10; 1, 20, 1; 1, 22, 6; 1, 28, 4; 1, 28, 9; 2, 24, 4;

    3, 8, 11, etc.: tum Caesar cum exercitu Thessaliam petit,

    Vell. 2, 52, 1; Val. Max. 5, 1, 3; Curt. 4, 3, 7; Tac. A. 3, 28; 11, 35; id. H. 4, 84; Ov. M. 2, 122; 4, 80; 7, 121; 10, 481; 14, 386; Flor. 1, 13, 12; Gell. 1, 19, 5; 1, 23, 5.—
    (β).
    In partic., foll. by an abl. absol.:

    tum, prope jam perculsis aliis tribunis, A. Verginius Caesoni capitis diem dicit,

    Liv. 3, 11, 9; 8, 32, 1; 10, 29, 12:

    tum omni spe perdita, Meherdates dolo ejus vincitur, traditurque victori,

    Tac. A. 12, 15; 12, 16:

    tum, ferro extracto, confestim exanimatus est,

    Nep. Epam. 9, 4.—
    (γ).
    Implying a connection between two events, hence, under these circumstances, accordingly, thereupon:

    at pater omnipotens ira tum percitus acri... Phaethonta... Deturbavit in terram,

    Lucr. 5, 399:

    madefactum iri Graeciam sanguine... tum neque te ipsum non esse commotum, Marcumque Varronem et M. Catonem... vehementer esse perterritos,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 68; cf. id. ib. 1, 34, 76; Caes. B. G. 4, 25; cf. id. ib. 5, 49; 5, 51;

    7, 59: quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis, nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit,

    Liv. 1, 9, 2; 3, 26, 1; 3, 31, 7; 4, 45, 7.—
    2.
    Enumeration of a series of events; the co-ordinate clauses introduced by tum... tum, or primum (primo)... deinde... tum, etc.
    (α).
    Succession of time proper:

    ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Jove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 24, 49; 1, 27, 57; 2, 28, 58 sq.:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. Fin. 1, 16, 50; 5, 23, 65; id. Tusc. 5, 2, 5:

    primum... deinde... tum... postremo,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; 3, 3, 6: primum colonos inde Romanos expulit: inde in Latinam viam transgressus, etc., inde Lavinium recepit; tum deinceps Corbionem, Vitelliam;

    postremum, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 39, 4:

    primi consules sub jugum missi, tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, tum deinceps singulae legiones,

    id. 9, 6, 1:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. 21, 22, 8; id. praef. 9; 3, 28, 8: 5, 39, 7;

    23, 23, 6: deinde... deinde... Tum... post quas, etc.,

    Curt. 3, 3, 24: primum... deinde... deinde... tum... postea, Masur. Gabin. ap. Gell. 5, 13, 5; Gai. Inst. 4, 60.—
    (β).
    So in partic.: tum (also hic, et;

    not deinde or postea), to denote the succession of speakers in dialogue: immo duas dabo, inquit adulescens... Tum senex ille: Si vis, inquit, quattuor sane dato,

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 46 dub.:

    tum Piso... inquit, etc. Tum Quintus... inquit, etc. Hic ego... inquam, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Piso... inquit, etc. Et ille ridens... inquit, etc. Tum Piso exorsus est, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2 sqq.:

    tum Atticus... inquit, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Brutus, etc. Tum ille, etc. Tum Atticus, etc. Tum Pomponius... inquit, etc.,

    id. Brut. 3, 11 sqq., and through the whole treatise; cf. id. Ac. 1, 2, 4; 1, 3, 9; 1, 4, 13; 1, 12, 43 and 44; 2, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 15 sqq.; id. Rep. 1, 13, 19 sqq.; Liv. 7, 10, 2 sqq.; 23, 12, 8; Tac. Dial. 3; 15; 25; 42; Gell. 3, 1, 11 sqq.; 18, 1, 9 sqq.; Ov. M. 14, 594.—
    (γ).
    Transf., of sequence or succession of thought, passing into mere co-ordination (v. C. 2. b, g), then... again... furthermore:

    qui mi in cursu obstiterit, faxo vitae is obstiterit suae. Prius edico ne quis, etc. Tum pistores scrofipasci qui, etc. Tum piscatores.... Tum lanii autem qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 28; 4, 2, 34; 4, 2, 39: (res familiaris) primum bene parta sit, tum quam plurimis se utilem praebeat, deinde augeatur ratione, diligentia, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 26, 92; id. Ac. 2, 47, 146; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 68 sq.; 5, 40, 117; id. Ac. 2, 10, 30; id. de Or. 1, 42, 190; id. Cat. 4, 3, 5; id. Agr. 1, 2, 5; id. Clu. 2, 6; Liv. 3, 26, 11.—
    C.
    Hence, as co-ordinating conjunction, introducing an additional assertion, or thought.
    1.
    Alone, = praeterea, and then, besides, also, moreover, on the other hand (freq. in ante-class. style and in Cic.;

    rare in Livy and post-Aug. prose): argenti aurique advexit multum, lanam purpuramque multam... tum Babylonica peristromata, etc.,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 3, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 10; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 71; 4, 8, 17; id. Ps. 3, 2, 78; id. Aul. 1, 2, 6; 1, 3, 16; id. Men. 5, 5, 41; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 1, 3, 15; 4, 2, 3; Ter. And. 1, 5, 27; 1, 2, 21; 2, 3, 7; id. Eun. prol. 4; 5, 6, 15; id. Heaut. 2, 1, 16; Lucr. 4, 680; cf. id. 1, 494; 4, 1152:

    magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum omnis ab eo percepta doctrina... caruit omnino rebus urbanis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 1; 2, 14, 43; id. Div. 1, 24, 50; 1, 42, 94; id. de Or. 1, 46, 201; id. Off. 1, 6, 19; id. Fin. 1, 6, 21; 2, 16, 53; id. Leg. 1, 5, 17; 1, 9, 26; id. Rab. Post. 14, 40; id. Phil. 13, 12, 26:

    altera ex parte Bellovaci instabant, alteram Camulogenus tenebat: tum legiones a praesidio interclusas maximum flumen distinebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59; id. B. C. 3, 49: naves convenerunt duae Punicae quinqueremes;

    duae ab Heraclea triremes... tum quinque Rhodiae quadriremes,

    Liv. 42, 56, 6; 1, 40, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 3, 4; Just. 5, 10, 3.—Sometimes connecting two terms of the same clause, with the force of cum... tum (v. infra, 3. d.):

    quot me censes homines jam deverberasse, hospites tum civis?

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 14:

    faciendum est igitur nobis ut... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus... confirmetur,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 3, 7; Liv. 28, 43, 1 (in co-ordination often with etiam, autem, and sometimes with praeterea and porro; v. III. infra).—
    2.
    Tum as correlative of a preceding tum.
    (α).
    With an added assertion or thought: ita est haec hominum natio: voluptarii atque potatores, Tum sycophantae... plurimi In urbe habitant;

    tum meretrices mulieres Nusquam perhibentur blandiores gentium,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 28; id. Mil. 3, 1, 100; 3, 1, 102.—
    (β).
    Tum... tum = nunc... nunc (modo... modo), sometimes... sometimes, now... now, at one time... at another (freq. in Cic., not in Caes., rare in Liv., and very rare in postAug. writers):

    tum huc, tum illuc inretitos impedit piscis,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 17:

    tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 134:

    mihi... tum hoc tum illud probabilius videtur,

    id. Off. 3, 7, 33; so id. Am. 4, 13; id. Sen. 13, 45; id. Top. 7, 31; id. N. D. 2, 19, 49:

    (alvus) tum restringitur, tum relaxatur,

    id. ib. 2, 54, 136; id. Rep. 3, 13 (14), 23; id. Leg. 2, 7, 16; id. Or. 63, 212; id. Sen. 3, 7; id. Inv. 1, 37, 66:

    dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites,

    Liv. 8, 39, 4; Suet. Ner. 1; Gell. 1, 11, 15.—Tum may be repeated several times:

    plerique propter voluptatem tum in morbos graves, tum in damna, tum in dedecora incurrunt,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 14, 47; 3, 7, 26;

    so three times,

    id. N. D. 1, 12, 29; 1, 14, 37; 1, 15, 39; id. Inv. 1, 52, 98; id. Or. 3, 45, 177; id. Off. 1, 7, 22; id. Leg. 2, 17, 43; id. Top. 25, 96;

    four times,

    id. N. D. 1, 43, 120; 2, 20, 52; 2, 39, 101; id. Verr. 2, 4, 34, § 75;

    five times,

    id. N. D. 2, 5, 14; id. Inv. 1, 13, 17; 1, 41, 76; id. Verr. 2, 5, 36, § 94;

    six times,

    id. ib. 1, 53, 120;

    seven times,

    Quint. 9, 4, 133;

    nine times,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 50, 51.—And in chronological order (to be distinguished from the instances B. 2. a and g):

    Atheniensium (rem publicam constituerunt) tum Theseus, tum Draco, tum Solo, tum Clisthenes, tum multi alii,

    at different times, successively, Cic. Rep. 2, 1, 2.—
    (γ).
    Preceded or followed by other co-ordinate words (alias, modo, aliquando, aut... aut, nunc... nunc):

    ex quo intellegitur qualis ille sit quem tum moderatum, alias modestum, tum temperantem, alias constantem continentemque dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 36:

    tum... tum... aliquando,

    id. Div. 2, 2, 6:

    tum... tum... aut... aut,

    id. Or. 61, 204:

    modo... tum autem,

    id. N. D. 2, 40, 142:

    nunc... nunc... tum... tum,

    Flor. 1, 17, 5.—
    (δ).
    Tum... tum = et... et, both... and, not only... but also, partly... partly, without regard to time, the second term being frequently strengthened by etiam (mostly post-Aug.):

    Milo Compsam oppugnans, ictusque lapide tum Clodio, tum patriae, quam armis petebat, poenas dedit,

    Vell. 2, 68, 3:

    Muciam et Fulviam, tum a patre, tum a viro utramque inclitam,

    Val. Max. 9, 1, 8:

    Caesar Pompejo tum proprias, tum etiam filiae lacrimas reddidit,

    id. 5, 1, 10; Quint. 7, 3, 18; Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 28; id. Clem. 1, 19, 2; Front. Aquaed. 1; Tac. A. 12, 33; Suet. Tit. 3; Nep. praef. 8;

    and with etiam,

    Val. Max. 2, 2, 8; 5, 9, 1; 7, 6 prooem.; Nep. Them. 2, 3.—
    3.
    As correlative with a preceding cum, introducing particular after a universal or a stronger or more important assertion after a weaker or less important.
    a.
    Connecting complete sentences with different predicates, cum... tum = as... so, while... (tum being not translated; ante-class. cum always with indic.; class. with subj. or indic.):

    quom antehac te amavi, et mihi amicam esse crevi... tum id mihi hodie aperuisti,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 2; id. Truc. 4, 1, 6:

    quom id mihi placebat, tum uno ore omnes omnia Bona dicere,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 10:

    quae cum res tota ficta sit pueriliter, tum ne efficit quidem quod vult,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 19; id. Tusc. 5, 39, 13; id. Fam. 13, 16, 1; and so with subj., id. N. D. 1, 1, 1; id. Off. 3, 2, 5; id. Lael. 7, 23; id. Brut. 39, 145; 11, 250:

    cum omnium rerum simulatio est vitiosa, tum amicitiae repugnat maxime,

    id. Lael. 25, 91; id. Div. 2, 27, 58; and so with indic., id. Planc. 33, 80; id. Tull. 4, 8; id. Div. in Caecil. 20, 65; id. Sest. 1, 2; id. Fam. 16, 4, 4:

    haec cum merito ejus fieri intellegebat, tum magni interesse arbitrabatur, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 4; 3, 16; id. B. C. 1, 58; Liv. 3, 34, 1; 4, 53, 4.—
    b.
    Clauses with the same predicate, which is placed after the first clause (always with indic.):

    nam mihi, cum multa eximie divineque videntur Athenae tuae peperisse, tum nihil melius illis mysteriis quibus, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 36; id. Tusc. 4, 18, 42; id. Phil. 2, 5, 12; Liv. 4, 46, 10; 6, 38, 10.—
    c.
    Clauses with a common predicate placed before both co-ordinate terms, cum... tum = not only, but also; as... so especially:

    visa est Arcesilae cum vera sententia, tum honesta et digna sapiente,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 77; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; 2, 35, 119; 3, 1, 3:

    movit patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor,

    Liv. 9, 10, 1; 4, 57, 2; Suet. Ner. 46 init.
    d.
    With a common predicate after both co-ordinate terms:

    quom virum tum uxorem, di vos perdant,

    Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 103:

    luxuria cum omni aetati turpis tum senectuti foedissima est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 123; id. Clu. 59, 161; id. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 86; id. N. D. 1, 21, 57; id. Deiot. 9, 26; id. Clu. 16, 46:

    concitatos animos flecti quam frangi putabat cum tutius tum facilius esse,

    Liv. 2, 23, 15; 6, 9, 8; 1, 57, 1; 10, 26, 13; Tac. Dial. 5.—With tum several times repeated:

    quem pater moriens cum tutoribus et propinquis, tum legibus, tum aequitati magistratuum, tum judiciis vestris commendatum putavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 151; cf. esp. id. Planc. 40, 95. —
    e.
    Tum, in this construction, is freq. strengthened,
    (α).
    By vero:

    cum haec sunt videnda, tum vero illud est hominis magni, etc.,

    in particular, Cic. Clu. 58, 159; id. Mur. 27, 55; id. Phil. 3, 5, 12; 7, 3, 9; cf. id. Or. 1, 23, 106; 3, 16, 60; Liv. 34, 39, 9; Quint. 12, 1, 25.—
    (β).
    By maxime, above all, most of all, especially, chiefly:

    cum omnibus in rebus temeritas in adsentando turpis est, tum in eo loco maxime in quo ju dicandum est quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 4, 7; id. Tusc. 4, 1, 1; 5, 12, 36; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 69:

    cum infamia atque indignitas rei impediebat, tum maxime quod, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 56; Sall. J. 43, 5; Liv. 1, 8, 2; Suet. Claud. 30; Quint. 6, 1, 29.—
    (γ).
    By praecipue, especially, chiefly, above all:

    cum omnium sociorum provinciarumque rationem diligenter habere debetis, tum praecipue Siciliae,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 2; id. Fam. 13, 11, 3:

    fortuna quae plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus, tum praecipue in bello,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 68; Liv. 22, 43, 11; 1, 40, 3; Quint. 1, 1, 29; 1, 10, 13; 5, 10, 106; Plin. Ep. 4, 3, 2.—
    (δ).
    By inprimis, chiefly, principally:

    cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 18; id. Fam. 12, 22, 3.—
    (ε).
    By cumprimis, chiefly, principally: quapropter bene cum superis de rebus habenda Nobis est ratio... tum cumprimis Unde anima atque animi constet [p. 1910] natura videndum, Lucr. 1, 131.—
    (ζ).
    By certe, especially, at least, assuredly:

    at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 5, 13; id. Fam. 7, 4; cf. Quint. 2, 1, 10.—
    (η).
    By nimirum, assuredly, undoubtedly:

    cum plurimas... commoditates amicitia contineat, tum illa nimirum praestat omnibus quod, etc.,

    Cic. Am. 7, 23. —
    (θ).
    By etiam, besides, as well:

    cum omnes omnibus ex terris homines improbos audacesque collegerat, tum etiam multos fortes viros et bonos... tenebat,

    Cic. Cael. 6, 14; id. Ac. 2, 10, 31; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2:

    quos tu cum memoriter, tum etiam erga nos amice et benevole collegisti,

    id. Fin. 1, 10, 34; id. Verr. 2, 3, 23, § 56:

    cum sua virtute, tum etiam alienis vitiis,

    id. Leg. 23, 67; id. Fin. 2, 12, 38; id. N. D. 2, 37, 95; id. de Or. 3, 60, 225; Liv. 1, 21, 2; 7, 23, 6; 7, 32, 10; Val. Max. 7, 2, 3; 3, 2, 10; 9, 6, 3; Quint. 9, 1, 20; 9, 4, 143.—
    (ι).
    By quoque, also, besides, as well:

    cum potestas major, tum vir quoque potestati par hostes trans Anienem submovere,

    Liv. 4, 17, 11; 1, 22, 2; cf. Quint. 12, 10, 72.—
    (κ).
    By et, also, besides, too:

    cujus mortem cum luctus civitatis, tum et dictaturae undecim insignem fecere,

    Just. 19, 1, 7.—
    (λ).
    By praeterea, moreover, besides:

    dicimus C. Verrem cum multa libidinose fecerit, tum praeterea quadringentiens sestertium ex Sicilia abstulisse,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56.
    II.
    Tum as correlative of dependent clauses (freq. in ante - class. writings and Cic., rare in post-Aug. writings).
    A.
    With temporal clauses, introduced by cum, = at the time when, at a time when.
    1.
    Referring to definite past time.
    a.
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    jam tum cum primum jussit me ad se arcessier, Roget quis, Quid tibi cum illa?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 4; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21:

    qui (Hercules) tum dolore frangebatur cum immortalitatem ipsa morte quaerebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20:

    bene apud majores nostros senatus tum cum florebat imperium decrevit ut, etc.,

    id. Div. 1, 41, 91; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114; id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 2, 66, § 160; id. Clu. 33, 89; id. Verr. 1, 2, 5; id. Brut. 2, 7; 23, 89; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Agr. 2, 24, 64; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; 3, 4, 11:

    tum mittendos legatos fuisse cum Perseus Graecas urbes obsideret,

    Liv. 45, 3, 7:

    tum cum Vipereos sparsi... dentes,

    Ov. M. 4, 572; id. H. 3, 23; Val. Max. 6, 1, 12.—After pluperf.:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant scimus Romae solutione impedita fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19; Val. Max. 3, 6, 1; 2, 8, 15 fin. —Tum inserted in the temporal clause:

    cum Davo egomet vidi jurgantem ancillam... quom ibi me adesse neuter tum praesenserat,

    Ter. And. 5, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Tum, introducing the apodosis of the temporal clause (generally not transl. in Engl.).
    (α).
    Of coincident events, cum... tum = while: quom genui tum morituros scivi, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132 (Trag. Rel. v. 361 Vahl.); Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 18:

    cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 3, 6; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Cael. 26, 63; id. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum pavida mulier nullam opem videret, tum Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, etc.,

    Liv. 1, 58, 3; 5, 11, 4. —
    (β).
    Tum = deinde, usu. after a pluperf.:

    id cum Sulla fecisset, tum ante oppidum Nolam Samnitium castra cepit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 33, 72; id. Brut. 92, 319; id. Ac. 2, 3, 9; 2, 3, 15; id. Fin. 1, 8, 26; id. Tusc. 4, 20, 45; id. Div. 1, 25, 53; 2, 2, 7; id. Rep. 2, 25, 47; Liv. 21, 11, 8; cf. id. 1, 26, 7; 23, 22, 4.—Inserted in the apodosis:

    cum jam humanae opes egestae a Veis essent, amoliri tum deum dona,

    Liv. 5, 22, 3.—
    2.
    Referring to definite present time:

    quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis. Cum enim miserum esse dicis, tum eum qui non sit, dicis esse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 12.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent of the clause, = at the time when, at a time when, whenever: hominum inmortalis est infamia;

    etiam tum vivit quom esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28; id. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7; Cato, R. R. 31:

    nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque requirit Cum pariter mens et corpus sopita quiescunt,

    Lucr. 3, 919; 4, 444; 4, 455;

    4, 1166: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adjungitur,

    Cic. Div. 2, 25, 54; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104; id. N. D. 2, 3, 9: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, Ov. H. 5, 109; Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44; 2, 27, 88; id. Fin. 4, 8, 20; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 20; 5, 26, 73; id. N. D. 1, 4, 9; id. Off. 1, 27, 93.—Tum maxime... cum plurimum = eo magis quo magis:

    eam (partem animi) tum maxime vigere cum plurimum absit a corpore,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 70; so, cum maxime... tum maxime; v. b. a foll.—
    b.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    As coincident:

    quom amamus, tum perimus,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 94:

    ulmus, cum folia cadunt, tum iterum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; so id. ib. 155 (156):

    cum ea quae quasi involuta fuerunt, aperti sunt, tum inventa dicuntur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 8, 26; id. Fin. 5, 10, 29; 1, 17, 57; id. N. D. 2, 52, 129; 1, 19, 49; id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 15.—Cum maxime... tum maxime = quo magis eo magis:

    nam quom pugnabant maxume, ego tum fugiebam maxume,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 45:

    quamobrem omnes, cum secundae res sunt maxume, tum maxume Meditari secum oportet, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 14, 30 poet. —
    (β).
    As subsequent:

    ad legionem quom itum, adminiculum eis danunt tum jam aliquem cognatum suum,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 47:

    eo cum accessit ratio argumentique conclusio... tum et perceptio eorum omnium apparet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 10, 30; 2, 41, 128; id. Fin. 5, 9, 24; 1, 20, 69; 5, 15, 41; id. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 1, 24, 58; 3, 2, 3; id. N. D. 2, 48, 123; id. Div. 2, 19, 44.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    quom mi haec dicentur dicta, tum tu, furcifer, quasi mus in medio pariete vorsabere,

    Plaut. Cas. 1, 51; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 20:

    non committam ut tum haec res judicetur cum haec frequentia Roma discesserit,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 54; id. Agr. 2, 17, 44; 2, 25, 67; id. Fin. 4, 22, 62; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Liv. 23, 13, 4; 41, 10, 7; Ov. M. 2, 651; id. H. 15, 293; Nep. Them. 6, 5.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; 4, 6, 30:

    de quo cum perpauca dixero, tum ad jus civile veniam,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Clu. 2, 6; 4, 9; Liv. 3, 56, 10.—
    B.
    With temporal clause, introduced by ubi.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    vitem novellam resecare tum erit tempus ubi valebit,

    Cato, R. R. 33:

    tum tu igitur demum id adulescenti aurum dabis, ubi erit locata virgo in matrimonium?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 52.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time (tum always = deinde):

    ubi eorum dolorem majorem quam ceterorum cognovi, tum meum animum in illos, tum mei consilii causam proposui, tum eos hortatus sum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    ubi illuxit, et Romanis Punica et Gallica arma cognita, tum dubitationem exemere,

    Liv. 25, 10, 5; 1, 9, 10; 4, 57, 3; 9, 43, 16; 21, 25, 12; 23, 11, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    post ubi tempust promissa jam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 8: Cato, R. R. 3 init.; 17:

    ubi jam morbi se flexit causa... Tum quasi vaccillans primum consurgit,

    Lucr. 3, 503; 6, 129; 6, 526.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time:

    otium ubi erit, tum tibi operam ludo et deliciae dabo,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 4, 13; id. Stich. 4, 2, 14:

    ubi tu voles, Ubi tempus erit, sat habet si tum recipitur,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 32; Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 72; id. Pers. 4, 7, 19; id. Cas. 3, 2, 27:

    ut ubi id interrogando argumentis firmavero, tum testes ad crimen accommodem,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 55:

    ubi haerere jam aciem videris, tum terrorem equestrem infer,

    Liv. 6, 12, 10; 22, 55, 8.—
    C.
    With a temporal clause introduced by postquam.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    Flaminius qui ne quieto quidem hoste ipse quieturus erat, tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 3, 7; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 (v. infra, III. A. 2. a. b).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis (always = deinde).
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    posteaquam e portu piratae exierunt, tum coeperunt quaerere homines, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 100; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40 (al. tunc):

    postquam satis virium collectum videbat, tum ex suis unum sciscitatum Romam ad patrem misit,

    Liv. 1, 54, 5; 3, 66, 5; 6, 13, 4; 22, 48, 4; 25, 10, 6; Gell. 5, 3, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time: postquam vero commoditas quaedam... dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum ingenio freta malitia pervertere urbes adsuevit, Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 3.—
    D.
    With a temporal clause introduced by ut.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    tum vero ingentem gemitum dat Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici... conspexit,

    Verg. A. 1, 485; cf. id. ib. 12, 218.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    nam ut dudum adcurrimus ad Alcesimarchum... tum mi, puto, prae timore hic excidisse Cistellam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 46:

    sed ut intellectum est quantam vim haberet accurata... oratio, tum etiam magistri dicendi multi subito exstiterunt,

    Cic. Brut. 8, 30; id. Phil. 9, 4, 9; Liv. 24, 44, 10; id. 21, 54, 9; 23, 34, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to future time:

    neque ut quaeque res delata ad nos erit, tum denique scrutari locos debemus,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 34, 146:

    traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum, si eam Romanus rite emisisset, victoriam de Vejentibus dari (= si quando),

    Liv. 5, 15, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.—
    E.
    With a temporal clause introduced by quando.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    auctoritatem senatus exstare sentio, tum, quando Alexandro mortuo, legatos Tyrum misimus,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 16, 41.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at scire tum memento quando id quod voles habebis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 41; id. Mil. 3, 1, 213; id. Most. 3, 1, 136; id. Men. 5, 7, 57:

    utinam tum essem natus quando Romani dona accipere coepissent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of indefinite time (quando = whenever):

    quando esurio tum crepant (intestina),

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 27; id. Truc. 1, 1, 15; id. Ps. 4, 7, 85:

    quando mulier dotem marito dabat, tum quae ex suis bonis retinebat reciperare dicebatur,

    Gell. 17, 6, 6; 7 (6), 14, 4.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at tu, quando habebis, tum dato,

    Plaut. Men. 3, 3, 23:

    quando ab eadem parte sol eodemque tempore iterum defecerit, tum signis omnibus ad principium revocatis, expletum annum habeto,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    quando mihi usus venerit, tum quaeram ex te atque discam,

    Gell. 6 (7), 17, 4.—
    F.
    In the apodosis after simul ac:

    an simul ac nubes successere, ipse in eas tum Descendit (Juppiter), prope ut hinc teli determinet ictus?

    Lucr. 6, 402.—
    G.
    With a temporal clause introduced by dum.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent:

    sanctius visum est nomen Augusti, ut scilicet jam tum dum colit terras, ipso numine ac titulo consecretur,

    Flor. 2, 33, 66 (4, 12, 66).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    dum habeat, tum amet,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23:

    dum se glomerant... tum pondere turris Procubuit,

    Verg. A. 9, 540.—
    H.
    As antecedent of quamdiu:

    qui cum tibi amicus non modo tum fuerit quamdiu tecum in provincia fuerit, verum etiam nunc sit cum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 24, § 58.—
    K.
    Denoting a logical consequence after quando and cum:

    quando ergo erga te benignus fui... tum te mihi benigne itidem addecet... referre gratiam,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 35:

    cum magnus numerus deesset, tum iste homo nefarius in eorum locum... substituere coepit cives Romanos,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 72.—
    L.
    After relative clauses denoting time: qua tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis junxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis jam fere ad pariendum mensibus, Poet. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 58, 219 (Trag. Rel. p. 246 Rib.).—
    M.
    With conditional clauses.
    1.
    With a conditional clause introduced by si, sin, ni (not nisi).
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of clause:

    tum pol ego interii, homo si ille abiit,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 6; id. Men. 2, 2, 71; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 40:

    si tenuis causa est, tum etiam argumentandi tenue filum,

    Cic. Or. 36, 124; id. Rep. 1, 40, 62; 2, 9, 15; id. Fin. 1, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 13; id. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    tum vero ego nequiquam Capitolium servaverim si civem in servitutem duci videam,

    Liv. 6, 14, 4; 3, 9, 11; 6, 14, 4; 7, 34, 14; Cato ap. Plin. 29, 1, 7, § 14; Gell. 2, 12, 1 sq.; 4, 13, 1; 14, 2, 21.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si triduum hoc hic erimus, tum arbores in te cadent,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 30; id. Rud. 5, 2, 59; 3, 4, 49; id. As. 1, 3, 89; id. Rud. 1, 3, 13; id. Ps. 4, 1, 1; 4, 1, 48 (39); Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 64; 3, 1, 17; id. Phorm. 1, 3, 19; Cato, R. R. 26; cf. id. ib. 27:

    quod si, ut spero, cepero, tum vero litteras publice mittam,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 3; id. Div. 1, 44, 100; cf. id. Ac. 2, 10, 32; id. Fin. 2, 4, 79; id. N. D. 3, 36, 87; id. Rep. 1, 43, 66: id. [p. 1911] Rosc. Am. 49, 142:

    si dimicandum erit, tum tu in novissimos te recipito,

    Liv. 7, 40, 13; 8, 10, 12; Hor. S. 1, 2, 97; Ov. M. 7, 32.—

    Esp., denoting the consequences of perjury in ancient formulas of oaths: si ego injuste illos homines dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae compotem me numquam siris esse,

    Liv. 1, 32, 7; 1, 24, 8; 22, 53, 11; hence, quid si falles? Me. Tum Mercurius Sosiae iratus siet, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 239; 3, 2, 52; id. Aul. 4, 10, 50; cf. also Liv. 3, 64, 10.—
    2.
    With a condition contrary to fact.
    (α).
    Tum, antecedent of clause:

    tum esset ostentum, si anguem vectis circumplicavisset,

    Cic. Div. 2, 28, 62; id. Verr. 2, 2, 68, § 164:

    tum id audirem si tibi soli viveres,

    id. Marcell. 8, 25; id. Fin. 4, 13, 33; id. Div. 2, 35, 73.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si quidem me amaret, tum istuc prodesset,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 56:

    quodsi omnia nobis quae ad victum pertinent. suppeditarentur, tum optimo quisque ingenio, totum se in cognitione et scientia collocaret,

    Cic. Off. 1, 44, 158. —
    N.
    After an abl. absol.
    1.
    With perfect participles (= postquam or cum... tum), mostly with denique, vero, demum.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    ut morte ejus nuntiata tum denique bellum confectum arbitraretur,

    Cic. Mur. 16, 34:

    sed confecto proelio tum vero cerneres quanta vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae,

    Sall. C. 61, 1:

    ita rebus divinis peractis tum de bello deque republica dictator rettulit,

    Liv. 22, 11, 1; 2, 29, 1; 2, 29, 3; 3, 56, 1; 5, 50, 8; Plin. 11, 20, 22, § 68.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    hisce omnibus rebus consideratis, tum denique id quod primum est dicendum, postremum soleo cogitare, quo utar exordio,

    Cic. Or. 2, 77, 315.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time (the abl. absol. = a fut. perf.):

    ita prope XL. diebus interpositis tum denique se responsuros esse arbitrantur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 10, 31; 1, 18, 54; id. Fin. 4, 13, 32; id. Scaur. Fragm. 10, 22.—
    2.
    With pres. participles (post-class.):

    tacentibus cunctis, tum ipse (dixit), etc.,

    Just. 12, 15, 6.
    III.
    Particular connections.
    A.
    With other particles of time.
    1.
    Jam tum, already at that time, i. e. earlier than might be anticipated:

    jam tum erat suspitio Dolo malo haec fieri,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 8; cf. id. ib. 4, 4, 58; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 34:

    quippe etenim jam tum divom mortalia saecla Egregias animo facies vigilante videbant,

    Lucr. 5, 1169; 5, 1037:

    ut mihi jam tum divinasse ille (Romulus) videatur hanc urbem sedem aliquando summo esse imperio praebituram,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 5, 10; 2, 7, 12; id. Div. 2, 57, 118; id. Tusc. 4, 2, 4:

    jam tum in Palatio monte Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt,

    Liv. 1, 5, 1; 1, 7, 16; 1, 41, 7; 10, 21, 14;

    24, 49, 1: ut jam tum qualis futurus esset ostenderet,

    Suet. Dom. 1; Curt. 4, 6, 29.—
    2.
    Tum demum and tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, i. e. later than might be expected, implying delayed action.
    a.
    Tum demum.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    adversisque in rebus noscere qui sit. Nam verae voces tum demum pectore ab imo Eiciuntur,

    Lucr. 3, 58:

    tum demum Liscus, oratione Caesaris adductus, quod antea tacuerat proponit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 5, 33; Sall. J. 46, 1:

    nec ante in campum degressi sunt quam, etc. Tum demum castra Etruscorum pro moenibus Fidenarum posita,

    Liv. 4, 17, 12; 45, 12, 6; 2, 20, 11; 5, 39, 2; 23, 19, 15 et saep.; Val. Max. 1, 6, 10; 1, 7, 4; Curt. 3, 12, 12; Tac. A. 3, 18; 3, 47.—
    (β).
    In partic., referring to clauses introduced by cum, ubi, si, or abl. absol. (v. II. A. B. L. M.), denoting absolute restriction to the terms of the clause:

    imo etiam ubi expolivero, magis hoc tum demum dices,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 60:

    tum demum mihi procax Academia videbitur si aut consenserint omnes, aut, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 6, 13:

    cum is Casilini eo die mansurum dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error,

    Liv. 22, 13, 8; Vell. 2, 115, 4; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 fin.; 7, 2, 4; Curt. 3, 11, 6; Plin. Ep. 8, 20, 7.—
    (γ).
    Sometimes = nunc demum (anteclass.): victus es, Chaline. St. Tum nos demum vivere. Olympio. Gaudeo, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 65.—
    b.
    Tum denique.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5:

    injecta glaeba tumulus is (locus) ubi humatus est vocatur, ac tum denique multa religiosa jura complectitur,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 57; id. Fin. 3, 22, 76; id. Tusc. 3, 26, 61: nequiquam temptati ut tum denique desisterent impediendo bello, Liv. 4, 55, 5; Ov. M. 4, 519; 7, 857; 10, 664.—
    (β).
    Referring to clauses with cum, etc. (v. II. A. B. L. M.):

    tum denique homines nostra intellegimus bona quom quae in potestate habuimus ea amisimus,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    quo cum venerimus, tum denique vivemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 31, 75; 3, 31, 75; id. Leg. 2, 4, 10; id. Rep. 1, 6, 11; so,

    tum denique si,

    id. Fam. 14, 2, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 10, § 29; id. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 1:

    indicandum primum fuisse, dein petendum praesidium, postremo ni impetraretur, tum denique querendum,

    Liv. 23, 43, 2; Cato ap. Plin. 17, 18, 29, § 126 (for tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9, v. II. D. 2. a).—
    3.
    Tum primum (rarely primo), then for the first time:

    tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit,

    Lucr. 5, 1014:

    ludorum gratia quos tum primum anniversarios in circo facere constituisset,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 7, 12; id. Sen. 21, 78; Caes. B. G. 7, 11:

    ponte sublicio tum primum in Tiberi facto,

    Liv. 1, 33, 6; 2, 41, 3; 39, 22, 2; 2, 20, 6; 39, 49, 4; Vell. 2, 37, 5; Tac. A. 2, 27; id. H. 4, 57; Curt. 3, 12, 26. —
    4.
    With deinde, hic, postea, with consecutive force emphatic.
    a.
    Deinde tum (very rare):

    primum ea quae sumus acturi cogitare debemus, deinde tum dicere ac facere,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 6, 62.—
    b.
    Tum deinde.
    (α).
    = tum demum or tum denique, then at length, not till then, then only:

    nonne optime patronus occurrat prius conviciis luxuriae, etc., tum deinde narret de bonis Pallae? etc.,

    Quint. 4, 2, 27; 12, 10, 11:

    emam, aedificabo, credam, exigam, honores geram: tum deinde lassam senectutem in otium referam,

    Sen. Ep. 101, 4; Plin. 16, 44, 95, § 251.—So corresp. with cum:

    quas cum solus pertulisset, tum deinde comitia collegae subrogando habuit,

    Liv. 2, 8, 3 (Weissenb. demum, by conj.); Col. R. R. 1, 6, 13. —
    (β).
    = an emphatic deinde: nam praetermisit quod in prima parte sumere debuit;

    tum deinde eodem ipso quod omiserat quasi proposito ad confirmandum aliud utitur,

    Gell. 2, 8, 3; 13, 24 (23), 1; Just. 2, 1, 19.—
    c.
    With hic:

    hic tum repente Pacilius quidam accedit, ait, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94:

    hic ego tum ad respondendum surrexi,

    id. Clu. 18, 51; 27, 73:

    hic tum injectus est hominibus scrupulus,

    id. ib. 28, 76; id. Sest. 11, 25.—
    d.
    Tum postea:

    tum postea complorantibus nostris, dies quidem tandem inluxit,

    Gell. 19, 1, 3; so id. 14, 3, 10 (for quid tum postea, v. D. 1.).—
    5.
    With interim:

    unum, alterum, tertium annum Sassia quiescebat... Tum interim, Q. Hortensio, Q. Metello coss.... despondet ei filiam suam,

    Cic. Clu. 64, 179.—
    B.
    With particles of emphasis.
    1.
    Tum vero (sometimes tum enimvero or enimvero tum), then indeed, at that crisis, then if not before, etc., or merely = emphatic then, denoting either coincidence or sequence of action.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    discedit a Melino Cluentia. Tum vero illa egregia mater palam exsultare... coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 14; 22, 61; id. Agr. 1, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107:

    semper equidem magno cum metu incipio dicere... tum vero ita sum perturbatus ut, etc.,

    id. Clu. 18, 51:

    tum vero dubitandum non existimavit quin ad eos proficisceretur,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8; 5, 37; id. B. C. 1, 82; 2, 42:

    Aruns Tarquinius et Tullia minor... junguntur nuptiis. Tum vero in dies infestior Tulli senectus... coepit esse,

    Liv. 1, 47, 1; 2, 22, 6; 4, 49, 13; 10, 19, 12; 21, 45, 9; 21, 58, 5; Ov. M. 2, 227; 7, 685; Curt. 4, 13, 1; 3, 11, 5; Tac. Agr. 37.—And in enumerations:

    deinde... post autem... tum vero ipsam veterem Karthaginem vendunt,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 5.—
    (β).
    As correlative of temporal or conditional clauses, and after abl. absol.:

    quod ubi Romam est nuntiatum, senatui metum injecit ne tum vero sustineri nec in urbe seditio, nec in castris posset,

    Liv. 5, 7, 4; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    tum vero... si,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 19, 63; Liv. 6, 14, 4 (v. II. M. 1. a, b).—With cum, Liv. 32, 12, 1:

    quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari... vidit, Tum vero gemitus... Edidit,

    Ov. M. 2, 621; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40; v. C. 1. b. (so, tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; v. II. D. 2. and M. 1.).—
    2.
    Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least (usu. opposed to a later time): dixit sibi in somnis visum esse, etc. Et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem devovit se, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 24, 51; so,

    actum quidem,

    id. Fl. 25, 59; id. Lael. 11, 39:

    et tum quidem ab Dio Perseus in interiora regni recepit se... post dies paucos, etc.,

    Liv. 42, 39, 1; 1, 57, 10; 3, 2, 10;

    7, 17, 3.—Often in resuming the narrative after a digression: ac tum quidem regem... filium appellat,

    Curt. 4, 7, 25.—Merely emphatic:

    Duillio Cornelioque coss. etiam mari congredi ausus est. Tum quidem ipsa velocitas classis comparatae victoriae auspicium fuit,

    Flor. 1, 18 (2, 2), 7; so id. 1, 22 (2, 6), 20; 1, 40 (3, 5), 12.—With cum, Tac. Dial. 11.—
    3.
    Ne tum quidem, not even then:

    num quis horum miser hodie? Ne tum quidem, post spiritum extremum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 37, 89; id. Div. 1, 26, 55; id. Verr. 2, 2, 40, § 98:

    ubi ne tum quidem eos prodire intellexit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 50; 7, 53; Tac. H. 5, 21; Curt. 3, 2, 18.—With cum:

    ille vere ne tum quidem miser cum ab Oroete in crucem actus est,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92; so id. Tusc. 5, 20, 57; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; Liv. praef. 12; 39, 39, 11.—
    4.
    Tum maxime (sometimes tum cummaxime).
    (α).
    Especially at that time, chiefly then: illi sumposia, nos convivia quod tum maxime simul vivitur, Cic. Fam. 9, 24, 35; id. Leg. 2, 11, 26.—With cum:

    quae quidem vis tum maxime cognita est cum... M. Cato, legem suadens, in Galbam multa dixit,

    Cic. Brut. 23, 89; id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Par. 4, 1, 29.—
    (β).
    Just then, just at that moment (not ante-Aug.):

    regi, tum maxime captivos ex Illyrico vendenti,

    Liv. 43, 20, 3; 1, 10, 1:

    per totam aciem vulgatum est, castra amissa esse, et tum cummaxime ardere,

    id. 40, 32, 1; so,

    tum cummaxime,

    id. 43, 7, 8:

    corpus enim suum a caupone trucidatum tum maxime plaustro ad portam ferri,

    Val. Max. 1, 7, ext. 10; 2, 10, 2; 3, 2, 2 fin.; Curt. 3, 4, 14; 6, 6, 10; Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154; Quint. 2, 15, 30; 2, 61, 31; Suet. Caes. 65; id. Calig. 53.—So with cum:

    et quod tum maxime Abydum oppugnaret cum rex ab Attalo et Rhodiis ultro se bello lacessitum diceret,

    Liv. 31, 18, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 15, 2.—
    (γ).
    Strengthening the co-ordinate tum after cum, so especially; v. I. C. 3. e. b (for cum maxime... tum maxime and tum maxime... cum plurimum, v. II. A. 3. a. b.).—
    5.
    Tum potissimum = tum maxime, just then (rare):

    C. Caesar... tum potissimum acie commissa impeditos religione hostes vicit,

    Front. Strat. 2, 1, 16.—
    6.
    Etiam tum.
    (α).
    Even then:

    etiam tum vivit cum esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28:

    totum se Servilio etiam tum tradidit,

    even then, at so late a time, Cic. Sest. 62, 130:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit,

    id. Rosc. Am. 20, 57.— So with cum, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 59, § 154; id. Dom. 13, 23; id. Sest. 38, 81.—
    (β).
    Still, as yet (also as one word; cf. etiamtum, and v. the foll. additional passages), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 19, § 41; id. Fin. 3, 14, 48; id. Rep. 2, 12, 24; id. Arch. 3, 5; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; id. Brut. 20, 80; id. Off. 2, 14, 47; Caes. B. C. 3, 93; Liv. 5, 40, 10; Val. Max. 9, 6, 3; Tac. A. 3, 72; Suet. Claud. 27 fin.; id. Dom. 22.—

    And with a negation, = nondum: ipsa ego non longos etiam tum scissa capillos,

    not yet long, Ov. H. 8, 79.—
    7.
    Tum etiam.
    (α).
    Followed by si or cum, even if, even when:

    atque equidem filium Tum etiam si nolit, cogam,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 65:

    qui tum etiam cum... circumfusi erant caligine,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 45.—
    (β).
    Then also, then too, besides:

    tum etiam illud cogitatote, sic vivere Cornelium ut, etc.,

    Cic. Balb. 28, 65; id. N. D. 1, 16, 43; so id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Fin. 2, 16, 53; Col. 12 praef.—
    8.
    Tum quoque.
    (α).
    Also then, then likewise, then as before, then as on another occasion mentioned before: ceu lapidem si Percutiat lapis aut ferrum;

    nam tum quoque lumen Exsilit,

    Lucr. 6, 162:

    tum quoque homini plus tribui quam nescio cui necessitati,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 11, 28:

    tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis,

    Liv. 1, 33, 5; 2, 52, 2; 21, 22, 4; Caes. B. C. 3, 37; Ov. M. 14, 369.—
    (β).
    Even then, = etiam tum (rare):

    et tamen tum quoque se absentes triumphare credunt,

    Liv. 45, 38, 13; 39, 41, 3; 39, 47, 11; Ov. H. 17 (18), 190.—
    (γ).
    In orat. obliq. (v. I. A. 2.), even now:

    quod si Romani tum quoque aequa aspernarentur,

    Liv. 42, 62, 7. —
    (δ).
    = sic quoque, even under the circumstances, even as it was, etc. (v. sic, V. 3.): ut si effugium patuisset in publicum, impleturae urbem tumultu fuerint. Tum quoque [p. 1912] aliquotiens integro corpore evaserunt, Liv. 24, 26, 13; 40, 16, 6; 43, 4, 1;

    9, 13, 9: tum quoque, amputata dextra, navem sinistra comprehendit,

    Just. 2, 9, 18.—
    9.
    Tum ipsum = eo ipso tempore, at the very time, just then, even then (only in Cic. in four passages; cf.:

    nunc ipsum): tota igitur ratio talium largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum... moderanda est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 17, 60:

    quem quidem cum sua voluntate ex patria Karthaginem revertisset, tum ipsum cum vigiliis et fame cruciaretur, clamat virtus beatiorem fuisse quam Thorium,

    id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv. ad loc.:

    tum ipsum cum immolare velis extorum fieri mutatio potest,

    id. Div. 1, 52, 118:

    ita (oratores), non injuria, quotienscunque dicerent, id quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere,

    id. Or. 1, 27, 123.—
    C.
    Tum with co-ordinating particles.
    1.
    Tum autem.
    (α).
    = praeterea, and then, besides (v. I. C. 1.): turpilucricupidum te vocant cives tui;

    tum autem sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64:

    oves scabrae sunt... Tum autem Surorum nemo exstat qui ibi sex menses vixerit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 141; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 4, 2, 3; id. Poen. 5, 5, 34; 5, 7, 22; Ter. And. 1, 5, 34; id. Eun. 5, 9, 7; id. Hec. 2, 1, 14; 3, 2, 10:

    tum autem qui non ipso honesto movemur... callidi sumus, non boni,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 14, 41; id. Or. 1, 58, 247; 2, 19, 80.—
    (β).
    = tum... tum:

    visne igitur inter hos populos inambulantes, tum autem residentes quaeramus eisdem de rebus?

    Cic. Leg. 1, 5, 15.—
    (γ).
    = eo tempore, with autem as connective:

    tum illic autem Lemnius... uxorem duxit, etc.,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 25:

    tum autem ex omnibus montibus nives proluit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 48.—
    (δ).
    But in this instance:

    uxori emunda ancilla'st: tum autem pluscula Supellectile opus est,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 60; 5, 7, 25 sq.—
    2.
    For tum etiam, v. B. 7. b.—
    3.
    Tum praeterea:

    nam tui similis est probe. Tum praeterea talem, nisi tu, nulla pareret filium,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 20; so id. Ad. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33; Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56 (v. I. C. 3. e. l).—
    4.
    Tum porro:

    tum porro venti magnam quoque tollere partem Umoris possunt,

    Lucr. 6, 623; 4, 829 (827).—
    D.
    Quid tum?
    1.
    In dialogue, what then? what next? what further? novi ego hos pugnos meos. Ca. Quid tum? Th. Quid tum? Rogitas? Hisce ego, si tu me inritaveris, placidum te hodie reddam, Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 49; so id. As. 2, 2, 83; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 47; 3, 5, 66; id. Phorm. 3, 3, 8.—And strengthened:

    quid tum postea?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; id. As. 2, 2, 68; 2, 2, 79; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 78; 4, 2, 9; 4, 7, 23; id. Ad. 4, 5, 15; id. Hec. 4, 1, 36: videsne abundare me otio? A. Quid tum? Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 26.—
    2.
    In imitation of a dialogue:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules. Quid tum? Parumne multa de toleranda paupertate dicuntur?

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 37, 107; so id. Quint. 22, 72; 27, 84; id. Verr. 2, 4, 59, § 132; id. Dom. 47, 123; id. Dejot. 7, 22; id. Phil. 1, 10, 26; Hor. S. 2, 3, 230.—
    3.
    As emphatic co-ordinative in quoting the different items of a document, law, etc.: quive in senatu sententiam dixit, dixerit. Quid tum? Qui eorum coiit, coierit, etc., what next? i. e. and then, listen! Cic. Clu. 54, 148; so id. Agr. 1, 5, 16; 3, 3, 11; id. Mur. 12, 26; id. Fl. 23, 55.—
    E.
    Tum temporis = eo tempore (post class. and rare; cf.:

    tunc temporis): postera die civitas principem suum, ac tum temporis consulem in foro expectabat,

    Just. 31, 2, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tum

  • 2 īnfrā

        īnfrā adv.    [for inferā, sc. parte], on the under side, below, underneath: infra nihil est nisi mortale: partes eae, quae sunt infra quam id quod devoratur: infra Quam solet esse, O.: exemplum infra scriptum est, S.: onerariae duae... paulo infra delatae sunt, further along, Cs.: mare quod adluit infra, i. e. on the South, V.: prope me Viscus et infra Varius, below (at table), H.
    * * *
    I
    below, on the under side, underneath; further along; on the south
    II
    below, lower than; later than

    Latin-English dictionary > īnfrā

  • 3 īnfrā

        īnfrā praep. with acc.    [1 infra], below, under, beneath: infra oppidum: infra caelum nox cadit, Ta.—Of time, later than: Homerus non infra superiorem Lycurgum fuit.—Of size, smaller than: magnitudine paulo infra elephantos, Cs.—Fig., below, beneath, inferior to: infra esse infimos omnīs Homines, T.: omnia infra se esse iudicare: Lucili ingenium, H.
    * * *
    I
    below, on the under side, underneath; further along; on the south
    II
    below, lower than; later than

    Latin-English dictionary > īnfrā

  • 4 opīniō

        opīniō ōnis, f    [opinor], opinion, supposition, conjecture, fancy, belief, expectation: recens boni praesentis: varietas inter homines opinionis: ut opinio nostra est, as I suppose: Romulus habuit opinionem esse, etc., held the belief that: fuisse in illā opinione, held the opinion: evellam ex animis hominum tantam opinionem? so strong a prejudice: eorum opinioni accedo, qui, etc., Ta.: in eam opinionem Caesennam adducebat, ut, made believe: praebere opinionem timoris, semblance, Cs.: hac opinione discessi, ut, etc., in the belief: praeter nostram opinionem, expectation, T.: ut omnia contra opinionem acciderent, Cs.: praeter opinionem cadere, N.: amplius opinione, beyond expectation, S.: opinione celerius, sooner than was expected.—Appreciation, esteem, reputation, opinion, estimate, expectation: opinio, quam de meis moribus habebat: integritatis meae: genus scriptorum tuorum vicit opinionem meam, surpassed my expectation: summam habere iustitiae opinionem, be in great repute for, Cs.—A report, rumor: edita in volgus, Cs.: opinio sine auctore exierat, eas conspirasse, etc., L.
    * * *
    belief, idea, opinion; rumour (Plater)

    Latin-English dictionary > opīniō

  • 5 quam

        quam adv.    [qui].—Relat., in what manner, to what degree, how greatly, how, how much: nescis quam doleam, T.: vide, quam te amarit is: declaravit quam odisset senatum: docebat, quam veteres quamque iustae causae intercederent, Cs.: ut sentias quam vile sit corpus, L.: Vive memor quam sis aevi brevis, H.: ut nobis tempus quam diu diceremus praestitueres: mire quam illius loci cogitatio delectat (i. e. mirum est, quam, etc.), wonderfully.—Interrog., how?: quam avidum in pecuniis (hunc fuisse censetis)?: quam multis custodibus opus erit?: quam longe est hinc in saltum vestrum?—In exclamations, how! how very!: quam cupiunt laudari!: quam terribilis aspectu (incedebat)!: quam nihil praetermittis in consilio dando!: Quam paene regna Proserpinae vidimus! H. —Esp., in comparisons, in what degree, as: nihil est tam populare quam bonitas: quid est oratori tam necessarium quam vox?: tam diu requiesco, quam diu ad te scribo: tam esse clemens tyrannus, quam rex importunus potest: quam quisque pessume fecit, tam maxume tutus est, S.: tam sum amicus rei p. quam qui maxime: Non verbis dici potest Tantum quam navigare incommodumst, T.: maria aspera iuro Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, Quam ne, etc., V.: intentis, non ab irā tantum, quam quod urbs videbatur, etc., L.: dimidium tributi quam quod regibus ferre soliti erant, half as much tribute as, etc., L.: nihil aeque eos terruit, quam robur imperatoris, L.: quam multā grandine nimbi crepitant, sic ictibus heros Creber pulsat, V.—With ellips. of tam, as much as, to the extent that, as... as: quam voletis multi dicent, as many of you as choose: quam diu vixit, all his life: quam diu tu voles, as long as you will: non militum fiduciā quam iuventutis, not so much, L.: tyrannus, quam qui umquam, saevissimus, never surpassed in cruelty, L.: Huc turba ruebat... Quam multa cadunt folia, as numerous as, V. —With sup. and possum or (old) queo: ut te redimas captum quam queas Minumo, at the lowest price you can, T.: quam plurimos potest equites educit, S.: quam maximis potest itineribus pervenit, Cs.: quam maxime possem, contenderem, to the utmost of my power.—With sup. and ellips. of possum, in the highest degree, as... as possible, extremely, very: quam minimum spati daretur, the shortest time possible, Cs.: quam plurimo vendere, at the highest price: ut quam primum accederet, as soon as possible: quam primum, forthwith, V. —Colloq.: quam familiariter, very, T.—Implying difference of degree (after a comp. or word of comparison), than: acrior quam ego sum: omnia sunt citius facta quam dixi: nec diutius vixit quam locuta est: ut aditus non magis nobilitati quam virtuti pateret: istas tu partīs potius quam defectionem vocas?: Nec tibi grata minus pietas... Quam fuit illa Iovi, O.: se temere magis quam satis caute inferre, L.: non locuta est ferocius quam poculum inpavide hausit, L.: speciem gloriae vehementius quam caute appetebat, Ta.: maiorem pecuniam polliceri, quam quantam hic dedisset: ne libentius haec evomere videar quam verius, with more satisfaction than accuracy: pestilentia minacior quam perniciosior, more threatening than destructive, L.: turbavit ordinem non acrior quam pertinacior impetus, L.: quid hoc fieri turpius potest, quam eum... labi: ne aliter, quam ego velim, meum laudet ingenium, otherwise than as I wished: quis antea, quis esset, quam cuius gener esset, audivit? sooner... than: pridie quam a me tu coactus eo profitere, on the day before. virtus nihil aliud est quam in se perfecta natura: nil aliud agens quam ut, etc., with no other purpose than, etc., L.: saepe supra feret, quam fieri possit, more than: ultra quam satis est, producitur.—Praegn., after verbs implying preference or superiority, rather than: praestare omnīs perferre acerbitates, quam non civibus parentarent, Cs.: si eligere commodissimum quodque, quam sese uni vellent addicere: esse quam videri bonus malebat, S.: malae rei se quam nullius duces esse volunt, L.: statuit congredi quam refugere, N.—After expressions of time, later than, after that, after: die vicensimo quam creatus erat dictaturā se abdicavit, L.: anno trecentesimo altero quam condita Roma erat, L.
    * * *
    I
    how, how much; as, than

    quam + superlative -- as... as possible

    II
    how, than

    Latin-English dictionary > quam

  • 6 infra

    I.
    (+ acc.) below, under /(time) later than
    II.
    (adv.) below, underneath / to the south, in the underworld.
    III., inferius, infimus
    low down

    Latin-English dictionary of medieval > infra

  • 7 adplico

    ap-plĭco ( adp-, Ritschl, Fleck., Baiter, Weissenb., Halm, in Quint.; app-, Merk., Kayser, Halm, in Nep. Rib.), āvi and ui, ātum and ĭtum, 1, v. a. (applicui appears to have first become prevalent in the time of Cic., and is the com. form in Vulg.; cf. Gell. 1, 7 fin.; applicavi is used by Pac. ap. Prisc. p. 860 P.; Varr. ib.; Ter. Heaut. prol. 23; Auct. B. Alex. 17 fin.; Cic. Clu. 16, 46; 24, 66; id. de Or. 1, 39, 177; 2, 13, 55; id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Inv. 2, 13, 43; 2, 51, 153; id. Tusc. 5, 27, 77; id. Ac. 2, 20, 65; and id. Fam. 3, 11, 5; Val. Max. 4, 7, 4; Plin. 11, 2, 1, § 2; Vulg. 1 Reg. 30, 7; ib. Eccli. 33, 12; ib. Osee, 7, 6. It is found in the best MSS. and edd.; cf. Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. p. 240, and Neue, Formenl. II. pp. 477 and 479. Still later than applicui, the sup. applicitum became prevalent, Inscr, Neap. l. 6916; Inscr. Orell. 4570; Col. 4, 22, 1; 4, 24, 18; Quint. 1, 2, 26; 2, 4, 30; 4, 2, 117; Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 23; cf. Neue, Formenl. II. p. 551, and v. P. a. infra; cf. plico and its compounds, complico, explico, implico, etc.); orig., to join, fasten, or attach to, to affix; hence, to bring, add, put, place to or near to, etc. (very freq., esp. in trop. signif. and in more elevated style; in Plaut. twice; in Ter. four times;

    in Cic. epistt. only once,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 3; never in Tac.; syn.: admoveo, adjungo, addo, adhibeo, adicio).
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    Lit.; constr. usu. with ad; rarely with dat.
    a.
    With ad:

    se ad arbores,

    to lean against, Caes. B. G. 6, 27 (cf.:

    trunco se applicuit,

    Just. 12, 9, 9):

    applicuit ambos ad eum,

    Vulg. Gen. 48, 13; ib. 1 Macc. 9, 3:

    umeros ad saxa,

    Ov. M. 5, 160:

    sinistrum (cornu) ad oppidum,

    Liv. 27, 2:

    se ad flammam,

    to approach, Cic. Tusc. 5, 27, 77:

    sudarium ad os,

    Suet. Ner. 25 al. —
    b.
    With dat.:

    ratem (sc. rati),

    Liv. 21, 28, 5:

    flumini castra,

    id. 32, 30:

    corporibus adplicantur,

    id. 23, 27:

    (asellum) ulmo,

    Ov. F. 3, 750:

    sanctos applicabit sibi,

    Vulg. Num. 16, 5; ib. 2 Par. 2, 16.—Also with local adv.:

    boves illuc,

    Ov. F. 1, 543.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    To connect with, to add to a thing:

    ut ad honestatem adplicetur (voluptas),

    Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37:

    annum,

    Mart. 6, 28, 9:

    adplicare verba verbis,

    Quint. 7, 10, 17; 7, 3, 19.—
    2.
    Se or animum, to attach, apply, or devote one's self or one's mind to a person or thing:

    illae extemplo se (ad eos) adplicant, adglutinant,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 67:

    hi se ad vos adplicant,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 13; id. And. 5, 4, 21: ad Siculos se adplicavit, Varr. ap. Prisc. p. 860 P.:

    se ad alicujus familiaritatem,

    Cic. Clu. 16, 46:

    Sicilia se ad amicitiam fidemque populi Romani applicavit,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 1; so id. Lael. 9, 32; id. de Or. 1, 39, 177; id. Fam. 3, 11, 3 al.:

    ad Atheniensium societatem se applicare,

    Nep. Arist. 2, 3:

    Certa res est ad frugem adplicare animum,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 34:

    animum aegrotum ad deteriorem partem adplicat,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 22:

    ad virtutem animus se adplicat,

    Cic. Lael. 14, 48:

    aures modis,

    Hor. C. 3, 11, 8; so id. C. S. 72 (cf.:

    admovere aures, s. v. admoveo, and adhibere aures,

    Cic. Arch. 3): sese ad convivia, Cato ap. Gell. 11, 2, 5:

    se ad studium musicum,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 23:

    me ad eundem quem Romae audiveram Molonem applicavi,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 316:

    se ad philosophiam, ad jus civile, ad eloquentiam,

    id. Off. 1, 32, 115:

    se ad scribendam historiam,

    id. de Or. 2, 13, 55 al. —
    3.
    Crimen alicui, to charge one with a crime, Plin. Ep. 10, 66, 4.—
    II.
    Esp., naut. t. t., navem, or absol. applicari, and in the act. as v. n. (cf. 1. appello, II.), to drive, direct, steer, or bring a ship anywhere, to land, to bring to land:

    navim ad naufragum applicarunt,

    Cic. Inv. 2. 51, 153: ad Heraeum naves adplicuit, Liv 33, 17;

    37, 12, 5: adplicatis nostris ad ter ram navibus,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101 Held.:

    Ciae telluris ad oras Applicor,

    Ov. M. 3, 598:

    applicor ignotis (sc. terris),

    id. H. 7, 117 Ruhnk. and Loers.—With in and acc.:

    applicor in terras,

    Ov. H. 16, 126 (cf.:

    appellere in aliquem locum,

    Liv. 8, 3, and 28, 42): ad terram adplicant, Auct. B. Hisp. 37 fin.; so Just. 2, 4, 21; 2, 12, 2; Dig. 1, 16, 4.—With acc. of place whither:

    aliā applicuimus Samum,

    Vulg. Act. 20, 15.—With abl.:

    quocumque litore adplicuisse naves,

    Liv. 44, 32, 4.— Absol.:

    et applicuerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 53.— Poet.: quo accedam? quo adplicem? Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44: quae vis immanibus applicat oris, drives or brings you, etc., Verg. A. 1, 616 (cf.:

    nos Libycis tempestas adpulit oris,

    id. ib. 1, 377):

    sublimis rapitur (Medea) et Creteis regionibus applicat angues,

    i. e. her dragon-chariot, Ov. M. 7, 223.—Hence,
    1.
    applĭcātus ( adp-), a, um, P. a.
    a.
    Placed upon, lying upon or close to, attached to:

    aures,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 5:

    Leucas colli adplicata,

    Liv. 33, 17, and Plin. 4, 4, 5, § 11:

    nervi adplicati ossibus,

    id. 11, 37, 88, § 217.—
    b.
    Inclined or adapted to, directed to:

    omne animal adplicatum esse ad se diligendum,

    inclined to self-love, Cic. Fin. 4, 13, 34:

    vehemens ad aliquam rem applicata occupatio,

    id. Inv. 1, 25, 36.— Comp., sup., and adv. not used.—
    2.
    ap-plĭcĭtus ( adp-), a, um, P. a., applied or joined to, attached to:

    adplicitum est cubiculo hypocauston,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 23:

    trunco palus,

    Col. 4, 22, 2: vites arboribus adplicitae, [p. 143] Quint. 1, 2, 26.— Trop.:

    pressus et velut adplicitus rei cultus,

    Quint. 4, 2, 117.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adplico

  • 8 applico

    ap-plĭco ( adp-, Ritschl, Fleck., Baiter, Weissenb., Halm, in Quint.; app-, Merk., Kayser, Halm, in Nep. Rib.), āvi and ui, ātum and ĭtum, 1, v. a. (applicui appears to have first become prevalent in the time of Cic., and is the com. form in Vulg.; cf. Gell. 1, 7 fin.; applicavi is used by Pac. ap. Prisc. p. 860 P.; Varr. ib.; Ter. Heaut. prol. 23; Auct. B. Alex. 17 fin.; Cic. Clu. 16, 46; 24, 66; id. de Or. 1, 39, 177; 2, 13, 55; id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Inv. 2, 13, 43; 2, 51, 153; id. Tusc. 5, 27, 77; id. Ac. 2, 20, 65; and id. Fam. 3, 11, 5; Val. Max. 4, 7, 4; Plin. 11, 2, 1, § 2; Vulg. 1 Reg. 30, 7; ib. Eccli. 33, 12; ib. Osee, 7, 6. It is found in the best MSS. and edd.; cf. Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. p. 240, and Neue, Formenl. II. pp. 477 and 479. Still later than applicui, the sup. applicitum became prevalent, Inscr, Neap. l. 6916; Inscr. Orell. 4570; Col. 4, 22, 1; 4, 24, 18; Quint. 1, 2, 26; 2, 4, 30; 4, 2, 117; Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 23; cf. Neue, Formenl. II. p. 551, and v. P. a. infra; cf. plico and its compounds, complico, explico, implico, etc.); orig., to join, fasten, or attach to, to affix; hence, to bring, add, put, place to or near to, etc. (very freq., esp. in trop. signif. and in more elevated style; in Plaut. twice; in Ter. four times;

    in Cic. epistt. only once,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 3; never in Tac.; syn.: admoveo, adjungo, addo, adhibeo, adicio).
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    Lit.; constr. usu. with ad; rarely with dat.
    a.
    With ad:

    se ad arbores,

    to lean against, Caes. B. G. 6, 27 (cf.:

    trunco se applicuit,

    Just. 12, 9, 9):

    applicuit ambos ad eum,

    Vulg. Gen. 48, 13; ib. 1 Macc. 9, 3:

    umeros ad saxa,

    Ov. M. 5, 160:

    sinistrum (cornu) ad oppidum,

    Liv. 27, 2:

    se ad flammam,

    to approach, Cic. Tusc. 5, 27, 77:

    sudarium ad os,

    Suet. Ner. 25 al. —
    b.
    With dat.:

    ratem (sc. rati),

    Liv. 21, 28, 5:

    flumini castra,

    id. 32, 30:

    corporibus adplicantur,

    id. 23, 27:

    (asellum) ulmo,

    Ov. F. 3, 750:

    sanctos applicabit sibi,

    Vulg. Num. 16, 5; ib. 2 Par. 2, 16.—Also with local adv.:

    boves illuc,

    Ov. F. 1, 543.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    To connect with, to add to a thing:

    ut ad honestatem adplicetur (voluptas),

    Cic. Fin. 2, 12, 37:

    annum,

    Mart. 6, 28, 9:

    adplicare verba verbis,

    Quint. 7, 10, 17; 7, 3, 19.—
    2.
    Se or animum, to attach, apply, or devote one's self or one's mind to a person or thing:

    illae extemplo se (ad eos) adplicant, adglutinant,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 67:

    hi se ad vos adplicant,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 13; id. And. 5, 4, 21: ad Siculos se adplicavit, Varr. ap. Prisc. p. 860 P.:

    se ad alicujus familiaritatem,

    Cic. Clu. 16, 46:

    Sicilia se ad amicitiam fidemque populi Romani applicavit,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 1; so id. Lael. 9, 32; id. de Or. 1, 39, 177; id. Fam. 3, 11, 3 al.:

    ad Atheniensium societatem se applicare,

    Nep. Arist. 2, 3:

    Certa res est ad frugem adplicare animum,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 34:

    animum aegrotum ad deteriorem partem adplicat,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 22:

    ad virtutem animus se adplicat,

    Cic. Lael. 14, 48:

    aures modis,

    Hor. C. 3, 11, 8; so id. C. S. 72 (cf.:

    admovere aures, s. v. admoveo, and adhibere aures,

    Cic. Arch. 3): sese ad convivia, Cato ap. Gell. 11, 2, 5:

    se ad studium musicum,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 23:

    me ad eundem quem Romae audiveram Molonem applicavi,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 316:

    se ad philosophiam, ad jus civile, ad eloquentiam,

    id. Off. 1, 32, 115:

    se ad scribendam historiam,

    id. de Or. 2, 13, 55 al. —
    3.
    Crimen alicui, to charge one with a crime, Plin. Ep. 10, 66, 4.—
    II.
    Esp., naut. t. t., navem, or absol. applicari, and in the act. as v. n. (cf. 1. appello, II.), to drive, direct, steer, or bring a ship anywhere, to land, to bring to land:

    navim ad naufragum applicarunt,

    Cic. Inv. 2. 51, 153: ad Heraeum naves adplicuit, Liv 33, 17;

    37, 12, 5: adplicatis nostris ad ter ram navibus,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101 Held.:

    Ciae telluris ad oras Applicor,

    Ov. M. 3, 598:

    applicor ignotis (sc. terris),

    id. H. 7, 117 Ruhnk. and Loers.—With in and acc.:

    applicor in terras,

    Ov. H. 16, 126 (cf.:

    appellere in aliquem locum,

    Liv. 8, 3, and 28, 42): ad terram adplicant, Auct. B. Hisp. 37 fin.; so Just. 2, 4, 21; 2, 12, 2; Dig. 1, 16, 4.—With acc. of place whither:

    aliā applicuimus Samum,

    Vulg. Act. 20, 15.—With abl.:

    quocumque litore adplicuisse naves,

    Liv. 44, 32, 4.— Absol.:

    et applicuerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 53.— Poet.: quo accedam? quo adplicem? Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 19, 44: quae vis immanibus applicat oris, drives or brings you, etc., Verg. A. 1, 616 (cf.:

    nos Libycis tempestas adpulit oris,

    id. ib. 1, 377):

    sublimis rapitur (Medea) et Creteis regionibus applicat angues,

    i. e. her dragon-chariot, Ov. M. 7, 223.—Hence,
    1.
    applĭcātus ( adp-), a, um, P. a.
    a.
    Placed upon, lying upon or close to, attached to:

    aures,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 5:

    Leucas colli adplicata,

    Liv. 33, 17, and Plin. 4, 4, 5, § 11:

    nervi adplicati ossibus,

    id. 11, 37, 88, § 217.—
    b.
    Inclined or adapted to, directed to:

    omne animal adplicatum esse ad se diligendum,

    inclined to self-love, Cic. Fin. 4, 13, 34:

    vehemens ad aliquam rem applicata occupatio,

    id. Inv. 1, 25, 36.— Comp., sup., and adv. not used.—
    2.
    ap-plĭcĭtus ( adp-), a, um, P. a., applied or joined to, attached to:

    adplicitum est cubiculo hypocauston,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 23:

    trunco palus,

    Col. 4, 22, 2: vites arboribus adplicitae, [p. 143] Quint. 1, 2, 26.— Trop.:

    pressus et velut adplicitus rei cultus,

    Quint. 4, 2, 117.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > applico

  • 9 exspecto

    ex-specto ( expect-), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a., to look out for a thing (syn.: prospecto, opperior, maneo, moror, praestolor).
    1.
    Objectively, to await, expect something that is to come or to take place, to be waiting for, etc. (very freq. and class.). —Constr. with the acc., with rel.-clauses, with dum, si, ut, quin, or absol.; very rarely with object-clause.
    A.
    In gen.
    1.
    With acc.:

    caritatem,

    Cato, R. R. 3, 2:

    alicujus mortem,

    Plaut. As. 3, 1, 28:

    cum ea Scipio dixisset silentioque omnium reliqua ejus exspectaretur oratio,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 38:

    injurias,

    id. ib. 1, 5:

    transitum tempestatis,

    id. Att. 2, 21, 2:

    adventum alicujus,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 27, 2; 2, 16, 2:

    eventum pugnae,

    id. ib. 7, 49 fin.:

    scilicet ultima semper Exspectanda dies homini est,

    Ov. M. 3, 136:

    cenantes haud animo aequo Exspectans comites,

    i. e. waiting till they have done eating, Hor. S. 1, 5, 9 et saep.; cf.:

    exspectandus erit annus,

    I must wait a year, Juv. 16, 42. —
    2.
    With relative and esp. interrogative clauses: exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat rebus, utri magni victoria sit data regni, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. s. 90, ed. Vahl.):

    exspecto, quo pacto, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 1, 1:

    exspecto, quid ad ista,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 20, 46; id. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 92:

    quid hostes consilii caperent, exspectabat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 24, 1:

    exspectante Antonio, quidnam esset actura,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 121:

    ne utile quidem, quam mox judicium fiat, exspectare,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 28, 85; so,

    quid exspectas quam mox ego dicam, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Com. 15, 44:

    et, quam mox signis collatis dimicandum sit, in dies exspectet,

    id. 34, 11, 4; 3, 37, 5:

    exspectans, quando, etc.,

    Quint. 11, 3, 159.—
    3.
    With dum, si, ut, etc.:

    ne exspectetis meas pugnas dum praedicem,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 1:

    ne exspectemus quidem, dum rogemur,

    Cic. Lael. 13, 44:

    exspectas fortasse, dum dicat, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 2, 7, 17:

    exspectare, dum hostium copiae augerentur,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 13, 2:

    nec dum repetatur, exspectat,

    Quint. 4, 2, 45:

    Caesar non exspectandum sibi statuit, dum, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 11 fin.; cf.:

    nec vero hoc loco exspectandum est, dum, etc.,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 7, 19:

    rusticus exspectat, dum defluat amnis,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 42:

    jam dudum exspecto, si tuum officium scias,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 12:

    exspecto si quid dicas,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 61:

    hanc (paludem) si nostri transirent, hostes exspectabant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 9, 1; id. B. C. 2, 34, 1:

    nisi exspectare vis ut eam sine dote frater conlocet,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 7:

    mea lenitas hoc exspectavit, ut id quod latebat, erumperet,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    nisi forte exspectatis ut illa diluam, quae, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 82:

    neque exspectant, ut de eorum imperio ad populum feratur,

    Caes. ib. 1, 6, 6:

    quare nemo exspectet, ut, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 10, 14; Liv. 23, 31, 7; 26, 18, 5; 35, 8, 5 al.— Pass. impers.:

    nec ultra exspectato, quam dum Claudius Ostiam proficisceretur,

    Tac. A. 11, 26 fin.:

    cum omnium voces audirentur, exspectari diutius non oportere, quin ad castra iretur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 24 fin.
    4.
    Absol.:

    comites ad portam exspectare dicunt,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 17, 1:

    diem ex die exspectabam, ut statuerem, quid esset faciendum,

    id. Att. 7, 26, 3:

    exspectent paullum et agi ordine sinant,

    Quint. 4, 5, 19.—
    5.
    With object-clause:

    cum expectaret effusos omnibus portis Aetolos in fidem suam venturos,

    Liv. 43, 22, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    venturum istum,

    Aug. Conf. 5, 6.—
    * B.
    Transf., of an abstract subject, like maneo, to await:

    seu me tranquilla senectus Exspectat seu, etc.,

    Hor. S. 2, 1, 58.
    II.
    To look for with hope, fear, desire, expectation, to hope for, long for, expect, desire; to fear, dread, anticipate, apprehend.
    1.
    With acc.:

    reliquum est, ut tuam profectionem amore prosequar, reditum spe exspectem,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 21 fin.; cf.:

    quod magna cum spe exspectamus,

    id. Att. 16, 16 E. fin.:

    ego jam aut rem aut ne spem quidem exspecto,

    id. ib. 3, 22 fin.: magnum inceptas, si id exspectas, quod nusquam'st, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 56:

    quam (rem) avidissime civitas exspectat,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 1, 1:

    longiores (epistolas) exspectabo vel potius exigam,

    id. Fam. 15, 16, 1:

    finem laborum omnium,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 85, 4:

    illum ut vivat, optant, meam autem mortem exspectant scilicet,

    to wish, Ter. Ad. 5, 4, 20:

    fama mortis meae non accepta solum sed etiam exspectata est,

    Liv. 28, 27, 9; cf.

    in the pun with I.: cum Proculeius quereretur de filio, quod is mortem suam exspectaret, et ille dixisset, se vero non exspectare: Immo, inquit, rogo exspectes,

    Quint. 9, 3, 68 Spald.:

    nescio quod magnum hoc nuntio exspecto malum,

    dread, Ter. Ph. 1, 4, 16:

    mortem,

    id. Hec. 3, 4, 8:

    multis de causis Caesar majorem Galliae motum exspectans,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 1, 1: 7, 43 fin. —With a personal object:

    pater exspectat aut me aut aliquem nuntium,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 22:

    ite intro, filii vos exspectant intus,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 86:

    hic ego mendacem usque puellam Ad mediam noctem exspecto,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 83; cf. Ov. M. 14, 418:

    video jam, illum, quem exspectabam, virum, cui praeficias officio et muneri,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 42.—
    2.
    Aliquid ab (rarely ex) aliquo (a favorite expression of Cicero):

    a te hoc civitas vel omnes potius gentes non exspectant solum, sed etiam postulant,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 5, 3; cf. id. ib. 3, 10, 1:

    dixi Servilio, ut omnia a me majora exspectaret,

    id. ib. 3, 12, 4:

    alimenta a nobis,

    id. Rep. 1, 4:

    ab aliquo gloriam,

    id. ib. 6, 19 fin.:

    tristem censuram ab laeso,

    Liv. 39, 41, 2:

    ut ex iis (proletariis) quasi proles civitatis exspectari videretur,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 40.—
    3.
    Aliquid ab or ex aliqua re (rare):

    aliquid ab liberalitate alicujus,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 28, 3:

    dedecus a philosopho,

    id. Tusc. 2, 12, 28:

    omnia ex sua amicitia,

    id. ib. 3, 60, 1.—
    4.
    Aliquid aliquem (very rare): ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29; Sat. v. 38 Vahl.—
    5.
    With object-clause:

    quid mihi hic adfers, quam ob rem exspectem aut sperem porro non fore?

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 36:

    exspecto cupioque te ita illud defendere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 64, § 151.—With inf. alone (cf. cupio), Front. ad Ver. Imp. p. 137, ed. Rom.—
    6.
    Absol. (very rare):

    cum mihi nihil improviso, nec gravius quam exspectavissem pro tantis meis factis evenisset,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4:

    aliquando ad verum, ubi minime exspectavimus, pervenimus,

    Quint. 12, 8, 11.—
    B.
    Poet. transf., of an abstr. subject, to have need of, require:

    silvarumque aliae pressos propaginis arcus Exspectant,

    Verg. G. 2, 27:

    neque illae (oleae) procurvam exspectant falcem rastrosque tenaces,

    id. ib. 2, 421; cf.:

    lenta remedia et segnes medicos non exspectant tempora mea,

    Curt. 3, 5, 13.—Hence, exspectātus ( expect-), a, um, P. a. (acc. to II.), anxiously expected, longed for, desired, welcome (class.):

    carus omnibus exspectatusque venies,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 7; cf.:

    venies exspectatus omnibus,

    id. ib. 4, 10, 1; Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 11:

    quibus Hector ab oris exspectate venis?

    Verg. A. 2, 282:

    sensi ego in exspectatis ad amplissimam dignitatem fratribus tuis,

    who were expected to arrive at the highest dignities of the state, Cic. de Sen. 19, 68:

    ubi te exspectatum ejecisset foras,

    i. e. whose death is waited, longed for, Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 29 Ruhnk.— Comp.:

    nimis ille potuit exspectatior venire,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 12.— Sup.:

    adventus suavissimus exspectatissimusque,

    Cic. Att. 4, 4 a:

    litterae,

    id. Fam. 10, 5, 1:

    triumphus,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 51 fin.
    b.
    In the neutr. absol.:

    quis non diversa praesentibus contrariaque exspectatis aut speret aut timeat?

    Vell. 2, 75, 2:

    hosti Ante exspectatum positis stat in agmine castris,

    before it was expected, Verg. G. 3, 348; so,

    ante exspectatum,

    Ov. M. 4, 790; 8, 5; Sen. Ep. 114:

    ille ad patrem patriae exspectato revolavit maturius,

    than was expected, Vell. 2, 123, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > exspecto

  • 10 infra

    infrā [infer, inferă, sc. parte], adv. and prep.
    I.
    Adv., on the under side, below, underneath.
    A.
    Lit.:

    infra nihil est nisi mortale... supra Lunam sunt aeterna omnia,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 17:

    in occipitio et infra, qua summa vertebra, etc.,

    Cels. 3, 23 fin.With quam:

    ipsius autem partes eae, quae sunt infra quam id quod devoratur, dilatantur,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 54, 135; Varr. R. R. 1, 41, 3:

    si infra, quam rami fuere, praecidatur,

    Plin. 16, 30, 53, § 123.— Absol., of the lower world:

    non seges est infra,

    there is no sowing down below, Tib. 1, 10, 35.—Of a following place in a writing, below:

    earum exemplum infra scripsi,

    Cic. Att. 8, 6; id. Fam. 5, 10, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 9.— Comp.: inferius, lower, farther down:

    altius egressus caelestia tecta cremabis. inferius terras,

    Ov. M. 2, 137:

    currere,

    id. ib. 2, 208:

    inferius, quam collo pectora subsunt,

    id. ib. 12, 420.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Below, beneath, in value or esteem:

    liberos ejus ut multum infra despectare,

    Tac. A. 2, 43.— Comp., lower, farther down:

    persequi,

    Ov. Tr. 2, 263: virtutem non flamma, non ruina inferius adducet. Sen. Ep. 79:

    quae praeterire, quam inferius exsequi tutius duximus,

    Sol. 2 med.
    2.
    Farther along the coast:

    onerariae duae... paulo infra delatae sunt,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 36.—
    3.
    Later in time:

    quid quod Ciceronis temporibus paulumque infra... geminabatur,

    Quint. 1, 7, 20.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., below, under.
    A.
    Lit.:

    ad mare infra oppidum exspectabat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    infra mortuos amandare,

    id. Quint. 15, 49:

    infra caelum et sidera nox cadit,

    Tac. Agr. 12.—
    2.
    Of time, later than:

    Homerus non infra superiorem Lycurgum fuit,

    Cic. Brut. 10, 40. —
    3.
    Of size, smaller than:

    uri sunt magnitudine paulo infra elephantos,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 28.—
    4.
    Of number, less than:

    non infra novena (ova),

    Plin. 18, 26, 62, § 231; id. 6, 6, 6, § 18.—
    B.
    Trop., below, beneath in rank, honor, or esteem:

    quem ego infra esse infimos omnis puto homines,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 36:

    res humanas despicere atque infra se positas arbitrari,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 7, 15:

    omnia infra se esse judicare,

    id. Fin. 3, 7, 25:

    e quo infra se et Caesarem videret et rempublicam,

    he despised them, Vell. 2, 76, 4:

    semper infra aliorum aestimationes se metientem,

    id. 2, 127 fin.:

    infra servos cliens,

    id. 2, 83:

    non infra speciem,

    not inferior in beauty, Prop. 1, 20, 5:

    conferant se Marii... infra Pallantis laudes jacebunt,

    they will not come up to the glory of Pallas, Plin. Ep. 8, 6, 2:

    id quidem infra grammatici officium est,

    Quint. 1, 7, 1; cf. id. 2, 5, 4.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > infra

  • 11 later

        later eris, m    [PLAT-], a brick, tile, S., Cs., C.: simplex laterum ordo, L.—Prov.: laterem lavare, wash a brick, i. e. labor in vain, T.
    * * *
    brick, ingot

    Latin-English dictionary > later

  • 12 nēquīquam (better than nēquicquam or nēquidquam)

        nēquīquam (better than nēquicquam or nēquidquam) adv.    [ne+abl. of quisquam], in vain, to no purpose, fruitlessly: et sero et nequiquam pudet: ausi transire flumen, without reason, Cs.: causas nectis inanes, V.—As an exclamation: nequiquam! L.

    Latin-English dictionary > nēquīquam (better than nēquicquam or nēquidquam)

  • 13 later

    lăter, ĕris, m. [Sanscr. root prath-, widen; prathas, breadth; Gr. platus, platos], a brick, tile.
    I.
    Lit.:

    nil mirum, vetus est maceria, lateres si veteres ruunt,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 2, 49 sqq.:

    in latere aut in caemento, ex quibus urbs effecta est,

    Cic. Div. 2, 47, 98; cf.:

    paries crudo latere ac luto constructus,

    Col. 9, 1, 2:

    contabulationem summam lateribus lutoque constraverunt,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 9:

    lateres de terra ducere,

    to make, Vitr. 2, 3, 1:

    lateres coquere,

    to burn, id. 1, 5:

    sepimentum e lateribus coctilibus,

    burnt bricks, Varr. R. R. 1, 14, 4.—Prov.: laterem lavare, to wash a brick, = plinthon plunein, i. e. to wash the color out of a brick, to labor in vain, Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8; but cf. Lucil. Sat. 9, 19.—
    II.
    Transf.: lateres aurei, argentei, bars, ingots, or wedges of gold, of silver, Plin. 33, 3, 17, § 56; Varr. ap. Non. 131, 15; 520, 17.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > later

  • 14 secus

        secus adv. with comp. sequius    [SEC-].— Posit, otherwise, differently, not so, the contrary: id secus est: magnum mehercule hominem, nemo dicet secus; sed, etc.: omnia longe secus: nobis aliter videtur; recte secusne, postea, whether correctly or not: pro bene aut secus consulto, for good or ill, L.: num secus hanc causam defendisse (videor), ac si? etc.: membra paulo secus a me atque ab illo partita: illam attingere secus quam dignumst liberam, T.: matrem familias secus quam matronarum sanctitas postulat nominare.— With a negative, not otherwise, even so, just so: horā fere undecimā aut non multo secus, not much earlier or later: veluti Haud secus Androgeos visu tremefactus, V.: Aequam memento rebus in arduis Servare mentem, non secus in bonis, H.: non secus ac si meus esset frater: in medias res Non secus ac notas, just as if they were familiar, H.: solet tempestas haud secus atque in mari retinere, S.: Haud secus ac iussi faciunt, V.: ea non secus dixi, quam si eius frater essem, in no other spirit: quo facto, haud secus quam dignum erat, L.— Otherwise than is right, not well, wrongly, unfortunately, unfavorably, ill, badly: secus iudicare de se: quod ubi secus procedit, S.: adfirmat nihil a se cuiquam de te secus esse dictum: ne quid de collegā secus scriberet, L.— Less: neque multo secus in iis virium, Ta.— Comp, worse, more unfavorably: quod sequius sit, de meis civibus loquor, L.; see also setius.
    * * *
    I
    otherwise; differently, in another way; contrary to what is right/expected
    II
    by, beside, alongside; in accordance with

    Latin-English dictionary > secus

  • 15 -ne

    1.
    (old forms nei and ni; v. the foll.), adv. and conj., the primitive Latin negative particle, no, not; whereas the negative particle non is a derivative (v. non init.) [prob. of pronominal origin; cf. the Anglo-Saxon na and ne (Engl. no), whence naht (Engl. not) is derived; Sanscr. na, not].
    I.
    Adv., with a single word of a proposition (in early Latin): NE MINVS TRINVM NOVNDINVM, not less than, etc., S. C. de Bacch.; cf. with DVM NE MINVS SENATORIBVS C. ADESENT, twice in the same S. C.;

    and in the form ni: DVM NI MINVS VIGINTI ADSIENT,

    Inscr. Grut. 207, 3. So too:

    DVM NE AMPLIOREM MODVM PRATORVM HABEANT QVAM, etc.,

    Inscr. Orell. 3121 (Sententia de finibus inter Genuates et Viturios regundis lata A. U. C. 637). So, ne minores (verres) quam semestres, Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 21. In the time of Plautus the usage was unsettled, non and ne being used indifferently for simple negation; cf. Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 105; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. 1156.—
    2.
    To this is allied the adverbial use of ne in all periods of the language.
    a.
    Ne... quidem, applies the negation with emphasis to the word between them, not even:

    ne sues quidem id velint, non modo ipse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 38, 92:

    ne in oppidis quidem... ne in fanis quidem,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 2:

    Philippus non item: itaque ne nos quidem,

    id. Att. 14, 12, 2:

    nulla ne minima quidem aura fluctus commovente,

    id. Tusc. 5, 6, 16:

    non potest dici satis, ne cogitari quidem, quantum, etc.,

    id. Mil. 29, 78:

    vita beata, quam ne in deo quidem esse censes, nisi, etc.,

    id. N. D. 1, 24, 67:

    ut in foro et in judicio... ne non timere quidem sine aliquo timore possimus,

    id. Mil. 1, 2:

    ne tondere quidem Vellera possunt,

    Verg. G. 3, 561;

    so after a negative, repeating it with emphasis: non enim praetereundum est ne id quidem,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 60, § 155:

    nulla species ne excogitari quidem potest ornatior,

    id. de Or. 3, 45, 179:

    non praetermittam ne illud quidem,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 5, 2:

    Caesar negat se ne Graeca quidem meliora legisse,

    id. ib. 2, 16, 5:

    numquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi,

    id. Lael. 27, 103; Liv. 28, 42, 16; but when ne... quidem precedes, the negative of the principal verb is omitted:

    sine quā ne intellegi quidem ulla virtus potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 13, 31:

    neque enim ipsius quidem regis abhorrebat animus,

    Liv. 29, 12, 10: ne quidem (with no intervening word), not even (late Lat.), Gai Inst. 1, 67; id. ib. 3, 93.—
    b.
    In composition, to make an absolute negation of the principal idea. So in neque and nequiquam; also in nescio and nevolo; and in nefas, nefandus, nepus (for non purus), nequeo, neuter, neutiquam; in nemo, nego, nihil, nullus, numquam, and nusquam; and, lastly, with a paragogic c before o: necopinans and neglego; negotium (i. e. nec-lego; nec-otium). —
    B.
    With a proposition (in all periods of the language, and exclusively),
    1.
    In imperative sentences, to signify that something must not be done.
    (α).
    With imper.: SI HOMINEM FVLMEN IOVIS OCCISIT, NE SVPRA GENVA TOLLITOR, let him not be raised, Leg. Reg.: HOMINEM MORTVVM IN VRBE NE SEPELITO NEVE VRITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23; cf.: MVLIERES GENAS NE RADVNTO NEVE LESSVM FVNERIS ERGO HABENTO, ib.: SI NOLET, ARCERAM NE STERNITO, let him not spread, he need not spread, ib. (cf. Gell. 20, 1, 25):

    VECTIGAL INVITEI DARE NEI DEBENTO,

    Inscr. Orell. 3121; cf.

    art. ni, II.: abi, ne jura: satis credo,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 20; 4, 5, 5:

    ah, ne saevi tantopere,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 27:

    impius ne audeto placare donis iram deorum,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assuescite bella,

    Verg. A. 6, 832.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    ne me moveatis,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 9, 1:

    si certum est facere, facias: verum ne post conferas Culpam in me,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 96:

    si denique veritas extorquebit, ne repugnetis,

    Cic. Clu. 2, 6:

    ne pudori Sit tibi Musa lyrae sollers,

    Hor. A. P. 406.—
    2.
    In wishes and asseverations: ne id Juppiter Opt. Max. sineret, etc., might Jupiter forbid it! etc., Liv. 4, 2; cf.:

    ne istuc Juppiter Opt. Max. sirit, etc.,

    id. 28, 28.—With utinam: utinam ne in nemore Pelio securibus Caesa accedisset abiegna ad terram trabes, would that not, Enn. ap. Cic. Top. 16, 61 (Trag. v. 280 Vahl.): utinam ne umquam, Mede Colchis cupido corde pedem extulisses, Enn ap. Non. 297, 18 (Trag. v. 311 ib.):

    illud utinam ne vere scriberem!

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3; v. utinam.—With si:

    ne vivam, si scio,

    may I not live, may I die, if I know, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 8:

    sed ne vivam, si tibi concedo,

    id. Fam. 7, 23, 19:

    ne sim salvus, si aliter scribo ac sentio,

    id. ib. 16, 13, 1.—
    3.
    In concessive and restrictive clauses (conceived as softened commands; cf. II. init.).
    (α).
    In concessions, nemo is, inquies, umquam fuit. Ne fuerit:

    ego enim, etc.,

    there may not have been; suppose there was not, Cic. Or. 29, 101; cf.:

    pugnes omnino, sed cum adversario facili. Ne sit sane: videri certe potest,

    id. Ac. 2, 26, 85; 2, 32, 102:

    ne sit sane summum malum dolor: malum certe est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 5, 14:

    ne sint in senectute vires: ne postulantur quidem vires a senectute,

    id. Sen. 11, 34:

    ne sit igitur sol, ne luna, ne stellae, quoniam nihil esse potest, nisi quod attigimus aut vidimus,

    id. N. D. 1, 31, 88; Liv. 31, 7:

    nec porro malum, quo aut oppressus jaceas, aut, ne opprimare, mente vix constes?

    though you be not crushed; supposing you are not crushed, Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 39.—
    (β).
    In restrictive clauses:

    sint sane liberales ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericordes in furibus aerarii, ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur, etc.,

    only let them not; if they only will not, Sall. C. 52, 12. So, dum ne, dummodo ne, modo ne, and dum quidem ne; v. dum and modo: me vero nihil istorum ne juvenem quidem movit umquam: ne nunc senem, much less now I am old = nedum, Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 2; cf.:

    vix incedo inanis, ne ire posse cum onere existumes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 174: scuta si homines inviti dant, etsi ad salutem communem dari sentiunt: ne quem putetis sine maximo dolore argentum caelatum domo protulisse, much less can you suppose, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 52; Liv. 3, 52.—
    4.
    In clauses which denote a purpose or result.
    a.
    Ut ne, that not, lest, so that not (very rare after the August. period; in Livy only in a few doubtful passages; in Cæsar, Seneca, and Tacitus not at all; v. under II.): quos ego ope meā Pro incertis certos... Dimitto, ut ne res temere tractent turbidas, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 1, 45, 199 (Trag v. 189 Vahl.): vestem ut ne inquinet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 17. pergunt turbare usque, ut ne quid possit conquiescere, id. Most. 5, 1, 12:

    haec mihi nunc cura est maxima, ut ne cui meae Longinquitas aetatis obstet,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 19:

    ego, pol, te ulciscar, ut ne impune nos illuseris,

    id. Eun. 5, 4, 19:

    excitandam esse animadversionem et diligentiam, ut ne quid inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 29, 103:

    equidem soleo dare operam, ut de suā quisque re me ipse doceat, et, ut ne quis alius assit, quo, etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 24, 102.—
    b.
    Ut... ne separated:

    quam plurimis de rebus ad me velim scribas, ut prorsus ne quid ignorem,

    Cic. Att. 3, 10, 3:

    ut causae communi salutique ne deessent,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140:

    lata lex est, ne auspicia valerent, ut omnibus fastis diebus legem ferri liceret: ut lex Aelia, lex Fufia ne valeret,

    id. Sest. 15, 33; id. N. D. 1, 7, 17:

    vos orant atque obsecrant, judices, ut in actore causae suae deligendo vestrum judicium ab suo judicio ne discrepet,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 14.—
    c.
    Qui ne, quo ne, and quomodo ne (ante- and post-class. for ut ne):

    ego id agam, mihi qui ne detur,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 35:

    moxque ad aram, quo ne hostis dolum persentisceret, aversusque a duce assistit,

    Dict. Cret. 4, 11: quaeritis maximis sumptibus faciendis, quomodo ne tributa conferatis, Gr. hôs mê, Rutil. Lup. 1, 9.
    II.
    In the several uses of the adv. ne, described above, the transition to its use to connect clauses is clearly seen (v. esp. I. B. 3. and 4.). In intentional clauses, and after verbs of fearing and avoiding, ne becomes a conjunction.
    A.
    In intentional clauses for ut ne, that not, lest: nolite, hospites, ad me adire: ilico isti! Ne contagio mea bonis umbrave obsit, approach me not; let not my presence harm you, i. e. lest my presence should harm you, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 12, 26 (Trag. v. 405 Vahl.):

    omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt... ne quis se aut suorum aliquem praetermissum queratur,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1; 1, 7, 12; 1, 5, 9:

    Caesarem complexus obsecrare coepit, ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20.—Esp. after verbs expressing forethought, care, etc.:

    vide sis, ne quid imprudens ruas,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 128:

    considera, ne in alienissimum tempus cadat adventus tuus,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 14, 4:

    Cocceius, vide, ne frustretur,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 3 et saep.—
    B.
    After verbs signifying to fear, frighten, etc. (esp. metuo, timeo, vereor, horreo, paveo, terreo, conterreo; also, timor est, metus est, spes est, periculum est), to express the wish that something may not take place; represented in English by that (because in English the particle depends on the idea of fearing, not of wishing):

    metuo et timeo, ne hoc tandem propalam flat,

    that it will be discovered, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 38:

    timeo ne malefacta mea sint inventa omnia,

    id. Truc. 4, 2, 61:

    vereor ne quid Andria apportet mali,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 46:

    metuebat ne indicarent,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 57:

    mater cruciatur et sollicita est, ne filium spoliatum omni dignitate conspiciat,

    id. Mur. 41, 88:

    hic ne quid mihi prorogetur, horreo,

    id. Att. 5, 21, 3:

    id paves, ne ducas tu illam, tu autem ut ducas,

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 12:

    esse metus coepit, ne, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 715:

    terruit gentīs, grave ne rediret Saeculum Pyrrhae,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 5:

    non periclumst, nequid recte monstres,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 55:

    pavor ceperat milites, ne mortiferum esset vulnus,

    Liv. 24, 42 —
    b.
    When the dependent clause is negative, with non or nihil, that not:

    vereor ne exercitum firmum habere non possit,

    Cic. Att. 7, 12, 2:

    unum vereor ne senatus Pompeium nolit dimittere,

    id. ib. 5, 18, 1:

    timeo ne non impetrem,

    id. ib. 9, 6, 6; id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76.—
    c.
    With the negative before the verb:

    non vereor, ne quid temere facias,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 1; 2, 1, 4:

    timere non debeo, ne non iste illā cruce dignus judicetur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 171.—
    C.
    After verbs signifying to avoid, warn, hinder, forbid, refuse (caveo, impedio, resisto, interdico, refuto, rarely veto), instead of the simple object, that not, lest:

    qui cavet, ne decipiatur, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    cavete, judices, ne nova proscriptio instaurata esse videatur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 53, 153; id. Fam. 3, 12, 4;

    v. caveo: casus quidam ne facerem impedivit,

    Cic. Fat. 1, 1:

    unus ne caperetur urbs causa fuit,

    Liv. 34, 39. [p. 1194]
    2.
    - (also apocopated n' and only n), interrog. and enclit. part. [weakened from nē]. It simply inquires, without implying either that a negative or an affirmative reply is expected (cf. num, nonne), and emphasizes the word to which it is joined;

    which is always, in classic Latin, the first word of the clause (ante- class. after other words: sine dote uxoremne?

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 94; 1, 2, 141; id. As. 5, 2, 78; id. Mil. 3, 1, 92). In direct questions it is translated by giving an interrogative form to the sentence; in indirect interrogations by whether.
    (α).
    In direct interrogations, with indic.:

    meministine me in senatu dicere? etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7:

    potestne rerum major esse dissensio?

    id. Fin. 3, 13, 44:

    tune id veritus es?

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 1:

    jamne vides, belua, jamne sentis? etc.,

    id. Pis. 1, 1:

    quid, si etiam falsum illud omnino est? tamenne ista tam absurda defendes?

    id. N. D. 1, 29, 81; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 15, 44:

    quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos?

    Verg. A. 4, 538:

    tun' te audes Sosiam esse dicere?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 217:

    valuistin?

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 12.—After an elided s:

    satin habes, si feminarum nulla'st: quam aeque diligam?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 11:

    pergin autem?

    id. ib. 1, 3, 41:

    vin commutemus?

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 21 al. —
    (β).
    Esp. with rel. pron.; ellipt.: quemne ego servavi? i. e. do you mean the one whom? etc., Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 13: quodne vobis placeat, displiceat mihi? can it be that what pleases? etc., id. ib. 3, 1, 19; id. Merc. 3, 3, 12; id. Am. 2, 2, 65;

    so quin for quine,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 79 Brix ad loc.; id. Bacch. 2, 3, 98; id. Most. 3, 2, 50 al.—So with ut and si:

    utine adveniens vomitum excutias mulieri?

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 3, 15; id. Rud. 4, 4, 19:

    sin, saluti quod tibi esse censeo, id. consuadeo,

    id. Merc. 1, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    In indirect interrogations, with subj., whether:

    ut videamus, satisne ista sit justa defectio,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 43:

    Publilius iturusne sit in Africam et quando, ex Aledio scire poteris,

    id. Att. 12, 24, 1:

    videto vasa, multane sient,

    Cato, R. R. 1:

    quem imitari possimusne, ipse liber erit indicio,

    Varr. L. L. 7, § 4 Müll.; cf. id. ib. 10, § 9.—
    (δ).
    Sometimes affixed to an interrogative pronoun, Plaut. Cist. 4, 1, 2:

    quone malo mentem concussa? Timore deorum,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 295; cf.:

    uterne Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius?

    id. ib. 2, 2, 107; and:

    illa rogare: Quantane?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 317.—
    (ε).
    -ne is sometimes used for nonne, where an affirmative reply is expected:

    misine ego ad te epistulam?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 22; id. Trin. 1, 2, 92; 99; id. Most. 2, 1, 15:

    rectene interpretor sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104.—
    (ζ).
    Rarely = num:

    potestne virtus servire?

    Cic. de Or. 1, 52, 226:

    potesne dicere?

    id. Tusc. 1, 27, 67; id. Sen. 16, 56.—
    b.
    With an, annon, or anne, in the second interrogation, v. an.—With necne, v. neque.—Sometimes pleonastic with utrum, followed by an (mostly anteclass.):

    est etiam illa distinctio, utrum illudne non videatur aegre ferendum... an, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 27, 59:

    sed utrum strictimne attonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem, nescio,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 18 Brix ad loc.; id. Most. 3, 1, 151; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 42; cf. Madv. Gram. § 452, obs. 1.—Sometimes, in the second interrogation, ne for an (mostly poet.):

    Smyrna quid et Colophon? Majora minorane fama?

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 3:

    ut in incerto fuerit, vicissent victine essent,

    Liv. 5, 28, 5:

    cum interrogaretur, utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4.
    3.
    , interj. (incorrectly written nae), = nai, nê, truly, verily, really, indeed (only joined with pers. pron. ego, tu, and with the demonstratives ille, iste, hic, and their advv.; in class, prose usually with a conditional clause).
    I.
    In gen.:

    ne ego homo infelix fui, Qui non alas intervelli,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 169; cf.:

    ne ego haud paulo hunc animum malim quam, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 99:

    ne ego, inquam, si ita est, velim tibi eum placere quam maxime,

    id. Brut. 71, 249. So, ne tu, etc., id. Phil. 2, 2, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 54; Liv. 26, 6, 15: ne ille, Naev. ap. Non. 73, 18 (Trag. Rel. p. 9 v. 40 Rib.); Plaut. Ps. 3, 1, 3; Cic. Cat. 2, 3, 6:

    ne iste,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 24; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 8 al.—
    II.
    Connected with other affirmative particles, as hercle, edepol, mecastor, medius fidius:

    ne tu hercle,

    Plaut. As. 2, 4, 6; id. Curc. 1, 3, 38: ne ille hercle, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 76:

    edepol ne ego,

    id. Men. 5, 5, 10:

    edepol ne tu,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 50:

    ne ista edepol,

    id. Am. 2, 2, 213:

    ne istuc mecastor,

    id. Men. 5, 1, 34 (729 Ritschl):

    ne ille, medius fidius,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 74; cf.:

    medius fidius ne tu,

    id. Att. 4, 4, 6, § 2.— Rarely with a pron. poss.:

    edepol ne meam operam, etc.,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 1. (All passages in which ne stands in classic prose without a pronoun are probably corrupt; cf. Haase in Reisig's Vorles. p. 379 sq.; v. Liv. 26, 31, 10; 34, 4, 16 Weissenb.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > -ne

  • 16 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 17 Cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum

  • 18 cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cum

  • 19 Cum2

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum2

  • 20 n'

    1.
    (old forms nei and ni; v. the foll.), adv. and conj., the primitive Latin negative particle, no, not; whereas the negative particle non is a derivative (v. non init.) [prob. of pronominal origin; cf. the Anglo-Saxon na and ne (Engl. no), whence naht (Engl. not) is derived; Sanscr. na, not].
    I.
    Adv., with a single word of a proposition (in early Latin): NE MINVS TRINVM NOVNDINVM, not less than, etc., S. C. de Bacch.; cf. with DVM NE MINVS SENATORIBVS C. ADESENT, twice in the same S. C.;

    and in the form ni: DVM NI MINVS VIGINTI ADSIENT,

    Inscr. Grut. 207, 3. So too:

    DVM NE AMPLIOREM MODVM PRATORVM HABEANT QVAM, etc.,

    Inscr. Orell. 3121 (Sententia de finibus inter Genuates et Viturios regundis lata A. U. C. 637). So, ne minores (verres) quam semestres, Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 21. In the time of Plautus the usage was unsettled, non and ne being used indifferently for simple negation; cf. Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 105; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. 1156.—
    2.
    To this is allied the adverbial use of ne in all periods of the language.
    a.
    Ne... quidem, applies the negation with emphasis to the word between them, not even:

    ne sues quidem id velint, non modo ipse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 38, 92:

    ne in oppidis quidem... ne in fanis quidem,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 2:

    Philippus non item: itaque ne nos quidem,

    id. Att. 14, 12, 2:

    nulla ne minima quidem aura fluctus commovente,

    id. Tusc. 5, 6, 16:

    non potest dici satis, ne cogitari quidem, quantum, etc.,

    id. Mil. 29, 78:

    vita beata, quam ne in deo quidem esse censes, nisi, etc.,

    id. N. D. 1, 24, 67:

    ut in foro et in judicio... ne non timere quidem sine aliquo timore possimus,

    id. Mil. 1, 2:

    ne tondere quidem Vellera possunt,

    Verg. G. 3, 561;

    so after a negative, repeating it with emphasis: non enim praetereundum est ne id quidem,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 60, § 155:

    nulla species ne excogitari quidem potest ornatior,

    id. de Or. 3, 45, 179:

    non praetermittam ne illud quidem,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 5, 2:

    Caesar negat se ne Graeca quidem meliora legisse,

    id. ib. 2, 16, 5:

    numquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi,

    id. Lael. 27, 103; Liv. 28, 42, 16; but when ne... quidem precedes, the negative of the principal verb is omitted:

    sine quā ne intellegi quidem ulla virtus potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 13, 31:

    neque enim ipsius quidem regis abhorrebat animus,

    Liv. 29, 12, 10: ne quidem (with no intervening word), not even (late Lat.), Gai Inst. 1, 67; id. ib. 3, 93.—
    b.
    In composition, to make an absolute negation of the principal idea. So in neque and nequiquam; also in nescio and nevolo; and in nefas, nefandus, nepus (for non purus), nequeo, neuter, neutiquam; in nemo, nego, nihil, nullus, numquam, and nusquam; and, lastly, with a paragogic c before o: necopinans and neglego; negotium (i. e. nec-lego; nec-otium). —
    B.
    With a proposition (in all periods of the language, and exclusively),
    1.
    In imperative sentences, to signify that something must not be done.
    (α).
    With imper.: SI HOMINEM FVLMEN IOVIS OCCISIT, NE SVPRA GENVA TOLLITOR, let him not be raised, Leg. Reg.: HOMINEM MORTVVM IN VRBE NE SEPELITO NEVE VRITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23; cf.: MVLIERES GENAS NE RADVNTO NEVE LESSVM FVNERIS ERGO HABENTO, ib.: SI NOLET, ARCERAM NE STERNITO, let him not spread, he need not spread, ib. (cf. Gell. 20, 1, 25):

    VECTIGAL INVITEI DARE NEI DEBENTO,

    Inscr. Orell. 3121; cf.

    art. ni, II.: abi, ne jura: satis credo,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 20; 4, 5, 5:

    ah, ne saevi tantopere,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 27:

    impius ne audeto placare donis iram deorum,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assuescite bella,

    Verg. A. 6, 832.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    ne me moveatis,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 9, 1:

    si certum est facere, facias: verum ne post conferas Culpam in me,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 96:

    si denique veritas extorquebit, ne repugnetis,

    Cic. Clu. 2, 6:

    ne pudori Sit tibi Musa lyrae sollers,

    Hor. A. P. 406.—
    2.
    In wishes and asseverations: ne id Juppiter Opt. Max. sineret, etc., might Jupiter forbid it! etc., Liv. 4, 2; cf.:

    ne istuc Juppiter Opt. Max. sirit, etc.,

    id. 28, 28.—With utinam: utinam ne in nemore Pelio securibus Caesa accedisset abiegna ad terram trabes, would that not, Enn. ap. Cic. Top. 16, 61 (Trag. v. 280 Vahl.): utinam ne umquam, Mede Colchis cupido corde pedem extulisses, Enn ap. Non. 297, 18 (Trag. v. 311 ib.):

    illud utinam ne vere scriberem!

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3; v. utinam.—With si:

    ne vivam, si scio,

    may I not live, may I die, if I know, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 8:

    sed ne vivam, si tibi concedo,

    id. Fam. 7, 23, 19:

    ne sim salvus, si aliter scribo ac sentio,

    id. ib. 16, 13, 1.—
    3.
    In concessive and restrictive clauses (conceived as softened commands; cf. II. init.).
    (α).
    In concessions, nemo is, inquies, umquam fuit. Ne fuerit:

    ego enim, etc.,

    there may not have been; suppose there was not, Cic. Or. 29, 101; cf.:

    pugnes omnino, sed cum adversario facili. Ne sit sane: videri certe potest,

    id. Ac. 2, 26, 85; 2, 32, 102:

    ne sit sane summum malum dolor: malum certe est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 5, 14:

    ne sint in senectute vires: ne postulantur quidem vires a senectute,

    id. Sen. 11, 34:

    ne sit igitur sol, ne luna, ne stellae, quoniam nihil esse potest, nisi quod attigimus aut vidimus,

    id. N. D. 1, 31, 88; Liv. 31, 7:

    nec porro malum, quo aut oppressus jaceas, aut, ne opprimare, mente vix constes?

    though you be not crushed; supposing you are not crushed, Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 39.—
    (β).
    In restrictive clauses:

    sint sane liberales ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericordes in furibus aerarii, ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur, etc.,

    only let them not; if they only will not, Sall. C. 52, 12. So, dum ne, dummodo ne, modo ne, and dum quidem ne; v. dum and modo: me vero nihil istorum ne juvenem quidem movit umquam: ne nunc senem, much less now I am old = nedum, Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 2; cf.:

    vix incedo inanis, ne ire posse cum onere existumes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 174: scuta si homines inviti dant, etsi ad salutem communem dari sentiunt: ne quem putetis sine maximo dolore argentum caelatum domo protulisse, much less can you suppose, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 52; Liv. 3, 52.—
    4.
    In clauses which denote a purpose or result.
    a.
    Ut ne, that not, lest, so that not (very rare after the August. period; in Livy only in a few doubtful passages; in Cæsar, Seneca, and Tacitus not at all; v. under II.): quos ego ope meā Pro incertis certos... Dimitto, ut ne res temere tractent turbidas, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 1, 45, 199 (Trag v. 189 Vahl.): vestem ut ne inquinet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 17. pergunt turbare usque, ut ne quid possit conquiescere, id. Most. 5, 1, 12:

    haec mihi nunc cura est maxima, ut ne cui meae Longinquitas aetatis obstet,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 19:

    ego, pol, te ulciscar, ut ne impune nos illuseris,

    id. Eun. 5, 4, 19:

    excitandam esse animadversionem et diligentiam, ut ne quid inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 29, 103:

    equidem soleo dare operam, ut de suā quisque re me ipse doceat, et, ut ne quis alius assit, quo, etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 24, 102.—
    b.
    Ut... ne separated:

    quam plurimis de rebus ad me velim scribas, ut prorsus ne quid ignorem,

    Cic. Att. 3, 10, 3:

    ut causae communi salutique ne deessent,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140:

    lata lex est, ne auspicia valerent, ut omnibus fastis diebus legem ferri liceret: ut lex Aelia, lex Fufia ne valeret,

    id. Sest. 15, 33; id. N. D. 1, 7, 17:

    vos orant atque obsecrant, judices, ut in actore causae suae deligendo vestrum judicium ab suo judicio ne discrepet,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 14.—
    c.
    Qui ne, quo ne, and quomodo ne (ante- and post-class. for ut ne):

    ego id agam, mihi qui ne detur,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 35:

    moxque ad aram, quo ne hostis dolum persentisceret, aversusque a duce assistit,

    Dict. Cret. 4, 11: quaeritis maximis sumptibus faciendis, quomodo ne tributa conferatis, Gr. hôs mê, Rutil. Lup. 1, 9.
    II.
    In the several uses of the adv. ne, described above, the transition to its use to connect clauses is clearly seen (v. esp. I. B. 3. and 4.). In intentional clauses, and after verbs of fearing and avoiding, ne becomes a conjunction.
    A.
    In intentional clauses for ut ne, that not, lest: nolite, hospites, ad me adire: ilico isti! Ne contagio mea bonis umbrave obsit, approach me not; let not my presence harm you, i. e. lest my presence should harm you, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 12, 26 (Trag. v. 405 Vahl.):

    omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt... ne quis se aut suorum aliquem praetermissum queratur,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1; 1, 7, 12; 1, 5, 9:

    Caesarem complexus obsecrare coepit, ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20.—Esp. after verbs expressing forethought, care, etc.:

    vide sis, ne quid imprudens ruas,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 128:

    considera, ne in alienissimum tempus cadat adventus tuus,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 14, 4:

    Cocceius, vide, ne frustretur,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 3 et saep.—
    B.
    After verbs signifying to fear, frighten, etc. (esp. metuo, timeo, vereor, horreo, paveo, terreo, conterreo; also, timor est, metus est, spes est, periculum est), to express the wish that something may not take place; represented in English by that (because in English the particle depends on the idea of fearing, not of wishing):

    metuo et timeo, ne hoc tandem propalam flat,

    that it will be discovered, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 38:

    timeo ne malefacta mea sint inventa omnia,

    id. Truc. 4, 2, 61:

    vereor ne quid Andria apportet mali,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 46:

    metuebat ne indicarent,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 57:

    mater cruciatur et sollicita est, ne filium spoliatum omni dignitate conspiciat,

    id. Mur. 41, 88:

    hic ne quid mihi prorogetur, horreo,

    id. Att. 5, 21, 3:

    id paves, ne ducas tu illam, tu autem ut ducas,

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 12:

    esse metus coepit, ne, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 715:

    terruit gentīs, grave ne rediret Saeculum Pyrrhae,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 5:

    non periclumst, nequid recte monstres,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 55:

    pavor ceperat milites, ne mortiferum esset vulnus,

    Liv. 24, 42 —
    b.
    When the dependent clause is negative, with non or nihil, that not:

    vereor ne exercitum firmum habere non possit,

    Cic. Att. 7, 12, 2:

    unum vereor ne senatus Pompeium nolit dimittere,

    id. ib. 5, 18, 1:

    timeo ne non impetrem,

    id. ib. 9, 6, 6; id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76.—
    c.
    With the negative before the verb:

    non vereor, ne quid temere facias,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 1; 2, 1, 4:

    timere non debeo, ne non iste illā cruce dignus judicetur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 171.—
    C.
    After verbs signifying to avoid, warn, hinder, forbid, refuse (caveo, impedio, resisto, interdico, refuto, rarely veto), instead of the simple object, that not, lest:

    qui cavet, ne decipiatur, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    cavete, judices, ne nova proscriptio instaurata esse videatur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 53, 153; id. Fam. 3, 12, 4;

    v. caveo: casus quidam ne facerem impedivit,

    Cic. Fat. 1, 1:

    unus ne caperetur urbs causa fuit,

    Liv. 34, 39. [p. 1194]
    2.
    - (also apocopated n' and only n), interrog. and enclit. part. [weakened from nē]. It simply inquires, without implying either that a negative or an affirmative reply is expected (cf. num, nonne), and emphasizes the word to which it is joined;

    which is always, in classic Latin, the first word of the clause (ante- class. after other words: sine dote uxoremne?

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 94; 1, 2, 141; id. As. 5, 2, 78; id. Mil. 3, 1, 92). In direct questions it is translated by giving an interrogative form to the sentence; in indirect interrogations by whether.
    (α).
    In direct interrogations, with indic.:

    meministine me in senatu dicere? etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7:

    potestne rerum major esse dissensio?

    id. Fin. 3, 13, 44:

    tune id veritus es?

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 1:

    jamne vides, belua, jamne sentis? etc.,

    id. Pis. 1, 1:

    quid, si etiam falsum illud omnino est? tamenne ista tam absurda defendes?

    id. N. D. 1, 29, 81; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 15, 44:

    quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos?

    Verg. A. 4, 538:

    tun' te audes Sosiam esse dicere?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 217:

    valuistin?

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 12.—After an elided s:

    satin habes, si feminarum nulla'st: quam aeque diligam?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 11:

    pergin autem?

    id. ib. 1, 3, 41:

    vin commutemus?

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 21 al. —
    (β).
    Esp. with rel. pron.; ellipt.: quemne ego servavi? i. e. do you mean the one whom? etc., Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 13: quodne vobis placeat, displiceat mihi? can it be that what pleases? etc., id. ib. 3, 1, 19; id. Merc. 3, 3, 12; id. Am. 2, 2, 65;

    so quin for quine,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 79 Brix ad loc.; id. Bacch. 2, 3, 98; id. Most. 3, 2, 50 al.—So with ut and si:

    utine adveniens vomitum excutias mulieri?

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 3, 15; id. Rud. 4, 4, 19:

    sin, saluti quod tibi esse censeo, id. consuadeo,

    id. Merc. 1, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    In indirect interrogations, with subj., whether:

    ut videamus, satisne ista sit justa defectio,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 43:

    Publilius iturusne sit in Africam et quando, ex Aledio scire poteris,

    id. Att. 12, 24, 1:

    videto vasa, multane sient,

    Cato, R. R. 1:

    quem imitari possimusne, ipse liber erit indicio,

    Varr. L. L. 7, § 4 Müll.; cf. id. ib. 10, § 9.—
    (δ).
    Sometimes affixed to an interrogative pronoun, Plaut. Cist. 4, 1, 2:

    quone malo mentem concussa? Timore deorum,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 295; cf.:

    uterne Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius?

    id. ib. 2, 2, 107; and:

    illa rogare: Quantane?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 317.—
    (ε).
    -ne is sometimes used for nonne, where an affirmative reply is expected:

    misine ego ad te epistulam?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 22; id. Trin. 1, 2, 92; 99; id. Most. 2, 1, 15:

    rectene interpretor sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104.—
    (ζ).
    Rarely = num:

    potestne virtus servire?

    Cic. de Or. 1, 52, 226:

    potesne dicere?

    id. Tusc. 1, 27, 67; id. Sen. 16, 56.—
    b.
    With an, annon, or anne, in the second interrogation, v. an.—With necne, v. neque.—Sometimes pleonastic with utrum, followed by an (mostly anteclass.):

    est etiam illa distinctio, utrum illudne non videatur aegre ferendum... an, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 27, 59:

    sed utrum strictimne attonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem, nescio,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 18 Brix ad loc.; id. Most. 3, 1, 151; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 42; cf. Madv. Gram. § 452, obs. 1.—Sometimes, in the second interrogation, ne for an (mostly poet.):

    Smyrna quid et Colophon? Majora minorane fama?

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 3:

    ut in incerto fuerit, vicissent victine essent,

    Liv. 5, 28, 5:

    cum interrogaretur, utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4.
    3.
    , interj. (incorrectly written nae), = nai, nê, truly, verily, really, indeed (only joined with pers. pron. ego, tu, and with the demonstratives ille, iste, hic, and their advv.; in class, prose usually with a conditional clause).
    I.
    In gen.:

    ne ego homo infelix fui, Qui non alas intervelli,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 169; cf.:

    ne ego haud paulo hunc animum malim quam, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 99:

    ne ego, inquam, si ita est, velim tibi eum placere quam maxime,

    id. Brut. 71, 249. So, ne tu, etc., id. Phil. 2, 2, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 54; Liv. 26, 6, 15: ne ille, Naev. ap. Non. 73, 18 (Trag. Rel. p. 9 v. 40 Rib.); Plaut. Ps. 3, 1, 3; Cic. Cat. 2, 3, 6:

    ne iste,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 24; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 8 al.—
    II.
    Connected with other affirmative particles, as hercle, edepol, mecastor, medius fidius:

    ne tu hercle,

    Plaut. As. 2, 4, 6; id. Curc. 1, 3, 38: ne ille hercle, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 76:

    edepol ne ego,

    id. Men. 5, 5, 10:

    edepol ne tu,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 50:

    ne ista edepol,

    id. Am. 2, 2, 213:

    ne istuc mecastor,

    id. Men. 5, 1, 34 (729 Ritschl):

    ne ille, medius fidius,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 74; cf.:

    medius fidius ne tu,

    id. Att. 4, 4, 6, § 2.— Rarely with a pron. poss.:

    edepol ne meam operam, etc.,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 1. (All passages in which ne stands in classic prose without a pronoun are probably corrupt; cf. Haase in Reisig's Vorles. p. 379 sq.; v. Liv. 26, 31, 10; 34, 4, 16 Weissenb.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > n'

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