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justification by faith

  • 1 justification by faith

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > justification by faith

  • 2 justification by faith / Protestantism

    Westminster dictionary of theological terms > justification by faith / Protestantism

  • 3 justification by faith / Roman Catholicism

    Westminster dictionary of theological terms > justification by faith / Roman Catholicism

  • 4 justification

    1. оправдаване, реабилитация
    2. оправдание, извинение
    in his JUSTIFICATION за негово оправдание
    3. рел. опрощаване на греховете (и JUSTIFICATION by faith)
    * * *
    {,j^stifi'keishn} n 1. оправдаване, реабилитация; 2.
    * * *
    реабилитация; оправдание; оправдаване;
    * * *
    1. in his justification за негово оправдание 2. оправдаване, реабилитация 3. оправдание, извинение 4. рел. опрощаване на греховете (и justification by faith)
    * * *
    justification[¸dʒʌstifi´keiʃən] n 1. оправдаване, реабилитация; 2. оправдание, извинение; in his \justification за негово оправдание; written \justification писмено изложение за причините на постъпка, апология; to plead \justification юрид. защитавам се с оправдателността на постъпката си; 3. печ. двустранно подравняване; left ( right) \justification изравняване наляво (надясно).

    English-Bulgarian dictionary > justification

  • 5 justification

    - fi-
    1) ((the act of) justifying or excusing.) rettferdiggjøring
    2) (something that justifies: You have no justification for criticizing him in that way.) unnskyldning, begrunnelse
    subst. \/ˌdʒʌstɪfɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n\/
    1) ( jus) berettigelse, sannhetsbevis
    2) forsvar, rettferdiggjøring, unnskyldning, motivering
    3) det å kunne begrunne\/forsvare
    4) ( teologi) rettferdiggjørelse (det at Gud erklærer en synder skyldfri)
    5) ( teknikk) justering
    6) ( typografi) linjejustering, utslutting
    in justification of til forsvar for, som begrunnelse for

    English-Norwegian dictionary > justification

  • 6 оправдание верой

    Русско-английский глоссарий христианской лексики > оправдание верой

  • 7 оправдание

    1) (закон и правда Божия, исполнением которых человек оправдывается на суде Божием; согласно катол. теологии, превращение греховной души в спасённую, т. е. достойную вечной жизни) justification, justifying

    оправдание верой (центральный догмат протестантизма, согласно которому человек может спасти душу только верой, которая непосредственно даруется Богом)justification by faith

    2) ( отпущение грехов) remission of sins

    Русско-английский словарь религиозной лексики > оправдание

  • 8 δικαιόω

    δικαιόω fut. δικαιώσω; 1 aor. ἐδικαίωσα. Pass.: 1 fut. δικαιωθήσομαι; 1 aor. ἐδικαιώθην, subj. δικαιωθῶ, ptc. δικαιωθείς; pf. δεδικαίωμαι Ro 6:7; 1 Cor 4:4; ptc. δεδικαιωμένος Lk 18:14 (Soph., Hdt.; Aristot., EN 1136a; et al.; pap, LXX; En 102:10; TestAbr A 13 p. 93, 14 [Stone p. 34]; Test12Patr; ApcSed, 14:8 p. 136, 15 Ja.; Jos., Ant. 17, 206; Just.; Ath., R. 53, 1; 65, 14) to practice δικαιοσύνη.
    to take up a legal cause, show justice, do justice, take up a cause τινά (Polyb. 3, 31, 9 ὑμᾶς δὲ αὐτοὺς … δικαιώσεσθε ‘you will (find it necessary to) take up your own cause’ = you will sit in judgment on yourselves; Cass. Dio 48, 46 ‘Antony was not taking Caesar’s side’ in the matter; 2 Km 15:4; Ps 81:3) δικαιῶσαι δίκαιον take up the cause of an upright pers. 1 Cl 16:12 (Is 53:11); τινί χήρᾳ (χήραν v.l.) 8:4 (Is 1:17 ‘take up the cause of the widow’).
    to render a favorable verdict, vindicate.
    as activity of humans justify, vindicate, treat as just (Appian, Liby. 17 §70; Gen 44:16; Sir 10:29; 13:22; 23:11 al.) θέλων δ. ἑαυτόν wishing to justify himself Lk 10:29; δ. ἑαυτὸν ἐνώπιόν τινος j. oneself before someone=‘you try to make out a good case for yourselves before the public’ 16:15 (δ. ἐαυτόν as En 102:10; but s. JJeremias, ZNW 38, ’39, 117f [against him SAalen, NTS 13, ’67, 1ff]). ὁ δικαιούμενός μοι the one who vindicates himself before (or against) me B 6:1 (cp. Is 50:8). τελῶναι ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν θεόν βαπτισθέντες tax-collectors affirmed God’s uprightness and got baptized i.e. by ruling in God’s favor they admitted that they were in the wrong and took a new direction (opp. τὴν βουλὴν τ. θεοῦ ἀθετεῖν) Lk 7:29 (cp. PsSol 2:15; 3:5; 8:7, 23; 9:2).
    of experience or activity of transcendent figures, esp. in relation to humans
    α. of wisdom ἐδικαιώθη ἀπὸ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς is vindicated by her children (on δικ. ἀπό cp. Is 45:25. S. also Appian, Basil. 8: δικαιόω=consider someth. just or correct) Lk 7:35; also ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῆς Mt 11:19 (v.l. τέκνων). On this saying s. DVölter, NThT 8, 1919, 22–42; JBover, Biblica 6, 1925, 323–25; 463–65; M-JLagrange, ibid. 461–63. Of an angel Hm 5, 1, 7.
    β. of God be found in the right, be free of charges (cp. TestAbr A 13 p. 93, 14 [Stone p. 34] ‘be vindicated’ in a trial by fire) Mt 12:37 (opp. καταδικάζειν). δεδικαιωμένος Lk 18:14; GJs 5:1; δεδικαιωμένη (Salome) 20:4 (not pap). Ac 13:39 (but s. 3 below); Rv 22:11 v.l; Dg 5:14.—Paul, who has influenced later wr. (cp. Iren. 3, 18, 7 [Harv. II 102, 2f]), uses the word almost exclusively of God’s judgment. As affirmative verdict Ro 2:13. Esp. of pers. δικαιοῦσθαι be acquitted, be pronounced and treated as righteous and thereby become δίκαιος, receive the divine gift of δικαιοσύνη through faith in Christ Jesus and apart from νόμος as a basis for evaluation (MSeifrid, Justification by Faith—The Origin and Development of a Central Pauline Theme ’92) 3:20 (Ps 142:2), 24, 28; 4:2; 5:1, 9; 1 Cor 4:4; Gal 2:16f (Ps 142:2); 3:11, 24; 5:4; Tit 3:7; Phil 3:12 v.l.; B 4:10; 15:7; IPhld 8:2; Dg 9:4; (w. ἁγιάζεσθαι) Hv 3, 9, 1. οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο δεδικαίωμαι I am not justified by this (after 1 Cor 4:4) IRo 5:1. ἵνα δικαιωθῇ σου ἡ σάρξ that your flesh (as the sinful part) may be acquitted Hs 5, 7, 1; δ. ἔργοις by (on the basis of) works, by what one does 1 Cl 30:3; cp. Js 2:21, 24f (ἔργον 1a and πίστις 2dδ); διʼ ἐαυτῶν δ. by oneself=as a result of one’s own accomplishments 1 Cl 32:4. (cp. κατὰ νόμον Hippol., Ref. 7, 34, 1).—Since Paul views God’s justifying action in close connection with the power of Christ’s resurrection, there is sometimes no clear distinction between the justifying action of acquittal and the gift of new life through the Holy Spirit as God’s activity in promoting uprightness in believers. Passages of this nature include Ro 3:26, 30; 4:5 (on δικαιοῦν τὸν ἀσεβῆ cp. the warning against accepting δῶρα to arrange acquittal Ex 23:7 and Is 5:23; δικαιούμενοι δωρεάν Ro 3:24 is therefore all the more pointed); 8:30, 33 (Is 50:8); Gal 3:8; Dg 9:5. For the view (held since Chrysostom) that δ. in these and other pass. means ‘make upright’ s. Goodsp., Probs. 143–46, JBL 73, ’54, 86–91.
    to cause someone to be released from personal or institutional claims that are no longer to be considered pertinent or valid, make free/pure (the act. Ps 72:13) in our lit. pass. δικαιοῦμαι be set free, made pure ἀπό from (Sir 26:29; TestSim 6:1, both δικ. ἀπὸ [τῆς] ἁμαρτίας) ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν οὐκ ἠδυνήθητε ἐν νόμω Μωϋσέως δικαιωθῆναι from everything fr. which you could not be freed by the law of Moses Ac 13:38; cp. vs. 39. ὁ ἀποθανὼν δεδικαίωται ἀπὸ τ. ἁμαρτίας the one who died is freed fr. sin Ro 6:7 (s. KKuhn, ZNW 30, ’31, 305–10; EKlaar, ibid. 59, ’68, 131–34). In the context of 1 Cor 6:11 ἐδικαιώθητε means you have become pure.—In the language of the mystery religions (Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 258ff) δικαιοῦσθαι refers to a radical inner change which the initiate experiences (Herm. Wr. 13, 9 χωρὶς γὰρ κρίσεως ἰδὲ πῶς τὴν ἀδικίαν ἐξήλασεν. ἐδικαιώθημεν, ὦ τέκνον, ἀδικίας ἀπούσης) and approaches the sense ‘become deified’. Some are inclined to find in 1 Ti 3:16 a similar use; but see under 4.
    to demonstrate to be morally right, prove to be right, pass. of God is proved to be right Ro 3:4; 1 Cl 18:4 (both Ps 50:6). Of Christ 1 Ti 3:16.—Lit. s. on δικαιοσύνη 3c.—HRosman, Iustificare (δικαιοῦν) est verbum causativum: Verbum Domini 21, ’41, 144–47; NWatson, Δικ. in the LXX, JBL 79, ’60, 255–66; CCosgrove, JBL 106, ’87, 653–70.—DELG s.v. δίκη. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δικαιόω

  • 9 оправдание верой

    Универсальный русско-английский словарь > оправдание верой

  • 10 лютеранство

    (одно из главных направлений протестантизма, сложившееся в 16 в.; догматическая основа лютеранства - учение об "оправдании верой" (justification by faith alone, лат. sola fide) и предопределении; лютеранство отрицает непогрешимость решений соборов и церк. предания; источник веры - Библия; лютеранство осуждает монашество и уход от мирской жизни; лютеранство признало зависимость церкви от государства; в наст. время насчитывается 75 млн лютеран) Lutheranism

    Русско-английский словарь религиозной лексики > лютеранство

  • 11 Оправдание верой, Католицизм

     ♦ ( ENG justification by faith (Roman Catholicism)
     (лат. iustificare - оправдывать)
       в римско-католической теологии - создание Богом людей "верными" или добродетельными и, т. обр., приведение их в гармонию с Богом посредством их участия в таинствах римско-католической церкви и с помощью Даров Святого Духа, являющегося новым жизненным принципом милости, выраженным через любовь.

    Westminster dictionary of theological terms > Оправдание верой, Католицизм

  • 12 Оправдание верой, Протестантизм

     ♦ ( ENG justification by faith (Protestantism)
       теологический принцип, на к-ром протестантизм делает особый акцент, гласящий, что спасение дается индивиду Божьей милостью через веру, так что быть "признанным праведным", "оправданным" или "спасенным" - зависит только от веры индивида в Иисуса Христа, не считая добрых дел (Рим. 1:17; 3:28; 5:1).

    Westminster dictionary of theological terms > Оправдание верой, Протестантизм

  • 13 δικαιοσύνη

    δικαιοσύνη, ης, ἡ (s. δίκαιος; Theognis, Hdt.+) gener. the quality of being upright. Theognis 1, 147 defines δ. as the sum of all ἀρετή; acc. to Demosth. (20, 165) it is the opp. of κακία. A strict classification of δ. in the NT is complicated by freq. interplay of abstract and concrete aspects drawn from OT and Gr-Rom. cultures, in which a sense of equitableness combines with awareness of responsibility within a social context.
    the quality, state, or practice of judicial responsibility w. focus on fairness, justice, equitableness, fairness
    of human beings (a common theme in honorary ins, e.g. IPriene 71, 14f; 22f of a judge named Alexis; Danker, Benefactor 346–48; cp. Aristot., EN 5, 1, 8, 1129a τὸ μὲν δίκαιον ἄρα τὸ νόμιμον καὶ τὸ ἴσον ‘uprightness consists of that which is lawful and fair’; Ath. 34:2 ἔστι δὲ δ. ἴσα ἴσοις ἀμείβειν ‘uprightness means to answer like with like’; for association of δ. with judgment s. also Diog. L. 3, 79; in contexts of praise δ. suggests authority involving juridical responsibility FX 7, ’81, 255 n. 229) δ. κρίσεως ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος uprightness is the beginning and end of judgment B 1:6. Melchizedek as βασιλεὺς δικαιοσύνης Hb 7:2. ἐργάζεσθαι δικαιοσύνην administer justice Hb 11:33; κρίνειν ἐν δ. (Ps 71:2f; 95:13; Sir 45:26; PsSol 8:24) judge justly Ac 17:31, cp. Mk 16:14 v.l. (Freer ms. line 5 in N. app.); Ro 9:28 v.l. (Is 10:22). ποιεῖν κρίμα καὶ δ. practice justice and uprightness 1 Cl 13:1 (Jer 9:23). καθιστάναι τοὺς ἐπισκοπούς ἐν δ. appoint overseers in uprightness= who will serve justly 1 Cl 42:5 (Is 60:17). David rejoices in God’s δ. 1 Cl 18:15 (Ps 50:16; s. ἀγαλλιάω, end).
    of transcendent figures (Pla. τὴν δ. θεοῦ νόμον ὑπελάμβανεν ‘considered divine justice [i.e. apportionment of reward or retribution in accordance with behavior] a principle’ or ‘system’ that served as a deterrent of crime Diog. L. 3, 79). Of an apocalyptic horseman ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ κρινεῖ Rv 19:11.
    quality or state of juridical correctness with focus on redemptive action, righteousness. Equitableness is esp. associated w. God (cp. Paradoxogr. Vat. 43 Keller αἰτεῖται παρὰ τ. θεῶν οὐδὲν ἄλλο πλὴν δικαιοσύνης), and in our lit. freq. in connection w. exercise of executive privilege in conferring a benefit. Hence God’s δ. can be the opposite of condemnation 2 Cor 3:9 (s. below); in it God is revealed as judge Rom 3:5—in contrast to human wrath, which beclouds judgment—displaying judicial integrity 3:25 (on this pass. s. also below). Cp. ἐκάλεσά σε ἐν δ. B 14:7 (Is 42:6). Also of equitable privilege allotted by God 2 Pt 1:1.—In Pauline thought the intimate association of God’s interest in retaining a reputation for justice that rewards goodness and requites evil, while at the same time working out a plan of salvation for all humanity, complicates classification of his use of δικαιοσύνη. On the one hand, God’s δ. is pardoning action, and on the other a way of sharing God’s character with believers, who then exhibit righteousness in the moral sense. God achieves this objective through exercise of executive privilege in dispensing justice equitably without reference to νόμος by making salvation available to all humanity (which shares a common problem of liability to wrath by being unanimously in revolt against God Ro 3:9–18, 23) through faith in God’s action in Jesus Christ. The genitival constr. δ. θεοῦ accents the uniqueness of this δ.: Ro 1:17; 3:21f, 25, 26 (s. these pass. also below; Reumann, 3c end); 10:3, and δ. alone 5:21; 9:30 (3 times); 2 Cor 3:9 (opp. κατάκρισις; cp. Dg 9:3; 5). 2 Cor 5:21 may belong here if δ. is viewed as abstract for concrete=δικαιωθέντες (but s. below). All these refer to righteousness bestowed by God cp. ἡ δωρεὰ τῆς δ. Ro 5:17, also 1 Cor 1:30 (sim. 1QS 11, 9–15; 1QH 4, 30–37). In this area it closely approximates salvation (cp. Is 46:13; 51:5 and s. NSnaith, Distinctive Ideas of the OT ’46, 207–22, esp. 218–22; EKäsemann, ZTK 58, ’61, 367–78 [against him RBultmann, JBL 83, ’64, 12–16]). According to some interpreters hunger and thirst for uprightness Mt 5:6 perh. offers (but s. 3a below) a related eschatological sense (‘Kingdom of God’, FNötscher, Biblica 31, ’50, 237–41=Vom A zum NT, ’62, 226–30).—Keeping the law cannot bring about uprightness Ro 3:21; Gal 2:21; 3:21, because δ. ἐκ τοῦ νόμου uprightness based on the law Ro 10:5 (cp. 9:30f), as ἰδία δ. one’s own (self-made) upr. 10:3, is impossible. God’s δ. without ref. to νόμος is to be apprehended by faith Ro 1:17; 3:22, 26; 4:3ff, 13; 9:30; 10:4, 6, 10 (cp. Hb 11:7 ἡ κατὰ πίστιν δ. righteousness based on faith; s. B-D-F §224, 1), for which reason faith is ‘calculated as righteousness’ (Gen 15:6; Ps 105:31; 1 Macc 2:52) Ro 4:3, 5f, 9, 11, 13, 22; Gal 3:6 (cp. Hb 11:7; Js 2:23; AMeyer, D. Rätsel des Jk 1930, 86ff; 1 Cl 10:6; B 13:7). Of Jesus as our righteousness 1 Cor 1:30.—As gift and power Ro 5:17, 21, and because it is intimately associated with the δύναμις of Christ’s resurrection Phil 3:9f (s. below), this righteousness enables the redeemed to respond and serve God faithfully Ro 6:13 (in wordplay opp. of ἀδικία), 16, 18ff; cp. 1 Cor 1:30 of Christ as instrument of God’s gift of δ.; 2 Cor 3:9. Thus God’s δ. functions as δύναμις 6:7 within Christians 5:21 (i.e. the way God acts in justifying or restoring people to a relationship with God’s self serves as a model for Christian interaction; for a difft. view, s. above) through the Spirit (Ro 8:9) and assures them they will have life that will be fully realized at the end of the age Ro 8:10f; for the time being it is a matter of hope ἐλπὶς δικαιοσύνης Gal 5:5 (cp. Is 51:5); cp. ἡ ἐκ θεοῦ δ. Phil 3:9. Pol 8:1 shares Paul’s view: Christ as ἀρραβὼν τῆς δ.—God’s uprightness as gift τοῦ κυρίου τοῦ ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς στάξαντος τὴν δ. who distills uprightness on you Hv 3, 9, 1.—Such perspectives offer a transition to specific ways in which the redeemed express uprightness.
    the quality or characteristic of upright behavior, uprightness, righteousness
    of uprightness in general: Mt 5:6 (cp. 6:33; some interpret 5:6 in an eschatological sense, s. 2 above; on desire for δ. cp. ἐπιθυμία τῆς δ. Hm 12, 2, 4); Mt 5:10, 20 (s. b, below); Hm 10, 1, 5; Dg 10:8; λόγος δικαιοσύνης Hb 5:13; Pol 9:1 (s. also Epict., Fgm. Stob. 26; when a man is excited by the λόγος in meetings, he should give expression to τὰ τῆς δικαιοσύνης λόγια). πάσχειν διὰ δ. 1 Pt 3:14. ἄγγελος τῆς δ. Hm 6, 2, 1; 3; 8; 10. ῥήματα δ. 8:9. 10, 1, 5; Dg 10:8; Pol 2:3; 3:1; ἐντολὴ δ. commandment of upr. Pol 3:3; 9:1.—Mt 6:33 of the kind of δ. God expects (on δ. as characteristic required by God acc. to Jewish perspective s. Bousset, Rel.3 387ff; 379ff; 423; cp. KFahlgren, Sẹdāḳā, nahestehende u. entgegengesetzte Begriffe im Alten Testament, diss. Uppsala ’32.—S. Diog. L. 3, 83 on Plato’s view of δικαιοσύνη περὶ θεούς or δ. πρὸς τοὺς θεούς=performance of prescribed duties toward gods; s. also ref. to 3, 79 at 1b above). Christ’s δ. Dg 9:3, 5. διαλέγεσθαι περὶ δ. Ac 24:25. Opp. ἀδικία (Hippol., Ref. 4, 43, 12; Did., Gen. 20, 27) 2 Cl 19:2; Dg 9:1. As ἀρετή Hm 1:2; Hs 6, 1, 4; 8, 10, 3. Opp. ἀνομία 2 Cor 6:14; cp. 2 Cor. 11:15 (ironical); Hb 1:9 (Ps 44:8); ἁμαρτία, which is the dominating power before δ. θεοῦ comes into play Ro 6:16, 18–20; cp. 1 Pt 2:24. ἐργάζεσθαι δ. (Ps 14:2) do what is right Ac 10:35; accomplish righteousness Js 1:20 (W-S. §30, 7g); Hv 2, 2, 7; 2, 3, 3; m 5, 1, 1; 12, 3, 1; 12, 6, 2; Hs 9, 13, 7. Also ἔργον δικαιοσύνης ἐργάζεσθαι 1 Cl 33:8. Opp. οὐδὲν ἐργάζεσθαι τῇ δ. Hs 5, 1, 4; ποιεῖν (τὴν) δ. (2 Km 8:15; Ps 105:3; Is 56:1; 58:2; 1 Macc 14:35 al.) do what is right 1J 2:29; 3:7, 10; Rv 22:11; 2 Cl 4:2; 11:7. Also πράσσειν τὴν δ. 2 Cl 19:3; διώκειν τὴν δ. (cp. Sir 27:8 διώκ. τὸ δίκαιον) seek to attain/achieve upr. Ro 9:30; 1 Ti 6:11; 2 Ti 2:22; 2 Cl 18:2; δ. ἀσκεῖν Hm 8:10. ὁδὸς (τῆς) δ. (ὁδός 3ab) Mt 21:32; 2 Pt 2:21; B 1:4; 5:4. προπορεύσεται ἔμπροσθεν σου ἡ δ. 3:4 (Is 58:8); cp. 4:12. κατορθοῦσθαι τὰς ὁδοὺς ἐν δ. walk uprightly Hv 2, 2, 6; τῇ δ. ζήσωμεν live uprightly 1 Pt 2:24. πύλη δ. gate of upr. 1 Cl 48:2 (Ps 117:19), cp. vs. 4. ἐν οἷς δ. κατοικεῖ (cp. Is 32:16) in which righteousness dwells 2 Pt 3:13. Of Christ’s body δικαιοσύνης ναο͂ς AcPlCor 2:17. παιδεία ἡ ἐν δ. training in uprightness 2 Ti 3:16. ἔργα τὰ ἐν δ. righteous deeds Tit 3:5. λαμπρότης ἐν δ. rejoicing in uprightness 1 Cl 35:2; ἐχθρὸς πάσης δ. enemy of every kind of upr. Ac 13:10. W. ὁσιότης (Wsd 9:3): holiness and upr. (as the relig. and moral side of conduct; cp. 1QS 1:5; 8:2; 11:9–15; 1QH 4:30f) Lk 1:75 (λατρεύειν ἐν δ. as Josh 24:14); Eph 4:24; 1 Cl 48:4. W. πίστις (OGI 438, 8; 1 Macc 14:35; Just., D. 110, 3) Pol 9:2; cp. 2 Pt 1:1. With εἰρήνη (Is 39:8; 48:18) and χαρά Ro 14:17; cp. 1 Cl 3:4; Hb 7:2 (but s. 1a, above). W. ἀλήθεια (Is 45:19; 48:1) Eph 5:9; 1 Cl 31:2; 62:2; Hs 9, 25, 2. W. ἀγάπη 2 Cl 12:1. W. ἀγαθωσύνη Eph 5:9. W. ἁγνεία Hs 9, 16, 7. W. γνῶσις κυρίου (cp. Pr 16:8) D 11:2. ὅπλα (τῆς) δ. tools or weapons of uprightness Ro 6:13; 2 Cor 6:7; Pol 4:1; θῶραξ τῆς δ. (Is 59:17; Wsd 5:18) breastplate of upr. Eph 6:14. τέκνα δικαιοσύνης (opp. ὀργῆς) AcPlCor 2:19. διάκονοι δικαιοσύνης servants of upr. 2 Cor 11:15; Pol 5:2; μισθός δ. D 5:2; B 20:2; μέρος δ. portion in (eternal salvation) which is meant for righteousness ApPt Rainer 6; καρπὸς δικαιοσύνης (Pr 3:9; 11:30; 13:2) produce of uprightness (ApcSed 12:5) Phil 1:11; Hb 12:11; Js 3:18; Hs 9, 19, 2; GJs 6:3. ὁ τῆς δ. στέφανος the crown of upr. (w. which the upright are adorned; cp. TestLevi 8:2; Rtzst., Mysterienrel.3 258; a common theme in honorary ins recognizing distinguished public service, s. indexes SIG, OGI and other ins corpora; Danker, Benefactor 345–47; s. also the boast of Augustus, s.v. δίκαιος 1aα) 2 Ti 4:8; cp. ἡ τ. δικαιοσύνης δόξα the glory of upr. ending of Mk in the Freer ms. ln. 11f. Described as a characteristic to be taught and learned, because it depends on a knowledge of God’s will: κῆρυξ δ. preacher of upr. 2 Pt 2:5 (cp. Ar. 15:2 τῇ δ. τοῦ κηρύγματος). διδάσκειν δ. teach upr. (of Paul) 1 Cl 5:7. μέρος τι ἐκ τῆς δ. a portion of uprightness Hv 3, 1, 6; cp. 3, 6, 4; δ. μεγάλην ἐργάζεσθαι m 8:2.—ἐλέγχειν περὶ δικαιοσύνης convict w. regard to uprightness (of Jesus) J 16:8, 10 (s. WHatch, HTR 14, 1921, 103–5; HWindisch: Jülicher Festschr. 1927, 119f; HTribble, Rev. and Expos. 32, ’37, 269–80; BLindars, BRigaux Festschr., ’70, 275–85).
    of specific action righteousness in the sense of fulfilling divine expectation not specifically expressed in ordinances (Orig., C. Cels. 7, 18, 39; Did., Gen. 188, 27: οἱ κατὰ δ. ζῶντες) Mt 3:15=ISm 1:1; of a superior type Mt 5:20 (s. JMoffatt, ET 13, 1902, 201–6, OOlevieri, Biblica 5, 1924, 201ff; Betz, SM 190f); not to win plaudits 6:1. To please outsiders as well as oneself 2 Cl 13:1. W. characteristic restriction of mng. mercy, charitableness (cp. Tob 12:9) of God, whose concern for the poor 2 Cor 9:9 (Ps 111:9) is exemplary for the recipients of the letter vs. 10; participation in such activity belongs, according to Mt 6:1f (cp. δίκαιος 1:19: Joseph combines justice and mercy), to the practice of piety (on the development of the word’s mng. in this direction s. Bousset, Rel.3 380). Pl. (B-D-F §142; W-S. §27, 4d; Rob. 408 δικαιοσύναι righteous deeds (Ezk 3:20; 33:13; Da 9:18) 2 Cl 6:9. δικαιοσύναι righteous deeds (Ezk 3:20; 33:13; Da 9:18; TestAbr A 12 p. 91, 12 [Stone p. 30]) 2 Cl 6:9. ἀρετὴ δικαιοσύνης Hm 1:2; Hs 6, 1, 4; cp. 8, 10, 3.
    uprightness as determined by divine/legal standards δ. θεοῦ upr. that meets God’s standard Js 1:20 (W-S. 30, §7g).—Ro 10:5; Gal 2:21; 3:21; Phil 3:6; 3:9.—ASchmitt, Δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ: JGeffcken Festschr. ’31, 111–31; FHellegers, D. Gerechtigkeit Gottes im Rö., diss. Tüb. ’39; AOepke, TLZ 78, ’53, 257–64.—Dodd 42–59; ADescamps, Studia Hellenistica, ’48, 69–92.—S. also JRopes, Righteousness in the OT and in St. Paul: JBL 22, 1903, 211ff; JGerretsen, Rechtvaardigmaking bij Pls 1905; GottfrKittel, StKr 80, 1907, 217–33; ETobac, Le problème de la Justification dans S. Paul 1908; EDobschütz, Über d. paul. Rechtfertigungslehre: StKr 85, 1912, 38–87; GWetter, D. Vergeltungsged. b. Pls 1912, 161ff; BWestcott, St. Paul and Justification 1913; WMacholz, StKr 88, 1915, 29ff; EBurton ICC, Gal. 1921, 460–74; WMichaelis, Rechtf. aus Glauben b. Pls: Deissmann Festschr. 1927, 116–38; ELohmeyer, Grundlagen d. paul. Theologie 1929, 52ff; HBraun, Gerichtsged. u. Rechtfertigungslehre b. Pls. 1930; OZänker, Δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ b. Pls: ZST 9, ’32, 398–420; FFilson, St. P.’s Conception of Recompense ’31; WGrundmann, ZNW 32, ’33, 52–65; H-DWendland, D. Mitte der paul. Botschaft ’35; RGyllenberg, D. paul. Rechtfertigungslehre u. das AT: Studia Theologica (Riga) I ’35, 35–52; HJager, Rechtvaardiging en zekerheid des geloofs (Ro 1:16f; 3:21–5:11) ’39; HHofer, D. Rechtfertigungsverk. des Pls nach neuerer Forschg. ’40; VTaylor, Forgiveness and Reconciliation ’41; RBultmann, Theologie des NT ’48, 266–80, Eng. tr. KGrobel ’51, I 270–85; SSchulz, ZTK 56, ’59, 155–85 (Qumran and Paul); CMüller, FRL 86, ’64 (Ro 9–11); JBecker, Das Heil Gottes, ’64; PStuhlmacher, Gerechtigkeit Gottes b. Paulus, ’65; JReumann, Int 20, ’66, 432–52 (Ro 3:21–31); HBraun, Qumran II, ’66, 165–80; JZiesler, The Mng. of Righteousness in Paul, ’72; ESanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism, ’77 (s. index 625; appendix by MBrauch 523–42 rev. of discussions in Germany); SWilliams, JBL 99, ’80, 241–90.—CPerella, De justificatione sec. Hb: Biblica 14, ’33, 1–21; 150–69. S. also the lit. on πίστις and ἁμαρτία.—On the whole word s. RAC X 233–360; AKöberle, Rechtfertigung u. Heiligung 1930; EDNT I 325–30.—DELG s.v. δίκη. M-M. EDNT.TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > δικαιοσύνη

  • 14 πιστεύω

    πιστεύω (Trag.+) impf. ἐπίστευον; 1 aor. ἐπίστευσα; pf. πεπίστευκα; plpf. πεπιστεύκειν Ac 14:23 (on the omission of the augment s. B-D-F §66, 1; Mlt-H. 190). Pass.: fut. 3 pl. πιστευθήσονται Gen 42, 20; 1 aor. ἐπιστεύθην; pf. πεπίστευμαι (the word does not occur in Phlm, 2 Pt, 2 and 3J, Rv, MPol, or D. But it is a special favorite of J and 1J, where it is found 96 times and 9 times respectively; πίστις is not found in the gospel at all, and occurs in 1J only once, 5:4. Our lit. uses it quite predominantly in a transcendent sense, or at least w. transcendent coloring).
    to consider someth. to be true and therefore worthy of one’s trust, believe
    believe (in) someth., be convinced of someth., w. that which one believes (in) indicated
    α. by acc. of thing (Soph., Oed. Rex 646 τάδε; Aristot., Analyt. Pr. 2, 23, 68b, 13 ἅπαντα; PSI 494, 14 μηθέν; UPZ 70, 29 [152/151 B.C.] π. τὰ ἐνύπνια; ApcEsdr 7:12 p. 32, 26 τὸ βιβλίον τοῦτο) ἡ ἀγάπη πάντα πιστεύει 1 Cor 13:7. πεπιστεύκαμεν τὴν ἀγάπην we believe in the love 1J 4:16. πιστεύεις τοῦτο; J 11:26b. Cp. Ac 13:41 (Hab 1:5). Pass. ἐπιστεύθη τὸ μαρτύριον ἡμῶν our testimony was believed 2 Th 1:10b (cp. Aristot., EN 10, 2 p. 1172b, 15 ἐπιστεύοντο οἱ λόγοι; Gen 42:20).
    β. by means of a ὅτι-clause believe that (Plut., Mor. 210d; Aelian, VH 1, 16 p. 8, 9; Herm. Wr. 4, 4: Porphyr., Ad Marcellam 24; PLond III, 897, 12 p. 207 [I A.D.]; Tob 10:8 S; Job 9:16; 15:31; 39:12; La 4:12; 4 Macc 7:19; TestAbr A 18 p. 100, 18 [Stone p. 48]; ParJer 6:7; Just., A I, 18, 2 al.; Orig., C. Cels. 4, 89, 16) μακαρία ἡ πιστεύσασα ὅτι ἔσται τελείωσις Lk 1:45 (ὅτι here may=for: s. ὅτι 4b).—Mk 11:23; cp. vs. 24; J 8:24 (ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι as Is 43:10); 11:27, 42; 13:19; 14:10; 16:27, 30; 17:8, 21; 20:31a; Ac 9:26; Ro 6:8; 10:9; 1 Th 4:14; Hb 11:6; Js 2:19a; 1J 5:1, 5; Hv 3, 8, 4; 4, 2, 4; m 1:1; 6, 2, 10b; Hs 2:5.—[ὅτι εἷς θεός] καὶ εἷς χριστός AcPl Ha 1, 17; AcPlCor 1:8. π. περί τινος ὅτι believe concerning someone that J 9:18 (M. Ant. 1, 15, 5 πιστεύειν περὶ ὧν λέγοι ὅτι οὕτως φρονεῖ=believe concerning whatever he might say, that it was what he actually thought; Just., D. 10, 1 π. ἡμῶν• ὅτι ἐσθίομεν ἀνθρώπους.—π. περί τινος as Plut., Lyc. 19, 4; Jos., Ant. 14, 267).
    γ. by the acc. and inf. (pres. Pla., Gorg. 524a; PTebt 314, 3 [II A.D.]; 4 Macc 5:25; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 160; Just., A I, 8, 2 al.; Ath. 20, 3) πιστεύω τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ εἶναι τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ac 8:37b.—GMary 463, 8.—IRo 10:2.—By the inf. (Thu 2, 22, 1; Job 15:22; AscIs 2:10 εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀναβῆναι) πιστεύομεν σωθῆναι Ac 15:11 (difft. JNolland, NTS 27, ’80, 112f [inf. of result: ‘we believe (in order) to be saved’]).—By the acc. and ptc. ἐν σαρκὶ αὐτὸν πιστεύω ὄντα I believe that he was in the flesh ISm 3:1.
    δ. by means of the dat. of thing give credence to, believe (Aeschyl., Pers. 786 θεῶν θεσφάτοισιν; Soph., Phil. 1374 τοῖς ἐμοῖς λόγοις, El. 886; Pla., Phd. 88c, Leg. 7, 798d; Polyb. 5, 42, 9; 9, 33, 1; Herodian 7, 5, 5 ἐλπίδι κρείττονι; BGU 674, 6 τῷ λόγῳ; 2 Ch 9:6 τοῖς λόγοις; Ps 105:24; Pr 14:15; Sir 19:15; En 104:13 ταῖς βίβλοις; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 229 τοῖς κενοῖς λογισμοῖς, Virt. 68 the sayings of God; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 286, Ant. 10, 39 τ. λόγοις; Tat. 18, 2 ὕλης οἰκονομία; Ath. 30, 2 ταῖς γοναῖς τοῦ Διό; Iren. 1, 10, 2 [Harv. I 92, 4] ἡ ἐκκλησία … π. τούτοις [sc. κήρυγμα and πίστις]) οὐκ ἐπίστευσας τοῖς λόγοις μου Lk 1:20 (cp. Iambl., ViPyth. 28, 148 περὶ θεῶν μηδὲν θαυμαστὸν ἀπιστεῖν ‘concerning the gods nothing is so marvelous that it should occasion unbelief’). τῇ γραφῇ καὶ τῷ λόγῳ J 2:22. Cp. 4:50; 5:47ab. τοῖς γεγραμμένοις Ac 24:14 (Diod S 16, 52, 7 πιστεύσαντες τοῖς γεγραμμένοις). τῇ ἐπαγγελίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ 2 Cl 11:1 (Diod S 1, 53, 10 τῇ τοῦ προρρήσει πιστεύειν; 19, 90, 3). τῷ ψεύδει, τῇ ἀληθείᾳ 2 Th 2:11, 12. τῇ καταλαλιᾷ Hm 2:2. τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν (Is 53:1; cp. Jos., C. Ap. 2, 14 π. ἀκοῇ πρεσβυτέρων) J 12:38; Ro 10:16; 1 Cl 16:3. τοῖς ἔργοις J 10:38b (=their testimony); Hm 6, 2, 10a (that they are good and must be followed).—Pass. ἐπιστεύθη τῷ λόγῳ μου they believed my word Hm 3:3.
    ε. w. prepositional expressions: εἰς Ro 4:18, if εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι αὐτόν here is dependent on ἐπίστευσεν. πιστεύειν εἰς τὴν μαρτυρίαν believe in the witness 1J 5:10c. ὁ Χριστιανισμὸς οὐκ εἰς Ἰουδαϊσμὸν ἐπίστευσεν the Christian way of life/Christianity did not commit itself to the Judean way/Judaism (s. Hdb. ad loc.) I Mg 10:3a; cp. b (Χριστιανισμόν, εἰς ὸ̔ν πᾶσα γλῶσσα πιστεύσασα). On πιστεύειν εἰς τὸ ὄνομά τινος s. 2aβ below. πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ believe in the gospel (so Ps 105:12 ἐπίστευσαν ἐν τοῖς λόγοις αὐτοῦ. Rather in the sense ‘put one’s trust in’ Sir 32:21 μὴ πιστεύσῃς ἐν ὁδῷ ἀπροσκόπῳ. See B-D-F §187, 6; Rob. 540. ALoisy, Les Évangiles synopt. I 1907, 430; 434; comm.) Mk 1:15 (Hofmann understands it as ‘on the basis of’, Wohlenberg ‘bei’; Lohmeyer is undecided; Dssm. and Mlt. 67f ‘in the sphere of’; s. p. 235). ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ οὐ πιστεύω IPhld 8:2 (s. Bihlmeyer ad loc.).—ἐπί τινι: πιστεύειν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ἐλάλησαν οἱ προφῆται Lk 24:25; Ro 9:33 (Is 28:16).
    w. the pers. to whom one gives credence or whom one believes, in the dat. (Demosth. 18, 10; Aristot., Rhet. 2, 14 p. 1390a, 32; Polyb. 15, 26, 6 τοῖς εἰδόσι τὴν ἀλήθειαν; Herodian 2, 1, 10; PHib 72, 18; POxy 898, 29; PTebt 418, 15; Ex 4:1, 5; 3 Km 10:7; 2 Ch 32:15; Tob 2:14; Jer 47:14; JosAs 13:10; Philo, Praem. 49; Just., A I, 33, 5, D 7, 2 al.) τοῖς θεασαμένοις αὐτὸν ἐγηγερμένον οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν they did not believe those who saw him after he was raised from the dead Mk 16:14. Cp. Mt 21:25, 32abc; Mk 11:31; 16:13; Lk 20:5; J 5:46a; Ac 8:12; 26:27a (τ. προφήταις as Jos., Ant. 11, 96); 1J 4:1; Hm 6, 1, 2ab.—Also of Jesus and God whom one believes, in that one accepts their disclosures without doubt or contradiction: Jesus: Mt 27:42 v.l.; J 5:38, 46b; 6:30; 8:45, 46; 10:37, 38a. God: J 5:24; Ro 4:3 (Gen 15:6), 17 κατέναντι οὗ ἐπίστευσεν θεοῦ (= κατέναντι θεοῦ ᾧ ἐπίστευσεν); Gal 3:6; Js 2:23; 1 Cl 10:6 (all three Gen 15:6). ὁ μὴ πιστεύων τῷ θεῷ ψεύστην πεποίηκεν αὐτόν 1J 5:10b. AcPl Ha 3, 7.
    w. pers. and thing added π. τινί τι believe someone with regard to someth. (X., Apol. 15 μηδὲ ταῦτα εἰκῇ πιστεύσητε τῷ θεῷ) Hm 6, 2, 6.—W. dat. of pers. and ὅτι foll. (ApcEsdr 4:35 p. 29, 12 Tdf.): πιστεύετέ μοι ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρί J 14:11a. Cp. 4:21; Ac 27:25.
    abs. (in which case the context supplies the obj., etc.; cp. ParJer 7:19 γέγονε δὲ τοῦτο, ἵνα πιστεύσωσιν) ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ• ἰδοὺ ὧδε ὁ Χριστός, μὴ πιστεύσητε do not believe (him or it [the statement]) Mt 24:23; cp. vs. 26; Mk 13:21; Lk 22:67; J 3:12ab; 10:25f; 12:47 v.l.; 14:29; 16:31; 19:35; 20:8, 25; cp. GJs 19:3. J 20:29ab πιστεύσαντες those who have nevertheless believed (it=the fact of the Resurrection); Ac 4:4; 26:27b; 1 Cor 11:18 πιστεύω I believe (it=that there are divisions among you); 15:11; Js 2:19b even the daemons believe this; Jd 5. Pass. καρδίᾳ πιστεύεται with (or in) the heart men believe (it=that Jesus was raised fr. the dead) Ro 10:10.
    believe = let oneself be influenced κατά τινος against someone Pol 6:1.
    πιστεύομαι I am believed, I enjoy confidence (X., An. 7, 6, 33; Diod S 5, 80, 4 τοῖς μάλιστα πιστευομένοις ἐπηκολουθήσαμεν; 17, 32, 1; 1 Km 27:12; Jos., Ant. 10, 114; PGM 12, 279 πιστευθήσῃ=you will be believed) of Eve παρθένος πιστεύεται people believe that she is a virgin Dg 12:8, or perh. a virgin is entrusted (to someone without fear). S. 3 below.
    to entrust oneself to an entity in complete confidence, believe (in), trust, w. implication of total commitment to the one who is trusted. In our lit. God and Christ are objects of this type of faith that relies on their power and nearness to help, in addition to being convinced that their revelations or disclosures are true. The obj. is
    α. in the dat. (cp. Soph., Philoct. 1374 θεοῖς πιστ.; X., Mem. 1, 1, 5; Ps.-Pla., Epinom. 980c πιστεύσας τοῖς θεοῖς εὔχου; Ptolem. Lagi [300 B.C.]: 138 Fgm. 8 Jac.; Maximus Tyr. 3, 8k τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι; Epict., app. E, 10 p. 488 Sch. θεῷ; Himerius, Or. 8 [=23], 18 πῶς Διονύσῳ πιστεύσω; how can I trust D.?; UPZ 144, 12 [164 B.C.] τ. θεοῖς; Jdth 14:10; Wsd 16:26; 4 Macc 7:21 al. in LXX; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 229 πιστεύειν θεῷ, Rer. Div. Her. 92 μόνῳ θεῷ, Op. M. 45, Sacr. Abel. 70 τῷ σωτήρι θεῷ, Abr. 269, Mos. 1, 225, Virt. 216 [on faith in Philo s. Bousset, Rel.3 446ff; EHatch, Essays in Biblical Gk. 1889, 83ff; ASchlatter, D. Glaube im NT4 1927; EBréhier, Les idées philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie 1908, 21925; HWindisch, Die Frömmigkeit Philos 1909, 23ff; HWolfson, Philo ’47 I, 143–56, esp. II, 215–18; WPeisker, D. Glaubensbegriff bei Philon, diss. ’36]; Jos., Ant. 2, 117; 333; 3, 309; 20, 48, Bell. 3, 387 [s. ASchlatter, D. Theol. d. Judentums nach d. Bericht des Jos. ’32, 104ff]; Just., A I, 18, 6 al.). Some of the passages referred to in 1b above, end, are repeated, since they may be classified here or there w. equal justification. Of God: π. τῷ θεῷ (Orig., C. Cels. 4, 89, 15) Ac 16:34; 13:12 D; Tit 3:8; PtK 4 p. 16, 2; B 16:7; Hm 12, 6, 2; Hs 5, 1, 5. Cp. m 1:2; AcPl Ha 10, 13f. τῷ κυρίῳ (Sir 11:21; 2:8) Hv 4, 2, 6. οἱ πιστεύσαντες τῷ κυρίῳ διὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Hs 9, 13, 5. τῷ θεῷ w. ὅτι foll. m 9:7; cp. Hs 1:7.—Of Christ: Mt 27:42 v.l. (for ἐπʼ αὐτόν); J 6:30 (σοί=vs. 29 εἰς ὸ̔ν ἀπέστειλεν ἐκεῖνος); J 8:31 (αὐτῷ=vs. 30 εἰς αὐτόν, but see Mlt. 67f; JSwetnam argues for a plpf. sense here: Biblica 61, ’80, 106–9); Ac 5:14; 18:8a (both τῷ κυρίῳ); Ro 10:14b (οὗ οὐκ ἤκουσαν = τούτῳ [about equivalent to εἰς τοῦτον; cp. vs. 14a] οὗ οὐκ ἤκ.); 2 Ti 1:12; ITr 9:2; Hs 8, 3, 2.—Pass. be believed in (X., Cyr. 4, 2, 8; 6, 1, 39; Pla., Lach. 181b; Ps.-Demosth. 58, 44 al.; 1 Km 27:12; Just., D. 7, 3; Tat. 10, 2. S. B-D-F §312, 1; also s. Rob. 815f) ἐπιστεύθη ἐν κόσμῳ 1 Ti 3:16.—π. τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ υἱοῦ believe in the name of the Son, i.e. believe in the Son and accept what his name proclaims him to be 1J 3:23.
    β. w. εἰς (cp. Hippol., Elench. 6, 19, 7 W. οἱ εἰς τὸν Σίμωνα καὶ τὴν Ἑλένην πεπιστευκότες; Just., D. 35, 8 al.) God (BGU 874, 11 π. εἰς τὸν θεόν): J 12:44b; 14:1a (cp. ET 21, 1910, 53–57; 68–70; 138f); 1 Pt 1:21 v.l.=Pol 2:1.—Christ: Mt 18:6; Mk 9:42; J 2:11; 3:15 v.l., 16, 18a, 36; 4:39; 6:29, 35, 40, 47 v.l.; 7:5, 31, 38f, 48; 8:30; 9:35f; 10:42; 11:25, 26a, 45, 48; 12:11, 36 (εἰς τὸ φῶς), 37, 42, 44a, 46; 14:1b, 12; 16:9; 17:20; Ac 10:43; 14:23; 18:8 D; 19:4; Ro 10:14a; Gal 2:16; Phil 1:29; 1 Pt 1:8; 1J 5:10a; AcPlCor 2:31; Hs 8, 3, 2.—εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Ἰησοῦ (or αὐτοῦ, etc.) J 1:12; 2:23; 3:18c; 1J 5:13 (s. ὄνομα 1dβ and s. 2aα above, end). π. εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ITr 2:1. π. εἰς τὸ αἷμα Χριστοῦ ISm 6:1.
    γ. w. ἐπί and dat., of God Ac 11:17 D. Of Christ: Mt 27:42 v.l.; J 3:15 v.l.; Ro 9:33; 10:11; 1 Pt 2:6 (the last three Is 28:16); 1 Ti 1:16.
    δ. w. ἐπί and acc. (Wsd 12:2; Just., D. 46, 1 al.) of God: Ac 16:34 D; Ro 4:5, 24; PtK 3 p. 15, 12. Of Christ: Mt 27:42; J 3:15 v.l.; Ac 9:42; 11:17; 16:31; 22:19.
    ε. π. ἔν τινι believe in someone (Jer 12:6; Da 6:24 Theod.; Ps 77:22) is questionable in our lit.: in J 3:15 the best rdg. is ἐν αὐτῷ and is prob. to be construed w. ἔχῃ (in J πιστεύω usually takes the prep. εἰς when expressing the obj. of belief, as in 3:16); in Eph 1:13 both occurrences of ἐν ᾧ are prob. to be construed w. ἐσφραγίσθητε (=‘in connection with whom you have been sealed’ [cp. 4:30]); the acts of hearing and believing are coordinate, and πιστεύσαντες, along w. ἀκούσαντες, is used abs. (so REB; less clearly NRSV). But s. 1aε above: π. ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ Mk 1:15; IPhld 8:2.
    not expressed at all (the abs. πιστεύειν in a transcendent sense: Aeschin., In Ctesiph. 1 ἐγὼ πεπιστευκὼς ἥκω πρῶτον τοῖς θεοῖς; Aristot., Rhet. 2, 17, 1391b, 1ff; Plut., Mor. 170f; Porphyr., Ad Marcellam 24 πιστεῦσαι δεῖ, ὅτι [=because] μόνη σωτηρία ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἐπιστροφή; Herm. Wr. 9, 10ab ἐπίστευσε καὶ ἐν τῇ καλῇ πίστει ἐπανεπαύσατο; cp. 1, 32 πιστεύω καὶ μαρτυρῶ=PapBerl 9795 [RReitzenstein, Studien z. antiken Synkretismus 1926, p. 161, 2]; Num 20:12; Ps 115:1; Is 7:9; Sir 2:13; 1 Macc 2:59; Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 14; 101, Deus Imm. 4, Mut. Nom. 178; τότε πιστεύσεις θέλων καὶ μὴ θέλων Theoph. Ant. 1, 8 [p. 74, 7]) Mk 15:32; 16:16f; Lk 8:12f; J 1:7, 50; 3:15, 18b; 4:41f, 48, 53; 5:44; 6:36, 47, 64ab, perh. 69 (MEnslin, The Perf. Tense in the Fourth Gosp.: JBL 55, ’36, 121–31, esp. 128); 9:38; 10:26; 11:15, 40; 12:39; 20:31b; Ac 4:4; 8:13, 37a; 11:21; 13:12, 39, 48; 14:1; 15:5, 7; 17:12, 34; 18:8b, 27; 19:2; 21:25; Ro 1:16; 3:22; 4:11; 10:4; 13:11; 15:13; 1 Cor 1:21; 3:5; 15:2; Gal 3:22; Eph 1:13, 19; 1 Th 2:10, 13; Hb 4:3; 1 Pt 2:7; 1 Cl 12:7; 2 Cl 17:3; 20:2; B 9:3; B 11:11; ISm 3:2; Hs 8, 10, 3; 9, 17, 4; 9, 22, 3. τὸ πιστεύειν faith IMg 9:2. ἐν ἀγάπῃ πιστεύειν IPhld 9:2 (ἐν ἀγάπῃ is here used adv.).—Participles in the var. tenses are also used almost subst.: (οἱ) πιστεύοντες (the) believers, (the) Christians (Orig., C. Cels. 1, 13, 34; Did., Gen. 106, 6) Ac 2:44; Ro 3:22; 1 Cor 14:22ab (opp. οἱ ἄπιστοι); 1 Th 1:7; Hs 8, 3, 3. (οἱ) πιστεύσαντες (those) who made their commitment = (those) who became believers, (the) Christians, Ac 2:44 v.l.; 4:32; 2 Th 1:10a; 2 Cl 2:3; Hs 9, 19, 1. οἱ πεπιστευκότες those who became (and remained) believers Ac 19:18; 21:20 (Just., D. 122, 2).—οἱ μέλλοντες πιστεύειν future believers 1 Cl 42:4; Hm 4, 3, 3a. οἱ νῦν πιστεύσαντες those who have just come to believe ibid. 4, 3, 3b.
    A special kind of this faith is the confidence that God or Christ is in a position to help suppliants out of their distress, have confidence (some of the passages already mentioned might just as well be classified here) abs. ὡς ἐπίστευσας γενηθήτω σοι may it be done to you in accordance with the confidence you have Mt 8:13. ὅσα ἂν αἰτήσητε πιστεύοντες whatever you pray for with confidence 21:22. Cp. Mk 5:36; 9:23f; Lk 8:50; 2 Cor 4:13a (Ps 115:1), b. W. ὅτι foll.: πιστεύετε ὅτι δύναμαι τοῦτο ποιῆσαι; do you have confidence that I am able to do this? Mt 9:28.—Mk 11:23.
    entrust τινί τι someth. to someone (X., Mem. 4, 4, 17; Plut., Mor. 519e; Athen. 8, 341a; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 25, 1; SIG2 845, 7, see for numerous other examples index VI p. 384b. Cp. Wsd 14:5; 1 Macc 8:16; 4 Macc 4:7; TestJob 11:11; Jos., Bell. 4, 492; Hippol., Ref. 9, 12, 6) τὸ ἀληθινὸν τίς ὑμῖν πιστεύσει; Lk 16:11. αὐτῷ τοσούτων πιστευο̣μ̣έ̣ν̣ω̣ν̣ since so many (or so much) were ( was) entrusted to him AcPl Ha 7, 21 (connection uncertain). αὐτόν (so N. and Tdf.; v.l. ἑαυτόν) τινι trust oneself to someone (Brutus, Ep. 25; Plut., Mor. 181d ἀνδρὶ μᾶλλον ἀγαθῷ πιστεύσας ἑαυτὸν ἢ ὀχυρῷ τόπῳ=entrusting himself to a good man rather than to a stronghold; EpArist 270; Jos., Ant. 12, 396) J 2:24 (EStauffer, CDodd Festschr., ’56, 281–99.—Diod S 34 + 35 Fgm. 39a οὐ τοῖς τυχοῦσι φίλοις ἑαυτὸν ἐπίστευσεν=he did not trust himself to casual friends).—Pass. πιστεύομαί τι (B-D-F §159, 4) I am entrusted with someth. (Pla., Ep. 1, 309a; Polyb. 8, 17, 5; 31, 26, 7; Diod S 20, 19, 2; Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 136 §568 ἃ ἐπιστεύθην; ins; pap [e.g. PLond I, 121, 608 p. 203]; Jos., Bell. 5, 567, Vi. 137; Ath. 24, 3. Cp. Esth 8:12e.—Dssm., LO 320f [LAE 379]). ἐπιστεύθησαν τὰ λόγια τοῦ θεοῦ Ro 3:2. πεπίστευμαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον Gal 2:7 (PGM 13, 140 ὁ ὑπό σου πάντα πιστευθείς; 446); cp. 1 Th 2:4; 1 Ti 1:11.—Tit 1:3. οἰκονομίαν πεπίστευμαι 1 Cor 9:17; cp. Dg 7:1. S. also 7:2; IMg 6:1; IPhld 9:1ab. πιστεύομαί τι παρά τινος I am entrusted by someone with someth. (Polyb. 3, 69, 1; Jos., Bell. 1, 667): οἱ πιστευθέντες παρὰ θεοῦ ἔργον τοιοῦτο 1 Cl 43:1.
    be confident about, a unique use found in ὸ̔ς μὲν πιστεύει φαγεῖν πάντα, someth. like the one is confident about eating anything Ro 14:2 (a combination of two ideas: ‘the pers. is so strong in the faith’ and: ‘the pers. is convinced that it is permissible to eat anything’; in brief: not cultically fussy. See Ltzm., Hdb. ad loc.; but also B-D-F §397, 2). Another probability is the sense
    think/consider (possible), in Ro 14:2 perh. holds everything possible; cp. J 9:18 οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν they refused to entertain the possibility, and Ac 9:26. S. 4 above.—For lit. s. πίστις, end. DELG s.v. πείθομαι. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > πιστεύω

  • 15 plead

    pli:d гл.
    1) защищать подсудимого, представлять (в суде) его интересы Mr Jones will plead for you in this case. ≈ В этом деле вас будет защищать мистер Джонс.
    2) выступать в суде с заявлением;
    отвечать на обвинение;
    обращаться к суду to plead guiltyпризнать себя виновным (в чем-л. ≈ to)
    3) а) юр. обращаться с просьбой, ходатайствовать б) просить, умолять( with - кого-л.), (for - о чем-л.) She went down on her knees, pleading for mercy. ≈ Она упала на колени и взмолилась о пощаде. Syn: appeal, beg, petition, sue, entreat Ant: command, demand
    4) а) отсылать( к чему-л.) в рамках судебного разбирательства The paragraph was properly pleaded and ought not to be struck out. ≈ Отсылка к этому параграфу совершенно верная, его не следует вычеркивать. б) ссылаться( на что-л.), приводить( что-л.) в оправдание (юридическое) выступать в суде;
    защищать подсудимого, представлять (в суде) его интересы - to * one's good faith доказывать свою честность - to * smb.'s cause вести в суде чье-л. дело;
    защищать чьи-л. интересы - he was not allowed to * his cause ему не дали возможности защищать свои интересы (юридическое) подавать( суду) состязательную бумагу, подавать (суду) возражение по иску выставлять в качестве оправдания, довода;
    ссылаться (на какую-л. причину) - to * insanity (юридическое) ссылаться на невменяемость - to * ignorance ссылаться на незнание - to * difficulties in regard to smth. ссылаться на трудности в каком-л. деле - to * prescription /a statute of limitations/ (юридическое) ссылаться (в процессе) на давность - to * one's need for smth. ссылаться на необходимость чего-л. - his youth *s for him оправданием ему служит молодость( юридическое) выступать в суде с заявлением;
    отвечать на обвинение;
    обращаться к суду - to * guilty признавать себя виновным в предъявленном обвинении - to * not guilty заявить( суду) о своей невиновности;
    не признавать себя виновным;
    просить об оправдании подсудимого (with) призывать;
    молить, умолять - to * with smb. for smth. просить кого-л. о чем-л. - to * with smb. to change his mind просить кого-л. изменить свое решение - to * for time умолять дать время - they were *ing with him to stop они молили /умоляли/ его прекратить /остановиться/ > to * the fifth /a five/ (американизм) (сленг) отказываться делать что-л. (особ. давать свидетельские показания, отвечать на вопросы и т. п.) > to * the baby act оправдываться неопытностью;
    уклоняться от ответственности, ссылаясь на неопытность be entitled to ~ иметь право отвечать на обвинение be entitled to ~ иметь право подавать возражение по иску fit to ~ способный отвечать на обвинение fitness to ~ способность отвечать на обвинение plead выставлять в качестве обвинения ~ выступать в суде ~ (pleaded, pled) защищать (в суде) ~ защищать подсудимого ~ обращаться с просьбой, ходатайствовать ~ отвечать на обвинение;
    обращаться к суду;
    to plead (not) guilty (не) признать себя виновным ~ отвечать на обвинение ~ подавать возражение по иску ~ подавать состязательную бумагу ~ подавать суду возражения по иску ~ представлять в суде чьи-либо интересы ~ просить, умолять (with - кого-л., for - о чем-л.) ~ ссылаться (на что-л.), приводить (что-л.) в оправдание;
    to plead in justification (of smth.) служить оправданием( чего-л.) (в суде) ~ ссылаться (на что-л.) ~ ссылаться ~ ссылаться (на что-л.), приводить (что-л.) в оправдание;
    to plead in justification (of smth.) служить оправданием (чего-л.) (в суде)

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > plead

  • 16 διά

    διά prep. w. gen. and acc. (Hom.+) (for lit. s. ἀνά, beg.); the fundamental idea that finds expression in this prep. is separation, esp. in the gen., with the gener. sense ‘through’; in the acc. the gener. sense also is ‘through’ (cp. the semantic range in Eng.), but primarily with a causal focus ‘owing to’.
    A. w. gen.
    marker of extension through an area or object, via, through
    w. verbs of going διέρχεσθαι διὰ πάντων (sc. τόπων, EpArist 132) go through all the places Ac 9:32; cp. Mt 12:43; Lk 11:24. ἀπελεύσομαι διʼ ὑμῶν εἰς I will go through your city on the way to Ro 15:28; cp. 2 Cor. 1:16. διαβαίνειν Hb 11:29. διαπορεύεσθαι διὰ σπορίμων Lk 6:1. εἰσέρχεσθαι διὰ τῆς πύλης (Jos., Ant. 13, 229) Mt 7:13a; τ. θύρας J 10:1f; cp. vs. 9. παρέρχεσθαι διὰ τ. ὁδοῦ pass by along the road Mt 8:28; cp. 7:13b. παραπορεύεσθαι Mk 2:23; 9:30. περιπατεῖν διὰ τοῦ φωτός walk about through or in the light Rv 21:24. ὑποστρέφειν διὰ Μακεδονίας return through M. Ac 20:3.—Ἰης. ὁ ἐλθὼν διʼ ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος 1J 5:6 first of all refers quite literally to Jesus’ passing through water at the hand of John and through blood at his death (on the expression ‘come through blood’ in this sense cp. Eur., Phoen. 20 in Alex. Aphr., Fat. 31 II 2 p. 202, 10, of the oracle to Laius the father of Oedipus, concerning the bloody downfall of his house: πᾶς σὸς οἶκος βήσεται διʼ αἵματος). But mng. 3c may also apply: Jesus comes with the water of baptism and with the blood of redemption for his own.—AKlöpper, 1J 5:6–12: ZWT 43, 1900, 378–400.—The ῥῆμα ἐκπορευόμενον διὰ στόματος θεοῦ Mt 4:4 (Dt 8:3) is simply the word that proceeds out of the mouth of God (cp. Theognis 1, 18 Diehl3 τοῦτʼ ἔπος ἀθανάτων ἦλθε διὰ στομάτων; Pittacus in Diog. L. 1, 78 διὰ στόματος λαλεῖ; Chrysippus argues in Diog. L. 7, 187: εἴ τι λαλεῖς, τοῦτο διὰ τοῦ στόματός σου διέρχεται, i.e. if one e.g. says the word ἅμαξα, a wagon passes through the person’s lips; TestIss 7:4 ψεῦδος οὐκ ἀνῆλθε διὰ τ. χειλέων μου. Cp. also δέχεσθαι διὰ τῶν χειρῶν τινος Gen 33:10 beside δέχ. ἐκ τ. χειρ. τινος Ex 32:4).
    w. other verbs that include motion: οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος διὰ πασῶν τ. ἐκκλησιῶν (sc. ἀγγέλλεται) throughout all the congregations 2 Cor 8:18. διαφέρεσθαι διʼ (v.l. καθʼ) ὅλης τῆς χώρας be spread through the whole region Ac 13:49. διὰ τ. κεράμων καθῆκαν αὐτόν they let him down through the tile roof Lk 5:19. διὰ τοῦ τείχους καθῆκαν through an opening in the wall (Jos., Ant. 5, 15) Ac 9:25; cp. 2 Cor 11:33. (σωθήσεται) ὡς διὰ πυρός as if he had come through fire 1 Cor 3:15. διασῴζεσθαι διʼ ὕδατος be brought safely through the water 1 Pt 3:20.—διʼ ὅλου J 19:23 s. ὅλος 2.
    of a whole period of time, to its very end throughout, through, during διὰ παντός (sc. χρόνου. Edd. gener. write διὰ παντός, but Tdf. writes διαπαντός exc. Mt 18:10) always, continually, constantly (Hdt. 1, 122, 3; Thu. 1, 38, 1; Vett. Val. 220, 1; 16; PLond I, 42, 6 [172 B.C.] p. 30; BGU 1078, 2; PGM 7, 235; LXX; GrBar 10:7; EpArist index; Jos., Ant. 3, 281; SibOr Fgm. 1, 17; Just., D. 6, 2; 12, 3 al.) Mt 18:10; Mk 5:5; Lk 24:53; Ac 2:25 (Ps 15:8); 10:2; 24:16; Ro 11:10 (Ps 68:24); 2 Th 3:16; Hb 9:6; 13:15; Hm 5, 2, 3; Hs 9, 27, 3. διὰ νυκτός during the night, overnight (νύξ 1b) Ac 23:31. διʼ ὅλης νυκτός the whole night through Lk 5:5; J 21:6 v.l. (X., An. 4, 2, 4; Diod S 3, 12, 3 διʼ ὅλης τῆς νυκτός; PGM 4, 3151; Jos., Ant. 6, 37; cp. διʼ ἡμέρας all through the day: IPriene 112, 61 and 99; 1 Macc 12:27; 4 Macc 3:7). διʼ ἡμερῶν τεσσεράκοντα Ac 1:3 means either for forty days (Philo, Vi. Cont. 35 διʼ ἓξ ἡμερῶν. So AFridrichsen, ThBl 6, 1927, 337–41; MEnslin, JBL 47, 1928, 60–73) or (s. b below) now and then in the course of 40 days (B-D-F §223, 1; Rob. 581; WMichaelis, ThBl 4, 1925, 102f; Bruce, Acts). διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν throughout the lifetime Hb 2:15 (cp. διὰ παντὸς τοῦ βίου: X., Mem. 1, 2, 61; Pla., Phileb. 39e; Dionys. Hal. 2, 21; διʼ ὅλου τοῦ ζῆν EpArist 130; 141; 168).
    of a period of time within which someth. occurs during, at (PTebt 48, 10) διὰ (τῆς) νυκτός at night, during the night (Palaeph. 1, 10; PRyl 138, 15 κατέλαβα τοῦτον διὰ νυκτός; Jos., Bell. 1, 229. S. νύξ 1b end) Ac 5:19; 16:9; 17:10. διὰ τῆς ἡμέρας during the day Lk 9:37 D (Antig. Car. 128 διὰ πέμπτης ἡμέρας=on the fifth day). διὰ τριῶν ἡμερῶν within three days Mt 26:61; Mk 14:58.
    of an interval of time, after (Hdt. 6, 118, 3 διʼ ἐτέων εἴκοσι; Thu. 2, 94, 3; X., Mem. 2, 8, 1; Diod S 5, 28, 6 of transmigration of souls: διʼ ἐτῶν ὡρισμένων [=after the passing of a certain number of years] πάλιν βιοῦν; OGI 56, 38; 4 Macc 13:21; Jos., Ant. 4, 209): διʼ ἐτῶν πλειόνων after several years Ac 24:17. διὰ δεκατεσσάρων (s. under δέκα) ἐτῶν after 14 years Gal 2:1. διʼ ἡμερῶν several days afterward Mk 2:1. διὰ ἱκανοῦ χρόνου after (quite) some time Ac 11:2 D (X., Cyr. 1, 4, 28 διὰ χρόνου).
    marker of instrumentality or circumstance whereby someth. is accomplished or effected, by, via, through
    of means or instrument γράφειν διά χάρτου καὶ μέλανος write w. paper and ink 2J 12; cp. 3J 13 (Plut., Sol. 87 [17, 3]). διὰ πυρὸς δοκιμάζειν test by fire 1 Pt 1:7. διὰ χρημάτων κτᾶσθαι Ac 8:20. Hebraistically in expr. denoting activity διὰ χειρῶν τινος (LXX) Mk 6:2; Ac 5:12; 14:3; 19:11, 26. Differently γράφειν διὰ χειρός τινος write through the agency of someone 15:23; cp. 11:30. εἰπεῖν διὰ στόματός τινος by the mouth of someone (where the usage discussed in A1a is influential) 1:16; 3:18, 21; 4:25. εὔσημον λόγον διδόναι διὰ τῆς γλώσσης utter intelligible speech with the tongue 1 Cor 14:9. διὰ τοῦ νοὸς λαλεῖν speak, using one’s reason (=consciously; opp., ecstatic speech) vs. 19 v.l. Of the work of Christ: περιποιεῖσθαι διὰ τοῦ αἵματος obtain through his blood Ac 20:28; cp. Eph 1:7; Col 1:20. Also διὰ τοῦ θανάτου Ro 5:10; Col 1:22; Hb 2:14; διὰ τοῦ σώματος Ro 7:4; διὰ τῆς ἰδίας σαρκός AcPlCor 2:6; cp. 2:15; διὰ τοῦ σταυροῦ Eph 2:16; διὰ τῆς θυσίας Hb 9:26; διὰ τῆς προσφορᾶς τοῦ σώματος Ἰησοῦ through the offering of the body of Jesus 10:10; διὰ παθημάτων 2:10.
    of manner, esp. w. verbs of saying: ἀπαγγέλλειν διὰ λόγου by word of mouth Ac 15:27; cp. 2 Th 2:15. διʼ ἐπιστολῶν by letter (POxy 1066, 9; 1070, 14f πολλάκις σοι γράψας διὰ ἐπιστολῶν πολλῶν; Tat. 12:3 δια γραφῆς in writing) 1 Cor 16:3; 2 Cor 10:11; cp. 2 Th 2:2, 15. διὰ λόγου πολλοῦ w. many words Ac 15:32. διʼ ὁράματος εἰπεῖν in a vision 18:9. διὰ παραβολῆς in an illustrative way, in a parable Lk 8:4. διὰ προσευχῆς καὶ δεήσεως προσεύχεσθαι call on (God) w. prayer and supplication Eph 6:18. διὰ βραχέων ἐπιστέλλειν write briefly Hb 13:22 (cp. 1 Pt 5:12 P72; Isocr. 14, 3; Lucian, Tox. 56; EpArist 128; Ath. 17:1 σκέψασθε … διὰ βρ.). Also διʼ ὀλίγων γράφειν 1 Pt 5:12 (Pla., Phileb. 31d; UPZ 42, 9 [162 B.C.]; 2 Macc 6:17).
    of attendant or prevailing circumstance (Kühner-G. I 482f; X., Cyr. 4, 6, 6 διὰ πένθους τὸ γῆρας διάγων; Just., D. 105, 2 διʼ οὗ πάθους ἔμελλενἀποθνῄσκειν; PTebt 35, 9 [111 B.C.] διὰ τῆς γνώμης τινός=with someone’s consent; Jos., Bell. 4, 105) σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου you who, (though provided) with the written code and circumcision, are a transgressor/violator of the law Ro 2:27. διʼ ὑπομονῆς 8:25. διὰ προσκόμματος eat with offense (to the scruples of another) 14:20. διʼ ἀκροβυστίας in a state of being uncircumcised 4:11. διὰ πολλῶν δακρύων with many tears 2 Cor 2:4. Cp. 6:7. διὰ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως 2 Pt 1:3 ( through recognition [of God as source of the gifts], s. Danker, Benefactor 457). διὰ πυρός in fiery form AcPlCor 2:13.—Here prob. belongs σωθήσεται διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας 1 Ti 2:15 (opp. of the negative theme in Gen. 3:16), but s. d next. On 1J 5:6 s. A1a above.
    of efficient cause via, through διὰ νόμου ἐπίγνωσις ἁμαρτίας ( only) recognition of sin comes via the law Ro 3:20; cp. 4:13. τὰ παθήματα τὰ διὰ τοῦ νόμου passions aroused via the law 7:5. διὰ νόμου πίστεως by the law of faith 3:27; Gal 2:19. ἀφορμὴν λαμβάνειν διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς Ro 7:8, 11; cp. 13. διὰ τ. εὐαγγελίου ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα (spiritual parenthood) 1 Cor 4:15. Perh. 1 Ti 2:15 but s. c, above. διὰ τῆς σοφίας with its wisdom 1 Cor 1:21; opp. διὰ τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος through the folly of proclamation = foolish proclamation ibid. διὰ τῆς Λευιτικῆς ἱερωσύνης Hb 7:11. Freq. διὰ (τῆς) πίστεως Ro 1:12; 3:22, 25, 30f; Gal 2:16; 3:14, 26; Eph 2:8; 3:12, 17 al. Cp. AcPl Cor 2:8. πίστις διʼ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη faith which works through (=expresses itself in) deeds of love Gal 5:6. διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ if God is willing Ro 15:32; by the will of God 1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:5; Eph 1:1; Col 1:1; 2 Ti 1:1.
    of occasion διὰ τῆς χάριτος by virtue of the grace Ro 12:3; Gal 1:15 (Just., D. 100, 2).—3:18; 4:23; Phlm 22. διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀρετῆς in consequence of his glory and excellence 2 Pt 1:3 v.l.
    in wording of urgent requests διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ by the mercy of God Ro 12:1; cp. 15:30; 1 Cor 1:10; 2 Cor 10:1.
    marker of pers. agency, through, by
    with focus on agency through ( the agency of), by (X., An. 2, 3, 17 διʼ ἑρμηνέως λέγειν; Menand., Fgm. 210, 1 οὐθεὶς διʼ ἀνθρώπου θεὸς σῴζει … ἑτέρου τόν ἕτερον; Achilles Tat. 7, 1, 3 διʼ ἐκείνου μαθεῖν; Just., D. 75, 4 διὰ παρθένου γεννηθῆναι; PMert 5, 8 γεομετρηθῆναι διʼ αὐτοῦ) ῥηθὲν διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Mt 1:22; 2:15, 23; 4:14 al. (cp. Just., A I, 47, 5 διὰ Ἠσαίου τοῦ πρ.). γεγραμμένα διὰ τῶν προφητῶν Lk 18:31; cp. Ac 2:22; 10:36; 15:12 al. διʼ ἀνθρώπου by human agency Gal 1:1. διὰ Μωϋσέως through Moses (Jos., Ant. 7, 338; Mel., P. 11, 77 διὰ χειρὸς Μωυσέως) J 1:17; under Moses’ leadership Hb 3:16. διʼ ἀγγέλων by means of divine messengers (TestJob 18:5 διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου; cp. Jos., Ant. 15, 136, but s. n. by RMarcus, Loeb ed., ad loc.) Gal 3:19; Hb 2:2. πέμψας διὰ τ. μαθητῶν εἶπεν sent and said through his disciples Mt 11:2f. Cp. the short ending of Mk. γράφειν διά τινος of the bearer IRo 10:1; IPhld 11:2; ISm 12:1, but also of pers. who had a greater or smaller part in drawing up some document (Dionys. of Cor. in Eus., HE 4, 23, 11) 1 Pt 5:12 (on the practice s. ERichards, The Secretary in the Letters of Paul ’91). In this case διά comes close to the mng. represented by (LWenger, D. Stellvertretung im Rechte d. Pap. 1906, 9ff; Dssm., LO 98 [LAE 123f]). So also κρίνει ὁ θεὸς διὰ Χρ. Ἰ. God judges, represented by Christ Jesus Ro 2:16. Christ as intermediary in the creation of the world J 1:3, 10; 1 Cor 8:6; Col 1:16.—εὐχαριστεῖν τ. θεῷ διὰ Ἰ. Χρ. thank God through Jesus Christ Ro 1:8; 7:25; Col 3:17.—Occasionally the mediation becomes actual presence (references for this usage in BKeil, Anonymus Argentinensis 1902, p. 192, 1; 306 note) διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων in the presence of many witnesses 2 Ti 2:2 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 114, 31 διὰ θεοῦ μέσου=in the presence of God as mediator; Philo, Leg. ad Gai. 187 τὸ διὰ μαρτύρων κλαίειν=weeping in the presence of witnesses).
    with focus on the originator of an action (Hom. et al.; pap, LXX, EpArist)
    α. of human activity (PSI 354, 6 [254 B.C.] τὸν χόρτον τὸν συνηγμένον διʼ ἡμῶν=by us; 500, 5; 527, 12; 1 Esdr 6:13; 2 Macc 6:21; 4 Macc 1:11) 2 Cor 1:11 (where διὰ πολλῶν resumes ἐκ πολλῶν προσώπων). ᾧ παρέλαβε κανόνι διὰ τῶν μακαρίων προφήτων καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου εὐαγγελίου AcPlCor 2:36.
    β. of divine activity:—of God (Aeschyl., Ag. 1485; Pla., Symp. 186e ἡ ἰατρικὴ πᾶσα διὰ τ. θεοῦ τούτου [Asclepius] κυβερνᾶται; Ael. Aristid., Sarap. [Or. 8 Dind.=45 Keil] 14 K. πάντα γὰρ πανταχοῦ διὰ σοῦ τε καὶ διὰ σὲ ἡμῖν γίγνεται; Zosimus in CALG p. 143 and a magic ring in introd. 133; EpArist 313) 1 Cor 1:9 διʼ οὗ ἐκλήθητε (v.l. ὑπό s. καλέω 4); Ro 11:36 (s. Norden, Agn. Th. 240–50; 347f); Hb 2:10b (s. B 2a, below; cp. Ar. 1:5 διʼ αὐτοῦ … τὰ πάντα συνέστηκεν).—Of Christ Ro 1:5; 5:9, 17f, 21; 8:37; 2 Cor 1:20 al. (ASchettler, D. paulin. Formel ‘durch Christus’ 1907; GJonker, De paulin. formule ‘door Christus’: ThSt 27, 1909, 173–208).—Of the Holy Spirit Ac 11:28; 21:4; Ro 5:5.
    At times διά w. gen. seems to have causal mng. (Rdm. 142; POxy 299, 2 [I A.D.] ἔδωκα αὐτῷ διὰ σοῦ=because of you; Achilles Tat. 3, 4, 5 διὰ τούτων=for this reason; in Eng. cp. Coleridge, Anc. Mariner 135–36: Every tongue thro’ utter drouth Was wither’d at the root, s. OED s.v. ‘through’ I B 8) διὰ τῆς σαρκός because of the resistance of the flesh Ro 8:3.—2 Cor 9:13.—On the use of διά w. gen. in Ro s. Schlaeger, La critique radicale de l’épître aux Rom.: Congr. d’ Hist. du Christ. II 111f.
    B. w. acc.
    marker of extension through an area, through (Hom. and other early Gk. only in poetry, e.g. Pind. P. 9, 123 διʼ ὅμιλον ‘through the throng’; Hellenistic prose since Dionys. Hal. [JKäser, D. Präpositionen b. Dionys. Hal., diss. Erlangen 1915, 54]; ISyriaW 1866b τὸν πάτρωνα διὰ πάντα of the governor of a whole province) διήρχετο διὰ μέσον Σαμαρείας καὶ Γαλιλαίας Lk 17:11 (cp. SibOr 3, 316 ῥομφαία διελεύσεται διὰ μέσον σεῖο).
    marker of someth. constituting cause
    the reason why someth. happens, results, exists: because of, for the sake of (do something for the sake of a divinity: UPZ 62, 2 [161 B.C.] διὰ τὸν Σάραπιν; JosAs 1:10 διʼ αὐτήν; ApcSed 3:3 διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον; Tat. 8:2 διὰ τὸν … Ἄττιν; Ath. 30, 1 διὰ τὴν Δερκετώ) hated because of the name Mt 10:22; persecution arises because of teaching 13:21; because of unbelief vs. 58; because of a tradition 15:3; διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον (the sabbath was designed) for people Mk 2:27; because of Herodias Mk 6:17 (cp. Just. D. 34, 8 διὰ γυναῖκα); because of a crowd Lk 5:19; 8:19 al; because of Judeans Ac 16:3. διὰ τὸν θόρυβον 21:34; because of rain 28:2. Juristically to indicate guilt: imprisoned for insurrection and murder Lk 23:25. διʼ ὑμᾶς on your account=through your fault Ro 2:24 (Is 52:5). διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν because of the passing over 3:25 (but s. WKümmel, ZTK 49, ’52, 164). διὰ τὰ παραπτώματα on account of transgressions 4:25a (cp. Is 53:5; PsSol 13:5); but διὰ τὴν δικαίωσιν in the interest of justification vs. 25b; s. 8:10 for a sim. paired use of διὰ. διὰ τὴν χάριν on the basis of the grace 15:15. διʼ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκός because of a physical ailment (cp. POxy 726, 10f [II A.D.] οὐ δυνάμενος διʼ ἀσθένειαν πλεῦσαι. Cp. ἀσθένεια 1) Gal 4:13. διὰ τὸ θέλημα σου by your will Rv 4:11. διὰ τὸν χρόνον according to the time = by this time Hb 5:12 (Aelian, VH 3, 37 δ. τὸν χρ.=because of the particular time-situation).—W. words denoting emotions out of (Diod S 5, 59, 8 διὰ τὴν λύπην; 18, 25, 1 διὰ τὴν προπέτειαν=out of rashness; Appian, Celt. 1 §9 διʼ ἐλπίδα; 2 Macc 5:21; 7:20; 9:8; 3 Macc 5:32, 41; Tob 8:7): διὰ φθόνον out of envy Mt 27:18; Phil 1:15. διὰ σπλάγχνα ἐλέους out of tender mercy Lk 1:78. διὰ τ. φόβον τινός out of fear of someone J 7:13. διὰ τὴν πολλὴν ἀγάπην out of the great love Eph 2:4. διὰ τ. πλεονεξίαν in their greediness B 10:4.—Of God as the ultimate goal or purpose of life, whereas διά w. gen. (s. A4bβ above) represents God as Creator, Hb 2:10a (s. Norden, op. cit.; PGM 13, 76 διὰ σὲ συνέστηκεν … ἡ γῆ). Cp. J 6:57 (s. Bultmann ad loc.) PtK 2.
    in direct questions διὰ τί; why? (Hyperid. 3, 17; Dio Chrys. 20 [37], 28; Ael. Aristid. 31 p. 597 D.; oft. LXX; TestJob 37:8; TestLevi 2:9; GrBar, Tat; Mel., Fgm. 8b, 42) mostly in an interrogative clause Mt 9:11, 14; 13:10; 15:2f; 17:19; 21:25; Mk 2:18; 11:31; Lk 5:30; 19:23, 31; 20:5; 24:38; J 7:45; 8:43, 46; 12:5; 13:37; Ac 5:3; 1 Cor 6:7; Rv 17:7. Simply διὰ τί; (Hyperid. 3, 23) Ro 9:32; 2 Cor 11:11. Also διατί (always in t.r. and often by Tdf.; TestJob 46:2) B 8:4, 6; Hm 2:5; Hs 5, 5, 5. Kvan Leeuwen Boomkamp, Τι et Διατι dans les évangiles: RevÉtGr 39, 1926, 327–31.—In real and supposed answers and inferences διὰ τοῦτο therefore (X., An. 1, 7, 3; 7, 19; oft. LXX; JosAs 7:7; Ar. 12, 2; Just., A I, 44, 5 al.; Demetr.: 722 Fgm. 2, 3 Jac.) Mt 6:25; 12:27, 31; 13:13, 52; 14:2; 18:23; 21:43; 23:13 v.l.; 24:44; Mk 11:24; 12:24; Lk 11:19 al. Also διὰ ταῦτα (Epict.) Eph 5:6. διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι for this reason, (namely) that J 5:16, 18; 8:47; 10:17; 12:18, 39; 15:19; 1J 3:1. διὰ τοῦτο ἵνα for this reason, (in order) that (Lucian, Abdic. 1) J 1:31; 2 Cor 13:10; 1 Ti 1:16; Phlm 15. Also διὰ τοῦτο ὅπως Hb 9:15.
    διά foll. by inf. or acc. w. inf., representing a causal clause, because (Gen 39:9; Dt 1:36; 1 Macc 6:53; GrBar 8:4; Demetr.: 722 fgm 1:1 al.) διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος because it had no depth Mt 13:5f; Mk 4:5f (διὰ τὸ μή w. inf.: X., Mem. 1, 3, 5; Hero Alex. I 348, 7; III 274, 19; Lucian, Hermot. 31); because lawlessness increases Mt 24:12; διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου Δ.. Lk 2:4; because it was built well 6:48 al. διὰ τὸ λέγεσθαι ὑπό τινων because it was said by some Lk 9:7 (for the constr. cp. Herodian 7, 12, 7 διὰ τὸ τὰς ἐξόδους ὑπὸ τ. πυρὸς προκατειλῆφθαι=because the exit-routes were blocked by the fire).
    instead of διά w. gen. to denote the efficient cause we may have διά, by
    α. w. acc. of thing (schol. on Pind., N. 4, 79a; 2 Macc 12:11; EpArist 77) διὰ τὸ αἷμα by the blood Rv 12:11. διὰ τὰ σημεῖα by the miracles 13:14.
    β. w. acc. of pers. and freq. as expr. of favorable divine action (Aristoph., Plut. 468; Dionys. Hal. 8, 33, 3, 1579 μέγας διὰ τ. θεούς ἐγενόμην; Ael. Aristid. 24, 1 K.=44 p. 824 D.: διʼ οὓς [= θεούς] ἐσώθην; SIG 1122; OGI 458, 40; PGM 13, 579 διῳκονομήθη τ. πάντα διὰ σέ; EpArist 292; Sir 15:11; 3 Macc 6:36: other exx. in SEitrem and AFridrichsen, E. christl. Amulett auf Pap. 1921, 24). ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα J 6:57 (cp. PKöln VI, 245, 16 of Isis σὺ κυρεῖς τὰ πάντα, διὰ σὲ δʼ εἰσορῶ φαός ‘you are responsible for everything and thanks to you I can see light’). διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα by the one who subjected it Ro 8:20.—DELG. M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > διά

  • 17 defence

    dɪˈfens сущ.;
    тж. defense
    1) а) защита to speak out in defence of justiceвысказываться в защиту справедливости best defence is offenceлучшая защита - это нападение Syn: protection, justification, vindication б) оборона to conduct a defence, organize a defence, put up a defence ≈ оборонять, защищать to overwhelm smb.'s defencesпрорывать оборону line of defence ≈ линия обороны heroic defence ≈ героическая защита inadequate defence, weak defence ≈ слабая защита stubborn defence ≈ упорная защита the defence of our country ≈ защита нашей страны They are to take measures for the defence of the country. ≈ Они должны принять меры для обороны страны. в) псих. защитная реакция defence mechanismзащитный механизм The faith of modern Germany is, in psychological language, a 'defence' against reasoning. ≈ Вера в современной Германии это, на языке психологии, 'защитная реакция' против разума. г) спорт защита man-to-man defence ≈ индивидуальная защита zone defence ≈ защита зоны
    2) а) защитные средства, то, что защищает, предохраняет Mountains are necessary as a defence against the violence of heat, in the warm latitudes. ≈ Горы необходимы как средство защиты против безумной жары в жарких широтах. airtight defence, impenetrable defence ≈ герметическая защита, непроницаемая б) мн.;
    воен. укрепления, оборонительные сооружения military defences ≈ военные укрепления
    3) юр. защита а) сторона, защищающая на суде обвиняемого б) часть судебного разбирательства, проводимого защитой a legal defence ≈ судебная защита the defence rests ≈ защита отдыхает защита - missile * противоракетная защита - * mechanism защитный механизм - a thick overcoat is a good * against cold теплое пальто хорошо предохраняет от холода - in * of peace в защиту мира - to die in * of liberty пасть в борьбе за свободу оборона - national * национальная оборона;
    оборона страны - last-ditch * последнее отчаянное сопротивление - all-round * круговая оборона - active * активная оборона - civil * гражданская оборона - air * противовоздушная оборона - heavy * плотная оборона - territorial * территориальная оборона - * tactics оборонительная тактика - * expenditure расходы на оборону - D. Board совет обороны - the Ministry of D. министерство обороны - line of * полоса обороны;
    оборонительный рубеж - first line of * (образное) "первая линия обороны", военно-морской флот( Великобритании) - second line of * (образное) "вторая линия обороны", армия( Великобритании) - to fix /to establish/ a line of * построить линию обороны - weapons of * оборонительное оружие - the system of collective * система коллективной безопасности - * in depth( военное) эшелонированная оборона - * in place( военное) стабильная оборона - to rise to the * of one's nation подняться на защиту своего народа - to make a good * against the enemy успешно отбивать атаки противника - best * is offence нападение -лучшая защита оправдание, защита - in * в защиту, в оправдание - in one's * в свою защиту - to speak in * of smb. выступать в чью-л. защиту, заступаться за кого-л. - it may be said in his * that... в его оправдание можно сказать, что... - to make no * against accusations ничего не сказать в свою защиту pl (военное) укрепления, оборонительные сооружения;
    система, средства обороны - coast *s береговые укрепления - to set up *s организовывать оборону, строить оборонительные сооружения (юридическое) защита (тж. как сторона на процессе) - the case for the * защита - the counsel for the * защитник обвиняемого - to conduct one's own * отказаться от защитника, взять на себя защиту, защищаться самому речь защитника письменное возражение ответчика против иска( спортивное) защита - Indian * (шахматное) индийская защита - man-to-man * защита "игрок против игрока" - team * командная защита > the science /art/ of * бокс affirmative ~ заявление о фактах, опровергающих риск ~ запрещение( рыбной ловли) ;
    best defence is offence нападение - лучший вид защиты ~ юр. защита (на суде) ;
    оправдание, реабилитация;
    counsel for the defence защитник обвиняемого defence адвокат ~ аргументация ответчика ~ возражение по иску ~ запрещение (рыбной ловли) ;
    best defence is offence нападение - лучший вид защиты ~ запрещение ~ спорт. защита ~ юр. защита (на суде) ;
    оправдание, реабилитация;
    counsel for the defence защитник обвиняемого ~ защита (на суде), аргументация ответчика, возражение по иску, возражение ответчика ~ защита ~ защита на суде ~ оборона;
    защита ~ оборона, защита ~ оборона ~ письменное возражение ответчика против иска ~ речь защитника ~ pl воен. укрепления, оборонительные сооружения defense: defense амер. = defence ~ of nonpayment оправдание неплатежа gas ~ противохимическая оборона naval ~ военно-морская оборона Pac-Man ~ орг.бизн. стратегия "Пэк Мэн" (защита от поглощения путем попытки поглотить компанию-агрессора) personal ~ личная защита procedural ~ процессуальная защита

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > defence

  • 18 justify

    1) (to prove or show (a person, action, opinion etc) to be just, right, desirable or reasonable: How can the government justify the spending of millions of pounds on weapons when there is so much poverty in the country?) forsvare, rettferdiggjøre
    2) (to be a good excuse for: Your state of anxiety does not justify your being so rude to me.) rettferdiggjøre, gi rett til å
    - justification
    verb \/ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪ\/
    1) forsvare, rettferdiggjøre, unnskylde, frita for skyld
    2) (teologi, om Gud) rettferdiggjøre, erklære skyldfri
    3) bevise, verifisere
    4) berettige, gi god grunn til
    5) ( teknikk) justere
    6) ( typografi) slutte ut, justere, jevne
    the end justifies the means hensikten helliger middelet
    justify bail ( jus) forklaring: se til at kausjonist er god for kausjonsbeløpet

    English-Norwegian dictionary > justify

  • 19 justify

    transitive verb
    1) (show justice of, vindicate) rechtfertigen; (demonstrate correctness of) belegen, beweisen [Behauptung, Argument, Darstellung]; (offer adequate grounds for) begründen [Verhalten, Vorstellung, Behauptung]

    justify oneself/something to somebody — sich/etwas jemandem gegenüber od. vor jemandem rechtfertigen

    2) (Printing) ausschließen
    * * *
    1) (to prove or show (a person, action, opinion etc) to be just, right, desirable or reasonable: How can the government justify the spending of millions of pounds on weapons when there is so much poverty in the country?)
    2) (to be a good excuse for: Your state of anxiety does not justify your being so rude to me.) rechtfertigen
    - academic.ru/40362/justifiable">justifiable
    - justification
    * * *
    <- ie->
    [ˈʤʌstɪfaɪ, AM -təfaɪ]
    1. (show to be right)
    to \justify sth etw rechtfertigen
    these measures need to be justified first diese Maßnahmen müssen erst begründet werden
    are these measures really justified? sind diese Maßnahmen wirklich gerechtfertigt?
    that does not \justify him being late das entschuldigt nicht, dass er zu spät gekommen ist
    to \justify sb's faith in sb jds Vertrauen in jdn rechtfertigen
    to \justify oneself [for sth] sich akk [für etw akk] rechtfertigen
    to \justify oneself to sb sich akk jdm gegenüber rechtfertigen
    2. TYPO
    to \justify sth line etw ausrichten
    * * *
    1) (= show to be right) rechtfertigen, verteidigen (sth to sb etw vor jdm or jdm gegenüber)

    don't try to justify your action — versuchen Sie nicht, Ihre Tat zu entschuldigen or zu verteidigen

    am I justified in believing that...? — glaube ich zu Recht, dass...?

    2) (= be good reason for) rechtfertigen, ein Grund sein für

    he was justified in doing thates war gerechtfertigt, dass er das tat

    you're not justified in talking to her like that — Sie haben kein Recht, so mit ihr zu reden

    3) (TYP) justieren; (COMPUT) ausrichten

    right/left justified — rechts-/linksbündig

    * * *
    justify [ˈdʒʌstıfaı]
    A v/t
    1. rechtfertigen ( before [ oder to] sb vor jemandem, jemandem gegenüber):
    justify doing sth es rechtfertigen, etwas getan zu haben;
    a) etwas mit gutem Recht tun,
    b) berechtigt sein, etwas zu tun;
    you are not justified in talking to me like that Sie haben kein Recht, so mit mir zu sprechen; end C 10
    2. a) gutheißen
    b) entschuldigen
    c) jemandem recht geben
    3. REL rechtfertigen, von Sündenschuld freisprechen
    4. TECH richtig stellen, richten, eine Waage etc justieren
    5. TYPO justieren, ausschließen
    B v/i JUR sich rechtfertigen (können)
    * * *
    transitive verb
    1) (show justice of, vindicate) rechtfertigen; (demonstrate correctness of) belegen, beweisen [Behauptung, Argument, Darstellung]; (offer adequate grounds for) begründen [Verhalten, Vorstellung, Behauptung]

    justify oneself/something to somebody — sich/etwas jemandem gegenüber od. vor jemandem rechtfertigen

    2) (Printing) ausschließen
    * * *
    ausrichten v.
    begründen v.
    einstellen v.
    justieren v.
    rechtfertigen v.

    English-german dictionary > justify

  • 20 defence

    сущ.; = defense

    Best defence is offence. — Лучшая защита - это нападение.


    defence expenditure — расходы на оборону, военные расходы

    defence budget — оборонный бюджет, военный бюджет

    defence cuts — сокращение расходов на оборону, сокращение военных расходов

    defence industry — оборонная промышленность, военная промышленность

    inadequate / weak defence — недостаточная, слабая защита

    stubborn / dogged defence — упорная защита

    to conduct / organize / put up a defence — оборонять, защищать

    to overwhelm smb.'s defences — прорывать оборону

    They are to take measures for the defence of the country. — Они должны принять меры для обороны страны.

    The company at one time had a significant tie to the defence industry. — Одно время эта компания имела тесные связи с оборонной промышленностью.

    gas defenceвоен. противохимическая оборона

    3) психол. защитная реакция

    The faith of modern Germany is, in psychological language, a "defence" against reasoning. — Вера современной Германии на языке психологии называется "защитной реакцией" против самостоятельного мышления.

    4) спорт. защита

    zone defence — зонная защита, защита зоны

    5) защитные средства; то, что защищает, предохраняет

    airtight / impenetrable defence — герметическая, непроницаемая защита

    Mountains are necessary as a defence against the violence of heat, in the warm latitudes. — Горы необходимы как средство защиты против безумной жары в жарких широтах.

    6) ( defences) воен. укрепления, оборонительные сооружения
    7) юр. ( the defence) защита, ответчик, ответная сторона ( на процессе)

    defence counsel / lawyer, counsel for the defence — адвокат защиты, защитник

    The defence rests, Your Honour. — Ваша честь, защите нечего добавить.

    8) юр. защита ( на суде); аргументация ответчика, подсудимого; возражение по иску, обвинению; возражение ответчика, подсудимого

    Англо-русский современный словарь > defence

См. также в других словарях:

  • justification by faith — noun The doctrine that mankind is absolved from sin by faith in Christ • • • Main Entry: ↑justify * * * justification by faith, freedom from the penalty of sin through faith in Christ …   Useful english dictionary

  • justification by faith / Protestantism —  Оправдание верой, Протестантизм …   Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов

  • justification by faith / Roman Catholicism —  Оправдание верой, Католицизм …   Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов

  • Justification — • A biblio ecclesiastical term; which denotes the transforming of the sinner from the state of unrighteousness to the state of holiness and sonship of God Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Justification     Justification …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Faith — is a belief in the trustworthiness of an idea. Formal usage of the word faith is usually reserved for concepts of religion, as in theology, where it almost universally refers to a trusting belief in a transcendent reality, or else in a Supreme… …   Wikipedia

  • Justification (theology) — The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico Rising out of the Protestant Reformation, Justification is the chief article of faith describing God s act of declaring or making a sinner righteous through Christ s atoning sacrifice. The extent …   Wikipedia

  • Justification bibliography (theology) — This is a sub page for the Justification (theology) page.Ecumenical General*The Lutheran World Federation and The Roman Catholic Church. Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. English Language Edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.… …   Wikipedia

  • justification — /jus teuh fi kay sheuhn/, n. 1. a reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends: His insulting you was ample justification for you to leave the party. 2. an act of justifying: The painter s justification of his failure to… …   Universalium

  • Justification —    A forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e.,… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Faith and rationality — are two modes of belief that exist in varying degrees of conflict or compatibility. Faith is belief in inspiration, revelation, or authority. Rationality is belief based on reason or evidence.Broadly speaking, there are three categories of views… …   Wikipedia

  • Faith Lehane — Personnage de fiction apparaissant dans Buffy contre les vampires …   Wikipédia en Français

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