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just then

  • 1 commodum

        commodum adv.    [commodus], just, just then, just now (colloq.): commodum Enim egeram diligentissime, had just been arguing: id cum hoc agebam commodum, was just talking of, T.: commodum discesseras, cum Trebatius venit: commodum cum redisset.
    * * *
    I
    just, a very short time before; that/this very minute; even now, at this moment
    II
    convenience, advantage, benefit; interest, profit, yield; wages, reward; gift

    Latin-English dictionary > commodum

  • 2 ipse

        ipse    (old ipsus, T.), a, um, gen. ipsīus (rarely ipsius, V., disyl. T.), dat. ipsī, pron demonstr.    I. In gen., to express eminence or emphasis.    A. Self, in person (often rendered by an emphatic he, or by very, just, precisely): adest optume ipse frater, T.: ille ipse Marcellus: ipsa virtus: rex ipse Aeneas, V.: in ipsā arce habitare, L.: naturas quas Iuppiter ipse Addidit, V.: Audentīs deus ipse iuvat, O.: ego enim ipse cum eodem isto non invitus erraverim: eaque ipsa causa belli fuit, the very cause, L.: cui tutor is fuerat ipse, L.: iam id ipsum absurdum: Tullius eos ipsos deduxit, L.: eorum ipsorum facta: quid iuvat quod... si ipsum, quod veni, nihil iuvat? the mere fact.—As subst: atque ipsis, ad quorum commodum pertinebat, durior inventus est Caelius, Cs.: ex ipsā quaeram: agrum dare ipsi, qui accepisset, L.: ipsi omnia, quorum negotium est, ad nos deferunt.—    B. To emphasize one of the subjects of a common predicate.—With et, he too, himself in person, even he: deseret eos, cum habeat praesertim et ipse cohortīs triginta?: credo ego vos, soeii, et ipsos cernere, L.—With neque (cf. ne... quidem): pauca, neque ea ipsa enucleate dicta: primis repulsis Maharbal missus nec ipse eruptionem cohortium sustinuit, L.—With etiam: ipse etiam Fufidius in numero fuit.—With quoque: quia plebs SC solvit, ipsi quoque solutum voltis, L.—He for his part, he too, also, as well: litterae adlatae sunt a Clodiā, quae ipsa transiit, also in person: trīs ipse excitavit recitatores, he too: Hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omnisque iuventus Laeta facit, V.—    II. Esp.    A. As subst., of an eminent person: ipsus tristis, the master, T.: Pythagorei respondere solebant, ipse dixit, i. e. Pythagoras: lectica Mathonis plena ipso, the great man, Iu.: anseris ante ipsum iecur, before the host, Iu.—    B. Of oneself, spontaneously: de manibus delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt: Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae Ubera, V.—    C. Excluding others, by oneself, alone, mere, very: haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat, V.: ipso terrore ordines perturbant, Cs.: qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit: aestimando ipse secum, L.: ipsam aequitatem et ius ipsum amare, for its own sake: nunc ipsum, just now: tum ipsum, just then.—    D. With numerals, just, exactly, precisely: triginta dies erant ipsi, cum, etc.: ipsas undecim esse legiones: ipso vigesimo anno.—    E. In a reflexive clause.—With the subject emphat. opposed to other agents: non egeo medicinā, me ipse consolor: Artaxerxes se ipse reprehendit, N.: ipsa se virtus satis ostendit, S.: ut non modo populo R., sed etiam sibi ipse condemnatus videretur: qui ipsi sibi bellum indixissent.—With the object: omne animal se ipsum diligit: Lentulum, quem mihi ipsi antepono.—In place of se or suus.—For emphatic distinction: cum omnes se expetendos putent, nec id ob aliam rem, sed propter ipsos: quos, quidquid ipsis expediat, facturos arbitrabimur: pravitas consulum discordiaque inter ipsos, L.—To avoid ambiguity in the use of se or suus: ne aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos despiceret, Cs.: legatos mittit, qui tantum modo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, S.: nihil umquam audivi... nihil de re p. gravius, nihil de ipso modestius.—For se or sibi: inexperta remedia haud iniuriā ipsis esse suspecta, Cu.: rex propius ipsum considere amicos iubet, Cu.—With abl absol.: cum dies venit, causā ipse pro se dictā, damnatur (i. e. cum causam ipse pro se dixisset), L.: amisso et ipse Pacoro, Ta.—With abl. of gerund: deponendo tutelam ipse, in se unum virīs convertit, L.: agendo ipse, L.
    * * *
    ipsa, ipsum PRON
    himself/herself/itself; the very/real/actual one; in person; themselves (pl.)

    Latin-English dictionary > ipse

  • 3 tum

        tum adv., of time    [3 TA-].—Of time past, then, at that time, in those times: placuit tum id mihi, T.: qui tum vexare cupiebant: vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant, L.: Caere, opulento tum oppido, L.: tum Staienus condemnatus est, i. e. in that trial.—In emphatic opposition to other advv. of time: tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopiā? T.: quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revolsa, nunc a me tamen deportata est: Et tum sicca, prius creberrima fontibus, Ide, O.—Of time present (only in orat. obliq., for nunc), now, at this time, then: quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore? if they were not now so, L.—Of time future, then, in that case, if that be done, thereupon: Tum meae... Vocis accedet bona pars, H.: confer sudantes, ructantes... tum intelleges, etc.: agedum, dictatorem creemus... Pulset tum mihi lictorem, qui sciet, etc., L.—Of time indefinite, then, at such a time, in such circumstances, in this instance, if so: nam quid agimus, cum sevocamus animum?... quid, inquam, tum agimus, nisi, etc.?—Repeated, tum... tum, sometimes... sometimes, now... now, at one time... at another: tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur: dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites, L.—Of succession in time, then, thereupon, next, afterwards, forthwith: conlocari iussit hominem in aureo lecto... Tum ad mensam eximiā formā pueros iussit consistere: tum, prope iam perculsis aliis tribunis, A. Virginius Caesoni capitis diem dicit, L.—In a series, repeated, or with other advv. or conjj. varying the expression: ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Iove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.: tum... alias... tum... alias: tum... tum... aliquando: tum... tum... aut... aut: modo... tum autem.—Fig., of succession in thought, and then, besides, also, moreover, again, further, on the other hand: Quot me censes homines iam deverberasse, Hospites tum civīs? as well as, T.: faciendum est igitur nobis ut... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus... confirmetur.—After a general clause with cum, introducing a particular or emphatic assertion: cum... tum, as... so, while... also, not only... but also, as... so especially: Quom id mihi placebat, tum uno ore omnes omnia Bona dicere, T.: cum omnium rerum simulatio vitiosa est, tum amicitiae repugnat maxime: movet patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor, L.—Cum, followed by tum vero, tum maxime, tum praecipue or tum inprimis, while... in particular, not only... but especially, while... above all, not only... but chiefly: cum haec sunt videnda, tum vero illud est hominis magni, etc.: cum infamia atque indignitas rei impediebat, tum maxime quod, etc., Cs.: cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.— Cum, followed by tum certe, tum nimirum, tum etiam, tum quoque or tum praeterea, while... at least, as... so assuredly, both... and as well, not only... but moreover: at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis: cum memoriter, tum etiam amice, etc.: cum potestas maior, tum vir quoque potestati par, etc., L.—Referring to a temporal clause, with cum.—Of coincidence of definite time, tum... cum, or cum... tum, at the time when, at a time when, even when, already when: tum, quom gratum mihi esse potuit, nolui, T.: cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur: tum mittendos legatos fuisse cum Perseus Graecas urbes obsideret, L.—Of succession in time, then, next, at once, forthwith: id cum Sulla fecisset, tum ante oppidum Nolam Samnitium castra cepit: cum muros defensoribus nudasset, tum Afros ad subruendum murum mittit, L.—Of indefinite time, tum... cum, or cum... tum, at the time when, at a time when, at such times as, whenever: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adiungitur: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, O.—With ubi, of succession in time, then, next, at once, forthwith: ubi eorum dolorem cognovi, tum meum animum in illos proposui: ubi spectaculi tempus venit, tum orta vis, L.—Of indefinite time, ubi... tum, whenever: Post ubi tempust promissa iam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt, T.—With postquam or postea quam, of succession in definite time, then, at once: tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc., L.: posteaquam e portu piratae exierunt, tum coeperunt quaerere homines, etc., as soon as.—In indefinite time, then, always: postquam commoditas prava dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum malitia praevertere urbīs adsuevit.—With ut, ut... tum, or tum... ut, when, after, as soon as: ut vero accessit cohortatio... tum vero filium seduxit: ut vero aquam ingressi sunt, tum utique egressis rigere corpora, L.—With quando, tum... quando, or quando... tum, when, as soon as: utinam tum essem natus quando Romani dona accipere coepissent.—With dum, then, meanwhile: dum se glomerant... tum pondere turris Procubuit, V.—With quam diu, then, so long: qui, quam tibi amicus non modo tum fuerit quam diu tecum in provinciā fuit, verum, etc.—With a relative, then, at that time: Quā tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis iunxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis iam fui ad pariendum mensibus, C. poët.—With an abl absol., then, thereafter, at once: ut morte eius nuntiatā tum denique bellum confectum arbitraretur: ita rebus divinis peractis tum de bello dictator rettulit, L.—Fig., in a conclusion after cum or si, then, therefore, consequently, in that case: cum magnus numerus deesset, tum iste homo coepit, etc.: quid tum quaeso, si hoc pater resciverit? T.: Si quidem me amaret, tum istuc prodesset, T. —In particular phrases, iam tum, already at that time, as soon as that: iam tum erat suspitio Dolo malo haec fieri, T.: ut mihi iam tum divinasse ille videatur hanc urbem esse, etc.—Tum demum or tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, as late as that: tum demum Liscus, quod antea tacuerat, proponit, Cs.: quo cum venerimus, tum denique vivemus.—Tum primum, tum primo, or tum deinde, then first, then for the first time, not till then: ludorum gratiā, quos tum primum anniversarios in circo facere constituisset: tum primo, L.: quas cum solus pertulisset, tum deinde comitia conlegae subrogando habuit, L.— Hic tum, at this point, just here, just then: hic tum iniectus est hominibus scrupulus.—With emphatic particles, tum vero, tum enim vero, or enim vero tum, then indeed, just then, at that crisis, then if not before, then: discedit a Melino Cluentia. tum vero illa egregia mater palum exsultare... coepit: Quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari... Sensit, Tum vero gemitūs... Edidit, O.—Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least: et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem, etc.—Ne tum quidem, not even then: num quis horum miser hodie? ne tum quidem, post spiritum extremum.—Tum maxime or tum cum maxime, especially at that time, chiefly then, just then, precisely at that time: quem provincia tum maxime exspectabat: regi, tum maxime captivos ex Illyrico vendenti, at that very time, L.—Etiam tum, even then, even at that time, even already, even yet: totum se Servilio etiam tum tradidit: Ipsa ego non longos etiam tum scissa capillos, not yet long, O.—Tum quoque, also then, then likewise, then as before, then too, then once more, even then: tum quoque homini plus tribui quam necessitati: tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis, L.—Tum autem, and then, besides further, moreover, nay even, statim se ad hominis egentis, tum autem iudicis, familiaritatem se applicavit: tanta enim tempestas cooritur... tum autem nives proluit, etc., Cs.— Tum ipsum, at that very time, just then, even then: id quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere.—Quid tum? what then? what next? what further?: dic; cras est mihi Iudicium. quid tum? T.: videsne abundare me otio? A. quid tum?
    * * *
    then, next; besides; at that time

    cum...tum -- not only...but also

    Latin-English dictionary > tum

  • 4 tunc

        tunc adv. demonstr., of time    [tum+ce].—Of time past, then, at that time, just then, on that occasion: ubi tunc eras?: tunc duces Nerviorum... conloqui sese velle dicunt, Cs.: iam Horatius secundam pugnam petebat. tunc clamore... adiuvant militem suum, just then, L.: urbs (Corinthus) erat tunc praeclara ante excidium, L.— Opposed to present time: eā lege quae tunc erat Sempronia, nunc est Cornelia: cur privati non damus remiges, sicut tunc dedimus? L.—Of time present, now, at this time (only in nar. obliq. for nunc): quod si consulatūs tanta dulcedo sit, iam tunc ita in animum inducant, consulatum captum ab tribuniciā potestate esse, L.—Of time future, then, at that time, in that event: tunc illud vexillum... coloniae Capuae inferetur; tunc contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur: Tunc piger ad nandum, tunc ego cautus ero, O.—Of succession in time, then, thereupon, forthwith, just afterwards, accordingly, consequently: Herodotus cum Romā revertitur, offendit eum mensem qui consequitur mensem comitialem. tunc Cephaloeditani decrerunt intercalarium XXXV dies longum: is finis pugnae equestris fuit. tunc adorti peditum aciem, nuntios mittunt, L.: animadversum est, extra consuetudinem longius a vallo esse aciem Pompei progressum. tunc Caesar apud suos ‘Di<*> ferendum est’ inquit ‘iter,’ etc., Cs.: ipse quoque longinquo morbo est inplicatus, tunc adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritūs illi feroces ut, etc., L.—Fig., of succession in thought, cum... tunc (cf. cum... tum), while... in particular, both... and above all: Vivendum recte est cum propter plurima, tunc est Idcirco, etc., Iu.—Esp., referring to a temporal clause, with cum.—Of coincidence of definite time, tunc... cum, or cum... tunc, just at the time when, just when, then... when: quo damnato tunc, cum iudicia fiebant, HS IV milibus lis aestimata est: ille eo tempore paruit cum necesse erat; vos tunc paruistis cum paruit nemo, etc.: Infelix Dido, nunc te facta impia tangunt? Tunc decuit cum sceptra dabas, V. (Rib. tum): cum iam adpropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc iniecta trepidatio, L.—Of indefinite time, tunc... cum, at a time when, only when, whenever: ‘arbitror,’ quo nos etiam tunc utimur cum ea dicimus iurati, etc.— With ubi, then, at once, forthwith, thereupon: ad quod bellum ubi consules dilectum habere occipiunt, obstare tunc enixe tribuni, L.—With quando, whenever (rare), C.—With an abl absol., then, thereupon, forthwith: legatis auditis, tunc de bello referre sese Aemilius dixit, L.—Fig., in a conclusion after si, then, therefore, consequently, in that case: si se exstinxisset, tunc victorem ausurum, etc., L.—In particular phrases, iam tunc, even at that time, as soon as that: nisi iam tunc omnia negotia diligentissime confecissem.—Tunc demum, not until then, then only, then at last, as late as that: tunc demum nuntius missus ad tertiam legionem revocandam, L.: tunc demum pectora plangi Contigit, O.—Tunc primum, then for the first time, then first, not till then: quia tunc primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est, S.: tunc primum circo, qui nunc maximus dicitur, designatus locus est, L.—Tunc vero, then indeed, just then, at that crisis: in perturbatos iam hostīs equos inmittunt. tunc vero Celtiberi omnes in fugam effunduntur, L.—Tunc quidem, at that time: et tunc quidem Perseus copias reduxit; postero die, etc., L.—Tunc cum maxime, just then, precisely at that time: hospitem tunc cum maxime utilia suadentem abstrahi iussit, Cu.—Tunc quoque, also then, then too, then likewise, then once morc, even then: Saepe legit flores; et tunc quoque forte legebat, O.: quin nisi... ingens accipienda clades fuerit. tunc quoque ad extremum periculi ventum est, even as it was, L.
    * * *
    then, thereupon, at that time

    Latin-English dictionary > tunc

  • 5 Commodus

    1.
    com-mŏdus, a, um, adj., that has a due or proper measure; hence,
    I.
    Object., complete, perfect, of full weight or measure, fit, suitable, due, proper, etc. (mostly poet. or in post-Aug. prose;

    most freq. in Plaut.): statura,

    a tall stature, Plaut. As. 2, 3, 21:

    capillus,

    id. Most. 1, 3, 98:

    viginti argenti minae,

    full twenty, id. As. 3, 3, 134 (cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 144: minae bonae); id. Merc. 2, 3, 101:

    talentum argenti,

    id. Rud. 5, 2, 31; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 266, 27:

    novem cyathis commodis miscentur pocula,

    Hor. C. 3, 19, 12:

    alimenta,

    Dig. 34, 1, 16, § 1:

    capitis valetudo commodior,

    more firm, Cels. 8, 1; Quint. 6, 3, 77;

    and transf. to the person: vivere filium atque etiam commodiorem esse,

    to be better, Plin. Ep. 3, 16, 4.—
    II.
    Subject., suitable, fit, convenient, opportune, commodious, easy, appropriate for some one or something, favorable, friendly to (in every period and species of composition); constr. with dat. or absol., rarely with ad (v. the foll.).
    A.
    Of things.
    1.
    With dat.
    a.
    Of the purpose or use:

    curationi omnia commodiora,

    Liv. 30, 19, 5:

    nec pecori opportuna seges nec commoda Baccho,

    Verg. G. 4, 129.—
    b.
    Of the person:

    hoc et vobis et meae commodum famae arbitror,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 9:

    quod erit mihi bonum et commodum,

    id. Phorm. 1, 2, 81:

    nulla lex satis commoda omnibus est (corresp. with prodesse),

    Liv. 34, 3, 5:

    primordia eloquentiae mortalibus,

    Tac. Or. 12:

    hanc sibi commodissimam belli rationem judicavit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 85:

    quae sit stella homini commoda, quaeque mala,

    Prop. 2 (3), 27, 4.—
    2.
    Absol.:

    hiberna,

    Liv. 42, 67, 8:

    longius ceterum commodius iter,

    id. 22, 2, 2; cf.:

    commodissimus in Britanniam transjectus,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 2:

    commodius anni tempus,

    Cic. Att. 9, 3, 1; cf. Ter. And. 5, 2, 3:

    faciliore ac commodiore judicio,

    Cic. Caecin. 3, 8:

    litterae satis commodae de Britannicis rebus,

    id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 25:

    mores,

    id. Lael. 15, 54:

    commodissimum esse statuit, omnes naves subduci, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 11.—
    3.
    With or without dat. pers. in the phrase commodum est, it pleases, is agreeable, = libet:

    proinde ut commodum est,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 8; 3, 1, 2: dum erit commodum, Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 38:

    si id non commodum est,

    id. Eun. 3, 2, 49; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 37; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 33 Ascon.; 2, 2, 16, § 39; 2, 1, 26, § 65; 2, 3, 70, § 165; id. Div. 1, 49, 111; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87; Plin. Pan. 48, 1:

    id si tibi erit commodum, cures velim,

    Cic. Att. 13, 48, 2; Cels. 4, 4; 4, 22.—
    4.
    With ad and acc. of purpose (very rare):

    nec satis ad cursus commoda vestis Erat,

    Ov. F. 2, 288.—
    5.
    With sup. in u (rare):

    hoc exornationis genus... commodum est auditu,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 26.—
    B.
    Of persons, serving a neighbor or (more freq.) accommodating one ' s self to his wishes, useful, serviceable, pleasant, agreeable, obliging, neighborly, friendly, polite, affable, gentle, etc.:

    mihi commodus uni,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 9, 9; cf. id. ib. 2, 1, 227:

    quemquamne existimas Catone commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis?

    Cic. Mur. 31, 66:

    commodior mitiorque,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 13, § 39:

    Apronius, qui aliis inhumanus ac barbarus, isti uni commodus ac disertus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 9, § 23:

    convivae,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 2; cf.:

    commodus comissator,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 2, 8; and:

    commodus meis sodalibus,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 1:

    homines,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 28:

    mulier commoda, Faceta,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 10; cf. id. And. 5, 2, 3.—In a double sense with I. supra:

    ubi tu commoda's, capillum commodum esse credito,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 98.— Poet., of the measure of iambic verse:

    spondeos in jura paterna recepit Commodus et patiens,

    sharing the paternal rights with them, in a fraternal manner, Hor. A. P. 257.—Hence,
    III.
    Subst.: commŏdum, i, n.
    1.
    A convenient opportunity, favorable condition, convenience (rare, but in good prose):

    nostrum exspectare,

    Cic. Att. 16, 2, 1:

    cum tamdiu sedens meum commodum exspectet,

    id. ib. 14, 2, 3;

    12, 38, 1: velim aliquando, cum erit tuum commodum, Lentulum puerum visas,

    when it shall be convenient for you, id. ib. 12, 28, 3.—More freq.,
    b.
    In the connection commodo meo, tuo, etc., per commodum, ex commodo, at, or according to my, thy, etc., convenience, conveniently, at one ' s leisure:

    etiamsi spatium ad dicendum nostro commodo vacuosque dies habuissemus,

    according to our convenience, Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56:

    quod commodo tuo fiat,

    id. Fam. 4, 2, 4; 1, 1, 3; id. Att. 13, 48, 1: suo commodo me convenire, Caes. ap. Cic. ib. 14, 1, 2:

    ubi consul copias per commodum exponere posset,

    Liv. 42, 18, 3:

    tamquam lecturus ex commodo,

    Sen. Ep. 46, 1; Col. 12, 19, 3;

    so opp. festinanter,

    id. 6, 2, 14.—
    2.
    Advantage, profit (very freq. in all periods and species of composition):

    commodum est, quod plus usus habet quam molestiae: bonum sincerum debet esse et ab omni parte innoxium,

    Sen. Ep. 87, 36 sq.:

    ut malis gaudeant atque ex incommodis Alterius sua ut comparent commoda,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 4:

    ut ex illius commodo meum compararem commodum,

    id. Heaut. 2, 4, 17; cf. id. Hec. 5, 3, 42; Cic. N. D. 1, 9, 23:

    cui tam subito tot congruerint commoda,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 3:

    (honestatem) ipsam suo splendore ad se animos ducere, nullo prorsus commodo extrinsecus posito, Cic. Ac. Fragm. ap. Aug. contr. Ac. 3, 7, 15 (IV. 2, p. 470 Orell.): sequi matris commodum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 31:

    pacis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 82, 335:

    contra valetudinis commodum laborare,

    to the injury of health, id. Mur. 23, 47:

    mea,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 37:

    in publica peccem,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 3; cf.:

    populi commoda,

    Nep. Phoc. 4, 1.—
    b.
    Specif., a reward, pay, stipend, salary, wages for public service: veteranorum, Brut. et Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 2, 3:

    omnibus provincialibus ornamentis commodisque depositis,

    emoluments, id. Red. in Sen. 14, 35; Suet. Ner. 32; cf.:

    emeritae militiae,

    id. Calig. 44; id. Aug. 49; cf. also id. Vit. 15; id. Galb. 12:

    militibus commoda dare,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 131 sq.:

    tribunatus,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 8, 1:

    missionum,

    Suet. Aug. 49.—
    c.
    A favor, privilege, immunity, Suet. Aug. 31; id. Claud. 19.—
    d.
    A useful thing, a good:

    commoda vitae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87; Lucr. 3, 2; cf.:

    cetera opinione bona sunt... proprietas in illis boni non est. Itaque commoda vocentur,

    Sen. Ep. 74, 17:

    inter commoda illas (divitias) numeratis: atqui eādem ratione ne commodum quidem erunt,

    id. ib. 87, 29. —
    e.
    Sometimes commodo or per commodum, adverb. antith. to that which is [p. 382] injurious, without injury or detriment:

    ut regem reducas, quod commodo rei publicae facere possis,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 1, 3:

    si per commodum reipublicae posset, Romam venisset,

    Liv. 10, 25, 17.—
    3.
    Concr., = commodatum, that which is lent, a loan:

    qui forum et basilicas commodis hospitum, non furtis nocentium ornarent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 6; cf. Isid. Orig. 5, 25, 16.—
    B.
    Advv.:
    1.
    commŏdum, adv. temp. (only in colloquial lang. and post-class. prose writers).
    a.
    At a fit time, just in time, at the very nick, at the very moment, opportunely, seasonably ( = opportune, eukairôs):

    ecce autem commodum aperitur foris,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 4, 61:

    commodum adveni domum,

    id. Am. 2, 2, 37:

    orditur loqui,

    id. Trin. 5, 2, 12:

    ipse exit Lesbonicus,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 9: eukairôs ad me venit, cum haberem Dolabellam, Torquatus... commodum egeram diligentissime, Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1; Symm. Ep. 2, 47. —
    b.
    To designate a point of time that corresponds with another, or that just precedes it, just, just then, just now.
    (α).
    Absol.:

    ad te hercle ibam commodum,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 4, 3; Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 9:

    Taurus, sectatoribus commodum dimissis, sedebat, etc.,

    Gell. 2, 2, 2:

    si istac ibis, commodum obviam venies patri,

    just meet, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 107. —
    (β).
    With postquam or (more freq.) with cum in a parallel clause:

    postquam me misisti ad portum cum luci simul, Commodum radiosus ecce sol superabat ex mari,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 41:

    quom huc respicio ad virginem, Illa sese interea commodum huc advorterat,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 52:

    commodum discesseras heri, cum Trebatius venit,

    Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1:

    emerseram commodum ex Antiati in Appiam, cum in me incurrit Curio,

    id. ib. 2, 12, 2 B. and K. (al. commode); so with the pluperf. and a foll. cum, id. ib. 13, 19, 1; 13, 30, 2; 10, 16, 1; App. M. 1, p. 107, 15:

    adducitur a Veneriis Lollius commodum cum Apronius e palaestrā redisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 61 B. and K. (Zumpt, commode):

    cum jam filiae nostrae dies natalis appeteret, commodum aderant, quae muneri miseratis,

    Symm. Ep. 3, 50. —
    2.
    commŏdŏ, adv. temp., = commodum, a., just in time, seasonably, just at this time (ante-class. and very rare): commodo eccum exit, Titin. ap. Charis. p. 177 P. (i. e. in tempore, Charis.): commodo de parte superiore descendebat, Sisenn. ib.: commodo dictitemus, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Charis. p. 174; cf. id. ib. p. 177.—
    3.
    commŏdē, adv.
    a.
    (Acc. to commodus, I.) Duly, properly, completely, rightly, well, skilfully, neatly, etc. (class.):

    suo quique loco viden' capillus satis compositu'st commode?

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 97: commode amictus non sum, id. Fragm. ap. Gell. 18, 12, 3:

    saltare, Nep. praef. § 1: legere,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19, 3; cf. in comp., id. ib. 9, 34, 1:

    multa breviter et commode dicta,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1; cf. id. de Or. 1, 53, 227; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 9; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 20; 1, 2, 33 al.:

    cogitare,

    id. Heaut. prol. 14:

    audire,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 58, § 134:

    valere,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 20, 11:

    feceris commode mihique gratum, si, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 10, 3 fin.:

    commode facere, quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 11, 7, 7; in comp.:

    commodius fecissent tribuni plebis, si, etc.,

    id. Agr. 3, 1, 1.—In medic.:

    commode facere,

    to do well, be beneficial, Cels. 4, 12.—
    b.
    (Acc. to commodus, II.)
    (α).
    Conveniently, suitably, opportunely, fitly, aptly, appropriately:

    magis commode quam strenue navigavi,

    Cic. Att. 16, 6, 1:

    ille satis scite et commode tempus ad te cepit adeundi,

    id. Fam. 11, 16, 1:

    vos istic commodissime sperem esse,

    id. ib. 14, 7, 2:

    explorat, quo commodissime itinere valles transiri possit,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 49 fin.:

    hoc ego commodius quam tu vivo,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 110; cf.:

    consumere vitiatum commodius quam integrum,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 91; Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    cui commodissime subjungitur,

    id. 9, 3, 82; cf. id. 4, 1, 76.—
    (β).
    In a friendly manner, pleasantly, gently, kindly:

    acceptae bene et commode eximus,

    Plaut. Cas. 5, 1, 1; id. Poen. 1, 2, 190; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 48.—
    c.
    (Equiv. to commodum, adv. b.) Just, just at the moment when, etc.; only v.l. in the doubtful passages cited supra, commodum, b. fin.
    2.
    Commŏdus, i, m., a Roman cognomen; so L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus, Roman emperor, Lampr. Commod. 1 sq.; Eutr. 8, 15 al.—Hence,
    1.
    Commŏdĭā-nus, a, um, adj., of or pertaining to Commodus: horti, Lampr. Commod. 8:

    thermae,

    Spart. Nigid. 6 al. —
    2.
    Commŏ-dĭus, a, um, adj., the same:

    Nonae,

    Lampr. Commod. 12; cf. id. ib. 11.—
    3.
    Commŏ-dus, a, um, adj., the same: mensis, i. e. August, which Commodus wished to name after himself, Lampr. Commod. 11.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Commodus

  • 6 commodus

    1.
    com-mŏdus, a, um, adj., that has a due or proper measure; hence,
    I.
    Object., complete, perfect, of full weight or measure, fit, suitable, due, proper, etc. (mostly poet. or in post-Aug. prose;

    most freq. in Plaut.): statura,

    a tall stature, Plaut. As. 2, 3, 21:

    capillus,

    id. Most. 1, 3, 98:

    viginti argenti minae,

    full twenty, id. As. 3, 3, 134 (cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 144: minae bonae); id. Merc. 2, 3, 101:

    talentum argenti,

    id. Rud. 5, 2, 31; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 266, 27:

    novem cyathis commodis miscentur pocula,

    Hor. C. 3, 19, 12:

    alimenta,

    Dig. 34, 1, 16, § 1:

    capitis valetudo commodior,

    more firm, Cels. 8, 1; Quint. 6, 3, 77;

    and transf. to the person: vivere filium atque etiam commodiorem esse,

    to be better, Plin. Ep. 3, 16, 4.—
    II.
    Subject., suitable, fit, convenient, opportune, commodious, easy, appropriate for some one or something, favorable, friendly to (in every period and species of composition); constr. with dat. or absol., rarely with ad (v. the foll.).
    A.
    Of things.
    1.
    With dat.
    a.
    Of the purpose or use:

    curationi omnia commodiora,

    Liv. 30, 19, 5:

    nec pecori opportuna seges nec commoda Baccho,

    Verg. G. 4, 129.—
    b.
    Of the person:

    hoc et vobis et meae commodum famae arbitror,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 9:

    quod erit mihi bonum et commodum,

    id. Phorm. 1, 2, 81:

    nulla lex satis commoda omnibus est (corresp. with prodesse),

    Liv. 34, 3, 5:

    primordia eloquentiae mortalibus,

    Tac. Or. 12:

    hanc sibi commodissimam belli rationem judicavit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 85:

    quae sit stella homini commoda, quaeque mala,

    Prop. 2 (3), 27, 4.—
    2.
    Absol.:

    hiberna,

    Liv. 42, 67, 8:

    longius ceterum commodius iter,

    id. 22, 2, 2; cf.:

    commodissimus in Britanniam transjectus,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 2:

    commodius anni tempus,

    Cic. Att. 9, 3, 1; cf. Ter. And. 5, 2, 3:

    faciliore ac commodiore judicio,

    Cic. Caecin. 3, 8:

    litterae satis commodae de Britannicis rebus,

    id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 7, § 25:

    mores,

    id. Lael. 15, 54:

    commodissimum esse statuit, omnes naves subduci, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 11.—
    3.
    With or without dat. pers. in the phrase commodum est, it pleases, is agreeable, = libet:

    proinde ut commodum est,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 8; 3, 1, 2: dum erit commodum, Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 38:

    si id non commodum est,

    id. Eun. 3, 2, 49; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 37; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 33 Ascon.; 2, 2, 16, § 39; 2, 1, 26, § 65; 2, 3, 70, § 165; id. Div. 1, 49, 111; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87; Plin. Pan. 48, 1:

    id si tibi erit commodum, cures velim,

    Cic. Att. 13, 48, 2; Cels. 4, 4; 4, 22.—
    4.
    With ad and acc. of purpose (very rare):

    nec satis ad cursus commoda vestis Erat,

    Ov. F. 2, 288.—
    5.
    With sup. in u (rare):

    hoc exornationis genus... commodum est auditu,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 26.—
    B.
    Of persons, serving a neighbor or (more freq.) accommodating one ' s self to his wishes, useful, serviceable, pleasant, agreeable, obliging, neighborly, friendly, polite, affable, gentle, etc.:

    mihi commodus uni,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 9, 9; cf. id. ib. 2, 1, 227:

    quemquamne existimas Catone commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis?

    Cic. Mur. 31, 66:

    commodior mitiorque,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 13, § 39:

    Apronius, qui aliis inhumanus ac barbarus, isti uni commodus ac disertus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 9, § 23:

    convivae,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 2; cf.:

    commodus comissator,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 2, 8; and:

    commodus meis sodalibus,

    Hor. C. 4, 8, 1:

    homines,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 28:

    mulier commoda, Faceta,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 10; cf. id. And. 5, 2, 3.—In a double sense with I. supra:

    ubi tu commoda's, capillum commodum esse credito,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 98.— Poet., of the measure of iambic verse:

    spondeos in jura paterna recepit Commodus et patiens,

    sharing the paternal rights with them, in a fraternal manner, Hor. A. P. 257.—Hence,
    III.
    Subst.: commŏdum, i, n.
    1.
    A convenient opportunity, favorable condition, convenience (rare, but in good prose):

    nostrum exspectare,

    Cic. Att. 16, 2, 1:

    cum tamdiu sedens meum commodum exspectet,

    id. ib. 14, 2, 3;

    12, 38, 1: velim aliquando, cum erit tuum commodum, Lentulum puerum visas,

    when it shall be convenient for you, id. ib. 12, 28, 3.—More freq.,
    b.
    In the connection commodo meo, tuo, etc., per commodum, ex commodo, at, or according to my, thy, etc., convenience, conveniently, at one ' s leisure:

    etiamsi spatium ad dicendum nostro commodo vacuosque dies habuissemus,

    according to our convenience, Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56:

    quod commodo tuo fiat,

    id. Fam. 4, 2, 4; 1, 1, 3; id. Att. 13, 48, 1: suo commodo me convenire, Caes. ap. Cic. ib. 14, 1, 2:

    ubi consul copias per commodum exponere posset,

    Liv. 42, 18, 3:

    tamquam lecturus ex commodo,

    Sen. Ep. 46, 1; Col. 12, 19, 3;

    so opp. festinanter,

    id. 6, 2, 14.—
    2.
    Advantage, profit (very freq. in all periods and species of composition):

    commodum est, quod plus usus habet quam molestiae: bonum sincerum debet esse et ab omni parte innoxium,

    Sen. Ep. 87, 36 sq.:

    ut malis gaudeant atque ex incommodis Alterius sua ut comparent commoda,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 4:

    ut ex illius commodo meum compararem commodum,

    id. Heaut. 2, 4, 17; cf. id. Hec. 5, 3, 42; Cic. N. D. 1, 9, 23:

    cui tam subito tot congruerint commoda,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 3:

    (honestatem) ipsam suo splendore ad se animos ducere, nullo prorsus commodo extrinsecus posito, Cic. Ac. Fragm. ap. Aug. contr. Ac. 3, 7, 15 (IV. 2, p. 470 Orell.): sequi matris commodum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 31:

    pacis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 82, 335:

    contra valetudinis commodum laborare,

    to the injury of health, id. Mur. 23, 47:

    mea,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 37:

    in publica peccem,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 3; cf.:

    populi commoda,

    Nep. Phoc. 4, 1.—
    b.
    Specif., a reward, pay, stipend, salary, wages for public service: veteranorum, Brut. et Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 2, 3:

    omnibus provincialibus ornamentis commodisque depositis,

    emoluments, id. Red. in Sen. 14, 35; Suet. Ner. 32; cf.:

    emeritae militiae,

    id. Calig. 44; id. Aug. 49; cf. also id. Vit. 15; id. Galb. 12:

    militibus commoda dare,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 131 sq.:

    tribunatus,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 8, 1:

    missionum,

    Suet. Aug. 49.—
    c.
    A favor, privilege, immunity, Suet. Aug. 31; id. Claud. 19.—
    d.
    A useful thing, a good:

    commoda vitae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87; Lucr. 3, 2; cf.:

    cetera opinione bona sunt... proprietas in illis boni non est. Itaque commoda vocentur,

    Sen. Ep. 74, 17:

    inter commoda illas (divitias) numeratis: atqui eādem ratione ne commodum quidem erunt,

    id. ib. 87, 29. —
    e.
    Sometimes commodo or per commodum, adverb. antith. to that which is [p. 382] injurious, without injury or detriment:

    ut regem reducas, quod commodo rei publicae facere possis,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 1, 3:

    si per commodum reipublicae posset, Romam venisset,

    Liv. 10, 25, 17.—
    3.
    Concr., = commodatum, that which is lent, a loan:

    qui forum et basilicas commodis hospitum, non furtis nocentium ornarent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 6; cf. Isid. Orig. 5, 25, 16.—
    B.
    Advv.:
    1.
    commŏdum, adv. temp. (only in colloquial lang. and post-class. prose writers).
    a.
    At a fit time, just in time, at the very nick, at the very moment, opportunely, seasonably ( = opportune, eukairôs):

    ecce autem commodum aperitur foris,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 4, 61:

    commodum adveni domum,

    id. Am. 2, 2, 37:

    orditur loqui,

    id. Trin. 5, 2, 12:

    ipse exit Lesbonicus,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 9: eukairôs ad me venit, cum haberem Dolabellam, Torquatus... commodum egeram diligentissime, Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1; Symm. Ep. 2, 47. —
    b.
    To designate a point of time that corresponds with another, or that just precedes it, just, just then, just now.
    (α).
    Absol.:

    ad te hercle ibam commodum,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 4, 3; Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 9:

    Taurus, sectatoribus commodum dimissis, sedebat, etc.,

    Gell. 2, 2, 2:

    si istac ibis, commodum obviam venies patri,

    just meet, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 107. —
    (β).
    With postquam or (more freq.) with cum in a parallel clause:

    postquam me misisti ad portum cum luci simul, Commodum radiosus ecce sol superabat ex mari,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 41:

    quom huc respicio ad virginem, Illa sese interea commodum huc advorterat,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 52:

    commodum discesseras heri, cum Trebatius venit,

    Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1:

    emerseram commodum ex Antiati in Appiam, cum in me incurrit Curio,

    id. ib. 2, 12, 2 B. and K. (al. commode); so with the pluperf. and a foll. cum, id. ib. 13, 19, 1; 13, 30, 2; 10, 16, 1; App. M. 1, p. 107, 15:

    adducitur a Veneriis Lollius commodum cum Apronius e palaestrā redisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 61 B. and K. (Zumpt, commode):

    cum jam filiae nostrae dies natalis appeteret, commodum aderant, quae muneri miseratis,

    Symm. Ep. 3, 50. —
    2.
    commŏdŏ, adv. temp., = commodum, a., just in time, seasonably, just at this time (ante-class. and very rare): commodo eccum exit, Titin. ap. Charis. p. 177 P. (i. e. in tempore, Charis.): commodo de parte superiore descendebat, Sisenn. ib.: commodo dictitemus, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Charis. p. 174; cf. id. ib. p. 177.—
    3.
    commŏdē, adv.
    a.
    (Acc. to commodus, I.) Duly, properly, completely, rightly, well, skilfully, neatly, etc. (class.):

    suo quique loco viden' capillus satis compositu'st commode?

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 97: commode amictus non sum, id. Fragm. ap. Gell. 18, 12, 3:

    saltare, Nep. praef. § 1: legere,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 19, 3; cf. in comp., id. ib. 9, 34, 1:

    multa breviter et commode dicta,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1; cf. id. de Or. 1, 53, 227; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 9; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 20; 1, 2, 33 al.:

    cogitare,

    id. Heaut. prol. 14:

    audire,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 58, § 134:

    valere,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 20, 11:

    feceris commode mihique gratum, si, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 10, 3 fin.:

    commode facere, quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 11, 7, 7; in comp.:

    commodius fecissent tribuni plebis, si, etc.,

    id. Agr. 3, 1, 1.—In medic.:

    commode facere,

    to do well, be beneficial, Cels. 4, 12.—
    b.
    (Acc. to commodus, II.)
    (α).
    Conveniently, suitably, opportunely, fitly, aptly, appropriately:

    magis commode quam strenue navigavi,

    Cic. Att. 16, 6, 1:

    ille satis scite et commode tempus ad te cepit adeundi,

    id. Fam. 11, 16, 1:

    vos istic commodissime sperem esse,

    id. ib. 14, 7, 2:

    explorat, quo commodissime itinere valles transiri possit,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 49 fin.:

    hoc ego commodius quam tu vivo,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 110; cf.:

    consumere vitiatum commodius quam integrum,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 91; Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    cui commodissime subjungitur,

    id. 9, 3, 82; cf. id. 4, 1, 76.—
    (β).
    In a friendly manner, pleasantly, gently, kindly:

    acceptae bene et commode eximus,

    Plaut. Cas. 5, 1, 1; id. Poen. 1, 2, 190; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 48.—
    c.
    (Equiv. to commodum, adv. b.) Just, just at the moment when, etc.; only v.l. in the doubtful passages cited supra, commodum, b. fin.
    2.
    Commŏdus, i, m., a Roman cognomen; so L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus, Roman emperor, Lampr. Commod. 1 sq.; Eutr. 8, 15 al.—Hence,
    1.
    Commŏdĭā-nus, a, um, adj., of or pertaining to Commodus: horti, Lampr. Commod. 8:

    thermae,

    Spart. Nigid. 6 al. —
    2.
    Commŏ-dĭus, a, um, adj., the same:

    Nonae,

    Lampr. Commod. 12; cf. id. ib. 11.—
    3.
    Commŏ-dus, a, um, adj., the same: mensis, i. e. August, which Commodus wished to name after himself, Lampr. Commod. 11.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > commodus

  • 7 Cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum

  • 8 cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cum

  • 9 Cum2

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum2

  • 10 fere

    fĕrē and fermē ( fĕrĕ, Aus. Epigr. 10, 5, 5), adv. [Sanscr. dhar-, dhar-ami, to bear, support; Gr. root, thra-, in thrênus, stool, thronos, seat; Lat. firmus; cf.: forma, forum. Ferme is perh. a sup. form for ferime, v. Rib. Lat. Part. p. 6 sq. Erroneously, Varr.: ferme dicitur quod nunc fere: utrumque dictum a ferendo, quod id quod fertur est in motu atque adventat, L. L. 7, § 92 Müll.], approximately, closely, in two senses.
    I.
    With the idea of approach predominant, nearly, almost, well-nigh, within a little, for the most part, about (esp. with words of number, quantity, multitude; cf.: plerumque, vulgo).
    a.
    Form fere:

    fere sexennis,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 80:

    abhinc menses decem fere,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 24; cf.:

    fere abhinc annos quindecim,

    id. Phorm. 5, 8, 28:

    fere in diebus paucis, quibus haec acta sunt, Chrysis vicina haec moritur,

    soon, only a few days after, id. And. 1, 1, 77:

    quinta fere hora,

    about the fifth hour, Cic. Pis. 6, 13:

    hora fere tertia,

    id. Att. 14, 20, 1:

    tertia fere vigilia,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 23, 1:

    sexcentos fere annos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 48:

    sexto decimo fere anno,

    id. ib. 2, 33:

    anno fere ante, quam consul est declaratus,

    id. ib. 1, 5:

    anno fere centesimo et quadragesimo post mortem Numae,

    id. ib. 2, 15; cf.:

    anno trecentesimo et quinquagesimo fere post Romam conditam,

    id. ib. 1, 16:

    decem fere annis post primos consules,

    id. ib. 2, 32; cf.

    also: decessit fere post annum quartum quam, etc.,

    Nep. Arist. 3 fin.:

    meus fere aequalis,

    Cic. Brut. 48, 179; cf. id. Off. 3, 1, 1:

    ipsa Peloponnesus fere tota in mari est,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 8; cf.:

    totius fere Galliae legati ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 30, 1:

    totis fere a fronte et ab sinistra parte nudatis castris,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 4:

    rerum omnium fere modus,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 18; cf.:

    quam fere omnium constans et moderata ratio vitae,

    id. Clu. 16, 46:

    ex omnibus fere partibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 19:

    in reliquis fere rebus,

    id. ib. 6, 13, 3:

    omnes fere,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 10, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1; 4, 20, 1; Nep. Arist. 2, 3; id. Chabr. 3, 4; Liv. 21, 60, 9; Suet. Caes. 87;

    and in the order fere omnes,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13, 1; 5, 23, 4:

    cujus disputationis fuit extremum fere de immortalitate animorum,

    Cic. Lael. 4, 14; cf.: Phalereus ille Demetrius ultimus est fere ex Atticis. Quint. 10, 1, 80: cum fere e regione castris castra poneret, Caes. B. G. 7, 35, 1; id. ib. 3, 12, 1:

    plus fere,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 45:

    semper fere,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 6, 22:

    satis fere diximus,

    id. Off. 1, 18, 60:

    tantum fere,

    almost only, id. Rep. 2, 18 fin.:

    Lycurgus eadem vidit fere,

    id. ib. 2, 23:

    haec fere,

    id. ib. 1, 34 fin.; cf.:

    hoc fere ab reliquis differunt, quod,

    in this chiefly, Caes. B. G. 6, 18, 3:

    haec fere dicere habui,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 39, 93:

    haec erant fere, quae, etc.,

    id. Fam. 12, 5 fin.; 12, 30 fin.; id. Att. 2, 16, 1; id. Or. 54, 182; id. Ac. 2, 32, 102:

    exposui fere non philosophorum judicia, sed, etc.,

    id. N. D. 1, 16, 42; cf.:

    sic fere componendum, quomodo pronuntiandum erit,

    Quint. 9, 4, 138:

    fere eodem pacto, quo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 10:

    et fere apparet, quid in invidiam, etc.... dicendum sit,

    Quint. 5, 12, 16.—
    b.
    Form ferme:

    hoc factum est ferme abhinc biennium,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 2, 4; so,

    abhinc annos ferme L.,

    Vell. 2, 90 fin.:

    nam ferme ante annos DCCCCL. floruit,

    id. 1, 5, 3:

    intra XII. ferme annos,

    id. 2, 11 fin.:

    duodequadragesimo ferme anno, ex quo regnare coeperat Tarquinius,

    Liv. 1, 40:

    mille ferme delecti propugnatores onerariis imponuntur,

    id. 30, 10; cf.:

    pars ferme dimidia,

    id. 42, 51:

    a quo (flumine) aberat mons ferme milia viginti,

    Sall. J. 48, 3; cf.:

    in tumulo quatuor ferme milia distante ab castris regiis consedit,

    Liv. 30, 8:

    abest ab Carthagine quindecim milia ferme passuum locus,

    id. 30, 9:

    ferme eadem omnia, quae, etc.,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 21:

    cum ferme cunctos proceres cum honore nominavisset,

    Tac. A. 3, 76:

    mihi quidem aetas acta est ferme,

    for the most part, about, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 38.
    II.
    With the idea of nearness or closeness predominant, quite, entirely, just.
    a.
    Form fere:

    domum revortor maestus atque animo fere conturbato,

    quite distracted, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 69:

    quod statuas quoque videmus ornatu fere militari,

    quite military, Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61:

    paria esse fere peccata,

    quite equal, Hor. S. 1, 3, 96:

    etsi nobis, qui id aetatis sumus, evigilatum fere est, tamen, etc.,

    entirely, sufficiently, Cic. Rep. 3, 29:

    cum circa hanc fere consultationem disceptatio omnis verteretur,

    just on this debated point, Liv. 36, 7, 1: jamque fere, just now, Enn. ap. Non. 217, 11; and ap. Charis. p. 114 P. (Ann. v. 286 and 580 ed. Vahl.); Verg. A. 3, 135; 5, 327; 835; cf.: jam fere, Enn. ap. Non. 355, 17 (Trag. v. 201 ed. Vahl.); and: jam... fere, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 46 Müll. (Ann. v. 447 ed. Vahl.):

    sermo qui tum fere multis erat in ore,

    just then, Cic. Lael. 1, 2.—
    b.
    Form ferme: circumvenire video ferme injuria, altogether wrong, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 92 Müll. (Rib. Trag. Fragm. p. 12); cf.: ferme aderant ratibus, just, Enn. ib. § 23 Müll. (Ann. v. 602 ed. Vahl.); so, quod ferme dirum in tempus cecidere Latinae, Cic. Poët. Div. 1, 11, 18; and:

    sed eum constabat virum esse ferme bonum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 5:

    ferme ut quisque rem accurat suam, Sic ei procedunt post principia denique,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 1, 4; so,

    ferme ut pueri,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 32:

    jam ferme moriens me vocat,

    just dying, id. And. 1, 5, 49.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    With negatives, scarcely, hardly.
    a.
    (= vix, non facile.) Form fere:

    nihil aut non fere multum differre,

    Cic. Brut. 40, 150:

    nemo fere saltat sobrius,

    id. Mur. 6; id. de Or. 1, 25, 116:

    nihil fere intelligit,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 15:

    non fere labitur,

    id. Fin. 1, 6, 18:

    quod non fere ante auctumnum Elaver vado transiri solet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 35, 1:

    duo spondei non fere jungi patiuntur,

    Quint. 9, 4, 101:

    in se dicere non est fere nisi scurrarum,

    id. 6, 3, 82:

    denique ex bellica victoria non fere quemquam est invidia civium consecuta,

    hardly any one, Cic. Sest. 23, 51:

    rationem sententiae suae non fere reddere,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 38:

    nec adhuc fere inveni, qui, etc.,

    id. Att. 7, 6, 1; cf.:

    quod non fere contingit, nisi, etc.,

    id. Lael. 20, 72:

    nec rei fere sane amplius quicquam fuit,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 3:

    in qua (disputatione) nihil fere, quod magno opere ad rationes omnium rerum pertineret, praetermissum puto,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 8 fin.: tum est Cato locutus;

    quo erat nemo fere senior temporibus illis, nemo prudentior,

    id. Lael. 1, 5:

    dixit, hunc ne in convivio quidem ullo fere interfuisse,

    id. Rosc. Am. 14:

    neque ullum fere totius hiemis tempus sine sollicitudine Caesaris intercessit,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 53, 5: neque enim [p. 736] fere iam est ullus dies occupatus, ut nihil, etc., Quint. 10, 7, 27.—With a neg. interrog.:

    nam quid fere undique placet?

    Quint. 1, 2, 15.—
    b.
    Form ferme:

    hoc non ferme sine magnis principum vitiis evenit,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 45 fin.; id. Tusc. 5, 38, 111:

    quod non ferme decernitur, nisi, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 9, 8; 24, 25, 9:

    voluptatibus erant inferiores, nec pecuniis ferme superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34 fin.; so,

    nec ferme res antiqua alia est nobilior,

    Liv. 1, 24:

    facio, quod manifesto moechi haud ferme solent,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 40; so Ter. And. 3, 1, 2:

    haud ferme,

    Liv. 21, 7, 9; 27, 28, 14:

    ut eo nihil ferme quisquam addere posset,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    quia nemo ferme huc sine damno devortitur,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 39:

    non ferme facilius aliquid tenere,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 5 fin.; 1, 45, 69.—
    2.
    Of time (in the usual course of things; opp. to sometimes, now and then), in general, generally, usually, commonly.
    a.
    Form fere:

    Fit fere, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 10; cf.:

    jam hoc fere sic fieri solere accepimus,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 9, 24:

    quod fere solet fieri,

    id. Inv. 1, 29, 46; cf.

    also: ut fere fit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 14:

    nam fere maxima pars morem hunc homines habent,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 36:

    quod fere libenter homines id, quod volunt, credunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 18, 6:

    aedificio circumdato silva (ut sunt fere domicilia Gallorum, etc.),

    id. ib. 6, 30, 3:

    ruri fere se continebat,

    Ter. Ph. 2, 3, 16:

    nam fere non difficile est invenire, quid, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 2, 18, 27:

    in eum fere est voluntas nostra propensior,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 69:

    sic omnia nimia in contraria fere convertuntur,

    id. Rep. 1, 44:

    quod in illis singuli fuissent fere, qui, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 1:

    nominatim fere referri, quid, etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 33, 142:

    nigra fere terra,

    commonly black, Verg. G. 2, 203:

    qui timet his adversa, fere miratur eodem quo cupiens pacto,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 9.—Strengthened by plerumque or plerique:

    hic solebamus fere Plerumque eam operiri,

    Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 39; cf.

    corresp. to plerumque: fortuna eos plerumque efficit caecos, quos complexa est: itaque efferuntur fere fastidio et contumacia,

    Cic. Lael. 15, 54:

    adducto fere vultu, plerumque tacitus,

    Suet. Tib. 68:

    non sunt vitiosiores, quam fere plerique, qui avari avaros... reprehendunt,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 30, 73.—Opp. raro, interdum, saepe:

    fere praedicta aetas laeto solo truncoque tres materias, raro quatuor desiderat,

    Col. 4, 17, 5; cf.:

    fereque id in capillo fit, rarius in barba,

    Cels. 6, 2:

    ipse Circenses ex amicorum fere libertinorumque cenaculis spectabat, interdum e pulvinari,

    Suet. Aug. 15:

    in consulatu pedibus fere, extra consulatum saepe adaperta sella per publicum incessit,

    id. ib. 53.—
    b.
    Form ferme:

    quod ferme evenit,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 42:

    nam ferme apud Numidas in omnibus proeliis magis pedes quam arma tuta sunt,

    Sall. J. 74 fin.:

    inculta ferme vestiuntur virgultis vepribusque,

    Liv. 21, 54:

    intacta invidia media sunt: ad summa ferme tendit,

    id. 45, 35; cf.:

    mobilis et varia est ferme natura malorum,

    Juv. 13, 236:

    ceterum parva quoque (ut ferme principia omnia),

    Liv. 7, 2:

    ut ferme ad nova imperia,

    Tac. A. 2, 2:

    quae antea dictatorum et consulum ferme fuerant beneficia,

    Liv. 9, 30, 3:

    nocte ferme proficiscebantur,

    id. 34, 13, 3.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > fere

  • 11 ipse

    ipse ( ipsus, Cato, R. R. 70; 71; Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 43; id. Trin. 2, 2, 40; 3, 1, 10 et saep.; Ter. And. 3, 2, 15; id. Eun. 3, 4, 8, id. Hec. 3, 5, 5; Jusjur. Milit. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 4 al.), a, um (ipsud, Gloss. Philox.); gen. ipsīus ( poet. also ipsĭus, Cat. 64, 43; Verg. A. 1, 114; 2, 772 al.; and dissyl. Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 15; id. Phorm. 4, 5, 13: ipsi, Afran. ap. Prisc. 694); dat. ipsi (ipso, App. M. 10, p. 243, 24); pron. demonstr. [is - pse for pte; cf. sua-pte and -pote in ut-pote; root in potis; Sanscr. patis, lord, master; hence, = he, the master, himself, etc.; cf. Pott. Etym. Forsch. 2, 866 sq.; Fick, Vergl. Wörterb. p. 116. Hence, in the original form, the pronoun is was declined, while the suffix was unchanged; thus eopte = eo ipso, Paul. ex Fest. p. 110:

    eapse = ea ipsa,

    id. p. 77; nom. sing. eapse, Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 4; id. Cist. 1, 2, 17; id. Rud. 2, 3, 80; 2, 5, 21 al.; acc. eumpse, Plaut. Most. 1, 4, 32:

    eampse,

    Plaut. Aul. 5, 7; id. Cist. 1, 3, 22; id. Men. 5, 2, 22 al.; abl. eopse, Plaut. Curc, 4, 3, 6:

    eāpse,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 132; id. Curc. 4, 3, 2; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 197 sq.], = autos, self, in person, he (emphatic), himself, herself, itself, used both substantively and adjectively, to denote that person (thing) of which something is eminently or exclusively predicated.
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    With substt. or pronn.
    1.
    Expressing eminence or distinction:

    ipse ille Gorgias... in illo ipso Platonis libro,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 32, 129:

    ille ipse Marcellus,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 2, § 4:

    natura ipsa,

    id. Brut. 29, 112:

    dicet pro me ipsa virtus,

    id. Fin. 2, 20, 65:

    ipsa res publica,

    id. Fam. 3, 11, 3:

    neque enim ipse Caesar est alienus a nobis,

    id. ib. 6, 10, 2:

    ipse Moeris,

    Verg. E. 8, 96:

    rex ipse Aeneas,

    id. A. 1, 575:

    ipse aries,

    id. E. 3, 95:

    ductores ipsi,

    id. A. 1, 189:

    si in ipsa arce habitarem,

    Liv. 2, 7, 10;

    esp. freq. with names of gods, etc.: naturas quas Juppiter ipse Addidit,

    Verg. G. 4, 149; id. A. 3, 222; Hor. C. 1, 16, 12:

    Pater ipse,

    Verg. G. 1, 121; Tib. 1, 4, 23:

    Venus ipsa,

    Hor. C. 2, 8, 13; Ov. H. 19, 159:

    ipse pater Pluton,

    Verg. A. 7, 327 et saep.—Prov.:

    audentes deus ipse juvat,

    Ov. M. 10, 586.—
    2.
    For emphasis or in contrast, very, just, precisely, self, in person:

    adest optime ipse frater,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 66:

    in orationibus hisce ipsis,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 16, 73:

    ea ipsa hora,

    id. Fam. 7, 23, 4:

    nec carmina nobis Ipsa placent: ipsae rursus concedite silvae,

    Verg. E. 10, 63:

    tute ipse his rebus finem praescripsti,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 124:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 91:

    ego enim ipse cum eodem isto non invitus erraverim,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40:

    ipse ille divinationis auctor,

    id. Div. 2, 28, 61:

    cariorem esse patriam quam nosmet ipsos,

    id. Fin. 3, 19, 64:

    eaque ipsa causa belli fuit,

    the very, the true cause, Liv. 1, 57, 1; esp. with is, in all persons and numbers:

    estne hic Philto? Is hercle'st ipsus,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 31:

    cui tutor is fuerat ipse,

    Liv. 5, 33, 3:

    jam id ipsum absurdum, maximum malum neglegi,

    even, Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93 (Madv.); id. de Or. 2, 30, 132:

    tempus ad id ipsum congruere,

    Liv. 1, 5, 5:

    duum vir ad id ipsum creatus,

    id. 2, 42, 5:

    Tullius et eos ipsos et per eos multitudinem aliam deduxit,

    id. 2, 38, 1:

    eorum ipsorum facta (opp. loca in quibus, etc.),

    Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2:

    nec vero clarorum virorum post mortem honores permanerent, si nihil eorum ipsorum animi efficerent,

    id. de Sen. 22, 80:

    ad eum ipsum honorem deferre,

    Liv. 3, 51, 3; so sometimes with an inf. or subst.-clause:

    ipsum dicere ineptum,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 112:

    quid juvat quod ante initum tribunatum veni, si ipsum, quod veni, nihil juvat?

    the mere fact, the fact alone, id. Att. 11, 9, 1:

    ipsum, quod habuisti,

    Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 12, 2:

    et ipsum, quod sum victus, ama,

    Luc. 8, 78.— Esp. in legal phrase: ipso jure, by the letter of the law, in legal strictness or precision, Gai Inst. 2, 198; 3, 181; 4, 106 sqq. et saep.—
    B.
    Alone, emphatically taking the place of an omitted person. or demonstr. pron.: Ar. Ubi is nunc est? He. Ubi ego minume atque ipsus se volt maxume, Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 1, 10: Su. Is ipsusne's? Ch. Aio: Su. Ipsus es? id. Trin. 4, 2, 146:

    atque ipsis, ad quorum commodum pertinebat, durior inventus est Coelius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 4:

    quaeram ex ipsā,

    Cic. Cael. 14:

    tempus, quo ipse eos sustulisset, ad id ipsum congruere,

    Liv. 1, 5, 5:

    agrum dare immunem ipsi, qui accepisset, liberisque,

    id. 21, 45, 5; 9, 34, 18; 10, [p. 999] 6, 10:

    laeta et ipsis qui rem gessere expugnatio fuit,

    id. 28, 4, 1:

    a nobis exposita, ut ab ipsis, qui eam disciplinam probant,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 5, 13.—So freq. in Cic. before a rel.:

    ut de ipso, qui judicarit, judicium fieri videretur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 44, 82:

    ipsi omnia, quorum negotium est, ad nos deferunt,

    id. de Or. 1, 58, 250; 2, 14, 60; id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 13; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93:

    nullis definitionibus utuntur, ipsique dicunt ea se modo probare, quibus natura tacita assentiatur,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 40 Madv. —
    C.
    To make prominent one of two or more subjects of any predicate, he ( she, il), for his part, he too, also, as well.
    1.
    Ipse alone:

    litterae Metello Capuam adlatae sunt a Clodia, quae ipsa transiit,

    i. e. also, in person, Cic. Att. 9, 6, 3:

    Italiam ornare quam domum suam maluit: quamquam Italia ornata domus ipsa mihi videtur ornatior,

    id. Off. 2, 22, 76:

    tris ipse excitavit recitatores,

    he too, id. Clu. 51, 141:

    neque tanti timoris sum ut ipse deficiam,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 31, 8:

    Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum intellegebat, et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat,

    Sall. J. 11, 1:

    hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omnisque juventus Laeta facit,

    Verg. A. 2, 394.—
    2.
    With conjunctions.
    (α).
    With etiam (class.):

    ipse etiam Fufidius in numero fuit,

    Cic. Brut. 29, 112: scribebat orationes quas alii dicerent: quamquam is etiam ipse scripsit eas, quibus pro se est usus, sed non sine Aelio;

    his enim scriptis etiam ipse interfui,

    id. ib. 56, 206 sq. —
    (β).
    With quoque:

    quippe quia plebs senatus consultum solvit, ipsi quoque solutum vultis,

    Liv. 3, 21, 4:

    consul, quia collegae decretum triumphum audivit, ipse quoque triumphi flagitator Romam rediit,

    id. 8, 12, 9:

    cum subito Sulpicius et Albinovanus objecissent catervas, ipse quoque (Sulla) jaculatus, etc.,

    Flor. 3, 21, 7.—
    (γ).
    With et (et ipse = kai autos, ipse etiam; rare in Cic.; cf.

    Zumpt, Gram. § 698): tamen et ipsi tuae familiae genere et nomine continebuntur,

    Cic. Caecin. 20, 58:

    deseret eos quos una scis esse, cum habeat praesertim et ipse cohortis triginta?

    id. Att. 8, 7, 1; id. de Or. 1, 46, 202:

    Cornelius dictatorem Aemilium dixit, et ipse ab eo magister equitum est dictus,

    Liv. 4, 31, 5:

    credo ego vos, socii, et ipsos cernere,

    id. 21, 21, 3:

    Cornelio minus copiarum datum, quia L. Manlius praetor et ipse cum praesidio in Galliam mittebatur,

    id. 21, 17, 7:

    qui et ipse crus fregerat,

    Suet. Aug. 43:

    Antoninus Commodus nihil paternum habuit, nisi quod contra Germanos feliciter et ipse pugnavit,

    Eutr. 8, 7:

    virtutes et ipsae taedium pariunt,

    Quint. 9, 4, 43. —
    (δ).
    With nec ( = ne ipse quidem):

    primis repulsis Maharbal cum majore robore virorum missus nec ipse eruptionem cohortium sustinuit,

    Liv. 23, 18, 4:

    nihil moveri viderunt, nec ipsi quicquam mutarunt,

    id. 37, 20, 8:

    neque ipsi,

    id. 30, 42, 7: crimina non quidem nec ipsa mediocria;

    sed quid ista sunt prae iis, etc.,

    id. 34, 32, 9.
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    By way of eminence, ipse is used to indicate the chief person, host, master, teacher, etc.:

    ipsa, the mistress, etc.: ipsus tristis,

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 23:

    ipsum praesto video,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 3:

    ego eo quo me ipsa misit,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 2, 10:

    suam norat ipsam tam bene, quam puella matrem,

    Cat. 3, 7 (Müll., ipsa); cf.:

    Pythagorei respondere solebant, ipse dixit,

    i. e. Pythagoras, Cic. N. D. 1, 5, 10; cf.:

    nec hoc oratori contingere inter adversarios quod Pythagorae inter discipulos potest ipse dixit,

    Quint. 11, 1, 27:

    cum veniat lectica Mathonis plena ipso,

    the great man, Juv. 1, 33:

    anseris ante ipsum jecur,

    before the host, id. 5, 114.—
    B.
    Of or by one ' s self, of one ' s own accord = suā sponte, ultro:

    videar non ipse promisisse (opp. to fortuito),

    Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 111:

    de manibus delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt,

    id. Off. 1, 22, 77:

    valvae clausae se ipsae aperuerunt,

    id. Div. 1, 37, 74:

    ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae Ubera,

    Verg. E. 4, 21:

    ipsi potum venient juvenci,

    id. ib. 7, 11; cf.:

    aliae ipsae Sponte sua veniunt,

    id. G. 2, 10:

    fruges sponte sua (tellus) primum ipsa creavit,

    Lucr. 2, 11, 58; and autai for automatoi, Theocr. Idyll. 11, 12.—
    C.
    Himself exclusively.
    1.
    By or in one ' s self, alone:

    haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat,

    Verg. A. 6, 185:

    his actis, aliud genitor secum ipse volutat,

    id. ib. 12, 843: tempus secum ipsa Exigit, id. ib. 4, 475:

    quam facile exercitu soclos conservaturus sit, qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit,

    Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 15, 45:

    multa secum ipse volvens,

    Sall. C. 32, 1:

    aestimando ipse secum,

    Liv. 25, 23, 11.—
    2.
    In one ' s self, for one ' s own sake:

    ipsam aequitatem et jus ipsum amare,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 18, 48.—
    3.
    Of one ' s self, of one ' s own nature, etc.:

    erat ipse immani acerbāque naturā Oppianicus,

    Cic. Clu. 15, 44:

    duo imperatores, ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus,

    Sall. J. 52, 1:

    natura serpentium, ipsa perniciosa, siti accenditur,

    id. ib. 89, 5.—
    D.
    With advv. of time.
    1.
    Nunc ipsum, just now, at this very time:

    nunc ipsum exurit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 16:

    nunc ipsum non dubitabo rem tantam adicere,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 2; 8, 9, 2:

    nunc tamen ipsum sine te esse non possum,

    id. ib. 12, 16. —
    2.
    Tum ipsum, just then, at that very time:

    id, quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 27, 124:

    ratio largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum ad facultates accommodanda est,

    id. Off. 2, 17, 60:

    et tum ipsum, cum immolare velis, extorum fieri mutatio potest,

    id. Div. 1, 52, 118; cf. id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv.—
    E.
    With numerals, just, exactly, precisely (opp. fere):

    triginta dies erant ipsi, cum, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 21 init.:

    ipsas undecim esse legiones,

    id. Fam. 6, 18, 2:

    nam cum dixisset minus 1000 (sc. milia), populus cum risu acclamavit, ipsa esse,

    id. Caecin. 10, 28; cf. id. Brut. 15, 61; 43, 162:

    ipso vigesimo anno,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 9, § 25. —
    F.
    In reflexive uses,
    1.
    Ipse strengthens the subject when opposed in thought to other agents; the object, when opposed to other objects; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 696; Kennedy, Gram. § 67, 3; Madv. Gram. § 487, 6. — Hence,
    a.
    With subject.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    non egeo medicina (i. e. ut alii me consolentur), me ipse consolor,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 10:

    Junius necem sibi ipse conscivit,

    id. N. D. 2, 3, 7:

    neque potest exercitum is continere imperator, qui se ipse non continet,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 38:

    Artaxerxes se ipse reprehendit,

    Nep. Dat. 5:

    ipsa se virtus satis ostendit,

    Sall. J. 85; cf.:

    deponendo tutelam ipse in se unum omnium vires convertit,

    Liv. 24, 4, 9:

    deforme etiam est de se ipsum praedicare,

    Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137.—
    (β).
    With special emphasis, ipse is joined to the subject to indicate its relation to itself as both subject and object, though the antithesis would suggest another case (Cic.):

    cum iste sic erat humilis atque demissus, ut non modo populo Romano, sed etiam sibi ipse condemnatus videretur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17:

    si quis ipse sibi inimicus est,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 28:

    qui ipsi sibi bellum indixissent,

    id. ib. 5, 10, 29:

    quoniam se ipsi omnes natura diligant,

    id. ib. 3, 18, 59:

    nam si ex scriptis cognosci ipsi suis potuissent,

    id. de Or. 2, 2, 8.—
    b.
    With object:

    neque vero ipsam amicitiam tueri (possumus), nisi aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 67:

    omne animal se ipsum diligit,

    id. ib. 5, 9, 24:

    fac ut diligentissime te ipsum custodias,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 8:

    Pompeianus miles fratrem suum, dein se ipsum interfecit,

    Tac. H. 3, 51:

    Lentulum, quem mihi ipsi antepono,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 7, 5.—
    2.
    Ipse defines the subject of a reflexive pronoun:

    natura movet infantem, sed tantum ut se ipse diligat (where ipse shows that se refers to infantem),

    Cic. Fin. 2, 10, 33: proinde consulant sibi ipsi;

    jubeant abire se,

    Just. 16, 4, 15:

    neque prius vim adhibendam putaverunt, quam se ipse indicasset,

    Nep. Paus. 4:

    in portis murisque sibimet ipsos tecta coëgerat aedificare,

    Liv. 27, 3, 2 (cf. 1. a. supra).—
    3.
    Ipse stands for the reflexive pronoun,
    a.
    Where the person or thing referred to is to be emphatically distinguished from others (class.):

    cum omnes se expetendos putent, nec id ob aliam rem, sed propter ipsos, necesse est ejus etiam partes propter se expeti, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 17, 46:

    quis umquam consul senatum ipsius decretis parere prohibuit?

    id. Sest. 14, 32:

    quos, quidquid ipsis expediat, facturos arbitrabimur,

    id. Fin. 2, 35, 117:

    qui negant se recusare, quo minus, ipsis mortuis, terrarum deflagratio consequatur,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 64:

    nec quid ipsius natura sit intellegit,

    id. ib. 5, 9, 24.—
    b.
    In a subordinate clause, to point out either the subject of the principal clause, or the chief agent or speaker;

    esp. where se or sibi is already applied to the subject of the subordinate clause: ne ob eam rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos despiceret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13, 5:

    legatos ad consulem mittit, qui tantum modo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent,

    Sall. J. 16, 2; cf.:

    ipsis mortuis,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 19, 64:

    supra nihil, quantum in ipso est, praetermittere quo minus, etc.,

    id. Leg. 1, 21, 56:

    ipsius,

    id. ib. 2, 22, 55:

    nihil umquam audivi... nihil de re publica gravius, nihil de ipso modestius, i. e. de ipso dicente,

    id. Balb. 1, 2: id quod ipsum adjuvat (i. e. dicentem;

    opp. id quod adversario prodest),

    id. Inv. 1, 21, 30.—
    c.
    In gen., for an emphatic se or sibi (mostly post-Aug.; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 40):

    nam ipsis certum esse, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 46, 13:

    pravitas consulum discordiaque inter ipsos,

    id. 4, 26, 6:

    inexperta remedia haud injuria ipsis esse suspecta,

    Curt. 3, 5, 15:

    Graecis nuntiare jubet, ipsum quidem gratias agere, etc.,

    id. 3, 8, 7:

    dixit, ab illo deo ipsos genus ducere,

    id. 4, 2, 3:

    a quibus nec acceperunt injuriam nec accepisse ipsos existimant, Sen. de Ira, 2, 5, 1: intemperantiam in morbo suam experti parere ipsis vetant,

    id. ib. 3, 13, 5:

    sciunt ipsos omnia habere communia,

    id. Ep. 6, 3; 22, 10 et saep.; cf.:

    verum est etiam iis, qui aliquando futuri sint, esse propter ipsos consulendum,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 19, 64.—
    4.
    Ipse stands in free constr. with abl. absol. as with finite verb (cf. also quisque;

    only freq. in Liv. and post-Aug. writers): cum dies venit, causa ipse pro se dicta, quindecim milibus aeris damnatur,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    Romani imperatores, junctis et ipsi exercitibus... ad sedem hostium pervenere,

    id. 29, 2, 2:

    C. Popilius, dimissis et ipse Atticis navibus... pergit,

    id. 45, 10, 2; cf.:

    Catilina et Autronius parabant consules interficere, ipsi fascibus conreptis Pisonem cum exercitu mittere,

    Sall. C. 18, 5:

    amisso et ipse Pacoro,

    Tac. G. 37; cf. also the emphatic use of ipse (like quisque) with abl. of gerund (freq. in Liv.):

    adsentando indignandoque et ipse,

    Liv. 40, 23, 1:

    cogendo ipse,

    id. 39, 49, 3:

    agendo ipse,

    id. 41, 24, 2:

    aestimando ipse secum,

    id. 25, 23, 11 et saep.
    Ipse is very rarely strengthened by the suffix -met:

    ipsemet abiit,

    Plaut.
    Am. prol. 102:

    ipsimet nobis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 3:

    ipsemet profugiam,

    Sen. Ep. 117, 21; also Front. Aq. 74 ex conj.— Sup.: Com. Ergo ipsusne es? Charm. Ipsissumus, his own very self, Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 146; cf. Gr. autotatos, Aristoph. Plut. 83; so,

    ipsimus and ipsima, for dominus and domina (cf II. A. supra),

    Petr. 75, 11; and:

    ipsimi nostri,

    id. 63, 3 Büch. ex conj.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ipse

  • 12 ipsus

    ipse ( ipsus, Cato, R. R. 70; 71; Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 43; id. Trin. 2, 2, 40; 3, 1, 10 et saep.; Ter. And. 3, 2, 15; id. Eun. 3, 4, 8, id. Hec. 3, 5, 5; Jusjur. Milit. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 4 al.), a, um (ipsud, Gloss. Philox.); gen. ipsīus ( poet. also ipsĭus, Cat. 64, 43; Verg. A. 1, 114; 2, 772 al.; and dissyl. Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 15; id. Phorm. 4, 5, 13: ipsi, Afran. ap. Prisc. 694); dat. ipsi (ipso, App. M. 10, p. 243, 24); pron. demonstr. [is - pse for pte; cf. sua-pte and -pote in ut-pote; root in potis; Sanscr. patis, lord, master; hence, = he, the master, himself, etc.; cf. Pott. Etym. Forsch. 2, 866 sq.; Fick, Vergl. Wörterb. p. 116. Hence, in the original form, the pronoun is was declined, while the suffix was unchanged; thus eopte = eo ipso, Paul. ex Fest. p. 110:

    eapse = ea ipsa,

    id. p. 77; nom. sing. eapse, Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 4; id. Cist. 1, 2, 17; id. Rud. 2, 3, 80; 2, 5, 21 al.; acc. eumpse, Plaut. Most. 1, 4, 32:

    eampse,

    Plaut. Aul. 5, 7; id. Cist. 1, 3, 22; id. Men. 5, 2, 22 al.; abl. eopse, Plaut. Curc, 4, 3, 6:

    eāpse,

    id. Trin. 4, 2, 132; id. Curc. 4, 3, 2; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 197 sq.], = autos, self, in person, he (emphatic), himself, herself, itself, used both substantively and adjectively, to denote that person (thing) of which something is eminently or exclusively predicated.
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    With substt. or pronn.
    1.
    Expressing eminence or distinction:

    ipse ille Gorgias... in illo ipso Platonis libro,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 32, 129:

    ille ipse Marcellus,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 2, § 4:

    natura ipsa,

    id. Brut. 29, 112:

    dicet pro me ipsa virtus,

    id. Fin. 2, 20, 65:

    ipsa res publica,

    id. Fam. 3, 11, 3:

    neque enim ipse Caesar est alienus a nobis,

    id. ib. 6, 10, 2:

    ipse Moeris,

    Verg. E. 8, 96:

    rex ipse Aeneas,

    id. A. 1, 575:

    ipse aries,

    id. E. 3, 95:

    ductores ipsi,

    id. A. 1, 189:

    si in ipsa arce habitarem,

    Liv. 2, 7, 10;

    esp. freq. with names of gods, etc.: naturas quas Juppiter ipse Addidit,

    Verg. G. 4, 149; id. A. 3, 222; Hor. C. 1, 16, 12:

    Pater ipse,

    Verg. G. 1, 121; Tib. 1, 4, 23:

    Venus ipsa,

    Hor. C. 2, 8, 13; Ov. H. 19, 159:

    ipse pater Pluton,

    Verg. A. 7, 327 et saep.—Prov.:

    audentes deus ipse juvat,

    Ov. M. 10, 586.—
    2.
    For emphasis or in contrast, very, just, precisely, self, in person:

    adest optime ipse frater,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 66:

    in orationibus hisce ipsis,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 16, 73:

    ea ipsa hora,

    id. Fam. 7, 23, 4:

    nec carmina nobis Ipsa placent: ipsae rursus concedite silvae,

    Verg. E. 10, 63:

    tute ipse his rebus finem praescripsti,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 124:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 91:

    ego enim ipse cum eodem isto non invitus erraverim,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40:

    ipse ille divinationis auctor,

    id. Div. 2, 28, 61:

    cariorem esse patriam quam nosmet ipsos,

    id. Fin. 3, 19, 64:

    eaque ipsa causa belli fuit,

    the very, the true cause, Liv. 1, 57, 1; esp. with is, in all persons and numbers:

    estne hic Philto? Is hercle'st ipsus,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 31:

    cui tutor is fuerat ipse,

    Liv. 5, 33, 3:

    jam id ipsum absurdum, maximum malum neglegi,

    even, Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93 (Madv.); id. de Or. 2, 30, 132:

    tempus ad id ipsum congruere,

    Liv. 1, 5, 5:

    duum vir ad id ipsum creatus,

    id. 2, 42, 5:

    Tullius et eos ipsos et per eos multitudinem aliam deduxit,

    id. 2, 38, 1:

    eorum ipsorum facta (opp. loca in quibus, etc.),

    Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2:

    nec vero clarorum virorum post mortem honores permanerent, si nihil eorum ipsorum animi efficerent,

    id. de Sen. 22, 80:

    ad eum ipsum honorem deferre,

    Liv. 3, 51, 3; so sometimes with an inf. or subst.-clause:

    ipsum dicere ineptum,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 112:

    quid juvat quod ante initum tribunatum veni, si ipsum, quod veni, nihil juvat?

    the mere fact, the fact alone, id. Att. 11, 9, 1:

    ipsum, quod habuisti,

    Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 12, 2:

    et ipsum, quod sum victus, ama,

    Luc. 8, 78.— Esp. in legal phrase: ipso jure, by the letter of the law, in legal strictness or precision, Gai Inst. 2, 198; 3, 181; 4, 106 sqq. et saep.—
    B.
    Alone, emphatically taking the place of an omitted person. or demonstr. pron.: Ar. Ubi is nunc est? He. Ubi ego minume atque ipsus se volt maxume, Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 1, 10: Su. Is ipsusne's? Ch. Aio: Su. Ipsus es? id. Trin. 4, 2, 146:

    atque ipsis, ad quorum commodum pertinebat, durior inventus est Coelius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 4:

    quaeram ex ipsā,

    Cic. Cael. 14:

    tempus, quo ipse eos sustulisset, ad id ipsum congruere,

    Liv. 1, 5, 5:

    agrum dare immunem ipsi, qui accepisset, liberisque,

    id. 21, 45, 5; 9, 34, 18; 10, [p. 999] 6, 10:

    laeta et ipsis qui rem gessere expugnatio fuit,

    id. 28, 4, 1:

    a nobis exposita, ut ab ipsis, qui eam disciplinam probant,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 5, 13.—So freq. in Cic. before a rel.:

    ut de ipso, qui judicarit, judicium fieri videretur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 44, 82:

    ipsi omnia, quorum negotium est, ad nos deferunt,

    id. de Or. 1, 58, 250; 2, 14, 60; id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 13; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93:

    nullis definitionibus utuntur, ipsique dicunt ea se modo probare, quibus natura tacita assentiatur,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 40 Madv. —
    C.
    To make prominent one of two or more subjects of any predicate, he ( she, il), for his part, he too, also, as well.
    1.
    Ipse alone:

    litterae Metello Capuam adlatae sunt a Clodia, quae ipsa transiit,

    i. e. also, in person, Cic. Att. 9, 6, 3:

    Italiam ornare quam domum suam maluit: quamquam Italia ornata domus ipsa mihi videtur ornatior,

    id. Off. 2, 22, 76:

    tris ipse excitavit recitatores,

    he too, id. Clu. 51, 141:

    neque tanti timoris sum ut ipse deficiam,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 31, 8:

    Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum intellegebat, et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat,

    Sall. J. 11, 1:

    hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omnisque juventus Laeta facit,

    Verg. A. 2, 394.—
    2.
    With conjunctions.
    (α).
    With etiam (class.):

    ipse etiam Fufidius in numero fuit,

    Cic. Brut. 29, 112: scribebat orationes quas alii dicerent: quamquam is etiam ipse scripsit eas, quibus pro se est usus, sed non sine Aelio;

    his enim scriptis etiam ipse interfui,

    id. ib. 56, 206 sq. —
    (β).
    With quoque:

    quippe quia plebs senatus consultum solvit, ipsi quoque solutum vultis,

    Liv. 3, 21, 4:

    consul, quia collegae decretum triumphum audivit, ipse quoque triumphi flagitator Romam rediit,

    id. 8, 12, 9:

    cum subito Sulpicius et Albinovanus objecissent catervas, ipse quoque (Sulla) jaculatus, etc.,

    Flor. 3, 21, 7.—
    (γ).
    With et (et ipse = kai autos, ipse etiam; rare in Cic.; cf.

    Zumpt, Gram. § 698): tamen et ipsi tuae familiae genere et nomine continebuntur,

    Cic. Caecin. 20, 58:

    deseret eos quos una scis esse, cum habeat praesertim et ipse cohortis triginta?

    id. Att. 8, 7, 1; id. de Or. 1, 46, 202:

    Cornelius dictatorem Aemilium dixit, et ipse ab eo magister equitum est dictus,

    Liv. 4, 31, 5:

    credo ego vos, socii, et ipsos cernere,

    id. 21, 21, 3:

    Cornelio minus copiarum datum, quia L. Manlius praetor et ipse cum praesidio in Galliam mittebatur,

    id. 21, 17, 7:

    qui et ipse crus fregerat,

    Suet. Aug. 43:

    Antoninus Commodus nihil paternum habuit, nisi quod contra Germanos feliciter et ipse pugnavit,

    Eutr. 8, 7:

    virtutes et ipsae taedium pariunt,

    Quint. 9, 4, 43. —
    (δ).
    With nec ( = ne ipse quidem):

    primis repulsis Maharbal cum majore robore virorum missus nec ipse eruptionem cohortium sustinuit,

    Liv. 23, 18, 4:

    nihil moveri viderunt, nec ipsi quicquam mutarunt,

    id. 37, 20, 8:

    neque ipsi,

    id. 30, 42, 7: crimina non quidem nec ipsa mediocria;

    sed quid ista sunt prae iis, etc.,

    id. 34, 32, 9.
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    By way of eminence, ipse is used to indicate the chief person, host, master, teacher, etc.:

    ipsa, the mistress, etc.: ipsus tristis,

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 23:

    ipsum praesto video,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 3:

    ego eo quo me ipsa misit,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 2, 10:

    suam norat ipsam tam bene, quam puella matrem,

    Cat. 3, 7 (Müll., ipsa); cf.:

    Pythagorei respondere solebant, ipse dixit,

    i. e. Pythagoras, Cic. N. D. 1, 5, 10; cf.:

    nec hoc oratori contingere inter adversarios quod Pythagorae inter discipulos potest ipse dixit,

    Quint. 11, 1, 27:

    cum veniat lectica Mathonis plena ipso,

    the great man, Juv. 1, 33:

    anseris ante ipsum jecur,

    before the host, id. 5, 114.—
    B.
    Of or by one ' s self, of one ' s own accord = suā sponte, ultro:

    videar non ipse promisisse (opp. to fortuito),

    Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 111:

    de manibus delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt,

    id. Off. 1, 22, 77:

    valvae clausae se ipsae aperuerunt,

    id. Div. 1, 37, 74:

    ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae Ubera,

    Verg. E. 4, 21:

    ipsi potum venient juvenci,

    id. ib. 7, 11; cf.:

    aliae ipsae Sponte sua veniunt,

    id. G. 2, 10:

    fruges sponte sua (tellus) primum ipsa creavit,

    Lucr. 2, 11, 58; and autai for automatoi, Theocr. Idyll. 11, 12.—
    C.
    Himself exclusively.
    1.
    By or in one ' s self, alone:

    haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat,

    Verg. A. 6, 185:

    his actis, aliud genitor secum ipse volutat,

    id. ib. 12, 843: tempus secum ipsa Exigit, id. ib. 4, 475:

    quam facile exercitu soclos conservaturus sit, qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit,

    Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 15, 45:

    multa secum ipse volvens,

    Sall. C. 32, 1:

    aestimando ipse secum,

    Liv. 25, 23, 11.—
    2.
    In one ' s self, for one ' s own sake:

    ipsam aequitatem et jus ipsum amare,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 18, 48.—
    3.
    Of one ' s self, of one ' s own nature, etc.:

    erat ipse immani acerbāque naturā Oppianicus,

    Cic. Clu. 15, 44:

    duo imperatores, ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus,

    Sall. J. 52, 1:

    natura serpentium, ipsa perniciosa, siti accenditur,

    id. ib. 89, 5.—
    D.
    With advv. of time.
    1.
    Nunc ipsum, just now, at this very time:

    nunc ipsum exurit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 16:

    nunc ipsum non dubitabo rem tantam adicere,

    Cic. Att. 7, 3, 2; 8, 9, 2:

    nunc tamen ipsum sine te esse non possum,

    id. ib. 12, 16. —
    2.
    Tum ipsum, just then, at that very time:

    id, quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 27, 124:

    ratio largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum ad facultates accommodanda est,

    id. Off. 2, 17, 60:

    et tum ipsum, cum immolare velis, extorum fieri mutatio potest,

    id. Div. 1, 52, 118; cf. id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv.—
    E.
    With numerals, just, exactly, precisely (opp. fere):

    triginta dies erant ipsi, cum, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 21 init.:

    ipsas undecim esse legiones,

    id. Fam. 6, 18, 2:

    nam cum dixisset minus 1000 (sc. milia), populus cum risu acclamavit, ipsa esse,

    id. Caecin. 10, 28; cf. id. Brut. 15, 61; 43, 162:

    ipso vigesimo anno,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 9, § 25. —
    F.
    In reflexive uses,
    1.
    Ipse strengthens the subject when opposed in thought to other agents; the object, when opposed to other objects; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 696; Kennedy, Gram. § 67, 3; Madv. Gram. § 487, 6. — Hence,
    a.
    With subject.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    non egeo medicina (i. e. ut alii me consolentur), me ipse consolor,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 10:

    Junius necem sibi ipse conscivit,

    id. N. D. 2, 3, 7:

    neque potest exercitum is continere imperator, qui se ipse non continet,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 38:

    Artaxerxes se ipse reprehendit,

    Nep. Dat. 5:

    ipsa se virtus satis ostendit,

    Sall. J. 85; cf.:

    deponendo tutelam ipse in se unum omnium vires convertit,

    Liv. 24, 4, 9:

    deforme etiam est de se ipsum praedicare,

    Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137.—
    (β).
    With special emphasis, ipse is joined to the subject to indicate its relation to itself as both subject and object, though the antithesis would suggest another case (Cic.):

    cum iste sic erat humilis atque demissus, ut non modo populo Romano, sed etiam sibi ipse condemnatus videretur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17:

    si quis ipse sibi inimicus est,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 28:

    qui ipsi sibi bellum indixissent,

    id. ib. 5, 10, 29:

    quoniam se ipsi omnes natura diligant,

    id. ib. 3, 18, 59:

    nam si ex scriptis cognosci ipsi suis potuissent,

    id. de Or. 2, 2, 8.—
    b.
    With object:

    neque vero ipsam amicitiam tueri (possumus), nisi aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 67:

    omne animal se ipsum diligit,

    id. ib. 5, 9, 24:

    fac ut diligentissime te ipsum custodias,

    id. Fam. 9, 14, 8:

    Pompeianus miles fratrem suum, dein se ipsum interfecit,

    Tac. H. 3, 51:

    Lentulum, quem mihi ipsi antepono,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 7, 5.—
    2.
    Ipse defines the subject of a reflexive pronoun:

    natura movet infantem, sed tantum ut se ipse diligat (where ipse shows that se refers to infantem),

    Cic. Fin. 2, 10, 33: proinde consulant sibi ipsi;

    jubeant abire se,

    Just. 16, 4, 15:

    neque prius vim adhibendam putaverunt, quam se ipse indicasset,

    Nep. Paus. 4:

    in portis murisque sibimet ipsos tecta coëgerat aedificare,

    Liv. 27, 3, 2 (cf. 1. a. supra).—
    3.
    Ipse stands for the reflexive pronoun,
    a.
    Where the person or thing referred to is to be emphatically distinguished from others (class.):

    cum omnes se expetendos putent, nec id ob aliam rem, sed propter ipsos, necesse est ejus etiam partes propter se expeti, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 17, 46:

    quis umquam consul senatum ipsius decretis parere prohibuit?

    id. Sest. 14, 32:

    quos, quidquid ipsis expediat, facturos arbitrabimur,

    id. Fin. 2, 35, 117:

    qui negant se recusare, quo minus, ipsis mortuis, terrarum deflagratio consequatur,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 64:

    nec quid ipsius natura sit intellegit,

    id. ib. 5, 9, 24.—
    b.
    In a subordinate clause, to point out either the subject of the principal clause, or the chief agent or speaker;

    esp. where se or sibi is already applied to the subject of the subordinate clause: ne ob eam rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos despiceret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13, 5:

    legatos ad consulem mittit, qui tantum modo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent,

    Sall. J. 16, 2; cf.:

    ipsis mortuis,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 19, 64:

    supra nihil, quantum in ipso est, praetermittere quo minus, etc.,

    id. Leg. 1, 21, 56:

    ipsius,

    id. ib. 2, 22, 55:

    nihil umquam audivi... nihil de re publica gravius, nihil de ipso modestius, i. e. de ipso dicente,

    id. Balb. 1, 2: id quod ipsum adjuvat (i. e. dicentem;

    opp. id quod adversario prodest),

    id. Inv. 1, 21, 30.—
    c.
    In gen., for an emphatic se or sibi (mostly post-Aug.; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 40):

    nam ipsis certum esse, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 46, 13:

    pravitas consulum discordiaque inter ipsos,

    id. 4, 26, 6:

    inexperta remedia haud injuria ipsis esse suspecta,

    Curt. 3, 5, 15:

    Graecis nuntiare jubet, ipsum quidem gratias agere, etc.,

    id. 3, 8, 7:

    dixit, ab illo deo ipsos genus ducere,

    id. 4, 2, 3:

    a quibus nec acceperunt injuriam nec accepisse ipsos existimant, Sen. de Ira, 2, 5, 1: intemperantiam in morbo suam experti parere ipsis vetant,

    id. ib. 3, 13, 5:

    sciunt ipsos omnia habere communia,

    id. Ep. 6, 3; 22, 10 et saep.; cf.:

    verum est etiam iis, qui aliquando futuri sint, esse propter ipsos consulendum,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 19, 64.—
    4.
    Ipse stands in free constr. with abl. absol. as with finite verb (cf. also quisque;

    only freq. in Liv. and post-Aug. writers): cum dies venit, causa ipse pro se dicta, quindecim milibus aeris damnatur,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    Romani imperatores, junctis et ipsi exercitibus... ad sedem hostium pervenere,

    id. 29, 2, 2:

    C. Popilius, dimissis et ipse Atticis navibus... pergit,

    id. 45, 10, 2; cf.:

    Catilina et Autronius parabant consules interficere, ipsi fascibus conreptis Pisonem cum exercitu mittere,

    Sall. C. 18, 5:

    amisso et ipse Pacoro,

    Tac. G. 37; cf. also the emphatic use of ipse (like quisque) with abl. of gerund (freq. in Liv.):

    adsentando indignandoque et ipse,

    Liv. 40, 23, 1:

    cogendo ipse,

    id. 39, 49, 3:

    agendo ipse,

    id. 41, 24, 2:

    aestimando ipse secum,

    id. 25, 23, 11 et saep.
    Ipse is very rarely strengthened by the suffix -met:

    ipsemet abiit,

    Plaut.
    Am. prol. 102:

    ipsimet nobis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 3:

    ipsemet profugiam,

    Sen. Ep. 117, 21; also Front. Aq. 74 ex conj.— Sup.: Com. Ergo ipsusne es? Charm. Ipsissumus, his own very self, Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 146; cf. Gr. autotatos, Aristoph. Plut. 83; so,

    ipsimus and ipsima, for dominus and domina (cf II. A. supra),

    Petr. 75, 11; and:

    ipsimi nostri,

    id. 63, 3 Büch. ex conj.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ipsus

  • 13 tanti

    tantus, a, um, adj. [perh. for tavantus; cf. Sanscr. tāvant, so great; Gr. teôs, i. e. teWôs].
    I.
    Of such size or measure, so great in amount, extent, value, degree, etc. (as some standard expressed or understood); usually with a foll. quantus, ut, qui, or absol.; rarely quam.
    1.
    With [p. 1841] quantus:

    nullam (contionem) umquam vidi tantam, quanta nunc vestrum est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 7, 18:

    quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 11, 29:

    est alienum tanto viro, quantus es tu, non posse, etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 9, 1:

    tantam eorum multitudinem nostri interfecerunt, quantum fuit diei spatium,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 11; cf.:

    quamquam Demaden continua dicendi exercitatio potuerit tantum, quantuluscumque postea fuit, fecisse,

    Quint. 2, 17, 12; Cic. Lael. 20, 74; Sall. C. 58, 2.—
    2.
    With ut.
    a.
    Denoting result or consequence; with subj.:

    tanta erat operis firmitudo, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B G 4, 17:

    non fuit tantus homo Sex. Roscius in civitate, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 43, 125;

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis... ut, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 1, 1:

    quod ego tantum nefas commisi, ut hanc vicem saevitiae meae redderes?

    Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    quod tantum cogitavi nefas, ut dignior Philotas me videretur?

    id. 6, 7, 30.—
    b.
    Denoting comparison:

    tantā modestiā dicto audiens fuit, ut si privatus esset,

    Nep. Ages. 4, 2.—
    3.
    With rel. qui, etc.:

    cave putes aut mare ullum aut flammam esse tantam, quam non facilius sit sedare quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 42, 65:

    statuerunt, tantum illud esse maleficium, quod, etc.,

    id. Sull. 2, 7:

    nulla est tanta vis, quae non ferro frangi possit,

    id. Marcell. 3, 8.—
    4.
    Without correlation (esp. freq. in exclamations, etc.) ita tanta mira in aedibus sunt facta, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 5:

    tanta factis modo mira miris modis, etc.,

    id. Cas. 3, 5, 5:

    qui tantus natu deorum nescis nomina,

    id. Bacch. 1, 2, 15:

    neque solum in tantis rebus, sed etiam in mediocribus vel studiis vel officiis,

    id. Rep. 1, 3, 4:

    tantilla tanta verba funditat,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 61. hocine mihi ob labores tantos tantillum dari, id. Truc. 2, 6, 56:

    ne tantae nationes conjugantur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 11:

    onus,

    id. ib. 2, 30 in tantis motionibus tantisque vicissitudinibus, tam multarum rerum atque tantarum ordinious, Cic. N D. 2, 5, 15:

    non idem sentio tanta hac in re tamque immensa posse fieri,

    id. de Or 2, 20, 84:

    qui tantas et tam infinitas pecunias repudiarit,

    id. Rosc. Com. 8, 24:

    tot tantaque vitia,

    id. Verr 1, 16, 47:

    quae faceres in hominem tantum et talem,

    id. Fam. 13, 66, 1; cf.:

    conservare urbes tantas atque tales,

    id. N. D. 3, 38, 92, so too, with talis, id. Fam. 15, 4, 14, id. Phil. 2, 29, 71:

    tanta ista mala,

    Sall. C. 40, 2;

    Liv 31, 9: neque tanto tractu se colligit anguis,

    Verg. G. 2, 154:

    tantorum ingentia septem Terga boum,

    id. A. 5, 404; Curt. 3, 1, 10; 3, 3, 28; 4, 1, 1:

    sexcenta tanta reddam, si vivo, tibi,

    six hundred times as much, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 111; so,

    sexcenta tanta,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 37:

    tribus tantis illi minus redit quam obseveris,

    three times as much less, id. Trin. 2, 4, 129:

    jam non quaero, unde tantam Melitensem vestem habueris,

    such a great quantity of, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183:

    si in uno corpore tantarum rerum gubernationem mens humana possidet,

    Lact. 1, 3, 21.—
    5.
    With quam:

    maria aspera juro, Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, Quam, etc.,

    Verg. A. 6, 352 (cf. infra, B. 2.).—With a partit. gen.:

    tantus ille ventorum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 46, § 121 (dub.; Jahn, ventus).—
    6.
    Esp. in phrase tantō ŏpĕre; freq. as one word, tantŏpĕre, so greatly, in so high a degree, so very, etc. (class. and freq.):

    cur tanto opere extimueras?

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 92, cf.:

    si studia Graecorum vos tanto opere delectant,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 18, 30; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 2; id. Ep. 1, 2, 31; Ter. And. 5, 2, 27; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 38; Caes. B. G. 7, 52; Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21; id. Mur. 10, 23; id. de Or. 1, 35, 164 al.—In an inverted order:

    mirum est, me, ut redeam, te opere tanto quaesere,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 1.—
    B.
    Transf., so many ( = tot; mostly poet.):

    tantae Coëunt in proelia gentes,

    Val. Fl. 5, 636:

    lamentabile tantis urbibus,

    Stat. Th. 11, 160:

    legatum valet in tantos quanti inveniantur,

    Dig. 30, 1, 65.— Sing.:

    numquam tanto se vulture caelum Induit,

    Luc. 7, 834. —
    C.
    Neutr. absol.
    1.
    tantum, so much, so many:

    habere tantum molestiae quantum gloriae...ut tantum nobis, quantum ipsi superesse posset, remitteret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4, 7:

    decutio argenti tantum, quantum mihi lubet,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 3, 4:

    iis adposuit tantum, quod satis esset, nullo adparatu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 91: tantum complectitur, quod satis sit modicae palaestrae, id. Leg. 2, 3, 6:

    eo indito cumini fricti tantum, quod oleat,

    Cato, R. R. 156, 3 (cf.: tantum quod, s. v. tantum, adv. B. 2. b.): Ch. Coactus reddidit ducentos et mille Philippum. Ni. Tantum debuit, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 38: nec tantum Karthago habuisset opum, Cic. Rep. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 526 (1, 48, 3 B. and K.):

    cum tantum belli in manibus esset,

    Liv. 4, 57, 1:

    sed quid hic tantum hominum incedunt?

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 5:

    tantum hostium intra muros est,

    Liv. 3, 17, 4 et saep.:

    sexies tantum, quam quantum satum sit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 43, § 102; cf.:

    etiamsi alterum tantum perdundum est, perdam, etc.,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 81 (v. alter):

    tantum... dum,

    Liv. 27, 42, 12; cf.:

    tantum modo... dum,

    Sall. J. 53, 3: tantum abest, ut, etc. (v. absum). —
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tantum est, that is all, nothing more, etc.:

    vos rogat, ut, etc. Tantum est. Valete,

    Plaut. Trin. prol. 22; so id. Cas. prol. 87: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, id. Merc. 2, 2, 12; Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 26; id. Hec. 5, 3, 15.—
    2.
    Gen. (of price) tanti:

    tanti, quanti poscit, vin' tanti illam emi?

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 4, 22; cf.:

    tanti est, quanti est fungus putidus,

    it is worth as much as, is worth no more than, id. Bacch. 4, 7, 23:

    frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194:

    ubi me dixero dare tanti,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 49:

    graviter increpuit, tanti habitare censorem,

    in so costly a house, Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 3. —
    b.
    Trop.: est tanti (alicui), to be worth so much; to be valued, prized, or esteemed so highly; to be of such consequence or importance:

    tanti ejus apud se gratiam esse ostendit, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20: tanti non fuit Arsacen capere, ut, etc., Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 1:

    hoc tanti fuit vertere, ut, etc.,

    Quint. 1, 6, 38: est mihi tanti, Quirites, hujus invidiae tempestatem subire, dummodo a vobis hujus belli periculum depellatur, it is worth this price to me, i. e. I esteem it a light thing, Cic. Cat. 2, 7, 15; cf.:

    sed est tanti (sc.: invidiam istam mihi impendere), dummodo,

    id. ib. 1, 9, 22:

    etsi id quidem non tanti est, quam quod propter eosdem, etc.,

    id. Mil. 22, 58:

    juratus tibi possum dicere, nihil esse tanti, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 13, 2:

    cum dicturis tanti suae non sint (actiones),

    Quint. 12, 8, 4:

    sunt o! sunt jurgia tanti,

    Ov. M. 2, 424 et saep.—
    3.
    Abl. (with comparatives) tantō, by so much, so much the:

    quanto erat in dies gravior oppugnatio, tanto crebriores litterae nuntiique ad Caesarem mittebantur,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 45; cf.:

    quantum opere processerant, tanto aberant ab aquā longius,

    id. B. C. 1, 81:

    tanto major vis, quanto recentior,

    Plin. 9, 38, 62, § 133:

    reperietis quinquies tanto amplius istum quam quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 97, § 225:

    tantone minoris decumae venierunt quam fuerunt?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 45, § 106 et saep.: bis tanto amici sunt inter se quam prius, twice as much, twice as good, dis tosôi, Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 62:

    bis tanto pluris,

    id. Men. 4, 3, 6:

    ter tanto pejor,

    id. Pers. 1, 3, 73:

    multo tanto miserior,

    id. Rud. 2, 6, 37:

    si Cleomenes non tanto ante fugisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 89:

    post tanto,

    Verg. G. 3, 476; Curt. 6, 7, 26.— Rarely with verbs denoting comparison:

    tanto praestitit ceteros imperatores, quan to populus Romanus antecedit fortitudine cunctas nationes,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 1; Ov. M. 13, 368; cf.:

    doctrinis tanto antecessit condiscipulos, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 2.— Poet. with sup.:

    tanto pessimus omnium poëta, Quanto tu optimus omnium patronus,

    Cat. 49, 6.—
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tanto melior! so much the better! well done! good! excellent! bravo! etc.: To. Omnes sycophantias instruxi et comparavi, quo pacto ab lenone auferam hoc argentum. Sa. Tanto melior! Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 24; cf. Sen. Ep. 31;

    so too: tanto melior,

    Plaut. Truc. 5, 61; Phaedr. 3, 5, 3:

    tanto hercle melior,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 38:

    tanto major! tanto augustior!

    how great! how noble! Plin. Pan. 71, 4:

    tanto nequior!

    so much the worse! that is bad! Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 12; cf. Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 84; so,

    tanto miserior,

    id. Stich. 5, 5, 8.—
    4.
    In tantum, so far, so much, to such a degree, so greatly:

    danti in tantum producenda notitia est muneris sui, in quantum delectatura est eum, cui datur,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 23; Col. 12, 24, 1:

    quaedam aquae fervent in tantum, ut non possint esse usui,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 24, 1: humum in tantum deprimere, donec altitudinis mensuram datam ceperit, Col. 3, 13, 9:

    in tantum suam felicitatem virtutemque enituisse,

    Liv. 22, 27.
    II.
    Since tantus conveys only the idea of relative greatness, it may also be used (with a foll. ut) to denote a small amount, degree, extent, etc.; hence, of such a quantity or quality, such, so small, so slight or trivial; in the neutr., so little, so few (rare but class.):

    ceterarum provinciarum vectigalia tanta sunt, ut iis ad ipsas provincias tutandas vix contenti esse possimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; id. Fam. 1, 7, 4: si bellum tantum erit, ut vos aut successores sustinere possint, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 10, 3:

    praesidii tantum est, ut ne murus quidem cingi possit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35:

    tantum navium,

    id. B. C. 3, 2.—Hence, tantum, adv.
    A.
    So much, so greatly, to such a degree, so:

    tantum, quantum quis fuge,

    as quickly as possible, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 94:

    de quo tantum, quantum me amas, velim cogites,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 1:

    id tantum abest ab officio, ut, etc.,

    so far, id. Off. 1, 14, 43:

    rex tantum auctoritate ejus motus est, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Con. 4, 1:

    tantum progressus a castris, ut dimicaturum appareret,

    Liv. 37, 39, 6:

    tantumque ibi moratus, dum, etc.,

    so long, id. 27, 42, 13:

    tantum ad narrandum argumentum adest benignitas,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 16:

    ne miremini, quā ratione hic tantum apud istum libertus potuerit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 134:

    nullo tantum se Mysia cultu Jactat,

    Verg. G. 1, 102.—With adjj. (mostly poet.):

    nec tantum dulcia, quantum Et liquida,

    Verg. G. 4, 101:

    juventus Non tantum Veneris quantum studiosa culinae,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 80:

    tantum dissimilis,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 313:

    Marius quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus,

    Vell. 2, 11, 1.—
    B.
    (Acc. to tantus, II.; and therefore, prop., only so much, so little; hence) Only, alone, merely, but:

    tantum monet, quantum intellegit,

    only so much, Cic. Tusc. 2, 19, 44:

    tantum in latitudinem patebat, quantum loci acies instructa occupare poterat,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8:

    quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur...se accommodat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 4, 11:

    Socratem tantum de vitā et de moribus solitum esse quaerere,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 16:

    nomen tantum virtutis usurpas,

    id. Par. 2, 17:

    dixit tantum: nihil ostendit, nihil protulit,

    id. Fl. 15, 34:

    notus mihi nomine tantum,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 3:

    apte dicere non elocutionis tantum genere constat, sed, etc.,

    Quint. 11, 1, 7; so,

    non tantum... sed,

    id. 9, 3, 28:

    nec tantum... sed (etiam),

    id. 3, 8, 33; 9, 3, 78; 11, 2, 5.—So with unus (mostly post-Aug.;

    once in Cic.): excepit unum tantum: scire se nihil se scire, nihil amplius,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    unum flumen tantum intererat,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 19:

    unum defuisse tantum superbiae,

    Liv. 6, 16, 5; 21, 50, 6; 34, 9, 5; Just. 8, 5, 5; Cels. 5, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 1; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120.—
    b.
    Strengthened by modo, and also joined with it in one word, tantummŏdo (freq. and class.;

    whereas solummodo is only post-Aug., v. h. v.): homines populariter annum tantummodo solis, id est unius astri reditu metiuntur,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    ut tantummodo per stirpes alantur suas,

    id. N. D. 2, 32, 81:

    cum tantummodo potestatem gustandi feceris,

    id. Rep. 2, 28, 51:

    omnis ea judicatio versatur tantummodo in nomine,

    id. ib. 4, 6, 6:

    pedites tantummodo umeris ac summo pectore exstare (ut possent),

    Caes. B. C. 1, 62:

    velis tantummodo,

    you have only to wish it, Hor. S. 1, 9, 54:

    unum hoc tantummodo, neque praeterea quicquam, etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 11 et saep.:

    neque eum oratorem tantummodo, sed hominem non putant,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 52:

    neque e silvis tantummodo promota castra, sed etiam... in campos delata acies,

    Liv. 9, 37, 2:

    Cn. Scipionem misit non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios, sed etiam ad pellendum Hispaniā Hasdrubalem,

    id. 21, 32, 4; so,

    non tantummodo... sed etiam,

    Sen. Polyb. 15, 3; id. Ot. Sap. 3, 5; 5, 4; Front. Ep. ad Verr. p. 124:

    non tantummodo... sed... quoque,

    Vell. 2, 110, 5:

    non tantummodo... verum etiam,

    Aug. Ep. 162, 1; id. Grat. Christ. 14: non... tantum, with ellips. of sed, not only (but much more), Ov. Am. 1, 4, 63; cf.:

    rem atrocem nec tantum epistulā dignam,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 14; Juv. 1, 131.—
    2.
    Particular phrases.
    a.
    Tantum non, analog. to the Gr. monon ouk, to [p. 1842] point out an action as only not, i. e. very nearly, completed, almost, all but, very nearly (perh. not ante-Aug.; in Cic. Att. 14, 5, 2, Baiter reads tantummodo):

    cum agger promotus ad urbem vineaeque tantum non jam injunctae moenibus essent,

    Liv. 5, 7, 2:

    tantum non jam captam Lacedaemonem esse,

    id. 34, 40, 5:

    tantum non ad portam bellum esse,

    id. 25, 15, 1:

    videt Romanos tantum non jam circumveniri a dextro cornu,

    id. 37, 29, 9:

    cum hostes tantum non arcessierint,

    id. 4, 2, 12 Drak.:

    tantum non adversis tempestatibus Rhodum enavigavit,

    Suet. Tib. 11:

    tantum non statim a funere,

    id. ib. 52:

    tantum non summam malorum suorum professus est,

    id. ib. 66:

    tantum non in ipso ejus consulatu,

    id. Dom. 15 et saep.—But in many cases non belongs to the verb, and not to tantum:

    tantum non cunctandum neque cessandum esse,

    only there must be no delay, Liv. 35, 18, 8:

    dictator bello ita gesto, ut tantum non defuisse fortunae videretur,

    id. 4, 57, 8 Drak.; cf.:

    ut qui per haec vicit, tantum non defuisse sibi advocatum sciat,

    Quint. 6, 2, 4.—
    b.
    Tantum quod, denoting immediate nearness in point of time, only, just, but just, just then, hardly, scarcely (class.):

    tantum quod ex Arpinati veneram, cum mihi a te litterae redditae sunt,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1:

    tantum quod ultimam imposuerat Pannonico bello Caesar manum, cum, etc.,

    Vell. 2, 117, 1:

    haec cum scriberem, tantum quod existimabam ad te orationem esse perlatam,

    Cic. Att. 15, 13, 7:

    navis Alexandrina, quae tantum quod appulerat,

    Suet. Aug. 98:

    natus est XVIII. Cal. Jan. tantum quod oriente sole,

    id. Ner. 6:

    tantum quod pueritiam egresso,

    id. Aug. 63:

    dentem tantum quod exemptum,

    id. Vesp. 5 (but in Liv. 22, 2, 9; 33, 4, 6; Amm. 27, 5, 4, the quod belongs not to tantum, but to the following verb):

    tantum alone = tantum quod,

    Verg. E. 6, 16. —
    c.
    Tantum quod non, only that not, nothing is wanting but:

    tantum quod hominem non nominat: causam quidem totam perscribit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 45, § 116.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tanti

  • 14 tanto

    tantus, a, um, adj. [perh. for tavantus; cf. Sanscr. tāvant, so great; Gr. teôs, i. e. teWôs].
    I.
    Of such size or measure, so great in amount, extent, value, degree, etc. (as some standard expressed or understood); usually with a foll. quantus, ut, qui, or absol.; rarely quam.
    1.
    With [p. 1841] quantus:

    nullam (contionem) umquam vidi tantam, quanta nunc vestrum est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 7, 18:

    quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 11, 29:

    est alienum tanto viro, quantus es tu, non posse, etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 9, 1:

    tantam eorum multitudinem nostri interfecerunt, quantum fuit diei spatium,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 11; cf.:

    quamquam Demaden continua dicendi exercitatio potuerit tantum, quantuluscumque postea fuit, fecisse,

    Quint. 2, 17, 12; Cic. Lael. 20, 74; Sall. C. 58, 2.—
    2.
    With ut.
    a.
    Denoting result or consequence; with subj.:

    tanta erat operis firmitudo, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B G 4, 17:

    non fuit tantus homo Sex. Roscius in civitate, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 43, 125;

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis... ut, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 1, 1:

    quod ego tantum nefas commisi, ut hanc vicem saevitiae meae redderes?

    Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    quod tantum cogitavi nefas, ut dignior Philotas me videretur?

    id. 6, 7, 30.—
    b.
    Denoting comparison:

    tantā modestiā dicto audiens fuit, ut si privatus esset,

    Nep. Ages. 4, 2.—
    3.
    With rel. qui, etc.:

    cave putes aut mare ullum aut flammam esse tantam, quam non facilius sit sedare quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 42, 65:

    statuerunt, tantum illud esse maleficium, quod, etc.,

    id. Sull. 2, 7:

    nulla est tanta vis, quae non ferro frangi possit,

    id. Marcell. 3, 8.—
    4.
    Without correlation (esp. freq. in exclamations, etc.) ita tanta mira in aedibus sunt facta, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 5:

    tanta factis modo mira miris modis, etc.,

    id. Cas. 3, 5, 5:

    qui tantus natu deorum nescis nomina,

    id. Bacch. 1, 2, 15:

    neque solum in tantis rebus, sed etiam in mediocribus vel studiis vel officiis,

    id. Rep. 1, 3, 4:

    tantilla tanta verba funditat,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 61. hocine mihi ob labores tantos tantillum dari, id. Truc. 2, 6, 56:

    ne tantae nationes conjugantur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 11:

    onus,

    id. ib. 2, 30 in tantis motionibus tantisque vicissitudinibus, tam multarum rerum atque tantarum ordinious, Cic. N D. 2, 5, 15:

    non idem sentio tanta hac in re tamque immensa posse fieri,

    id. de Or 2, 20, 84:

    qui tantas et tam infinitas pecunias repudiarit,

    id. Rosc. Com. 8, 24:

    tot tantaque vitia,

    id. Verr 1, 16, 47:

    quae faceres in hominem tantum et talem,

    id. Fam. 13, 66, 1; cf.:

    conservare urbes tantas atque tales,

    id. N. D. 3, 38, 92, so too, with talis, id. Fam. 15, 4, 14, id. Phil. 2, 29, 71:

    tanta ista mala,

    Sall. C. 40, 2;

    Liv 31, 9: neque tanto tractu se colligit anguis,

    Verg. G. 2, 154:

    tantorum ingentia septem Terga boum,

    id. A. 5, 404; Curt. 3, 1, 10; 3, 3, 28; 4, 1, 1:

    sexcenta tanta reddam, si vivo, tibi,

    six hundred times as much, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 111; so,

    sexcenta tanta,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 37:

    tribus tantis illi minus redit quam obseveris,

    three times as much less, id. Trin. 2, 4, 129:

    jam non quaero, unde tantam Melitensem vestem habueris,

    such a great quantity of, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183:

    si in uno corpore tantarum rerum gubernationem mens humana possidet,

    Lact. 1, 3, 21.—
    5.
    With quam:

    maria aspera juro, Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, Quam, etc.,

    Verg. A. 6, 352 (cf. infra, B. 2.).—With a partit. gen.:

    tantus ille ventorum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 46, § 121 (dub.; Jahn, ventus).—
    6.
    Esp. in phrase tantō ŏpĕre; freq. as one word, tantŏpĕre, so greatly, in so high a degree, so very, etc. (class. and freq.):

    cur tanto opere extimueras?

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 92, cf.:

    si studia Graecorum vos tanto opere delectant,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 18, 30; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 2; id. Ep. 1, 2, 31; Ter. And. 5, 2, 27; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 38; Caes. B. G. 7, 52; Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21; id. Mur. 10, 23; id. de Or. 1, 35, 164 al.—In an inverted order:

    mirum est, me, ut redeam, te opere tanto quaesere,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 1.—
    B.
    Transf., so many ( = tot; mostly poet.):

    tantae Coëunt in proelia gentes,

    Val. Fl. 5, 636:

    lamentabile tantis urbibus,

    Stat. Th. 11, 160:

    legatum valet in tantos quanti inveniantur,

    Dig. 30, 1, 65.— Sing.:

    numquam tanto se vulture caelum Induit,

    Luc. 7, 834. —
    C.
    Neutr. absol.
    1.
    tantum, so much, so many:

    habere tantum molestiae quantum gloriae...ut tantum nobis, quantum ipsi superesse posset, remitteret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4, 7:

    decutio argenti tantum, quantum mihi lubet,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 3, 4:

    iis adposuit tantum, quod satis esset, nullo adparatu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 91: tantum complectitur, quod satis sit modicae palaestrae, id. Leg. 2, 3, 6:

    eo indito cumini fricti tantum, quod oleat,

    Cato, R. R. 156, 3 (cf.: tantum quod, s. v. tantum, adv. B. 2. b.): Ch. Coactus reddidit ducentos et mille Philippum. Ni. Tantum debuit, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 38: nec tantum Karthago habuisset opum, Cic. Rep. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 526 (1, 48, 3 B. and K.):

    cum tantum belli in manibus esset,

    Liv. 4, 57, 1:

    sed quid hic tantum hominum incedunt?

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 5:

    tantum hostium intra muros est,

    Liv. 3, 17, 4 et saep.:

    sexies tantum, quam quantum satum sit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 43, § 102; cf.:

    etiamsi alterum tantum perdundum est, perdam, etc.,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 81 (v. alter):

    tantum... dum,

    Liv. 27, 42, 12; cf.:

    tantum modo... dum,

    Sall. J. 53, 3: tantum abest, ut, etc. (v. absum). —
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tantum est, that is all, nothing more, etc.:

    vos rogat, ut, etc. Tantum est. Valete,

    Plaut. Trin. prol. 22; so id. Cas. prol. 87: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, id. Merc. 2, 2, 12; Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 26; id. Hec. 5, 3, 15.—
    2.
    Gen. (of price) tanti:

    tanti, quanti poscit, vin' tanti illam emi?

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 4, 22; cf.:

    tanti est, quanti est fungus putidus,

    it is worth as much as, is worth no more than, id. Bacch. 4, 7, 23:

    frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194:

    ubi me dixero dare tanti,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 49:

    graviter increpuit, tanti habitare censorem,

    in so costly a house, Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 3. —
    b.
    Trop.: est tanti (alicui), to be worth so much; to be valued, prized, or esteemed so highly; to be of such consequence or importance:

    tanti ejus apud se gratiam esse ostendit, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20: tanti non fuit Arsacen capere, ut, etc., Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 1:

    hoc tanti fuit vertere, ut, etc.,

    Quint. 1, 6, 38: est mihi tanti, Quirites, hujus invidiae tempestatem subire, dummodo a vobis hujus belli periculum depellatur, it is worth this price to me, i. e. I esteem it a light thing, Cic. Cat. 2, 7, 15; cf.:

    sed est tanti (sc.: invidiam istam mihi impendere), dummodo,

    id. ib. 1, 9, 22:

    etsi id quidem non tanti est, quam quod propter eosdem, etc.,

    id. Mil. 22, 58:

    juratus tibi possum dicere, nihil esse tanti, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 13, 2:

    cum dicturis tanti suae non sint (actiones),

    Quint. 12, 8, 4:

    sunt o! sunt jurgia tanti,

    Ov. M. 2, 424 et saep.—
    3.
    Abl. (with comparatives) tantō, by so much, so much the:

    quanto erat in dies gravior oppugnatio, tanto crebriores litterae nuntiique ad Caesarem mittebantur,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 45; cf.:

    quantum opere processerant, tanto aberant ab aquā longius,

    id. B. C. 1, 81:

    tanto major vis, quanto recentior,

    Plin. 9, 38, 62, § 133:

    reperietis quinquies tanto amplius istum quam quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 97, § 225:

    tantone minoris decumae venierunt quam fuerunt?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 45, § 106 et saep.: bis tanto amici sunt inter se quam prius, twice as much, twice as good, dis tosôi, Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 62:

    bis tanto pluris,

    id. Men. 4, 3, 6:

    ter tanto pejor,

    id. Pers. 1, 3, 73:

    multo tanto miserior,

    id. Rud. 2, 6, 37:

    si Cleomenes non tanto ante fugisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 89:

    post tanto,

    Verg. G. 3, 476; Curt. 6, 7, 26.— Rarely with verbs denoting comparison:

    tanto praestitit ceteros imperatores, quan to populus Romanus antecedit fortitudine cunctas nationes,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 1; Ov. M. 13, 368; cf.:

    doctrinis tanto antecessit condiscipulos, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 2.— Poet. with sup.:

    tanto pessimus omnium poëta, Quanto tu optimus omnium patronus,

    Cat. 49, 6.—
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tanto melior! so much the better! well done! good! excellent! bravo! etc.: To. Omnes sycophantias instruxi et comparavi, quo pacto ab lenone auferam hoc argentum. Sa. Tanto melior! Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 24; cf. Sen. Ep. 31;

    so too: tanto melior,

    Plaut. Truc. 5, 61; Phaedr. 3, 5, 3:

    tanto hercle melior,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 38:

    tanto major! tanto augustior!

    how great! how noble! Plin. Pan. 71, 4:

    tanto nequior!

    so much the worse! that is bad! Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 12; cf. Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 84; so,

    tanto miserior,

    id. Stich. 5, 5, 8.—
    4.
    In tantum, so far, so much, to such a degree, so greatly:

    danti in tantum producenda notitia est muneris sui, in quantum delectatura est eum, cui datur,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 23; Col. 12, 24, 1:

    quaedam aquae fervent in tantum, ut non possint esse usui,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 24, 1: humum in tantum deprimere, donec altitudinis mensuram datam ceperit, Col. 3, 13, 9:

    in tantum suam felicitatem virtutemque enituisse,

    Liv. 22, 27.
    II.
    Since tantus conveys only the idea of relative greatness, it may also be used (with a foll. ut) to denote a small amount, degree, extent, etc.; hence, of such a quantity or quality, such, so small, so slight or trivial; in the neutr., so little, so few (rare but class.):

    ceterarum provinciarum vectigalia tanta sunt, ut iis ad ipsas provincias tutandas vix contenti esse possimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; id. Fam. 1, 7, 4: si bellum tantum erit, ut vos aut successores sustinere possint, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 10, 3:

    praesidii tantum est, ut ne murus quidem cingi possit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35:

    tantum navium,

    id. B. C. 3, 2.—Hence, tantum, adv.
    A.
    So much, so greatly, to such a degree, so:

    tantum, quantum quis fuge,

    as quickly as possible, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 94:

    de quo tantum, quantum me amas, velim cogites,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 1:

    id tantum abest ab officio, ut, etc.,

    so far, id. Off. 1, 14, 43:

    rex tantum auctoritate ejus motus est, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Con. 4, 1:

    tantum progressus a castris, ut dimicaturum appareret,

    Liv. 37, 39, 6:

    tantumque ibi moratus, dum, etc.,

    so long, id. 27, 42, 13:

    tantum ad narrandum argumentum adest benignitas,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 16:

    ne miremini, quā ratione hic tantum apud istum libertus potuerit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 134:

    nullo tantum se Mysia cultu Jactat,

    Verg. G. 1, 102.—With adjj. (mostly poet.):

    nec tantum dulcia, quantum Et liquida,

    Verg. G. 4, 101:

    juventus Non tantum Veneris quantum studiosa culinae,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 80:

    tantum dissimilis,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 313:

    Marius quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus,

    Vell. 2, 11, 1.—
    B.
    (Acc. to tantus, II.; and therefore, prop., only so much, so little; hence) Only, alone, merely, but:

    tantum monet, quantum intellegit,

    only so much, Cic. Tusc. 2, 19, 44:

    tantum in latitudinem patebat, quantum loci acies instructa occupare poterat,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8:

    quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur...se accommodat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 4, 11:

    Socratem tantum de vitā et de moribus solitum esse quaerere,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 16:

    nomen tantum virtutis usurpas,

    id. Par. 2, 17:

    dixit tantum: nihil ostendit, nihil protulit,

    id. Fl. 15, 34:

    notus mihi nomine tantum,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 3:

    apte dicere non elocutionis tantum genere constat, sed, etc.,

    Quint. 11, 1, 7; so,

    non tantum... sed,

    id. 9, 3, 28:

    nec tantum... sed (etiam),

    id. 3, 8, 33; 9, 3, 78; 11, 2, 5.—So with unus (mostly post-Aug.;

    once in Cic.): excepit unum tantum: scire se nihil se scire, nihil amplius,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    unum flumen tantum intererat,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 19:

    unum defuisse tantum superbiae,

    Liv. 6, 16, 5; 21, 50, 6; 34, 9, 5; Just. 8, 5, 5; Cels. 5, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 1; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120.—
    b.
    Strengthened by modo, and also joined with it in one word, tantummŏdo (freq. and class.;

    whereas solummodo is only post-Aug., v. h. v.): homines populariter annum tantummodo solis, id est unius astri reditu metiuntur,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    ut tantummodo per stirpes alantur suas,

    id. N. D. 2, 32, 81:

    cum tantummodo potestatem gustandi feceris,

    id. Rep. 2, 28, 51:

    omnis ea judicatio versatur tantummodo in nomine,

    id. ib. 4, 6, 6:

    pedites tantummodo umeris ac summo pectore exstare (ut possent),

    Caes. B. C. 1, 62:

    velis tantummodo,

    you have only to wish it, Hor. S. 1, 9, 54:

    unum hoc tantummodo, neque praeterea quicquam, etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 11 et saep.:

    neque eum oratorem tantummodo, sed hominem non putant,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 52:

    neque e silvis tantummodo promota castra, sed etiam... in campos delata acies,

    Liv. 9, 37, 2:

    Cn. Scipionem misit non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios, sed etiam ad pellendum Hispaniā Hasdrubalem,

    id. 21, 32, 4; so,

    non tantummodo... sed etiam,

    Sen. Polyb. 15, 3; id. Ot. Sap. 3, 5; 5, 4; Front. Ep. ad Verr. p. 124:

    non tantummodo... sed... quoque,

    Vell. 2, 110, 5:

    non tantummodo... verum etiam,

    Aug. Ep. 162, 1; id. Grat. Christ. 14: non... tantum, with ellips. of sed, not only (but much more), Ov. Am. 1, 4, 63; cf.:

    rem atrocem nec tantum epistulā dignam,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 14; Juv. 1, 131.—
    2.
    Particular phrases.
    a.
    Tantum non, analog. to the Gr. monon ouk, to [p. 1842] point out an action as only not, i. e. very nearly, completed, almost, all but, very nearly (perh. not ante-Aug.; in Cic. Att. 14, 5, 2, Baiter reads tantummodo):

    cum agger promotus ad urbem vineaeque tantum non jam injunctae moenibus essent,

    Liv. 5, 7, 2:

    tantum non jam captam Lacedaemonem esse,

    id. 34, 40, 5:

    tantum non ad portam bellum esse,

    id. 25, 15, 1:

    videt Romanos tantum non jam circumveniri a dextro cornu,

    id. 37, 29, 9:

    cum hostes tantum non arcessierint,

    id. 4, 2, 12 Drak.:

    tantum non adversis tempestatibus Rhodum enavigavit,

    Suet. Tib. 11:

    tantum non statim a funere,

    id. ib. 52:

    tantum non summam malorum suorum professus est,

    id. ib. 66:

    tantum non in ipso ejus consulatu,

    id. Dom. 15 et saep.—But in many cases non belongs to the verb, and not to tantum:

    tantum non cunctandum neque cessandum esse,

    only there must be no delay, Liv. 35, 18, 8:

    dictator bello ita gesto, ut tantum non defuisse fortunae videretur,

    id. 4, 57, 8 Drak.; cf.:

    ut qui per haec vicit, tantum non defuisse sibi advocatum sciat,

    Quint. 6, 2, 4.—
    b.
    Tantum quod, denoting immediate nearness in point of time, only, just, but just, just then, hardly, scarcely (class.):

    tantum quod ex Arpinati veneram, cum mihi a te litterae redditae sunt,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1:

    tantum quod ultimam imposuerat Pannonico bello Caesar manum, cum, etc.,

    Vell. 2, 117, 1:

    haec cum scriberem, tantum quod existimabam ad te orationem esse perlatam,

    Cic. Att. 15, 13, 7:

    navis Alexandrina, quae tantum quod appulerat,

    Suet. Aug. 98:

    natus est XVIII. Cal. Jan. tantum quod oriente sole,

    id. Ner. 6:

    tantum quod pueritiam egresso,

    id. Aug. 63:

    dentem tantum quod exemptum,

    id. Vesp. 5 (but in Liv. 22, 2, 9; 33, 4, 6; Amm. 27, 5, 4, the quod belongs not to tantum, but to the following verb):

    tantum alone = tantum quod,

    Verg. E. 6, 16. —
    c.
    Tantum quod non, only that not, nothing is wanting but:

    tantum quod hominem non nominat: causam quidem totam perscribit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 45, § 116.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tanto

  • 15 tanto opere

    tantus, a, um, adj. [perh. for tavantus; cf. Sanscr. tāvant, so great; Gr. teôs, i. e. teWôs].
    I.
    Of such size or measure, so great in amount, extent, value, degree, etc. (as some standard expressed or understood); usually with a foll. quantus, ut, qui, or absol.; rarely quam.
    1.
    With [p. 1841] quantus:

    nullam (contionem) umquam vidi tantam, quanta nunc vestrum est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 7, 18:

    quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 11, 29:

    est alienum tanto viro, quantus es tu, non posse, etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 9, 1:

    tantam eorum multitudinem nostri interfecerunt, quantum fuit diei spatium,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 11; cf.:

    quamquam Demaden continua dicendi exercitatio potuerit tantum, quantuluscumque postea fuit, fecisse,

    Quint. 2, 17, 12; Cic. Lael. 20, 74; Sall. C. 58, 2.—
    2.
    With ut.
    a.
    Denoting result or consequence; with subj.:

    tanta erat operis firmitudo, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B G 4, 17:

    non fuit tantus homo Sex. Roscius in civitate, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 43, 125;

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis... ut, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 1, 1:

    quod ego tantum nefas commisi, ut hanc vicem saevitiae meae redderes?

    Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    quod tantum cogitavi nefas, ut dignior Philotas me videretur?

    id. 6, 7, 30.—
    b.
    Denoting comparison:

    tantā modestiā dicto audiens fuit, ut si privatus esset,

    Nep. Ages. 4, 2.—
    3.
    With rel. qui, etc.:

    cave putes aut mare ullum aut flammam esse tantam, quam non facilius sit sedare quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 42, 65:

    statuerunt, tantum illud esse maleficium, quod, etc.,

    id. Sull. 2, 7:

    nulla est tanta vis, quae non ferro frangi possit,

    id. Marcell. 3, 8.—
    4.
    Without correlation (esp. freq. in exclamations, etc.) ita tanta mira in aedibus sunt facta, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 5:

    tanta factis modo mira miris modis, etc.,

    id. Cas. 3, 5, 5:

    qui tantus natu deorum nescis nomina,

    id. Bacch. 1, 2, 15:

    neque solum in tantis rebus, sed etiam in mediocribus vel studiis vel officiis,

    id. Rep. 1, 3, 4:

    tantilla tanta verba funditat,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 61. hocine mihi ob labores tantos tantillum dari, id. Truc. 2, 6, 56:

    ne tantae nationes conjugantur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 11:

    onus,

    id. ib. 2, 30 in tantis motionibus tantisque vicissitudinibus, tam multarum rerum atque tantarum ordinious, Cic. N D. 2, 5, 15:

    non idem sentio tanta hac in re tamque immensa posse fieri,

    id. de Or 2, 20, 84:

    qui tantas et tam infinitas pecunias repudiarit,

    id. Rosc. Com. 8, 24:

    tot tantaque vitia,

    id. Verr 1, 16, 47:

    quae faceres in hominem tantum et talem,

    id. Fam. 13, 66, 1; cf.:

    conservare urbes tantas atque tales,

    id. N. D. 3, 38, 92, so too, with talis, id. Fam. 15, 4, 14, id. Phil. 2, 29, 71:

    tanta ista mala,

    Sall. C. 40, 2;

    Liv 31, 9: neque tanto tractu se colligit anguis,

    Verg. G. 2, 154:

    tantorum ingentia septem Terga boum,

    id. A. 5, 404; Curt. 3, 1, 10; 3, 3, 28; 4, 1, 1:

    sexcenta tanta reddam, si vivo, tibi,

    six hundred times as much, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 111; so,

    sexcenta tanta,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 37:

    tribus tantis illi minus redit quam obseveris,

    three times as much less, id. Trin. 2, 4, 129:

    jam non quaero, unde tantam Melitensem vestem habueris,

    such a great quantity of, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183:

    si in uno corpore tantarum rerum gubernationem mens humana possidet,

    Lact. 1, 3, 21.—
    5.
    With quam:

    maria aspera juro, Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, Quam, etc.,

    Verg. A. 6, 352 (cf. infra, B. 2.).—With a partit. gen.:

    tantus ille ventorum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 46, § 121 (dub.; Jahn, ventus).—
    6.
    Esp. in phrase tantō ŏpĕre; freq. as one word, tantŏpĕre, so greatly, in so high a degree, so very, etc. (class. and freq.):

    cur tanto opere extimueras?

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 92, cf.:

    si studia Graecorum vos tanto opere delectant,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 18, 30; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 2; id. Ep. 1, 2, 31; Ter. And. 5, 2, 27; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 38; Caes. B. G. 7, 52; Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21; id. Mur. 10, 23; id. de Or. 1, 35, 164 al.—In an inverted order:

    mirum est, me, ut redeam, te opere tanto quaesere,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 1.—
    B.
    Transf., so many ( = tot; mostly poet.):

    tantae Coëunt in proelia gentes,

    Val. Fl. 5, 636:

    lamentabile tantis urbibus,

    Stat. Th. 11, 160:

    legatum valet in tantos quanti inveniantur,

    Dig. 30, 1, 65.— Sing.:

    numquam tanto se vulture caelum Induit,

    Luc. 7, 834. —
    C.
    Neutr. absol.
    1.
    tantum, so much, so many:

    habere tantum molestiae quantum gloriae...ut tantum nobis, quantum ipsi superesse posset, remitteret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4, 7:

    decutio argenti tantum, quantum mihi lubet,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 3, 4:

    iis adposuit tantum, quod satis esset, nullo adparatu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 91: tantum complectitur, quod satis sit modicae palaestrae, id. Leg. 2, 3, 6:

    eo indito cumini fricti tantum, quod oleat,

    Cato, R. R. 156, 3 (cf.: tantum quod, s. v. tantum, adv. B. 2. b.): Ch. Coactus reddidit ducentos et mille Philippum. Ni. Tantum debuit, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 38: nec tantum Karthago habuisset opum, Cic. Rep. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 526 (1, 48, 3 B. and K.):

    cum tantum belli in manibus esset,

    Liv. 4, 57, 1:

    sed quid hic tantum hominum incedunt?

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 5:

    tantum hostium intra muros est,

    Liv. 3, 17, 4 et saep.:

    sexies tantum, quam quantum satum sit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 43, § 102; cf.:

    etiamsi alterum tantum perdundum est, perdam, etc.,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 81 (v. alter):

    tantum... dum,

    Liv. 27, 42, 12; cf.:

    tantum modo... dum,

    Sall. J. 53, 3: tantum abest, ut, etc. (v. absum). —
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tantum est, that is all, nothing more, etc.:

    vos rogat, ut, etc. Tantum est. Valete,

    Plaut. Trin. prol. 22; so id. Cas. prol. 87: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, id. Merc. 2, 2, 12; Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 26; id. Hec. 5, 3, 15.—
    2.
    Gen. (of price) tanti:

    tanti, quanti poscit, vin' tanti illam emi?

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 4, 22; cf.:

    tanti est, quanti est fungus putidus,

    it is worth as much as, is worth no more than, id. Bacch. 4, 7, 23:

    frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194:

    ubi me dixero dare tanti,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 49:

    graviter increpuit, tanti habitare censorem,

    in so costly a house, Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 3. —
    b.
    Trop.: est tanti (alicui), to be worth so much; to be valued, prized, or esteemed so highly; to be of such consequence or importance:

    tanti ejus apud se gratiam esse ostendit, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20: tanti non fuit Arsacen capere, ut, etc., Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 1:

    hoc tanti fuit vertere, ut, etc.,

    Quint. 1, 6, 38: est mihi tanti, Quirites, hujus invidiae tempestatem subire, dummodo a vobis hujus belli periculum depellatur, it is worth this price to me, i. e. I esteem it a light thing, Cic. Cat. 2, 7, 15; cf.:

    sed est tanti (sc.: invidiam istam mihi impendere), dummodo,

    id. ib. 1, 9, 22:

    etsi id quidem non tanti est, quam quod propter eosdem, etc.,

    id. Mil. 22, 58:

    juratus tibi possum dicere, nihil esse tanti, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 13, 2:

    cum dicturis tanti suae non sint (actiones),

    Quint. 12, 8, 4:

    sunt o! sunt jurgia tanti,

    Ov. M. 2, 424 et saep.—
    3.
    Abl. (with comparatives) tantō, by so much, so much the:

    quanto erat in dies gravior oppugnatio, tanto crebriores litterae nuntiique ad Caesarem mittebantur,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 45; cf.:

    quantum opere processerant, tanto aberant ab aquā longius,

    id. B. C. 1, 81:

    tanto major vis, quanto recentior,

    Plin. 9, 38, 62, § 133:

    reperietis quinquies tanto amplius istum quam quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 97, § 225:

    tantone minoris decumae venierunt quam fuerunt?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 45, § 106 et saep.: bis tanto amici sunt inter se quam prius, twice as much, twice as good, dis tosôi, Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 62:

    bis tanto pluris,

    id. Men. 4, 3, 6:

    ter tanto pejor,

    id. Pers. 1, 3, 73:

    multo tanto miserior,

    id. Rud. 2, 6, 37:

    si Cleomenes non tanto ante fugisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 89:

    post tanto,

    Verg. G. 3, 476; Curt. 6, 7, 26.— Rarely with verbs denoting comparison:

    tanto praestitit ceteros imperatores, quan to populus Romanus antecedit fortitudine cunctas nationes,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 1; Ov. M. 13, 368; cf.:

    doctrinis tanto antecessit condiscipulos, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 2.— Poet. with sup.:

    tanto pessimus omnium poëta, Quanto tu optimus omnium patronus,

    Cat. 49, 6.—
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tanto melior! so much the better! well done! good! excellent! bravo! etc.: To. Omnes sycophantias instruxi et comparavi, quo pacto ab lenone auferam hoc argentum. Sa. Tanto melior! Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 24; cf. Sen. Ep. 31;

    so too: tanto melior,

    Plaut. Truc. 5, 61; Phaedr. 3, 5, 3:

    tanto hercle melior,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 38:

    tanto major! tanto augustior!

    how great! how noble! Plin. Pan. 71, 4:

    tanto nequior!

    so much the worse! that is bad! Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 12; cf. Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 84; so,

    tanto miserior,

    id. Stich. 5, 5, 8.—
    4.
    In tantum, so far, so much, to such a degree, so greatly:

    danti in tantum producenda notitia est muneris sui, in quantum delectatura est eum, cui datur,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 23; Col. 12, 24, 1:

    quaedam aquae fervent in tantum, ut non possint esse usui,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 24, 1: humum in tantum deprimere, donec altitudinis mensuram datam ceperit, Col. 3, 13, 9:

    in tantum suam felicitatem virtutemque enituisse,

    Liv. 22, 27.
    II.
    Since tantus conveys only the idea of relative greatness, it may also be used (with a foll. ut) to denote a small amount, degree, extent, etc.; hence, of such a quantity or quality, such, so small, so slight or trivial; in the neutr., so little, so few (rare but class.):

    ceterarum provinciarum vectigalia tanta sunt, ut iis ad ipsas provincias tutandas vix contenti esse possimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; id. Fam. 1, 7, 4: si bellum tantum erit, ut vos aut successores sustinere possint, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 10, 3:

    praesidii tantum est, ut ne murus quidem cingi possit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35:

    tantum navium,

    id. B. C. 3, 2.—Hence, tantum, adv.
    A.
    So much, so greatly, to such a degree, so:

    tantum, quantum quis fuge,

    as quickly as possible, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 94:

    de quo tantum, quantum me amas, velim cogites,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 1:

    id tantum abest ab officio, ut, etc.,

    so far, id. Off. 1, 14, 43:

    rex tantum auctoritate ejus motus est, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Con. 4, 1:

    tantum progressus a castris, ut dimicaturum appareret,

    Liv. 37, 39, 6:

    tantumque ibi moratus, dum, etc.,

    so long, id. 27, 42, 13:

    tantum ad narrandum argumentum adest benignitas,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 16:

    ne miremini, quā ratione hic tantum apud istum libertus potuerit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 134:

    nullo tantum se Mysia cultu Jactat,

    Verg. G. 1, 102.—With adjj. (mostly poet.):

    nec tantum dulcia, quantum Et liquida,

    Verg. G. 4, 101:

    juventus Non tantum Veneris quantum studiosa culinae,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 80:

    tantum dissimilis,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 313:

    Marius quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus,

    Vell. 2, 11, 1.—
    B.
    (Acc. to tantus, II.; and therefore, prop., only so much, so little; hence) Only, alone, merely, but:

    tantum monet, quantum intellegit,

    only so much, Cic. Tusc. 2, 19, 44:

    tantum in latitudinem patebat, quantum loci acies instructa occupare poterat,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8:

    quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur...se accommodat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 4, 11:

    Socratem tantum de vitā et de moribus solitum esse quaerere,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 16:

    nomen tantum virtutis usurpas,

    id. Par. 2, 17:

    dixit tantum: nihil ostendit, nihil protulit,

    id. Fl. 15, 34:

    notus mihi nomine tantum,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 3:

    apte dicere non elocutionis tantum genere constat, sed, etc.,

    Quint. 11, 1, 7; so,

    non tantum... sed,

    id. 9, 3, 28:

    nec tantum... sed (etiam),

    id. 3, 8, 33; 9, 3, 78; 11, 2, 5.—So with unus (mostly post-Aug.;

    once in Cic.): excepit unum tantum: scire se nihil se scire, nihil amplius,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    unum flumen tantum intererat,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 19:

    unum defuisse tantum superbiae,

    Liv. 6, 16, 5; 21, 50, 6; 34, 9, 5; Just. 8, 5, 5; Cels. 5, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 1; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120.—
    b.
    Strengthened by modo, and also joined with it in one word, tantummŏdo (freq. and class.;

    whereas solummodo is only post-Aug., v. h. v.): homines populariter annum tantummodo solis, id est unius astri reditu metiuntur,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    ut tantummodo per stirpes alantur suas,

    id. N. D. 2, 32, 81:

    cum tantummodo potestatem gustandi feceris,

    id. Rep. 2, 28, 51:

    omnis ea judicatio versatur tantummodo in nomine,

    id. ib. 4, 6, 6:

    pedites tantummodo umeris ac summo pectore exstare (ut possent),

    Caes. B. C. 1, 62:

    velis tantummodo,

    you have only to wish it, Hor. S. 1, 9, 54:

    unum hoc tantummodo, neque praeterea quicquam, etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 11 et saep.:

    neque eum oratorem tantummodo, sed hominem non putant,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 52:

    neque e silvis tantummodo promota castra, sed etiam... in campos delata acies,

    Liv. 9, 37, 2:

    Cn. Scipionem misit non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios, sed etiam ad pellendum Hispaniā Hasdrubalem,

    id. 21, 32, 4; so,

    non tantummodo... sed etiam,

    Sen. Polyb. 15, 3; id. Ot. Sap. 3, 5; 5, 4; Front. Ep. ad Verr. p. 124:

    non tantummodo... sed... quoque,

    Vell. 2, 110, 5:

    non tantummodo... verum etiam,

    Aug. Ep. 162, 1; id. Grat. Christ. 14: non... tantum, with ellips. of sed, not only (but much more), Ov. Am. 1, 4, 63; cf.:

    rem atrocem nec tantum epistulā dignam,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 14; Juv. 1, 131.—
    2.
    Particular phrases.
    a.
    Tantum non, analog. to the Gr. monon ouk, to [p. 1842] point out an action as only not, i. e. very nearly, completed, almost, all but, very nearly (perh. not ante-Aug.; in Cic. Att. 14, 5, 2, Baiter reads tantummodo):

    cum agger promotus ad urbem vineaeque tantum non jam injunctae moenibus essent,

    Liv. 5, 7, 2:

    tantum non jam captam Lacedaemonem esse,

    id. 34, 40, 5:

    tantum non ad portam bellum esse,

    id. 25, 15, 1:

    videt Romanos tantum non jam circumveniri a dextro cornu,

    id. 37, 29, 9:

    cum hostes tantum non arcessierint,

    id. 4, 2, 12 Drak.:

    tantum non adversis tempestatibus Rhodum enavigavit,

    Suet. Tib. 11:

    tantum non statim a funere,

    id. ib. 52:

    tantum non summam malorum suorum professus est,

    id. ib. 66:

    tantum non in ipso ejus consulatu,

    id. Dom. 15 et saep.—But in many cases non belongs to the verb, and not to tantum:

    tantum non cunctandum neque cessandum esse,

    only there must be no delay, Liv. 35, 18, 8:

    dictator bello ita gesto, ut tantum non defuisse fortunae videretur,

    id. 4, 57, 8 Drak.; cf.:

    ut qui per haec vicit, tantum non defuisse sibi advocatum sciat,

    Quint. 6, 2, 4.—
    b.
    Tantum quod, denoting immediate nearness in point of time, only, just, but just, just then, hardly, scarcely (class.):

    tantum quod ex Arpinati veneram, cum mihi a te litterae redditae sunt,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1:

    tantum quod ultimam imposuerat Pannonico bello Caesar manum, cum, etc.,

    Vell. 2, 117, 1:

    haec cum scriberem, tantum quod existimabam ad te orationem esse perlatam,

    Cic. Att. 15, 13, 7:

    navis Alexandrina, quae tantum quod appulerat,

    Suet. Aug. 98:

    natus est XVIII. Cal. Jan. tantum quod oriente sole,

    id. Ner. 6:

    tantum quod pueritiam egresso,

    id. Aug. 63:

    dentem tantum quod exemptum,

    id. Vesp. 5 (but in Liv. 22, 2, 9; 33, 4, 6; Amm. 27, 5, 4, the quod belongs not to tantum, but to the following verb):

    tantum alone = tantum quod,

    Verg. E. 6, 16. —
    c.
    Tantum quod non, only that not, nothing is wanting but:

    tantum quod hominem non nominat: causam quidem totam perscribit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 45, § 116.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tanto opere

  • 16 tantus

    tantus, a, um, adj. [perh. for tavantus; cf. Sanscr. tāvant, so great; Gr. teôs, i. e. teWôs].
    I.
    Of such size or measure, so great in amount, extent, value, degree, etc. (as some standard expressed or understood); usually with a foll. quantus, ut, qui, or absol.; rarely quam.
    1.
    With [p. 1841] quantus:

    nullam (contionem) umquam vidi tantam, quanta nunc vestrum est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 7, 18:

    quae tanta sunt in hoc uno, quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 11, 29:

    est alienum tanto viro, quantus es tu, non posse, etc.,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 9, 1:

    tantam eorum multitudinem nostri interfecerunt, quantum fuit diei spatium,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 11; cf.:

    quamquam Demaden continua dicendi exercitatio potuerit tantum, quantuluscumque postea fuit, fecisse,

    Quint. 2, 17, 12; Cic. Lael. 20, 74; Sall. C. 58, 2.—
    2.
    With ut.
    a.
    Denoting result or consequence; with subj.:

    tanta erat operis firmitudo, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B G 4, 17:

    non fuit tantus homo Sex. Roscius in civitate, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 43, 125;

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis... ut, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 1, 1:

    quod ego tantum nefas commisi, ut hanc vicem saevitiae meae redderes?

    Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    quod tantum cogitavi nefas, ut dignior Philotas me videretur?

    id. 6, 7, 30.—
    b.
    Denoting comparison:

    tantā modestiā dicto audiens fuit, ut si privatus esset,

    Nep. Ages. 4, 2.—
    3.
    With rel. qui, etc.:

    cave putes aut mare ullum aut flammam esse tantam, quam non facilius sit sedare quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 42, 65:

    statuerunt, tantum illud esse maleficium, quod, etc.,

    id. Sull. 2, 7:

    nulla est tanta vis, quae non ferro frangi possit,

    id. Marcell. 3, 8.—
    4.
    Without correlation (esp. freq. in exclamations, etc.) ita tanta mira in aedibus sunt facta, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 5:

    tanta factis modo mira miris modis, etc.,

    id. Cas. 3, 5, 5:

    qui tantus natu deorum nescis nomina,

    id. Bacch. 1, 2, 15:

    neque solum in tantis rebus, sed etiam in mediocribus vel studiis vel officiis,

    id. Rep. 1, 3, 4:

    tantilla tanta verba funditat,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 61. hocine mihi ob labores tantos tantillum dari, id. Truc. 2, 6, 56:

    ne tantae nationes conjugantur,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 11:

    onus,

    id. ib. 2, 30 in tantis motionibus tantisque vicissitudinibus, tam multarum rerum atque tantarum ordinious, Cic. N D. 2, 5, 15:

    non idem sentio tanta hac in re tamque immensa posse fieri,

    id. de Or 2, 20, 84:

    qui tantas et tam infinitas pecunias repudiarit,

    id. Rosc. Com. 8, 24:

    tot tantaque vitia,

    id. Verr 1, 16, 47:

    quae faceres in hominem tantum et talem,

    id. Fam. 13, 66, 1; cf.:

    conservare urbes tantas atque tales,

    id. N. D. 3, 38, 92, so too, with talis, id. Fam. 15, 4, 14, id. Phil. 2, 29, 71:

    tanta ista mala,

    Sall. C. 40, 2;

    Liv 31, 9: neque tanto tractu se colligit anguis,

    Verg. G. 2, 154:

    tantorum ingentia septem Terga boum,

    id. A. 5, 404; Curt. 3, 1, 10; 3, 3, 28; 4, 1, 1:

    sexcenta tanta reddam, si vivo, tibi,

    six hundred times as much, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 111; so,

    sexcenta tanta,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 37:

    tribus tantis illi minus redit quam obseveris,

    three times as much less, id. Trin. 2, 4, 129:

    jam non quaero, unde tantam Melitensem vestem habueris,

    such a great quantity of, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 74, § 183:

    si in uno corpore tantarum rerum gubernationem mens humana possidet,

    Lact. 1, 3, 21.—
    5.
    With quam:

    maria aspera juro, Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, Quam, etc.,

    Verg. A. 6, 352 (cf. infra, B. 2.).—With a partit. gen.:

    tantus ille ventorum,

    Plin. 2, 47, 46, § 121 (dub.; Jahn, ventus).—
    6.
    Esp. in phrase tantō ŏpĕre; freq. as one word, tantŏpĕre, so greatly, in so high a degree, so very, etc. (class. and freq.):

    cur tanto opere extimueras?

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 92, cf.:

    si studia Graecorum vos tanto opere delectant,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 18, 30; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 2; id. Ep. 1, 2, 31; Ter. And. 5, 2, 27; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 38; Caes. B. G. 7, 52; Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21; id. Mur. 10, 23; id. de Or. 1, 35, 164 al.—In an inverted order:

    mirum est, me, ut redeam, te opere tanto quaesere,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 1.—
    B.
    Transf., so many ( = tot; mostly poet.):

    tantae Coëunt in proelia gentes,

    Val. Fl. 5, 636:

    lamentabile tantis urbibus,

    Stat. Th. 11, 160:

    legatum valet in tantos quanti inveniantur,

    Dig. 30, 1, 65.— Sing.:

    numquam tanto se vulture caelum Induit,

    Luc. 7, 834. —
    C.
    Neutr. absol.
    1.
    tantum, so much, so many:

    habere tantum molestiae quantum gloriae...ut tantum nobis, quantum ipsi superesse posset, remitteret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4, 7:

    decutio argenti tantum, quantum mihi lubet,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 3, 4:

    iis adposuit tantum, quod satis esset, nullo adparatu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 91: tantum complectitur, quod satis sit modicae palaestrae, id. Leg. 2, 3, 6:

    eo indito cumini fricti tantum, quod oleat,

    Cato, R. R. 156, 3 (cf.: tantum quod, s. v. tantum, adv. B. 2. b.): Ch. Coactus reddidit ducentos et mille Philippum. Ni. Tantum debuit, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 38: nec tantum Karthago habuisset opum, Cic. Rep. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 526 (1, 48, 3 B. and K.):

    cum tantum belli in manibus esset,

    Liv. 4, 57, 1:

    sed quid hic tantum hominum incedunt?

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 5:

    tantum hostium intra muros est,

    Liv. 3, 17, 4 et saep.:

    sexies tantum, quam quantum satum sit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 43, § 102; cf.:

    etiamsi alterum tantum perdundum est, perdam, etc.,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 81 (v. alter):

    tantum... dum,

    Liv. 27, 42, 12; cf.:

    tantum modo... dum,

    Sall. J. 53, 3: tantum abest, ut, etc. (v. absum). —
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tantum est, that is all, nothing more, etc.:

    vos rogat, ut, etc. Tantum est. Valete,

    Plaut. Trin. prol. 22; so id. Cas. prol. 87: Lo. Numquid amplius? Ly. Tantum est, id. Merc. 2, 2, 12; Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 26; id. Hec. 5, 3, 15.—
    2.
    Gen. (of price) tanti:

    tanti, quanti poscit, vin' tanti illam emi?

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 4, 22; cf.:

    tanti est, quanti est fungus putidus,

    it is worth as much as, is worth no more than, id. Bacch. 4, 7, 23:

    frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194:

    ubi me dixero dare tanti,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 49:

    graviter increpuit, tanti habitare censorem,

    in so costly a house, Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 3. —
    b.
    Trop.: est tanti (alicui), to be worth so much; to be valued, prized, or esteemed so highly; to be of such consequence or importance:

    tanti ejus apud se gratiam esse ostendit, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20: tanti non fuit Arsacen capere, ut, etc., Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 1:

    hoc tanti fuit vertere, ut, etc.,

    Quint. 1, 6, 38: est mihi tanti, Quirites, hujus invidiae tempestatem subire, dummodo a vobis hujus belli periculum depellatur, it is worth this price to me, i. e. I esteem it a light thing, Cic. Cat. 2, 7, 15; cf.:

    sed est tanti (sc.: invidiam istam mihi impendere), dummodo,

    id. ib. 1, 9, 22:

    etsi id quidem non tanti est, quam quod propter eosdem, etc.,

    id. Mil. 22, 58:

    juratus tibi possum dicere, nihil esse tanti, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 13, 2:

    cum dicturis tanti suae non sint (actiones),

    Quint. 12, 8, 4:

    sunt o! sunt jurgia tanti,

    Ov. M. 2, 424 et saep.—
    3.
    Abl. (with comparatives) tantō, by so much, so much the:

    quanto erat in dies gravior oppugnatio, tanto crebriores litterae nuntiique ad Caesarem mittebantur,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 45; cf.:

    quantum opere processerant, tanto aberant ab aquā longius,

    id. B. C. 1, 81:

    tanto major vis, quanto recentior,

    Plin. 9, 38, 62, § 133:

    reperietis quinquies tanto amplius istum quam quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 97, § 225:

    tantone minoris decumae venierunt quam fuerunt?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 45, § 106 et saep.: bis tanto amici sunt inter se quam prius, twice as much, twice as good, dis tosôi, Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 62:

    bis tanto pluris,

    id. Men. 4, 3, 6:

    ter tanto pejor,

    id. Pers. 1, 3, 73:

    multo tanto miserior,

    id. Rud. 2, 6, 37:

    si Cleomenes non tanto ante fugisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 89:

    post tanto,

    Verg. G. 3, 476; Curt. 6, 7, 26.— Rarely with verbs denoting comparison:

    tanto praestitit ceteros imperatores, quan to populus Romanus antecedit fortitudine cunctas nationes,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 1; Ov. M. 13, 368; cf.:

    doctrinis tanto antecessit condiscipulos, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 2.— Poet. with sup.:

    tanto pessimus omnium poëta, Quanto tu optimus omnium patronus,

    Cat. 49, 6.—
    b.
    In colloquial lang.: tanto melior! so much the better! well done! good! excellent! bravo! etc.: To. Omnes sycophantias instruxi et comparavi, quo pacto ab lenone auferam hoc argentum. Sa. Tanto melior! Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 24; cf. Sen. Ep. 31;

    so too: tanto melior,

    Plaut. Truc. 5, 61; Phaedr. 3, 5, 3:

    tanto hercle melior,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 38:

    tanto major! tanto augustior!

    how great! how noble! Plin. Pan. 71, 4:

    tanto nequior!

    so much the worse! that is bad! Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 12; cf. Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 84; so,

    tanto miserior,

    id. Stich. 5, 5, 8.—
    4.
    In tantum, so far, so much, to such a degree, so greatly:

    danti in tantum producenda notitia est muneris sui, in quantum delectatura est eum, cui datur,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 23; Col. 12, 24, 1:

    quaedam aquae fervent in tantum, ut non possint esse usui,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 24, 1: humum in tantum deprimere, donec altitudinis mensuram datam ceperit, Col. 3, 13, 9:

    in tantum suam felicitatem virtutemque enituisse,

    Liv. 22, 27.
    II.
    Since tantus conveys only the idea of relative greatness, it may also be used (with a foll. ut) to denote a small amount, degree, extent, etc.; hence, of such a quantity or quality, such, so small, so slight or trivial; in the neutr., so little, so few (rare but class.):

    ceterarum provinciarum vectigalia tanta sunt, ut iis ad ipsas provincias tutandas vix contenti esse possimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; id. Fam. 1, 7, 4: si bellum tantum erit, ut vos aut successores sustinere possint, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 10, 3:

    praesidii tantum est, ut ne murus quidem cingi possit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35:

    tantum navium,

    id. B. C. 3, 2.—Hence, tantum, adv.
    A.
    So much, so greatly, to such a degree, so:

    tantum, quantum quis fuge,

    as quickly as possible, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 94:

    de quo tantum, quantum me amas, velim cogites,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 1:

    id tantum abest ab officio, ut, etc.,

    so far, id. Off. 1, 14, 43:

    rex tantum auctoritate ejus motus est, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Con. 4, 1:

    tantum progressus a castris, ut dimicaturum appareret,

    Liv. 37, 39, 6:

    tantumque ibi moratus, dum, etc.,

    so long, id. 27, 42, 13:

    tantum ad narrandum argumentum adest benignitas,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 16:

    ne miremini, quā ratione hic tantum apud istum libertus potuerit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 134:

    nullo tantum se Mysia cultu Jactat,

    Verg. G. 1, 102.—With adjj. (mostly poet.):

    nec tantum dulcia, quantum Et liquida,

    Verg. G. 4, 101:

    juventus Non tantum Veneris quantum studiosa culinae,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 80:

    tantum dissimilis,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 313:

    Marius quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus,

    Vell. 2, 11, 1.—
    B.
    (Acc. to tantus, II.; and therefore, prop., only so much, so little; hence) Only, alone, merely, but:

    tantum monet, quantum intellegit,

    only so much, Cic. Tusc. 2, 19, 44:

    tantum in latitudinem patebat, quantum loci acies instructa occupare poterat,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8:

    quod haec tantum, quantum sensu movetur...se accommodat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 4, 11:

    Socratem tantum de vitā et de moribus solitum esse quaerere,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 16:

    nomen tantum virtutis usurpas,

    id. Par. 2, 17:

    dixit tantum: nihil ostendit, nihil protulit,

    id. Fl. 15, 34:

    notus mihi nomine tantum,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 3:

    apte dicere non elocutionis tantum genere constat, sed, etc.,

    Quint. 11, 1, 7; so,

    non tantum... sed,

    id. 9, 3, 28:

    nec tantum... sed (etiam),

    id. 3, 8, 33; 9, 3, 78; 11, 2, 5.—So with unus (mostly post-Aug.;

    once in Cic.): excepit unum tantum: scire se nihil se scire, nihil amplius,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    unum flumen tantum intererat,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 19:

    unum defuisse tantum superbiae,

    Liv. 6, 16, 5; 21, 50, 6; 34, 9, 5; Just. 8, 5, 5; Cels. 5, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 1; Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120.—
    b.
    Strengthened by modo, and also joined with it in one word, tantummŏdo (freq. and class.;

    whereas solummodo is only post-Aug., v. h. v.): homines populariter annum tantummodo solis, id est unius astri reditu metiuntur,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    ut tantummodo per stirpes alantur suas,

    id. N. D. 2, 32, 81:

    cum tantummodo potestatem gustandi feceris,

    id. Rep. 2, 28, 51:

    omnis ea judicatio versatur tantummodo in nomine,

    id. ib. 4, 6, 6:

    pedites tantummodo umeris ac summo pectore exstare (ut possent),

    Caes. B. C. 1, 62:

    velis tantummodo,

    you have only to wish it, Hor. S. 1, 9, 54:

    unum hoc tantummodo, neque praeterea quicquam, etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 11 et saep.:

    neque eum oratorem tantummodo, sed hominem non putant,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 52:

    neque e silvis tantummodo promota castra, sed etiam... in campos delata acies,

    Liv. 9, 37, 2:

    Cn. Scipionem misit non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios, sed etiam ad pellendum Hispaniā Hasdrubalem,

    id. 21, 32, 4; so,

    non tantummodo... sed etiam,

    Sen. Polyb. 15, 3; id. Ot. Sap. 3, 5; 5, 4; Front. Ep. ad Verr. p. 124:

    non tantummodo... sed... quoque,

    Vell. 2, 110, 5:

    non tantummodo... verum etiam,

    Aug. Ep. 162, 1; id. Grat. Christ. 14: non... tantum, with ellips. of sed, not only (but much more), Ov. Am. 1, 4, 63; cf.:

    rem atrocem nec tantum epistulā dignam,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 14; Juv. 1, 131.—
    2.
    Particular phrases.
    a.
    Tantum non, analog. to the Gr. monon ouk, to [p. 1842] point out an action as only not, i. e. very nearly, completed, almost, all but, very nearly (perh. not ante-Aug.; in Cic. Att. 14, 5, 2, Baiter reads tantummodo):

    cum agger promotus ad urbem vineaeque tantum non jam injunctae moenibus essent,

    Liv. 5, 7, 2:

    tantum non jam captam Lacedaemonem esse,

    id. 34, 40, 5:

    tantum non ad portam bellum esse,

    id. 25, 15, 1:

    videt Romanos tantum non jam circumveniri a dextro cornu,

    id. 37, 29, 9:

    cum hostes tantum non arcessierint,

    id. 4, 2, 12 Drak.:

    tantum non adversis tempestatibus Rhodum enavigavit,

    Suet. Tib. 11:

    tantum non statim a funere,

    id. ib. 52:

    tantum non summam malorum suorum professus est,

    id. ib. 66:

    tantum non in ipso ejus consulatu,

    id. Dom. 15 et saep.—But in many cases non belongs to the verb, and not to tantum:

    tantum non cunctandum neque cessandum esse,

    only there must be no delay, Liv. 35, 18, 8:

    dictator bello ita gesto, ut tantum non defuisse fortunae videretur,

    id. 4, 57, 8 Drak.; cf.:

    ut qui per haec vicit, tantum non defuisse sibi advocatum sciat,

    Quint. 6, 2, 4.—
    b.
    Tantum quod, denoting immediate nearness in point of time, only, just, but just, just then, hardly, scarcely (class.):

    tantum quod ex Arpinati veneram, cum mihi a te litterae redditae sunt,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1:

    tantum quod ultimam imposuerat Pannonico bello Caesar manum, cum, etc.,

    Vell. 2, 117, 1:

    haec cum scriberem, tantum quod existimabam ad te orationem esse perlatam,

    Cic. Att. 15, 13, 7:

    navis Alexandrina, quae tantum quod appulerat,

    Suet. Aug. 98:

    natus est XVIII. Cal. Jan. tantum quod oriente sole,

    id. Ner. 6:

    tantum quod pueritiam egresso,

    id. Aug. 63:

    dentem tantum quod exemptum,

    id. Vesp. 5 (but in Liv. 22, 2, 9; 33, 4, 6; Amm. 27, 5, 4, the quod belongs not to tantum, but to the following verb):

    tantum alone = tantum quod,

    Verg. E. 6, 16. —
    c.
    Tantum quod non, only that not, nothing is wanting but:

    tantum quod hominem non nominat: causam quidem totam perscribit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 45, § 116.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tantus

  • 17 tum

    tum, adv. demonstr., of time [pronom. demonstr. stems to-, ta-; Gr. to, seen in ita, tam, etc.; cf. quom or cum], then.
    I.
    Absol.
    A.
    Referring to a time previously specified.
    1.
    To a definite past time.
    (α).
    To a period of time in which something was or happened (opp. later periods) = illis temporibus:

    is dictu'st ollis popularibus olim Qui tum vivebant homines,

    Enn. Ann. v. 308 Vahl.:

    quod tum erat res in pecore et locorum possessionibus, i. e. Romuli temporibus,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 16:

    cum illi male dicerent, quod tum fieri licebat, i. e. Periclis temporibus,

    id. de Or. 3, 34, 138:

    erat omnino tum mos ut faciles essent in suum cuique tribuendo,

    id. Brut. 21, 85; cf. id. Tusc. 1, 46, 111:

    vastae tum in his locis solitudines erant,

    Liv. 1, 4, 6; 2, 6, 8; 3, 29, 3; 4, 6, 12; 42, 62, 11;

    44, 9, 4: ut tum erant tempora,

    Nep. Att. 1, 2; 12, 3; Liv. 1, 3, 3; 1, 8, 4; 2, 7, 4; 2, 9, 8; 2, 50, 2; 2, 63, 6;

    39, 6, 7 and 9.—With illis temporibus: nam jam tum illis temporibus fortius... loquebantur quam pugnabant,

    Nep. Thras. 2, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to a point of time, then, at that time:

    insigneita fere tum milia militum octo Duxit,

    Enn. Ann. v. 336 Vahl.: ut jacui exsurgo;

    ardere censui aedis: ita tum confulgebant,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 15:

    jam duo restabant fata tum,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 35; id. Cist. 1, 3, 14: quot eras annos gnatus tum, quom, etc.? Me Septuennis, nam tum dentes mihi cadebant primulum, id. Men. 5, 9, 56; id. Merc. prol. 66; id. Most. 1, 2, 49; id. Am. 2, 1, 56; Ter. And. 1, 1, 82: sic igitur tum se levis ac diffusilis aether... undique flexit. Lucr. 5, 467; 5, 837; 5, 911; 5, 432;

    5, 942: atque huic anno proximus Sulla consule et Pompejo fuit. Tum P. Sulpicii in tribunatu, cottidie contionantis, totum genus dicendi cognovimus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 306; id. Ac. 2, 22, 69:

    scribit Eudemum Pheras venisse, quae erat urbs in Thessalia tum admodum nobilis,

    id. Div. 1, 25, 53; id. Rep. 2, 37, 63:

    hi tum in Asia rhetorum principes,

    id. Brut. 91, 316; id. Sest. 11, 26; id. Planc. 37, 90; id. Quint. 61, 170; id. Fam. 9, 21, 2:

    hoc tum veritus Caesar Pharum prehendit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 112:

    eodem anno a Campanis Cumae, quam Graeci tum urbem tenebant, capiuntur,

    Liv. 4, 44, 13; 1, 7, 14; 2, 9, 5;

    2, 37, 7: praetores tum duos Latium habebat,

    id. 8, 3, 9:

    Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant, dictatorem dixit,

    id. 8, 12, 13; 5, 8, 4; 22, 46, 6;

    1, 7, 12: tum Athenis perpetui archontes esse desierunt,

    Vell. 1, 8, 3:

    tum Cimbri et Teutoni transcendere Rhenum,

    id. 2, 8, 3; Val. Max. 1, 5, 3; Tac. H. 4, 49; 3, 57:

    non timido, non ignavo cessare tum licuit,

    Curt. 3, 11, 5:

    Archiae, qui tum maximum magistratum Thebis obtinebat,

    Nep. Pelop. 3, 2; id. Phoc. 3, 3.—With in eo tempore: eum quem virile secus tum in eo tempore habebat, Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 5.—Repeated by anaphora:

    quae nox omnium temporum conjurationis acerrima fuit. Tum Catilinae dies exeundi, tum ceteris manendi condicio, tum descriptio... constituta est, tum tuus pater, etc.,

    Cic. Sull. 18, 52; cf. Lucr. 5, 1377; 5, 1399.—
    (γ).
    Esp., referring to a former state, implying that it no longer exists:

    quaesivit ex lege illa Cornelia quae tum erat,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 55:

    cum sententias Oppianicus, quae tum erat potestas, palam ferri velle dixisset,

    id. ib. 27, 75:

    Caere, opulento tum oppido,

    Liv. 1, 2, 3; 3, 52, 3:

    praetores aerarii (nam tum a praetoribus tractabatur aerarium), etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 9.—
    (δ).
    Expressly opposed to present time (hodie, nunc, hoc tempore, etc.; class. and very freq.; but in post-Aug. writers tunc is regularly used): prius non is eras qui eras;

    nunc is factu's qui tum non eras,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 138:

    tu nunc tibi Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopia?

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 25; id. Hec. 3, 3, 48:

    quae tabula, tum imperio tuo revulsa, nunc a me tamen reportata est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 46, § 112:

    tum imperator populi Romani deos patrios reportabat, nunc praetor ejusdem populi eosdem illos deos... auferebat,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 77; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 35, § 78; 2, 5, 20, § 51; id. Clu. 31, 86; id. Planc. 9, 22; id. Quint. 22, 71; id. Phil. 14, 8, 21; id. Leg. 2, 22, 57; Caes. B. C. 3, 17; Liv. 5, 3, 5; 6, 15, 11; 10, 9, 6.—
    (ε).
    Opposed to another time specified:

    itaque tum eos exire jussit. Post autem e provincia litteras ad conlegium misit, se, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4, 11:

    itaque ut tum carere rege, sic pulso Tarquinio nomen regis audire non poterat,

    id. Rep. 2, 30, 53; id. Mil. 21, 55:

    sicut legatorum antea, ita tum novorum colonorum caede imbutis armis,

    Liv. 4, 31, 7; 39, 22, 10; 9, 36, 1; 2, 52, 7; 4, 2, 10; 4, 57, 11;

    21, 17, 1: et tum sicca, prius celeberrima fontibus, Ide,

    Ov. M. 2, 218; Verg. A. 11, 33; Nep. Arist. 2, 3; id. Ham. 11, 7.—
    (ζ).
    In the historians in applying general statements or truths to the state of affairs spoken of: communi enim fit vitio naturae ut invisis atque incognitis rebus... vehementius exterreamur;

    ut tum accidit,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 4; 3, 68; id. B. G. 7, 3; 2, 6; id. B. C. 1, 80:

    foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus,

    Liv. 1, 24, 4; 1, 32, 14; 21, 31, 12.—
    (η).
    Denoting coincidence or inner connection with an action before mentioned = a temporal clause (tum = cum hoc fieret), then, on that occasion:

    quis tum non ingemuit?

    Cic. Vatin. 13, 31:

    ne tum quidem hominum venustatem et facetias perspicere potuisti? i. e. cum coronam auream imponebant,

    id. Fl. 31, 76: apud imperitos tum illa dicta sunt;

    nunc agendum est subtilius,

    id. Fin. 4, 27, 74:

    itaque tum Stajenus condemnatus est,

    i. e. in that trial, id. Clu. 36, 101; id. Sen. 7, 22:

    M. Porcius Cato qui, asper ingenio, tum lenem mitemque senatorem egit,

    Liv. 45, 25; Val. Max. 8, 3, 3:

    sed tum supplicia dis... decernuntur,

    Tac. A. 3, 64; 3, 72:

    Graecia tum potuit Priamo quoque flenda videri,

    Ov. M. 14, 474.—

    With the occasion referred to specified in the same clause: Manlius... ex petulanti scurra in discordiis civitatis ad eam columnam tum suffragiis populi pervenerat,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 39:

    emisti tum in naufragio hujus urbis... tum, inquam, emisti ut, etc.,

    id. Prov. Cons. 4, 7.—Repeated by anaphora: et Capitolinis injecit sedibus ignes. Tum statua Nattae, tum simulacra deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice belua vi fulminis icti conciderunt, Cic. Div. 2, 20, 45;

    so repeated seven times,

    id. Rep. 1, 40, 62.—
    (θ).
    Redundant, the time of the action being clear without it (esp. in Cic.):

    atque hoc tum judicio facto... tamen Avitus Oppianicum reum statim non facit,

    Cic. Clu. 20, 56:

    itaque tum ille inopia et necessitate coactus ad Caepasios confugit,

    id. ib. 20, 57; id. Brut. 23, 90; 39, 145; 43, 161; cf. id. Sull. 18, 51, where tum redundant occurs six times successively.—
    2.
    In oblique discourse, referring to the time of the speaker, = nunc in direct discourse:

    quando autem se, si tum non sint, pares hostibus fore?

    if they were not now so, Liv. 3, 62, 1:

    (dixit Sempronius)... nec tum agrum plebi, sed sibi invidiam quaeri,

    id. 4, 44, 9; 4, 57, 4:

    moenia eos tum transcendere non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romanae,

    id. 21, 35, 9; 5, 21, 7 (in this use nunc is also freq.).—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    (α).
    Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc., at such a season:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo (after Lyra rises),

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 12; 1, 35 fin.; Col. 11, 2, 87.—
    (β).
    With the force of an indefinite temporal clause, at such a time, in such circumstances, i. e. when such a thing happens as has happened:

    qui (porci) a partu decimo die habentur puri, ab eo appellantur sacres, quod tum ad sacrificium idonei habentur primum,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 16; 2, 7, 13:

    deinde cibum sequitur somnus... quia plurima tum se corpora conturbant (i. e. cum cibum ceperunt),

    Lucr. 4, 957; 3, 599; 4, 892; 4, 919;

    4, 1030: quam regionem cum superavit animus... finem altius se efferendi facit. Tum enim sui similem et levitatem et calorem adeptus... nullam in partem movetur,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43; 1, 31, 75; 3, 23, 55; 4, 24, 54; Tac. Dial. 7.—
    (γ).
    With the force of a conditional clause, then, in this instance, if so: immo res omnis relictas habeo prae quod tu velis. Ph. Tum tu igitur, qua causa missus es ad portum, id expedi (i. e. si ita est), Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 39; id. Most. 5, 1, 55; id. As. 1, 1, 93; 2, 2, 64; 3, 3, 36; id. Aul. 3, 6, 31; id. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 2, 78: non potitus essem;

    fuisset tum illos mi aegre aliquot dies,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 7; id. Eun. 2, 2, 50; 5, 1, 23; id. Hec. 3, 5, 12:

    ego C. Caesaris laudibus desim, quas, etc.? Tum hercule me confitear non judicium aliquod habuisse,

    Cic. Planc. 39, 93: scribant aliquid Isocrateo more...;

    tum illos existimabo non desperatione formidavisse genus hoc,

    id. Or. 70, 235; id. Font. 21, 49 (17, 39); id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85; id. Fam. 9, 8, 2; Ov. H. 18 (19), 81: vellem tam ferax saeculum haberemus...;

    tum ego te primus hortarer, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 15, 8.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    To a definite time before mentioned:

    ut sit satius perdere Quam aut nunc manere tam diu, aut tum persequi,

    i. e. after my future return, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 27:

    jam nunc mente prospicio quae tum studia hominum, qui concursus futuri sint,

    Cic. Div. in Caecin. 13, 42; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37; 1, 10, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 17; id. Marcell. 9, 30:

    tum meae... Vocis accedet bona pars,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 45.—
    (β).
    With the force of a conditional clause (cf. 3. b, supra), then, in this instance, if so: specta, tum scies. Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 100; cf.:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 37: tuom incendes genus;

    Tum igitur aquae erit tibi cupido, etc.,

    id. Trin. 3, 2, 50; id. Curc. 2, 3, 17:

    confer sudantes, ructantes, refertos epulis... tum intelleges, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 100; id. Planc. 18, 45; id. Phil. 2, 45, 115:

    agedum, dictatorem creemus... Pulset tum mihi lictorem qui sciet, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 29, 12; Cic. Phil. 10, 3, 6; id. Or. 23, 78; 71, 235; Liv. 4, 22, 11; 5, 16, 10; 9, 11, 4.—
    B.
    Referring to a time subsequent to a time mentioned, then, thereupon.
    1.
    Simple sequence in time.
    (α).
    Time proper (only of an immediate sequence;

    otherwise deinde, postea, etc., are used): tum cum corde suo divum pater atque hominum rex Effatur, etc.,

    Enn. Ann. 179:

    dico ei quo pactod eam viderim erilem nostram filiam sustollere. Extimuit tum illa,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 9; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 58: tum ille egens forte adplicat Primum ad Chrysidis patrem se. Ter. And. 5, 4, 21; id. Eun. 3, 1, 17; Cato, R. R. 48 (49); 135 (136); so id. ib. 112 (113): equos quinto anno... amittere binos (dentes);

    tum renascentes eis sexto anno impleri,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 2 sq.: collo [p. 1909] cari jussit hominem in aureo lecto, abacosque complures ornavit... Tum ad mensam eximia forma pueros jussit consistere, eosque, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 61:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum puer nuntiavit venire ad eum Laelium... Tum Scipio e cubiculo est egressus, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18; id. Div. 2, 66, 135; id. Clu. 14, 40; id. Cat. 3, 5, 10; id. Ac. 2, 5, 13; id. Div. 1, 35, 77:

    hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum suo more conclamaverunt ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 26; cf. id. ib. 7, 64; 5, 43 fin.;

    5, 48: adsurgentem ibi regem cuspide ad terram adfixit. Tum spolia caputque abscisum spiculo gerens... hostes fudit,

    Liv. 4, 19, 5; 5, 21, 1; 1, 26, 9; 1, 18, 10; 1, 20, 1; 1, 22, 6; 1, 28, 4; 1, 28, 9; 2, 24, 4;

    3, 8, 11, etc.: tum Caesar cum exercitu Thessaliam petit,

    Vell. 2, 52, 1; Val. Max. 5, 1, 3; Curt. 4, 3, 7; Tac. A. 3, 28; 11, 35; id. H. 4, 84; Ov. M. 2, 122; 4, 80; 7, 121; 10, 481; 14, 386; Flor. 1, 13, 12; Gell. 1, 19, 5; 1, 23, 5.—
    (β).
    In partic., foll. by an abl. absol.:

    tum, prope jam perculsis aliis tribunis, A. Verginius Caesoni capitis diem dicit,

    Liv. 3, 11, 9; 8, 32, 1; 10, 29, 12:

    tum omni spe perdita, Meherdates dolo ejus vincitur, traditurque victori,

    Tac. A. 12, 15; 12, 16:

    tum, ferro extracto, confestim exanimatus est,

    Nep. Epam. 9, 4.—
    (γ).
    Implying a connection between two events, hence, under these circumstances, accordingly, thereupon:

    at pater omnipotens ira tum percitus acri... Phaethonta... Deturbavit in terram,

    Lucr. 5, 399:

    madefactum iri Graeciam sanguine... tum neque te ipsum non esse commotum, Marcumque Varronem et M. Catonem... vehementer esse perterritos,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 68; cf. id. ib. 1, 34, 76; Caes. B. G. 4, 25; cf. id. ib. 5, 49; 5, 51;

    7, 59: quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis, nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit,

    Liv. 1, 9, 2; 3, 26, 1; 3, 31, 7; 4, 45, 7.—
    2.
    Enumeration of a series of events; the co-ordinate clauses introduced by tum... tum, or primum (primo)... deinde... tum, etc.
    (α).
    Succession of time proper:

    ducem Hannibali unum e concilio datum (a Jove), tum ei ducem illum praecepisse ne respiceret, illum autem respexisse, tum visam beluam vastam, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 24, 49; 1, 27, 57; 2, 28, 58 sq.:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. Fin. 1, 16, 50; 5, 23, 65; id. Tusc. 5, 2, 5:

    primum... deinde... tum... postremo,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 3; 3, 3, 6: primum colonos inde Romanos expulit: inde in Latinam viam transgressus, etc., inde Lavinium recepit; tum deinceps Corbionem, Vitelliam;

    postremum, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 39, 4:

    primi consules sub jugum missi, tum ut quisque gradu proximus erat, tum deinceps singulae legiones,

    id. 9, 6, 1:

    primo... deinde... tum... tum,

    id. 21, 22, 8; id. praef. 9; 3, 28, 8: 5, 39, 7;

    23, 23, 6: deinde... deinde... Tum... post quas, etc.,

    Curt. 3, 3, 24: primum... deinde... deinde... tum... postea, Masur. Gabin. ap. Gell. 5, 13, 5; Gai. Inst. 4, 60.—
    (β).
    So in partic.: tum (also hic, et;

    not deinde or postea), to denote the succession of speakers in dialogue: immo duas dabo, inquit adulescens... Tum senex ille: Si vis, inquit, quattuor sane dato,

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 46 dub.:

    tum Piso... inquit, etc. Tum Quintus... inquit, etc. Hic ego... inquam, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Piso... inquit, etc. Et ille ridens... inquit, etc. Tum Piso exorsus est, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2 sqq.:

    tum Atticus... inquit, etc. Tum ille... inquit, etc. Tum Brutus, etc. Tum ille, etc. Tum Atticus, etc. Tum Pomponius... inquit, etc.,

    id. Brut. 3, 11 sqq., and through the whole treatise; cf. id. Ac. 1, 2, 4; 1, 3, 9; 1, 4, 13; 1, 12, 43 and 44; 2, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 15 sqq.; id. Rep. 1, 13, 19 sqq.; Liv. 7, 10, 2 sqq.; 23, 12, 8; Tac. Dial. 3; 15; 25; 42; Gell. 3, 1, 11 sqq.; 18, 1, 9 sqq.; Ov. M. 14, 594.—
    (γ).
    Transf., of sequence or succession of thought, passing into mere co-ordination (v. C. 2. b, g), then... again... furthermore:

    qui mi in cursu obstiterit, faxo vitae is obstiterit suae. Prius edico ne quis, etc. Tum pistores scrofipasci qui, etc. Tum piscatores.... Tum lanii autem qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 28; 4, 2, 34; 4, 2, 39: (res familiaris) primum bene parta sit, tum quam plurimis se utilem praebeat, deinde augeatur ratione, diligentia, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 26, 92; id. Ac. 2, 47, 146; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 68 sq.; 5, 40, 117; id. Ac. 2, 10, 30; id. de Or. 1, 42, 190; id. Cat. 4, 3, 5; id. Agr. 1, 2, 5; id. Clu. 2, 6; Liv. 3, 26, 11.—
    C.
    Hence, as co-ordinating conjunction, introducing an additional assertion, or thought.
    1.
    Alone, = praeterea, and then, besides, also, moreover, on the other hand (freq. in ante-class. style and in Cic.;

    rare in Livy and post-Aug. prose): argenti aurique advexit multum, lanam purpuramque multam... tum Babylonica peristromata, etc.,

    Plaut. Stich. 2, 3, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 10; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 71; 4, 8, 17; id. Ps. 3, 2, 78; id. Aul. 1, 2, 6; 1, 3, 16; id. Men. 5, 5, 41; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 1, 3, 15; 4, 2, 3; Ter. And. 1, 5, 27; 1, 2, 21; 2, 3, 7; id. Eun. prol. 4; 5, 6, 15; id. Heaut. 2, 1, 16; Lucr. 4, 680; cf. id. 1, 494; 4, 1152:

    magnum ingenium L. Luculli, magnumque optimarum artium studium, tum omnis ab eo percepta doctrina... caruit omnino rebus urbanis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 1; 2, 14, 43; id. Div. 1, 24, 50; 1, 42, 94; id. de Or. 1, 46, 201; id. Off. 1, 6, 19; id. Fin. 1, 6, 21; 2, 16, 53; id. Leg. 1, 5, 17; 1, 9, 26; id. Rab. Post. 14, 40; id. Phil. 13, 12, 26:

    altera ex parte Bellovaci instabant, alteram Camulogenus tenebat: tum legiones a praesidio interclusas maximum flumen distinebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59; id. B. C. 3, 49: naves convenerunt duae Punicae quinqueremes;

    duae ab Heraclea triremes... tum quinque Rhodiae quadriremes,

    Liv. 42, 56, 6; 1, 40, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 3, 4; Just. 5, 10, 3.—Sometimes connecting two terms of the same clause, with the force of cum... tum (v. infra, 3. d.):

    quot me censes homines jam deverberasse, hospites tum civis?

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 14:

    faciendum est igitur nobis ut... veteranorum, tum legionis Martiae quartaeque consensus... confirmetur,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 3, 7; Liv. 28, 43, 1 (in co-ordination often with etiam, autem, and sometimes with praeterea and porro; v. III. infra).—
    2.
    Tum as correlative of a preceding tum.
    (α).
    With an added assertion or thought: ita est haec hominum natio: voluptarii atque potatores, Tum sycophantae... plurimi In urbe habitant;

    tum meretrices mulieres Nusquam perhibentur blandiores gentium,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 28; id. Mil. 3, 1, 100; 3, 1, 102.—
    (β).
    Tum... tum = nunc... nunc (modo... modo), sometimes... sometimes, now... now, at one time... at another (freq. in Cic., not in Caes., rare in Liv., and very rare in postAug. writers):

    tum huc, tum illuc inretitos impedit piscis,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 17:

    tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 43, 134:

    mihi... tum hoc tum illud probabilius videtur,

    id. Off. 3, 7, 33; so id. Am. 4, 13; id. Sen. 13, 45; id. Top. 7, 31; id. N. D. 2, 19, 49:

    (alvus) tum restringitur, tum relaxatur,

    id. ib. 2, 54, 136; id. Rep. 3, 13 (14), 23; id. Leg. 2, 7, 16; id. Or. 63, 212; id. Sen. 3, 7; id. Inv. 1, 37, 66:

    dictator tum appellare tum adhortari milites,

    Liv. 8, 39, 4; Suet. Ner. 1; Gell. 1, 11, 15.—Tum may be repeated several times:

    plerique propter voluptatem tum in morbos graves, tum in damna, tum in dedecora incurrunt,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 14, 47; 3, 7, 26;

    so three times,

    id. N. D. 1, 12, 29; 1, 14, 37; 1, 15, 39; id. Inv. 1, 52, 98; id. Or. 3, 45, 177; id. Off. 1, 7, 22; id. Leg. 2, 17, 43; id. Top. 25, 96;

    four times,

    id. N. D. 1, 43, 120; 2, 20, 52; 2, 39, 101; id. Verr. 2, 4, 34, § 75;

    five times,

    id. N. D. 2, 5, 14; id. Inv. 1, 13, 17; 1, 41, 76; id. Verr. 2, 5, 36, § 94;

    six times,

    id. ib. 1, 53, 120;

    seven times,

    Quint. 9, 4, 133;

    nine times,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 50, 51.—And in chronological order (to be distinguished from the instances B. 2. a and g):

    Atheniensium (rem publicam constituerunt) tum Theseus, tum Draco, tum Solo, tum Clisthenes, tum multi alii,

    at different times, successively, Cic. Rep. 2, 1, 2.—
    (γ).
    Preceded or followed by other co-ordinate words (alias, modo, aliquando, aut... aut, nunc... nunc):

    ex quo intellegitur qualis ille sit quem tum moderatum, alias modestum, tum temperantem, alias constantem continentemque dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 16, 36:

    tum... tum... aliquando,

    id. Div. 2, 2, 6:

    tum... tum... aut... aut,

    id. Or. 61, 204:

    modo... tum autem,

    id. N. D. 2, 40, 142:

    nunc... nunc... tum... tum,

    Flor. 1, 17, 5.—
    (δ).
    Tum... tum = et... et, both... and, not only... but also, partly... partly, without regard to time, the second term being frequently strengthened by etiam (mostly post-Aug.):

    Milo Compsam oppugnans, ictusque lapide tum Clodio, tum patriae, quam armis petebat, poenas dedit,

    Vell. 2, 68, 3:

    Muciam et Fulviam, tum a patre, tum a viro utramque inclitam,

    Val. Max. 9, 1, 8:

    Caesar Pompejo tum proprias, tum etiam filiae lacrimas reddidit,

    id. 5, 1, 10; Quint. 7, 3, 18; Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 28; id. Clem. 1, 19, 2; Front. Aquaed. 1; Tac. A. 12, 33; Suet. Tit. 3; Nep. praef. 8;

    and with etiam,

    Val. Max. 2, 2, 8; 5, 9, 1; 7, 6 prooem.; Nep. Them. 2, 3.—
    3.
    As correlative with a preceding cum, introducing particular after a universal or a stronger or more important assertion after a weaker or less important.
    a.
    Connecting complete sentences with different predicates, cum... tum = as... so, while... (tum being not translated; ante-class. cum always with indic.; class. with subj. or indic.):

    quom antehac te amavi, et mihi amicam esse crevi... tum id mihi hodie aperuisti,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 2; id. Truc. 4, 1, 6:

    quom id mihi placebat, tum uno ore omnes omnia Bona dicere,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 10:

    quae cum res tota ficta sit pueriliter, tum ne efficit quidem quod vult,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 19; id. Tusc. 5, 39, 13; id. Fam. 13, 16, 1; and so with subj., id. N. D. 1, 1, 1; id. Off. 3, 2, 5; id. Lael. 7, 23; id. Brut. 39, 145; 11, 250:

    cum omnium rerum simulatio est vitiosa, tum amicitiae repugnat maxime,

    id. Lael. 25, 91; id. Div. 2, 27, 58; and so with indic., id. Planc. 33, 80; id. Tull. 4, 8; id. Div. in Caecil. 20, 65; id. Sest. 1, 2; id. Fam. 16, 4, 4:

    haec cum merito ejus fieri intellegebat, tum magni interesse arbitrabatur, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 4; 3, 16; id. B. C. 1, 58; Liv. 3, 34, 1; 4, 53, 4.—
    b.
    Clauses with the same predicate, which is placed after the first clause (always with indic.):

    nam mihi, cum multa eximie divineque videntur Athenae tuae peperisse, tum nihil melius illis mysteriis quibus, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 36; id. Tusc. 4, 18, 42; id. Phil. 2, 5, 12; Liv. 4, 46, 10; 6, 38, 10.—
    c.
    Clauses with a common predicate placed before both co-ordinate terms, cum... tum = not only, but also; as... so especially:

    visa est Arcesilae cum vera sententia, tum honesta et digna sapiente,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 77; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; 2, 35, 119; 3, 1, 3:

    movit patres conscriptos cum causa tum auctor,

    Liv. 9, 10, 1; 4, 57, 2; Suet. Ner. 46 init.
    d.
    With a common predicate after both co-ordinate terms:

    quom virum tum uxorem, di vos perdant,

    Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 103:

    luxuria cum omni aetati turpis tum senectuti foedissima est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 123; id. Clu. 59, 161; id. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 86; id. N. D. 1, 21, 57; id. Deiot. 9, 26; id. Clu. 16, 46:

    concitatos animos flecti quam frangi putabat cum tutius tum facilius esse,

    Liv. 2, 23, 15; 6, 9, 8; 1, 57, 1; 10, 26, 13; Tac. Dial. 5.—With tum several times repeated:

    quem pater moriens cum tutoribus et propinquis, tum legibus, tum aequitati magistratuum, tum judiciis vestris commendatum putavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 151; cf. esp. id. Planc. 40, 95. —
    e.
    Tum, in this construction, is freq. strengthened,
    (α).
    By vero:

    cum haec sunt videnda, tum vero illud est hominis magni, etc.,

    in particular, Cic. Clu. 58, 159; id. Mur. 27, 55; id. Phil. 3, 5, 12; 7, 3, 9; cf. id. Or. 1, 23, 106; 3, 16, 60; Liv. 34, 39, 9; Quint. 12, 1, 25.—
    (β).
    By maxime, above all, most of all, especially, chiefly:

    cum omnibus in rebus temeritas in adsentando turpis est, tum in eo loco maxime in quo ju dicandum est quantum, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 4, 7; id. Tusc. 4, 1, 1; 5, 12, 36; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 69:

    cum infamia atque indignitas rei impediebat, tum maxime quod, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 56; Sall. J. 43, 5; Liv. 1, 8, 2; Suet. Claud. 30; Quint. 6, 1, 29.—
    (γ).
    By praecipue, especially, chiefly, above all:

    cum omnium sociorum provinciarumque rationem diligenter habere debetis, tum praecipue Siciliae,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 2; id. Fam. 13, 11, 3:

    fortuna quae plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus, tum praecipue in bello,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 68; Liv. 22, 43, 11; 1, 40, 3; Quint. 1, 1, 29; 1, 10, 13; 5, 10, 106; Plin. Ep. 4, 3, 2.—
    (δ).
    By inprimis, chiefly, principally:

    cum multa non probo, tum illud inprimis quod, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 6, 18; id. Fam. 12, 22, 3.—
    (ε).
    By cumprimis, chiefly, principally: quapropter bene cum superis de rebus habenda Nobis est ratio... tum cumprimis Unde anima atque animi constet [p. 1910] natura videndum, Lucr. 1, 131.—
    (ζ).
    By certe, especially, at least, assuredly:

    at cum de plurimis eadem dicit, tum certe de maximis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 5, 13; id. Fam. 7, 4; cf. Quint. 2, 1, 10.—
    (η).
    By nimirum, assuredly, undoubtedly:

    cum plurimas... commoditates amicitia contineat, tum illa nimirum praestat omnibus quod, etc.,

    Cic. Am. 7, 23. —
    (θ).
    By etiam, besides, as well:

    cum omnes omnibus ex terris homines improbos audacesque collegerat, tum etiam multos fortes viros et bonos... tenebat,

    Cic. Cael. 6, 14; id. Ac. 2, 10, 31; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2:

    quos tu cum memoriter, tum etiam erga nos amice et benevole collegisti,

    id. Fin. 1, 10, 34; id. Verr. 2, 3, 23, § 56:

    cum sua virtute, tum etiam alienis vitiis,

    id. Leg. 23, 67; id. Fin. 2, 12, 38; id. N. D. 2, 37, 95; id. de Or. 3, 60, 225; Liv. 1, 21, 2; 7, 23, 6; 7, 32, 10; Val. Max. 7, 2, 3; 3, 2, 10; 9, 6, 3; Quint. 9, 1, 20; 9, 4, 143.—
    (ι).
    By quoque, also, besides, as well:

    cum potestas major, tum vir quoque potestati par hostes trans Anienem submovere,

    Liv. 4, 17, 11; 1, 22, 2; cf. Quint. 12, 10, 72.—
    (κ).
    By et, also, besides, too:

    cujus mortem cum luctus civitatis, tum et dictaturae undecim insignem fecere,

    Just. 19, 1, 7.—
    (λ).
    By praeterea, moreover, besides:

    dicimus C. Verrem cum multa libidinose fecerit, tum praeterea quadringentiens sestertium ex Sicilia abstulisse,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56.
    II.
    Tum as correlative of dependent clauses (freq. in ante - class. writings and Cic., rare in post-Aug. writings).
    A.
    With temporal clauses, introduced by cum, = at the time when, at a time when.
    1.
    Referring to definite past time.
    a.
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    jam tum cum primum jussit me ad se arcessier, Roget quis, Quid tibi cum illa?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 4; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21:

    qui (Hercules) tum dolore frangebatur cum immortalitatem ipsa morte quaerebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 8, 20:

    bene apud majores nostros senatus tum cum florebat imperium decrevit ut, etc.,

    id. Div. 1, 41, 91; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114; id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 2, 66, § 160; id. Clu. 33, 89; id. Verr. 1, 2, 5; id. Brut. 2, 7; 23, 89; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Agr. 2, 24, 64; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; 3, 4, 11:

    tum mittendos legatos fuisse cum Perseus Graecas urbes obsideret,

    Liv. 45, 3, 7:

    tum cum Vipereos sparsi... dentes,

    Ov. M. 4, 572; id. H. 3, 23; Val. Max. 6, 1, 12.—After pluperf.:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant scimus Romae solutione impedita fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19; Val. Max. 3, 6, 1; 2, 8, 15 fin. —Tum inserted in the temporal clause:

    cum Davo egomet vidi jurgantem ancillam... quom ibi me adesse neuter tum praesenserat,

    Ter. And. 5, 1, 20.—
    b.
    Tum, introducing the apodosis of the temporal clause (generally not transl. in Engl.).
    (α).
    Of coincident events, cum... tum = while: quom genui tum morituros scivi, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 58, 132 (Trag. Rel. v. 361 Vahl.); Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 18:

    cum minime videbamur, tum maxime philosophabamur,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 3, 6; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Cael. 26, 63; id. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum pavida mulier nullam opem videret, tum Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, etc.,

    Liv. 1, 58, 3; 5, 11, 4. —
    (β).
    Tum = deinde, usu. after a pluperf.:

    id cum Sulla fecisset, tum ante oppidum Nolam Samnitium castra cepit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 33, 72; id. Brut. 92, 319; id. Ac. 2, 3, 9; 2, 3, 15; id. Fin. 1, 8, 26; id. Tusc. 4, 20, 45; id. Div. 1, 25, 53; 2, 2, 7; id. Rep. 2, 25, 47; Liv. 21, 11, 8; cf. id. 1, 26, 7; 23, 22, 4.—Inserted in the apodosis:

    cum jam humanae opes egestae a Veis essent, amoliri tum deum dona,

    Liv. 5, 22, 3.—
    2.
    Referring to definite present time:

    quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis. Cum enim miserum esse dicis, tum eum qui non sit, dicis esse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 12.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent of the clause, = at the time when, at a time when, whenever: hominum inmortalis est infamia;

    etiam tum vivit quom esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28; id. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7; Cato, R. R. 31:

    nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque requirit Cum pariter mens et corpus sopita quiescunt,

    Lucr. 3, 919; 4, 444; 4, 455;

    4, 1166: omnis praedictio mali tum probatur cum ad praedictionem cautio adjungitur,

    Cic. Div. 2, 25, 54; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104; id. N. D. 2, 3, 9: tum cum sine pondere suci Mobilibus ventis arida facta volant, Ov. H. 5, 109; Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44; 2, 27, 88; id. Fin. 4, 8, 20; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 20; 5, 26, 73; id. N. D. 1, 4, 9; id. Off. 1, 27, 93.—Tum maxime... cum plurimum = eo magis quo magis:

    eam (partem animi) tum maxime vigere cum plurimum absit a corpore,

    Cic. Div. 1, 32, 70; so, cum maxime... tum maxime; v. b. a foll.—
    b.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    As coincident:

    quom amamus, tum perimus,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 94:

    ulmus, cum folia cadunt, tum iterum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; so id. ib. 155 (156):

    cum ea quae quasi involuta fuerunt, aperti sunt, tum inventa dicuntur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 8, 26; id. Fin. 5, 10, 29; 1, 17, 57; id. N. D. 2, 52, 129; 1, 19, 49; id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 15.—Cum maxime... tum maxime = quo magis eo magis:

    nam quom pugnabant maxume, ego tum fugiebam maxume,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 45:

    quamobrem omnes, cum secundae res sunt maxume, tum maxume Meditari secum oportet, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 14, 30 poet. —
    (β).
    As subsequent:

    ad legionem quom itum, adminiculum eis danunt tum jam aliquem cognatum suum,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 47:

    eo cum accessit ratio argumentique conclusio... tum et perceptio eorum omnium apparet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 10, 30; 2, 41, 128; id. Fin. 5, 9, 24; 1, 20, 69; 5, 15, 41; id. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 1, 24, 58; 3, 2, 3; id. N. D. 2, 48, 123; id. Div. 2, 19, 44.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of cum:

    quom mi haec dicentur dicta, tum tu, furcifer, quasi mus in medio pariete vorsabere,

    Plaut. Cas. 1, 51; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 20:

    non committam ut tum haec res judicetur cum haec frequentia Roma discesserit,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 54; id. Agr. 2, 17, 44; 2, 25, 67; id. Fin. 4, 22, 62; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Liv. 23, 13, 4; 41, 10, 7; Ov. M. 2, 651; id. H. 15, 293; Nep. Them. 6, 5.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    quom videbis, tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; 4, 6, 30:

    de quo cum perpauca dixero, tum ad jus civile veniam,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Clu. 2, 6; 4, 9; Liv. 3, 56, 10.—
    B.
    With temporal clause, introduced by ubi.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    vitem novellam resecare tum erit tempus ubi valebit,

    Cato, R. R. 33:

    tum tu igitur demum id adulescenti aurum dabis, ubi erit locata virgo in matrimonium?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 52.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time (tum always = deinde):

    ubi eorum dolorem majorem quam ceterorum cognovi, tum meum animum in illos, tum mei consilii causam proposui, tum eos hortatus sum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    ubi illuxit, et Romanis Punica et Gallica arma cognita, tum dubitationem exemere,

    Liv. 25, 10, 5; 1, 9, 10; 4, 57, 3; 9, 43, 16; 21, 25, 12; 23, 11, 4.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    post ubi tempust promissa jam perfici, Tum coacti necessario se aperiunt,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 8: Cato, R. R. 3 init.; 17:

    ubi jam morbi se flexit causa... Tum quasi vaccillans primum consurgit,

    Lucr. 3, 503; 6, 129; 6, 526.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time:

    otium ubi erit, tum tibi operam ludo et deliciae dabo,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 4, 13; id. Stich. 4, 2, 14:

    ubi tu voles, Ubi tempus erit, sat habet si tum recipitur,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 32; Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 18; id. Bacch. 4, 3, 72; id. Pers. 4, 7, 19; id. Cas. 3, 2, 27:

    ut ubi id interrogando argumentis firmavero, tum testes ad crimen accommodem,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 55:

    ubi haerere jam aciem videris, tum terrorem equestrem infer,

    Liv. 6, 12, 10; 22, 55, 8.—
    C.
    With a temporal clause introduced by postquam.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    Flaminius qui ne quieto quidem hoste ipse quieturus erat, tum vero postquam res sociorum ante oculos prope suos ferri vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 3, 7; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 (v. infra, III. A. 2. a. b).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis (always = deinde).
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    posteaquam e portu piratae exierunt, tum coeperunt quaerere homines, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 100; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40 (al. tunc):

    postquam satis virium collectum videbat, tum ex suis unum sciscitatum Romam ad patrem misit,

    Liv. 1, 54, 5; 3, 66, 5; 6, 13, 4; 22, 48, 4; 25, 10, 6; Gell. 5, 3, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time: postquam vero commoditas quaedam... dicendi copiam consecuta est, tum ingenio freta malitia pervertere urbes adsuevit, Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 3.—
    D.
    With a temporal clause introduced by ut.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause (very rare):

    tum vero ingentem gemitum dat Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici... conspexit,

    Verg. A. 1, 485; cf. id. ib. 12, 218.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    nam ut dudum adcurrimus ad Alcesimarchum... tum mi, puto, prae timore hic excidisse Cistellam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 46:

    sed ut intellectum est quantam vim haberet accurata... oratio, tum etiam magistri dicendi multi subito exstiterunt,

    Cic. Brut. 8, 30; id. Phil. 9, 4, 9; Liv. 24, 44, 10; id. 21, 54, 9; 23, 34, 6.—
    (β).
    Referring to future time:

    neque ut quaeque res delata ad nos erit, tum denique scrutari locos debemus,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 34, 146:

    traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum, si eam Romanus rite emisisset, victoriam de Vejentibus dari (= si quando),

    Liv. 5, 15, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.—
    E.
    With a temporal clause introduced by quando.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent of the clause.
    (α).
    Of definite past time:

    auctoritatem senatus exstare sentio, tum, quando Alexandro mortuo, legatos Tyrum misimus,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 16, 41.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at scire tum memento quando id quod voles habebis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 41; id. Mil. 3, 1, 213; id. Most. 3, 1, 136; id. Men. 5, 7, 57:

    utinam tum essem natus quando Romani dona accipere coepissent,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75.—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of indefinite time (quando = whenever):

    quando esurio tum crepant (intestina),

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 27; id. Truc. 1, 1, 15; id. Ps. 4, 7, 85:

    quando mulier dotem marito dabat, tum quae ex suis bonis retinebat reciperare dicebatur,

    Gell. 17, 6, 6; 7 (6), 14, 4.—
    (β).
    Of future time:

    at tu, quando habebis, tum dato,

    Plaut. Men. 3, 3, 23:

    quando ab eadem parte sol eodemque tempore iterum defecerit, tum signis omnibus ad principium revocatis, expletum annum habeto,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24:

    quando mihi usus venerit, tum quaeram ex te atque discam,

    Gell. 6 (7), 17, 4.—
    F.
    In the apodosis after simul ac:

    an simul ac nubes successere, ipse in eas tum Descendit (Juppiter), prope ut hinc teli determinet ictus?

    Lucr. 6, 402.—
    G.
    With a temporal clause introduced by dum.
    1.
    Tum as antecedent:

    sanctius visum est nomen Augusti, ut scilicet jam tum dum colit terras, ipso numine ac titulo consecretur,

    Flor. 2, 33, 66 (4, 12, 66).—
    2.
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    dum habeat, tum amet,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23:

    dum se glomerant... tum pondere turris Procubuit,

    Verg. A. 9, 540.—
    H.
    As antecedent of quamdiu:

    qui cum tibi amicus non modo tum fuerit quamdiu tecum in provincia fuerit, verum etiam nunc sit cum, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 24, § 58.—
    K.
    Denoting a logical consequence after quando and cum:

    quando ergo erga te benignus fui... tum te mihi benigne itidem addecet... referre gratiam,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 35:

    cum magnus numerus deesset, tum iste homo nefarius in eorum locum... substituere coepit cives Romanos,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 28, § 72.—
    L.
    After relative clauses denoting time: qua tempestate Paris Helenam innuptis junxit nuptiis, Ego tum gravida expletis jam fere ad pariendum mensibus, Poet. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 58, 219 (Trag. Rel. p. 246 Rib.).—
    M.
    With conditional clauses.
    1.
    With a conditional clause introduced by si, sin, ni (not nisi).
    (α).
    Tum as antecedent of clause:

    tum pol ego interii, homo si ille abiit,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 6; id. Men. 2, 2, 71; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 40:

    si tenuis causa est, tum etiam argumentandi tenue filum,

    Cic. Or. 36, 124; id. Rep. 1, 40, 62; 2, 9, 15; id. Fin. 1, 19, 63; id. N. D. 1, 6, 13; id. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    tum vero ego nequiquam Capitolium servaverim si civem in servitutem duci videam,

    Liv. 6, 14, 4; 3, 9, 11; 6, 14, 4; 7, 34, 14; Cato ap. Plin. 29, 1, 7, § 14; Gell. 2, 12, 1 sq.; 4, 13, 1; 14, 2, 21.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si triduum hoc hic erimus, tum arbores in te cadent,

    Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 30; id. Rud. 5, 2, 59; 3, 4, 49; id. As. 1, 3, 89; id. Rud. 1, 3, 13; id. Ps. 4, 1, 1; 4, 1, 48 (39); Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 64; 3, 1, 17; id. Phorm. 1, 3, 19; Cato, R. R. 26; cf. id. ib. 27:

    quod si, ut spero, cepero, tum vero litteras publice mittam,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 10, 3; id. Div. 1, 44, 100; cf. id. Ac. 2, 10, 32; id. Fin. 2, 4, 79; id. N. D. 3, 36, 87; id. Rep. 1, 43, 66: id. [p. 1911] Rosc. Am. 49, 142:

    si dimicandum erit, tum tu in novissimos te recipito,

    Liv. 7, 40, 13; 8, 10, 12; Hor. S. 1, 2, 97; Ov. M. 7, 32.—

    Esp., denoting the consequences of perjury in ancient formulas of oaths: si ego injuste illos homines dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae compotem me numquam siris esse,

    Liv. 1, 32, 7; 1, 24, 8; 22, 53, 11; hence, quid si falles? Me. Tum Mercurius Sosiae iratus siet, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 239; 3, 2, 52; id. Aul. 4, 10, 50; cf. also Liv. 3, 64, 10.—
    2.
    With a condition contrary to fact.
    (α).
    Tum, antecedent of clause:

    tum esset ostentum, si anguem vectis circumplicavisset,

    Cic. Div. 2, 28, 62; id. Verr. 2, 2, 68, § 164:

    tum id audirem si tibi soli viveres,

    id. Marcell. 8, 25; id. Fin. 4, 13, 33; id. Div. 2, 35, 73.—
    (β).
    Tum introducing the apodosis:

    si quidem me amaret, tum istuc prodesset,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 56:

    quodsi omnia nobis quae ad victum pertinent. suppeditarentur, tum optimo quisque ingenio, totum se in cognitione et scientia collocaret,

    Cic. Off. 1, 44, 158. —
    N.
    After an abl. absol.
    1.
    With perfect participles (= postquam or cum... tum), mostly with denique, vero, demum.
    (α).
    Referring to definite past time:

    ut morte ejus nuntiata tum denique bellum confectum arbitraretur,

    Cic. Mur. 16, 34:

    sed confecto proelio tum vero cerneres quanta vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae,

    Sall. C. 61, 1:

    ita rebus divinis peractis tum de bello deque republica dictator rettulit,

    Liv. 22, 11, 1; 2, 29, 1; 2, 29, 3; 3, 56, 1; 5, 50, 8; Plin. 11, 20, 22, § 68.—
    (β).
    Referring to indefinite time:

    hisce omnibus rebus consideratis, tum denique id quod primum est dicendum, postremum soleo cogitare, quo utar exordio,

    Cic. Or. 2, 77, 315.—
    (γ).
    Referring to future time (the abl. absol. = a fut. perf.):

    ita prope XL. diebus interpositis tum denique se responsuros esse arbitrantur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 10, 31; 1, 18, 54; id. Fin. 4, 13, 32; id. Scaur. Fragm. 10, 22.—
    2.
    With pres. participles (post-class.):

    tacentibus cunctis, tum ipse (dixit), etc.,

    Just. 12, 15, 6.
    III.
    Particular connections.
    A.
    With other particles of time.
    1.
    Jam tum, already at that time, i. e. earlier than might be anticipated:

    jam tum erat suspitio Dolo malo haec fieri,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 8; cf. id. ib. 4, 4, 58; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 34:

    quippe etenim jam tum divom mortalia saecla Egregias animo facies vigilante videbant,

    Lucr. 5, 1169; 5, 1037:

    ut mihi jam tum divinasse ille (Romulus) videatur hanc urbem sedem aliquando summo esse imperio praebituram,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 5, 10; 2, 7, 12; id. Div. 2, 57, 118; id. Tusc. 4, 2, 4:

    jam tum in Palatio monte Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt,

    Liv. 1, 5, 1; 1, 7, 16; 1, 41, 7; 10, 21, 14;

    24, 49, 1: ut jam tum qualis futurus esset ostenderet,

    Suet. Dom. 1; Curt. 4, 6, 29.—
    2.
    Tum demum and tum denique, then only, then at length, then at last, not till then, i. e. later than might be expected, implying delayed action.
    a.
    Tum demum.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    adversisque in rebus noscere qui sit. Nam verae voces tum demum pectore ab imo Eiciuntur,

    Lucr. 3, 58:

    tum demum Liscus, oratione Caesaris adductus, quod antea tacuerat proponit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 5, 33; Sall. J. 46, 1:

    nec ante in campum degressi sunt quam, etc. Tum demum castra Etruscorum pro moenibus Fidenarum posita,

    Liv. 4, 17, 12; 45, 12, 6; 2, 20, 11; 5, 39, 2; 23, 19, 15 et saep.; Val. Max. 1, 6, 10; 1, 7, 4; Curt. 3, 12, 12; Tac. A. 3, 18; 3, 47.—
    (β).
    In partic., referring to clauses introduced by cum, ubi, si, or abl. absol. (v. II. A. B. L. M.), denoting absolute restriction to the terms of the clause:

    imo etiam ubi expolivero, magis hoc tum demum dices,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 60:

    tum demum mihi procax Academia videbitur si aut consenserint omnes, aut, etc.,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 6, 13:

    cum is Casilini eo die mansurum dixisset, tum demum cognitus est error,

    Liv. 22, 13, 8; Vell. 2, 115, 4; Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 fin.; 7, 2, 4; Curt. 3, 11, 6; Plin. Ep. 8, 20, 7.—
    (γ).
    Sometimes = nunc demum (anteclass.): victus es, Chaline. St. Tum nos demum vivere. Olympio. Gaudeo, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 65.—
    b.
    Tum denique.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    tum denique tauros in gregem redigo,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5:

    injecta glaeba tumulus is (locus) ubi humatus est vocatur, ac tum denique multa religiosa jura complectitur,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 57; id. Fin. 3, 22, 76; id. Tusc. 3, 26, 61: nequiquam temptati ut tum denique desisterent impediendo bello, Liv. 4, 55, 5; Ov. M. 4, 519; 7, 857; 10, 664.—
    (β).
    Referring to clauses with cum, etc. (v. II. A. B. L. M.):

    tum denique homines nostra intellegimus bona quom quae in potestate habuimus ea amisimus,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    quo cum venerimus, tum denique vivemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 31, 75; 3, 31, 75; id. Leg. 2, 4, 10; id. Rep. 1, 6, 11; so,

    tum denique si,

    id. Fam. 14, 2, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 10, § 29; id. Verr. 2, 2, 1, § 1:

    indicandum primum fuisse, dein petendum praesidium, postremo ni impetraretur, tum denique querendum,

    Liv. 23, 43, 2; Cato ap. Plin. 17, 18, 29, § 126 (for tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9, v. II. D. 2. a).—
    3.
    Tum primum (rarely primo), then for the first time:

    tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit,

    Lucr. 5, 1014:

    ludorum gratia quos tum primum anniversarios in circo facere constituisset,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 7, 12; id. Sen. 21, 78; Caes. B. G. 7, 11:

    ponte sublicio tum primum in Tiberi facto,

    Liv. 1, 33, 6; 2, 41, 3; 39, 22, 2; 2, 20, 6; 39, 49, 4; Vell. 2, 37, 5; Tac. A. 2, 27; id. H. 4, 57; Curt. 3, 12, 26. —
    4.
    With deinde, hic, postea, with consecutive force emphatic.
    a.
    Deinde tum (very rare):

    primum ea quae sumus acturi cogitare debemus, deinde tum dicere ac facere,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 6, 62.—
    b.
    Tum deinde.
    (α).
    = tum demum or tum denique, then at length, not till then, then only:

    nonne optime patronus occurrat prius conviciis luxuriae, etc., tum deinde narret de bonis Pallae? etc.,

    Quint. 4, 2, 27; 12, 10, 11:

    emam, aedificabo, credam, exigam, honores geram: tum deinde lassam senectutem in otium referam,

    Sen. Ep. 101, 4; Plin. 16, 44, 95, § 251.—So corresp. with cum:

    quas cum solus pertulisset, tum deinde comitia collegae subrogando habuit,

    Liv. 2, 8, 3 (Weissenb. demum, by conj.); Col. R. R. 1, 6, 13. —
    (β).
    = an emphatic deinde: nam praetermisit quod in prima parte sumere debuit;

    tum deinde eodem ipso quod omiserat quasi proposito ad confirmandum aliud utitur,

    Gell. 2, 8, 3; 13, 24 (23), 1; Just. 2, 1, 19.—
    c.
    With hic:

    hic tum repente Pacilius quidam accedit, ait, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 38, § 94:

    hic ego tum ad respondendum surrexi,

    id. Clu. 18, 51; 27, 73:

    hic tum injectus est hominibus scrupulus,

    id. ib. 28, 76; id. Sest. 11, 25.—
    d.
    Tum postea:

    tum postea complorantibus nostris, dies quidem tandem inluxit,

    Gell. 19, 1, 3; so id. 14, 3, 10 (for quid tum postea, v. D. 1.).—
    5.
    With interim:

    unum, alterum, tertium annum Sassia quiescebat... Tum interim, Q. Hortensio, Q. Metello coss.... despondet ei filiam suam,

    Cic. Clu. 64, 179.—
    B.
    With particles of emphasis.
    1.
    Tum vero (sometimes tum enimvero or enimvero tum), then indeed, at that crisis, then if not before, etc., or merely = emphatic then, denoting either coincidence or sequence of action.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    discedit a Melino Cluentia. Tum vero illa egregia mater palam exsultare... coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 14; 22, 61; id. Agr. 1, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 41, § 107:

    semper equidem magno cum metu incipio dicere... tum vero ita sum perturbatus ut, etc.,

    id. Clu. 18, 51:

    tum vero dubitandum non existimavit quin ad eos proficisceretur,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8; 5, 37; id. B. C. 1, 82; 2, 42:

    Aruns Tarquinius et Tullia minor... junguntur nuptiis. Tum vero in dies infestior Tulli senectus... coepit esse,

    Liv. 1, 47, 1; 2, 22, 6; 4, 49, 13; 10, 19, 12; 21, 45, 9; 21, 58, 5; Ov. M. 2, 227; 7, 685; Curt. 4, 13, 1; 3, 11, 5; Tac. Agr. 37.—And in enumerations:

    deinde... post autem... tum vero ipsam veterem Karthaginem vendunt,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 5.—
    (β).
    As correlative of temporal or conditional clauses, and after abl. absol.:

    quod ubi Romam est nuntiatum, senatui metum injecit ne tum vero sustineri nec in urbe seditio, nec in castris posset,

    Liv. 5, 7, 4; Sall. J. 94, 3:

    tum vero... si,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 19, 63; Liv. 6, 14, 4 (v. II. M. 1. a, b).—With cum, Liv. 32, 12, 1:

    quae postquam frustra temptata rogumque parari... vidit, Tum vero gemitus... Edidit,

    Ov. M. 2, 621; Sall. J. 106, 6; 84, 1; id. Cat. 51, 40; v. C. 1. b. (so, tum vero denique after ut, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; v. II. D. 2. and M. 1.).—
    2.
    Tum quidem, at that time, thereupon, then at least (usu. opposed to a later time): dixit sibi in somnis visum esse, etc. Et tum quidem incolumis exercitum liberavit; post triennium autem devovit se, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 24, 51; so,

    actum quidem,

    id. Fl. 25, 59; id. Lael. 11, 39:

    et tum quidem ab Dio Perseus in interiora regni recepit se... post dies paucos, etc.,

    Liv. 42, 39, 1; 1, 57, 10; 3, 2, 10;

    7, 17, 3.—Often in resuming the narrative after a digression: ac tum quidem regem... filium appellat,

    Curt. 4, 7, 25.—Merely emphatic:

    Duillio Cornelioque coss. etiam mari congredi ausus est. Tum quidem ipsa velocitas classis comparatae victoriae auspicium fuit,

    Flor. 1, 18 (2, 2), 7; so id. 1, 22 (2, 6), 20; 1, 40 (3, 5), 12.—With cum, Tac. Dial. 11.—
    3.
    Ne tum quidem, not even then:

    num quis horum miser hodie? Ne tum quidem, post spiritum extremum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 37, 89; id. Div. 1, 26, 55; id. Verr. 2, 2, 40, § 98:

    ubi ne tum quidem eos prodire intellexit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 50; 7, 53; Tac. H. 5, 21; Curt. 3, 2, 18.—With cum:

    ille vere ne tum quidem miser cum ab Oroete in crucem actus est,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92; so id. Tusc. 5, 20, 57; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; Liv. praef. 12; 39, 39, 11.—
    4.
    Tum maxime (sometimes tum cummaxime).
    (α).
    Especially at that time, chiefly then: illi sumposia, nos convivia quod tum maxime simul vivitur, Cic. Fam. 9, 24, 35; id. Leg. 2, 11, 26.—With cum:

    quae quidem vis tum maxime cognita est cum... M. Cato, legem suadens, in Galbam multa dixit,

    Cic. Brut. 23, 89; id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Par. 4, 1, 29.—
    (β).
    Just then, just at that moment (not ante-Aug.):

    regi, tum maxime captivos ex Illyrico vendenti,

    Liv. 43, 20, 3; 1, 10, 1:

    per totam aciem vulgatum est, castra amissa esse, et tum cummaxime ardere,

    id. 40, 32, 1; so,

    tum cummaxime,

    id. 43, 7, 8:

    corpus enim suum a caupone trucidatum tum maxime plaustro ad portam ferri,

    Val. Max. 1, 7, ext. 10; 2, 10, 2; 3, 2, 2 fin.; Curt. 3, 4, 14; 6, 6, 10; Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154; Quint. 2, 15, 30; 2, 61, 31; Suet. Caes. 65; id. Calig. 53.—So with cum:

    et quod tum maxime Abydum oppugnaret cum rex ab Attalo et Rhodiis ultro se bello lacessitum diceret,

    Liv. 31, 18, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 15, 2.—
    (γ).
    Strengthening the co-ordinate tum after cum, so especially; v. I. C. 3. e. b (for cum maxime... tum maxime and tum maxime... cum plurimum, v. II. A. 3. a. b.).—
    5.
    Tum potissimum = tum maxime, just then (rare):

    C. Caesar... tum potissimum acie commissa impeditos religione hostes vicit,

    Front. Strat. 2, 1, 16.—
    6.
    Etiam tum.
    (α).
    Even then:

    etiam tum vivit cum esse credas mortuam,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 28:

    totum se Servilio etiam tum tradidit,

    even then, at so late a time, Cic. Sest. 62, 130:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit,

    id. Rosc. Am. 20, 57.— So with cum, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 59, § 154; id. Dom. 13, 23; id. Sest. 38, 81.—
    (β).
    Still, as yet (also as one word; cf. etiamtum, and v. the foll. additional passages), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 19, § 41; id. Fin. 3, 14, 48; id. Rep. 2, 12, 24; id. Arch. 3, 5; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; id. Brut. 20, 80; id. Off. 2, 14, 47; Caes. B. C. 3, 93; Liv. 5, 40, 10; Val. Max. 9, 6, 3; Tac. A. 3, 72; Suet. Claud. 27 fin.; id. Dom. 22.—

    And with a negation, = nondum: ipsa ego non longos etiam tum scissa capillos,

    not yet long, Ov. H. 8, 79.—
    7.
    Tum etiam.
    (α).
    Followed by si or cum, even if, even when:

    atque equidem filium Tum etiam si nolit, cogam,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 65:

    qui tum etiam cum... circumfusi erant caligine,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 45.—
    (β).
    Then also, then too, besides:

    tum etiam illud cogitatote, sic vivere Cornelium ut, etc.,

    Cic. Balb. 28, 65; id. N. D. 1, 16, 43; so id. Leg. 1, 13, 35; id. Fin. 2, 16, 53; Col. 12 praef.—
    8.
    Tum quoque.
    (α).
    Also then, then likewise, then as before, then as on another occasion mentioned before: ceu lapidem si Percutiat lapis aut ferrum;

    nam tum quoque lumen Exsilit,

    Lucr. 6, 162:

    tum quoque homini plus tribui quam nescio cui necessitati,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 11, 28:

    tum quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis,

    Liv. 1, 33, 5; 2, 52, 2; 21, 22, 4; Caes. B. C. 3, 37; Ov. M. 14, 369.—
    (β).
    Even then, = etiam tum (rare):

    et tamen tum quoque se absentes triumphare credunt,

    Liv. 45, 38, 13; 39, 41, 3; 39, 47, 11; Ov. H. 17 (18), 190.—
    (γ).
    In orat. obliq. (v. I. A. 2.), even now:

    quod si Romani tum quoque aequa aspernarentur,

    Liv. 42, 62, 7. —
    (δ).
    = sic quoque, even under the circumstances, even as it was, etc. (v. sic, V. 3.): ut si effugium patuisset in publicum, impleturae urbem tumultu fuerint. Tum quoque [p. 1912] aliquotiens integro corpore evaserunt, Liv. 24, 26, 13; 40, 16, 6; 43, 4, 1;

    9, 13, 9: tum quoque, amputata dextra, navem sinistra comprehendit,

    Just. 2, 9, 18.—
    9.
    Tum ipsum = eo ipso tempore, at the very time, just then, even then (only in Cic. in four passages; cf.:

    nunc ipsum): tota igitur ratio talium largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum... moderanda est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 17, 60:

    quem quidem cum sua voluntate ex patria Karthaginem revertisset, tum ipsum cum vigiliis et fame cruciaretur, clamat virtus beatiorem fuisse quam Thorium,

    id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv. ad loc.:

    tum ipsum cum immolare velis extorum fieri mutatio potest,

    id. Div. 1, 52, 118:

    ita (oratores), non injuria, quotienscunque dicerent, id quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere,

    id. Or. 1, 27, 123.—
    C.
    Tum with co-ordinating particles.
    1.
    Tum autem.
    (α).
    = praeterea, and then, besides (v. I. C. 1.): turpilucricupidum te vocant cives tui;

    tum autem sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64:

    oves scabrae sunt... Tum autem Surorum nemo exstat qui ibi sex menses vixerit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 141; id. Mil. 4, 2, 13; id. Pers. 4, 2, 3; id. Poen. 5, 5, 34; 5, 7, 22; Ter. And. 1, 5, 34; id. Eun. 5, 9, 7; id. Hec. 2, 1, 14; 3, 2, 10:

    tum autem qui non ipso honesto movemur... callidi sumus, non boni,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 14, 41; id. Or. 1, 58, 247; 2, 19, 80.—
    (β).
    = tum... tum:

    visne igitur inter hos populos inambulantes, tum autem residentes quaeramus eisdem de rebus?

    Cic. Leg. 1, 5, 15.—
    (γ).
    = eo tempore, with autem as connective:

    tum illic autem Lemnius... uxorem duxit, etc.,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 25:

    tum autem ex omnibus montibus nives proluit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 48.—
    (δ).
    But in this instance:

    uxori emunda ancilla'st: tum autem pluscula Supellectile opus est,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 60; 5, 7, 25 sq.—
    2.
    For tum etiam, v. B. 7. b.—
    3.
    Tum praeterea:

    nam tui similis est probe. Tum praeterea talem, nisi tu, nulla pareret filium,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 3, 20; so id. Ad. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33; Cic. Verr. 1, 18, 56 (v. I. C. 3. e. l).—
    4.
    Tum porro:

    tum porro venti magnam quoque tollere partem Umoris possunt,

    Lucr. 6, 623; 4, 829 (827).—
    D.
    Quid tum?
    1.
    In dialogue, what then? what next? what further? novi ego hos pugnos meos. Ca. Quid tum? Th. Quid tum? Rogitas? Hisce ego, si tu me inritaveris, placidum te hodie reddam, Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 49; so id. As. 2, 2, 83; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 47; 3, 5, 66; id. Phorm. 3, 3, 8.—And strengthened:

    quid tum postea?

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; id. As. 2, 2, 68; 2, 2, 79; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 78; 4, 2, 9; 4, 7, 23; id. Ad. 4, 5, 15; id. Hec. 4, 1, 36: videsne abundare me otio? A. Quid tum? Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 26.—
    2.
    In imitation of a dialogue:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules. Quid tum? Parumne multa de toleranda paupertate dicuntur?

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 37, 107; so id. Quint. 22, 72; 27, 84; id. Verr. 2, 4, 59, § 132; id. Dom. 47, 123; id. Dejot. 7, 22; id. Phil. 1, 10, 26; Hor. S. 2, 3, 230.—
    3.
    As emphatic co-ordinative in quoting the different items of a document, law, etc.: quive in senatu sententiam dixit, dixerit. Quid tum? Qui eorum coiit, coierit, etc., what next? i. e. and then, listen! Cic. Clu. 54, 148; so id. Agr. 1, 5, 16; 3, 3, 11; id. Mur. 12, 26; id. Fl. 23, 55.—
    E.
    Tum temporis = eo tempore (post class. and rare; cf.:

    tunc temporis): postera die civitas principem suum, ac tum temporis consulem in foro expectabat,

    Just. 31, 2, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tum

  • 18 tunc

    tunc, adv. demonstr., of time [tum, and demonstr. suffix -ce], then, at that time; but in ante-class. and class. prose tunc is always emphatic, and generally refers to a point of time. In post-Aug. style tunc freq. occurs without emphasis, and is freely used of periods of time. Tunc = deinde occurs first in the class. per. and rarely in prose; but is very freq. after the Aug. per. Tunc in mere co-ordinative use is very rare and not ante-class. (v. I. C.). Tunc coupled with an emphatic or temporal particle is very rare in class. prose, but freq. in the postAug. period. Poets often use tunc instead of tum before vowels for the sake of the metre. In general, tunc is not freq. till after the Aug. period. Cic. has tum about thirty times as often as tunc; Caes. has tunc only five times; Livy, in the first two books, has tunc five times, tum eighty-two times; but Val. Max. has tunc four times as often as tum. Sen. almost always has tunc; tum only in a few passages, mostly in co ordinative use. In Vitr., Suet., Plin., Just., and the jurists, tunc largely predominates; but Nep. has tunc once only, and Tac., who employs both words sparingly, has tum oftener than tunc. The Codd. very freq. vary between the words, and in many passages the reading is still doubtful. Undue weight has been given by some critics to opposition to nunc and connection with cum; cf. Kritz ad Sall. J. 5, 1; Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 64, § 142; 2, 5, 10, § 27. Both tum and tunc are freq. opposed to nunc, and connected with cum.
    I.
    Absol.
    A.
    Referring an event to a time before mentioned.
    1.
    To definite past time.
    (α).
    To a period of time, = illis temporibus (only post-Aug.):

    tunc melius tenuere fidem cum paupere cultu Stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus,

    Tib. 1, 10, 19:

    nulli tunc subsessores alienorum matrimoniorum oculi metuebantur,

    Val. Max. 2, 1, 5:

    sed tunc clarissimus quisque juvenum pro amplificanda patria plurimum periculi sustinebat,

    id. 3, 2, 6:

    nunc quo ventum est? A servis vix impetrari potest ne eam supellectilem fastidiant qua tunc consul non erubuit,

    id. 4, 3, 7:

    quo pacto inter amicos viguisse tunc justitiam credimus, cum inter accusatores quoque, etc.,

    id. 6, 5, 6:

    si vere aestimare Macedonas qui tunc erant volumus, fatebimur, etc.,

    Curt. 4, 16, 33:

    sed civitati nullae tunc leges erant,

    Just. 2, 7, 3; 6, 9, 5.—
    (β).
    Referring to a point of time spoken of: cives Romani [p. 1914] tunc facti sunt Campani, Enn. ap. Censor. 14 (Ann. v. 174 Vahl.): tanto sublatae sunt Augmine tunc lapides, id. ap. Non. p. 211, 8 (Ann. v. 542 ib.): tunc ipsos adoriant, ne quis Spartam referat nuntium, Naev. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 801 P. (Trag. Rel. v. 16 Rib.):

    (Sulla) statim ex iis rebus quas tunc vendebat jussit ei praemium tribui, etc.,

    Cic. Arch. 10, 25:

    neque ego tunc princeps ad salutem esse potuissem si, etc.,

    id. Sull. 3, 9:

    his tunc cognitis rebus amici regis his... liberaliter responderunt,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 104:

    tunc duces Nerviorum... colloqui sese velle dicunt,

    at this time, id. B. G. 5, 41:

    quod se facturos minabantur, aegreque tunc sunt retenti quin oppidum irrumperent,

    id. B. C. 2, 13 fin.:

    Romanus tunc exercitus in agro Larinati erat,

    Liv. 22, 24, 1:

    itaque cum in ipsum, et innocentia tutum et magistratu in quo tunc erat, impetus fieri non posset, etc.,

    id. 4, 44, 6; cf. id. 2, 2, 2; 4, 8, 6; 10, 37, 10;

    44, 44, 3: nec, si rescindere posses (sc. jussa Jovis), Tunc aderas,

    Ov. M. 2, 679:

    tunc ego nec cithara poteram gaudere sonora, nec, etc.,

    Tib. 3, 4, 69:

    tunc urbis custodiis praepositus C. Maecenas,

    Vell. 2, 88, 2:

    forte evenit ut tunc summae dignitatis ibi femina veneno consumere se destinarit,

    Val. Max. 2, 6, 8:

    qui tunc Libitinam exercebant,

    id. 5, 2, 10:

    Coriolanus ad Volscos, infestos tunc Romanis, confugit,

    id. 5, 4, 1; cf. id. 2, 10, 3; 4, 8, 5; 5, 5, 3; 7, 6, 5 fin.;

    8, 1 damn. 1: Carthaginiensium legati ad celebrandum sacrum anniversarium more patrio tunc venerant,

    Curt. 4, 2, 10:

    et tunc aestas erat, cujus calor, etc.,

    id. 3, 5, 1:

    perierat imperium, quod tunc in extremo stabat, si Fabius, etc.,

    Sen. Troad. 1, 11, 5:

    tunc,distractis Orientis viribus, casus Mithridati datus est occupandi Armeniam,

    Tac. A. 11, 9; cf. id. ib. 2, 25:

    quidam ex eis qui tunc egerant, decesserunt,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 24, 3:

    ardente tunc in Africa bello,

    Suet. Caes. 70; cf. id. Calig. 48; id. Ner. 20; 21:

    Asiam tunc tenebat imperio rex Darius,

    Gell. 17, 9, 20:

    hostes tunc populi Romani fuerant Fidenates,

    id. 17, 21, 17; cf. id. 13, 5, 2 and 3; 14, 1, 8; Ael. Spart. Had. 11; 23; 24.—Repeated by anaphora:

    tunc victus abiere feri, tunc consita pomus, tunc bibit inriguas fertilis hortus aquas, Aurea tunc pressos, etc.,

    Tib. 2, 1, 43:

    tunc Parmenio et Philotas, tunc Amyntas consobrinus, tunc noverca fratresque interfecti, tunc Attalus, Eurylochus... occurrebant,

    Just. 12, 6, 14; so id. 43, 3, 2; 43, 4, 2.—Attributively:

    regem tunc Lacedaemoniorum,

    Just. 6, 2, 4.—
    (γ).
    Referring to a state no longer in existence:

    silvae tunc circa viam erant, plerisque incultis,

    Liv. 21, 25, 8:

    urbs (Corinthus) erat tunc praeclara ante excidium,

    id. 45, 28, 2:

    hic (Curio) primo pro Pompei partibus, id est, ut tunc habebatur, pro republica, mox... pro Caesare stetit,

    Vell. 2, 48, 3:

    certissimum tunc proscriptorum perfugium penetravit,

    Val. Max. 7, 3, 9:

    docuit in atrio Catulinae domus, quae pars Palatii tunc erat,

    Suet. Gram. 17: tunc (i. e. olim) in usu erat, eam hereditatem, etc., Gai Inst. 2, 254 erat autem tunc mos ut cum princeps causam cognosceret... sententiam ex omnium deliberatione proferret, Ael. Spart. Had. 8.—
    (δ).
    Expressly opposed to present time: tunc igitur pelles, nunc aurum et purpura exercent hominum vitam, Lucr 5, 1423;

    ea lege quae tunc erat Sempronia, nunc est Cornelia,

    Cic. Clu. 56, 154:

    cum vero causam justam deus ipse dederit, ut tunc Socrati, nunc Catoni, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 30, 74, cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 18, § 45; 2, 3, 67, § 156; id. Arch. 3, 5; id. Pis. 13, 30; id. Rab. Post. 12, 34; id. Phil. 7, 5, 14:

    cur privati non damus remiges, sicut tunc dedimus?

    Liv. 34, 6, 18:

    munitiones et locis opportunioribus tunc fuerunt et validiores impositae (i. e. quam nunc),

    id. 36, 17, 4:

    parva nunc res videri potest quae tunc patres ac plebem accendit,

    id. 4, 25, 13; cf. id. 8, 31, 4; 21, 18, 5:

    Macedones milites ea tunc erant fama qua nunc Romani feruntur,

    Nep. Eum. 3, 4: nunc solvo poenas;

    tunc tibi inferias dedi,

    Sen. Phoen. 172:

    nunc haberent socios quos tunc hostes habuerant,

    Just. 6, 7, 5; cf. id. 8, 2, 9:

    hoc tunc Veii fuere, nunc fuisse quis meminit?

    Flor. 1, 12, 11.—And tunc and tum in co-ordinated sentences: qui ager nunc multo pluris est quam tunc fuit. Tum enim, etc., nunc, etc.;

    tum erat ager incultus, nunc est cultissimus,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33: vos etiamsi tunc faciendum non fuerit, nunc utique faciendum putatis;

    ego contra, etiamsi tum migrandum fuisset, nunc has ruipas relinquendas non censerem,

    Liv. 5, 53, 3 (in such connections tum generally refers to a previous tunc, rarely vice versa).—
    (ε).
    Opposed to a previous or a later time:

    quae ipsum Hannibalem, armis tunc invictum voluptate vicit (i. e. etsi non postea),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 35, 95:

    raro alias tribuni popularis oratio acceptior plebi quam tunc severissimi consulis fuit,

    Liv. 3, 69, 1:

    (Syphax) tunc accessio Punici belli fuerat, sicut Gentius Macedonici,

    id. 45, 7, 2; 5, 37, 2; 45, 25, 10:

    non ab Scipionibus aliisque veteribus Romanorum ducum quidquam ausum fortius quam tunc a Caesare,

    Vell. 2, 80, 3:

    et tunc Aeanti, ut deo, immolaverunt, et deinceps, etc.,

    Val. Max. 1, 5, ext. 2:

    praetor hic Alexandri fuerat, tunc transfuga,

    Curt. 3, 11, 18; cf. id. 4, 13, 18:

    Cilicum nationes saepe et alias commotae, tunc Troxoboro duce, montes asperos castris cepere,

    Tac. A. 12, 55; cf. id. ib. 2, 62; id. H. 3, 58:

    ob res et tunc in Africa, et olim in Germania gestas,

    Suet. Galb. 8; cf. id. Tib. 10; 18; id. Oth. 4:

    idem tunc Faesulae quod Carrhae nuper,

    Flor. 1, 5, 8.—
    (ζ).
    In general statements, applied to the actual state of affairs:

    mos est regibus quotiens in societatem coeant, pollices inter se vincire, etc. Sed tunc, qui ea vincula admovebat decidisse simulans, genua Mithridatis invadit,

    Tac. A. 12, 47:

    legebatur ergo ibi tunc in carmine Latino, etc.,

    Gell. 2, 22, 2.— Pregn., as matters then stood:

    aptissimum tempus fuerat, delinimentum animis Bolani agri divisionem obici: tunc haec ipsa indignitas angebat animos,

    Liv. 4, 51, 6.—
    (η).
    Of coincidence in time: tunc = cum hoc fieret, on that occasion:

    quodsi tu tunc, Crasse, dixisses, omnem eorum importunitatem evellisset oratio tua,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 230; id. Clu. 56, 153; id. Lig. 5, 16; id. Phil. 7, 5, 14:

    tunc Lacedaemoniis accusantibus respondendum erat, nunc a vobis ipsis accusati sumus,

    Liv. 39, 36, 7:

    jam Horatius secundam pugnam petebat. Tunc... clamore adjuvant militem suum,

    while he was doing so, id. 1, 25, 9; 45, 23, 17:

    sed neque... nubes Tunc habuit, nec... imbres,

    Ov. M. 2, 310:

    quid mihi tunc animi fuit?

    id. ib. 7, 582:

    quid mihi tunc animi credis, germane, fuisse?

    id. H. 11, 87; 12, 31:

    quid tunc homines timuerint, quae senatus trepidatio... neque mihi exprimere vacat, neque, etc.,

    Vell. 2, 124, 1:

    non Catoni tunc praetura, sed praeturae Cato negatus est,

    Val. Max. 7, 5, 6; cf. id. 1, 8, 6; 4, 5, 3; 6, 1, 8; 6, 2, 3; 6, 2, 6; 6, 6, ext. 1;

    9, 3, 1: tunc ego dicere debui,

    Sen. Ep. 63, 15:

    non possum dicere aliud tunc mihi quam deos adfuisse,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 5, 5:

    tunc domus priscorum ducum arserunt,

    Suet. Ner. 38; Just. 18, 3, 14; Gell. 6 (7), 3, 48; 12, 13, 21; 19, 1, 11.—Tunc and tum co-ordinate: sanguine tunc (Phaethontis) credunt... Tum facta'st Libya... arida;

    tum, etc.,

    Ov. M. 2, 235 sqq.: tunc... sorores Debuerant, etc.;

    Tum potui Medea mori bene,

    id. H. 12, 3 sqq.—And referring to a supposed action at a definite time:

    nobis tunc repente trepidandum in acie instruenda erat,

    if we had accepted the battle then, Liv. 44, 38, 11.—
    (θ).
    Redundant (post-class.):

    id quale fuerit, neque ipse tunc prodidit, neque cuiquam facile succurrat,

    Suet. Tit. 10; cf.: in ejusmodi temporibus tunc eae ambulationes aperiuntur, Vitr 5, 9, 9.—
    2.
    = nunc, in oblique discourse (rare):

    quod si consulatus tanta dulcedo sit, jam tunc ita in animum inducant, consulatum captum a tribunicia potestate esse,

    Liv. 2, 54, 5:

    ut cum multis saeculis murus urbi civium virtus fuerit, tunc cives salvos se fore non existimaverint nisi intra muros laterent,

    Just. 14, 5, 7.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    (α).
    Then, at such a time of the year, day, etc.; at such a season:

    tunc (i. e. autumno) praecidi arbores oportere secundum terram,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 27:

    ab eo in fastis dies hordicalia nominantur, quod tunc hordae boves immolantur,

    id. ib. 2, 5:

    omnes (nubes sol) enim sub se tunc (= medio die),

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 8, 7:

    tunc enim maximae et integrae adhuc nives (= aestate prima),

    id. ib. 4, 2, 21:

    et tunc potest ventis concitari mare,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 25; cf. id. ib. 4, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    With the force of an indefinite temporal clause:

    tunc ignes tenuissimi iter exile designant et caelo producunt, of shooting stars,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 1, 6: nemo observat lunam nisi laborantem. Tunc urbes conclamant, tunc pro se quisque superstitione vana trepidat, id. ib. 7, 1, 2:

    adjuvari se tunc (i. e. cum faces vident) periclitantes existimant Pollucis et Castoris numine,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 13; cf. id. ib. 1, 8, 3; 2, 55, 2; 5, 3, 1; 6, 12, 2; id. Ep. 42, 4; id. Brev. Vit. 11, 1: si ancilla ex cive Romand conceperit, deinde civis Romana facta sit, et tunc pariat, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 88; 1, 90; Dig. 1, 6, 8; 40, 12, 22, § 3.—
    (γ).
    With the force of a conditional clause, in this instance: Tr. Erus peregre venit. Si. Tunc tibi actutum chorda tenditur, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 55 Lorenz (al. tum):

    dominae mentem convertite... Tunc ego crediderim vobis, et sidera et amnes Posse, etc.,

    Prop. 1, 1, 23:

    itaque tunc dividere optimum erit (= si plura sunt quae nocent),

    Quint. 4, 2, 101; so id. 6, 1, 22:

    cuperem tecum communicare tam subitam mutationem mei: tunc amicitiae nostrae certiorem fiduciam habere coepissem,

    Sen. Ep. 6, 2: nemo est ex inprudentibus qui reliqui sibi debeat. Tunc mala consilia agitant, tunc aut aliis aut ipsis pericula struunt;

    tunc cupiditates improbas ordinant, tunc... tunc... denique, etc.,

    id. ib. 10, 2;

    7, 2: tunc enim (i. e. si cottidie reputes) subit recordatio: Quot dies quam frigidis rebus absumpsi!

    Plin. Ep. 1, 9, 3:

    propter liberos retentio fit (dotis) si culpa mulieris divortium factum sit, tunc enim sextae retinentur ex dote,

    Ulp. Fragm. 6, 10: veluti si a femina manumissa sit: tunc enim e lege Atilia petere debet tutorem, Gai Inst. 1, 195; 1, 76; 1, 40; 3, 181; Fragm. Vat. 52; Dig. 2, 4, 8; 5, 3, 13, § 12; 7, 3, 1; 19, 1, 11, § 15; 11, 1, 20; Just. Inst. 1, 12, § 6; in the jurists, saep.—
    4.
    Referring to future time.
    (α).
    In gen.: tunc illud vexillum... coloniae Capuae inferetur;

    tunc contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 86:

    tunc, ut quaeque causa crit statuetis, nunc libertatem repeti satis est,

    Liv. 3, 53, 10:

    senatus consultum adjectum est ut... praetor qui tunc esset... apud eorum quem qui manumitteretur... jusjurandum daret, etc.,

    id. 41, 9, 11:

    nec taedebit avum parvo advigilare nepoti... Tunc operata deo pubes discumbet in herba, etc.,

    Tib. 2, 5, 95:

    tunc interea tempus exercitus ex hoc loco educendi habebis,

    Gell. 3, 7, 7.—
    (β).
    With the force of a conditional clause:

    tunc me biremis Tutum... Aura feret geminusque Pollux (i. e. si mugiat malus procellis),

    Hor. C. 3, 29, 62:

    vectabor umeris tunc ego inimicis eques (i. e. si hoc feceris),

    id. Epod. 17, 74:

    tunc tua me infortunia laedent (i. e. si dolebis tibi),

    id. A. P. 103:

    tunc ego jurabo quaevis tibi numina... Tunc ego... Efficiam, etc.,

    Ov. H. 15 (16), 319:

    tunc piger ad nandum, tunc ego cautus ero,

    id. ib. 17 (18), 210.—
    B.
    Representing sequence or succession in events, = deinde.
    1.
    Simple sequence in time.
    (α).
    Time proper (rare till after the Aug. per.;

    in Cic. perh. only in the foll. passages): Herodotus cum Roma reverteretur, offendit eum mensem qui sequitur mensem comitialem. Tunc Cephaloeditani decrerunt intercalarium XLV dies longum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 130:

    veni in eum sermonem ut docerem, etc. Tunc mihi ille dixit quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    dixi ei, me ita facturum esse ut, etc. Tunc ille a me petivit, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 6, 2 is finis pugnae equestris fuit. Tunc adorti peditum aciem, nuntios ad consules rei gestae mittunt, Liv. 3, 70, 8:

    tandem curia excesserunt. Tunc sententiae interrogari coeptae,

    id. 45, 25, 1:

    equites, relictis equis, provolant ante signa... Tunc inter priores duorum populorum res geritur,

    id. 7, 8, 1:

    iterum deinde interpellatus, in proposito persistit. Tunc Poppedius, abjecturum inde se... minatus est,

    Val. Max. 3, 1, 2; cf. id. 5, 4, 1; 7, 3, 2; 7, 3, 6: tunc intendit arcum, et ipsum cor adulescentis figit, Sen. de Ira, 3, 14, 2; so id. Ot. Sap. 1, 1; id. Q. N. 1, 12, 1:

    Dareum XXX inde stadia abesse praemissi indicabant. Tunc consistere agmen jubet,

    Curt. 3, 8, 24:

    contionem discedere in manipulos jubet. Tunc a veneratione Augusti orsus flexit ad victorias,

    Tac. A. 1, 34; cf. id. ib. 1, 67; 12, 31; 12, 33; 12, 69; id. H. 4, 72; Vitr. 1, 4, 12; 1, 6, 7; 2, 1, 2; 2, 1, 4; 5, 12, 5; 7, praef. 5; 7, 1, 3; 7, 2, 2; 8, 1, 1; Suet. Ner. 49; id. Vit. 15 fin.; id. Dom. 16; Front. Strat. 2, 5, 4; Gell. 1, 22, 6; 6 (7), 17, 6; 13, 31 (30), 6; 14, 2, 9; [p. 1915] Flor. 2, 13 (4, 2), 71; Just. 11, 4, 1; 11, 10, 2; 12, 7, 7; 13, 3, 4; 18, 4, 10 et saep.; Dig. 1, 2, 2, § 26.—
    (β).
    Before an abl. absol. (postclass.):

    statuunt tempus quo foedissimum quemque invadant. Tunc, signo inter se dato, inrumpunt contubernia,

    Tac. A. 1, 48:

    tunc, Campaniae ora proximisque insulis circuitis, Caprearum secessui quadriduum impendit,

    Suet. Aug. 98:

    tunc, exercitu in Aetoliam promoto, pecunias civitatibus imperat,

    Just. 14, 1, 6; 21, 5, 2; 22, 2, 7; 25, 2, 6.—
    (γ).
    Implying a consequence, then, under these circumstances, hence, accordingly:

    caedere januam saxis, instare ferro, ligna circumdare ignemque circumicere coeperunt. Tunc cives Romani, qui Lampsaci negotiabantur, concurrunt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 27, § 69: huc tota Vari conversa acies suos fugere videbat. Tunc Rebilus; Perterritum, inquit, hostem vides;

    quid dubitas, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 34:

    animadversum est, extra consuetudinem longius a vallo esse aciem Pompei progressum. Tunc Caesar apud suos Differendum est iter, inquit, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 85:

    omnium spe celerius Saguntum oppugnari adlatum est. Tunc relata de integro res ad senatum,

    Liv. 21, 6, 5; cf. id. 9, 30, 10:

    Tisiphoneque Saevit et huc illuc impia turba fugit. Tunc niger in porta serpentum Cerberus ore Stridet,

    Tib. 1, 3, 71:

    apud patres disseruit, nec posse Orientem nisi Germanici sapientia conponi, etc. Tunc decreto patrum permissae Germanico provinciae,

    Tac. A. 2, 43; id. H. 4, 83; Vitr. 2, 8, 14; 2, 9, 16; Just. 39, 3, 11.—Emphatically, = tum vero:

    donec ipse quoque longinquo morbo est implicitus. Tunc adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi feroces ut, etc.,

    Liv. 1, 31, 6.—And = tum primum:

    multitudo tandem perrumpit ordines hostium. Tunc vinci pertinacia coepta, et averti manipuli quidam,

    Liv. 9, 39, 10. —
    2.
    In enumerations with tum... deinde... postea, etc.
    (α).
    In gen. (postclass.): ante omnia instituit ut e libertorum bonis dextans... cogeretur; deinde ut ingratorum, etc.;

    tunc ut lege majestatis facta omnia... tenerentur,

    Suet. Ner. 32 med.; so,

    tunc... deinde... tunc, etc.,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 12 and 13:

    tunc... tunc... deinde... tunc,

    id. 3, 5, 5 and 6; cf. id. 5, 12, 4; cf. Suet. Oth. 6; Flor. 4, 2, 88.—With tum: terras primum situmque earum quaerit; deinde condicionem maris;

    tunc quidquid inter caelum terrasque interjacet perspicit... tum, peragratis humilioribus, ad summa prorumpit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 17 fin.; so Gai Inst. 3, 6, 3.—
    (β).
    Of successive speakers in dialogue (rare):

    tu vero abi, inquit, etc. Tunc Mucius Quandoquidem, inquit, est apud te virtuti honos, etc.,

    Liv. 2, 12, 15:

    apud quem Valerius in hunc modum egit, etc. Tunc Collatinus Quaero inquit, etc.,

    Val. Max. 2, 8, 2.—With tum:

    tunc poeta... inquit, etc. Tum Fronto ita respondit, etc.,

    Gell. 19, 8, 10 and 11; 12, 13, 19; Val. Max. 7, 3, ext. 4.—
    C.
    In co-ordination (very rare).
    1.
    = praeterea, and then:

    (Romulus) hoc consilio fultus... locupletari civis non destitit. Tunc, id quod retinemus hodie magna cum salute rei publicae, auspiciis plurimum obsecutus est Romulus,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 15 sq.:

    praeter has, frugalitas et continentia... splendorem illi suum adfunderent. Tunc providentia cum elegantia quantum decoris illi adderent!

    Sen. Ep. 115, 3.—
    2.
    In the connection cum... tunc (v. tum, I. C. 3.):

    vivendum recte est cum propter plurima, tunc est Idcirco, etc.,

    Juv. 9, 118 ( poet. for tum, on account of the foll. vowel).—
    3.
    Vid. tunc etiam, III. B. 7. b.
    II.
    As correlative of dependent clauses.
    A.
    Of temporal clauses with cum.
    1.
    Referring to definite past time.
    a.
    Tunc as antecedent of the clause:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 108:

    etiamne in ara tunc sedebant mulieres Quom ad me profectu's ire?

    id. Rud. 3, 6, 8:

    quo damnato tunc, cum judicia fiebant, HS. IV milibus lis aestimata est,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 10, § 22:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiscebatur,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 43, §

    111: atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat: vos tunc paruistis cum paruit nemo nisi qui voluit,

    id. Lig. 7, 20: se ita pugnaturos ut Romae pugnaverint in repetenda patria, ut postero die ad Gabios, tunc cum effecerint ne quis hostium, etc., Liv. 6, 28, 9:

    et quod tunc fecimus cum hostem Hannibalem in Italia haberemus, id nunc, pulso Hannibale, cunctamur facere?

    id. 31, 7, 5:

    infelix Dido, nunc te facta impia tangunt? Tunc decuit cum sceptra dabas,

    Verg. A. 4, 597 (Rib. tum; v. Prisc. p. 8, 841 P.):

    prudenter sensit tunc incrementum Romano imperio petendum fuisse cum intra septimum lapidem triumphi quaerebantur,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 10:

    quorum nihil tunc cum diceretur parum aptum fuit,

    Quint. 11, 1, 89; cf. Val. Max. 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 8, ext. 1.—
    b.
    Introducing the apodosis.
    (α).
    Of coincident actions:

    cum jam adpropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubie esset... tunc injecta trepidatio,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10.—
    (β).
    = deinde:

    adversus singula quaeque cum respondere haud facile esset, et quereretur... purgaretque se invicem, tunc Papirius, redintegrata ira, virgas et secures expediri jussit,

    Liv. 8, 32, 10:

    divus Caesar cum exercitum habuisset circa Alpes, imperavissetque, etc., tunc qui in eo castello fuerunt... noluerunt imperio parere,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 15:

    cum nuntiatum esset Leonidae a XX milibus hostium summum cacumen teneri, tunc hortatur socios, recedant,

    Just. 2, 11, 5.—
    2.
    Of definite present time, tunc is not found; v. tum.—
    3.
    Referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent:

    arbitror, quo nos etiam tunc utimur cum ea dicimus jurati quae comperta habemus,

    Cic. Font. 13, 29 (9, 19):

    tunc obsequatur naturae cum senserit, etc.,

    id. Fragm. Hort. Phil. 75 B. and K.; id. Tusc. 2, 6, 16; id. Verr. 1, 18, 55; 2, 5, 12, § 29: qui tunc vocat me, cum malum librum legi, only... when, never... unless (= tote dê), Cat. 44, 21 Ellis (Mull. tum):

    deum tunc adfuisse cum id evenisset, veteres oratores aiebant,

    Quint. 10, 7, 14:

    tunc est commovendum theatrum cum ventum est ad illud Plodite,

    id. 6, 1, 52; cf. id. 4, 2, 8; 12, 11, 7; Vitr. 2, 9, 3:

    voluptas tunc, cum maxime delectat, exstinguitur,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 7, 4; cf. id. Q. N. 1, prol. 3; 5, 3, 3; 6, 3, 1; id. Ep. 10, 5; 85, 38:

    in tantam quantitatem tenetur quae tunc in peculio fuit cum sententiam dicebat,

    Dig. 5, 1, 15: tunc cum certum esse coeperit neminem ex eo testamento fore heredem, Gai Inst. 3, 13; 4, 71; Dig. 28, 3, 6, § 6; 40, 12, 16, § 2; 40, 7, 34.—
    b.
    Introducing the apodosis:

    cum autem fundamenta ita distantia inter se fuerint constituta, tunc inter ea alia transversa... collocentur,

    Vitr. 1, 5, 7; 2, 1, 6; 2, 3, 2; 2, 5, 2;

    3, 5, 13: cum folia pauca in acumine germinent, tunc maxime serendas ficus,

    Plin. 18, 26, 65, § 245; Just. 41, 2, 9.—
    4.
    Referring to future time:

    ex ceteris autem generibus tunc pecunia expedietur cum legionibus victricibus erunt quae spopondimus persolvenda, Cic. Fragm. Ep. Caes. jun. 1, 8: tunc inter eas fore finem belli dixit cum alterutra urbs in habitum pulveris esset redacta,

    Val. Max. 9, 3, ext. 3:

    poterant videri tunc incohanda cum omnia quae... peregissem,

    Quint. 6, 4, 1; Col. praef. 33; v. infra, III. A. 2. b.—
    B.
    With temporal clauses introduced by ubi (rare).
    1.
    Of definite past time:

    ad quod bellum ubi consules dilectum habere occipiunt, obstare tunc enixe tribuni,

    Liv. 4, 55, 2:

    haec ubi convenerunt, tunc vero Philomelus consuetudinem nocte egrediendi frequentiorem facere,

    id. 25, 8, 9.—
    2.
    Of indefinite time.
    a.
    As antecedent:

    tunc autem est consummata infelicitas, ubi turpia non solum delectant, sed etiam placent,

    Sen. Ep. 39, 6; id. Ben. 2, 3, 3; 2, 17, 3; id. Ep. 89, 19.—
    b.
    In apodosis:

    stillicidia ubi plura coiere et turba vires dedit, tunc fluere et ire dicuntur,

    Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 4; 6, 17, 2; 6, 18, 2.—
    C.
    With temporal clauses introduced by postquam (posteaquam); rare.
    1.
    Of definite past time:

    posteaquam ingenuae virgines et ephebi venerunt ad deprecandum, tunc est pollicitus his legibus ut, etc.,

    Vitr. 10, 16, 7 (but in Sall. C. 51, 40 Dietsch reads tum).—
    2.
    Of indefinite time: si vero posteaquam eam destinasses, tunc perierit, etc., Dig 17, 2, 58, § 1.—
    D.
    With temporal clauses introduced by ut (very rare):

    ut vero... casus suorum miseris eluxit, tunc toto littore plangentium gemitus, tunc infelicium matrum ululatus... audiebantur,

    Just. 19, 2, 11.—
    E.
    With temporal clauses introduced by quando (rare).
    1.
    As antecedent:

    tunc quando abiero,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 7, 19 (4, 8, 8): tunc inserentur (cerasi) quando his vel non est, vel desinit gummi effluere, Pall. Oct. 12.—
    2.
    In apodosis:

    quando quodque eorum siderum cursum decorum est adeptum... tunc ex alterius naturae motione transversa... vinci a tardioribus videbantur,

    Cic. Univ. 9.—
    F.
    With temporal clauses introduced by dum (very rare):

    tunc tamen utrumque tolerabile est, dum illi vis sua est,

    Sen. Ep. 83, 21.—
    G.
    With conditional clauses.
    1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    As antecedent:

    consilium istud tunc esset prudens si rationes ad Hispaniensem casum accommodaturi essemus,

    Cic. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    sin autem ventus interpellaverit et... tunc habeat canalem longum pedes quinque, etc.,

    Vitr. 8, 5, 2:

    tunc fidem fallam, tunc inconstantiae crimen audiam si, cum omnia eadem sint quae erant promittente me, non praestitero promissum,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 35, 2.—
    (β).
    In apodosis:

    si se simul cum gloria rei gestae exstinxisset, tunc victorem, quidquid licuerit in magistro equitum, in militibus ausurum,

    Liv. 8, 31, 7:

    quem si inclusit mare, tum ille exitu simul redituque praecluso, volutatur,

    Sen. Q. N. 6, 15:

    quod si non illum, sed me peccasse putabis, tunc ego te credam cordis habere nihil,

    Mart. 2, 8, 6: si nullus sit suorum heredum, tunc hereditas pertinet ad adgnatos, Gai Inst. 3, 9:

    si vero dissentiunt, tunc praetoris partes necessariae sunt,

    Dig. 2, 14, 7, § 19; Sen. Q. N. 6, 9, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 205; Dig. 1, 3, 22.—
    2.
    With a supposition contrary to fact:

    audivi te cum alios consolareris: tunc conspexissem, si te ipse consolatus esses,

    Sen. Prov. 4, 5.—
    H.
    After abl. absol. (rare):

    legatis auditis, tunc de bello referre sese Aemilius dixit,

    Liv. 44, 21, 1:

    his ita praeparatis, tunc in rotae modiolo tympanum includatur,

    Vitr. 10, 9 (14), 2.
    III.
    Particular connections.
    A.
    With other particles of time.
    1.
    Jam tunc (rare):

    nisi jam tunc omnia negotia diligentissime confecissem,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 3: bellum jam tunc ab illis geri coeptum cum sibi Phrygiam ademerint, Trog. Pomp. ap. Just. 38, 53:

    At. C. Marius L. Sullam jam tunc, ut praecaventibus fatis, copulatum sibi quaestorem habuit,

    Vell. 2, 12, 1:

    Archilochum Nepos Cornelius tradit, Tullo Hostilio Romae regnante, jam tunc fuisse poematis clarum et nobilem,

    Gell. 17, 21, 8:

    palam jam tunc multae civitates libertatem bello vindicandam fremebant,

    Just. 13, 5, 5. —
    2.
    With demum and denique, not until then, then only, then at last.
    a.
    Tunc demum.
    (α).
    Absol.:

    tunc demum nuntius missus ad tertiam legionem revocandam,

    Liv. 41, 3, 5:

    tunc demum pectora plangi Contigit,

    Ov. H. 11, 91:

    tunc demum intrat tabernaculum,

    Curt. 4, 13, 20:

    tunc demum alia mala (exstiterunt),

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 17, 6:

    (aquilae) primo deponunt, expertaeque pondus, tunc demum abeunt,

    Plin. 10, 3, 4, § 14:

    tunc demum... invidiam quae sibi fieret deprecati sunt,

    Suet. Calig. 9:

    tunc demum ad otium concessit,

    id. Claud. 5.—
    (β).
    With cum clause:

    postero die cum circumsessi aqua arceremur, nec ulla... erumpendi spes esset, tunc demum pacti sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 21, 59, 6:

    et serius cum redisset, tum demum, recepto sospite filio, victoriae tantae gaudium consul sensit,

    id. 44, 44, 3:

    cum ab his oritur, tunc demum ei ratio constat,

    Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.: quos ordine suo tunc demum persequar cum praefaturus fuero, Col. praef. 33; Sen. Ep. 84, 6; id. Q. N. 7, 13, 1.—
    b.
    Tunc denique (very rare): hi dicebantur in eo tempore mathêmatikoi. Exinde ad perspicienda principia naturae procedebant ac tunc denique nominabantur phusikoi, Gell. 1, 9, 7.—
    3.
    Tunc primum:

    quia tunc primum superbiae nobilitatis obviam itum est,

    Sall. J. 5, 2:

    tunc primum circo qui nunc maximus dicitur, designatus locus est,

    Liv. 1, 35, 8:

    eum dolorem ulta est (plebs) tunc primum plebeis quaestoribus creatis,

    id. 4, 54, 2:

    tunc primum equo merere equites coeperunt,

    id. 5, 7, 13:

    lectisternio tunc primum in urbe Romana facto,

    id. 5, 13, 6; Tac. A. 11, 38; Suet. Ner. 17; Just. 8, 5, 1; 11, 10, 2; Jul. Capitol. Anton. Phil. 5; 7.—
    4.
    With deinde (cf.: tum deinde).
    (α).
    Deinde tunc:

    roga bonam mentem, bonam valetudinem animi, deinde tunc corporis,

    Sen. Ep. 10, 4; 74, 23; 117, 1.—
    (β).
    Tunc deinde: primum militiae vinculum est religio et signorum amor, et deserendi nefas; tunc deinde facile cetera [p. 1916] exiguntur, Sen. Ep. 95, 35; 11, 4; Val. Fl. 8, 109; Cels. 4, 15.—So, tunc postea, Vitr. 1, 6, 7.—
    5.
    Tunc tandem:

    simul enim cessit possessione Dii, excitavit hostem, ut tunc tandem sciret recuperanda esse quae prius amissa forent,

    Liv. 44, 8, 4.—
    B.
    With emphatic particles.
    1.
    Tunc vero (or enimvero):

    in turbatos jam hostes equos inmittunt. Tunc vero Celtiberi omnes in fugam effunduntur,

    Liv. 40, 40, 10:

    cunctantem tamen ingens vis morbi adorta est. Tunc enim vero deorum ira admonuit,

    id. 2, 36, 6:

    tunc vero impotentis fortunae species conspici potuit,

    Curt. 3, 11, 23: Tiberioque suspensa semper verba;

    tunc vero nitenti, etc.,

    Tac. A. 1, 11.—
    2.
    Tunc quidem: et tunc quidem Perseus copias reduxit;

    postero die, etc.,

    Liv. 42, 57, 9:

    tunc quidem sacrificio rite perpetrato, reliquum noctis rediit, etc.,

    Curt. 4, 13, 16; cf. id. 3, 12, 21.—
    3.
    Ne tunc quidem:

    quia ne tunc quidem obsistebatur,

    Front. Strat. 3, 17, 9:

    ac ne tum quidem senatu aut populo appellato,

    Suet. Ner. 41; cf. Just. 27, 3, 6.—
    4.
    Tunc maxime (or tunc cum maxime).
    (α).
    Chiefly at that time, especially then:

    Theophrastus est auctor, in Ponto quosdam amnes crescere tempore aestivo... aut quia tunc maxime in umorem mutabilis terra est, aut quia, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 26, 2.—
    (β).
    Just then:

    hospitem tunc cum maxime utilia suadentem abstrahi jussit ad capitale supplicium,

    Curt. 3, 2, 17:

    non incidunt causae quae iram lacessant? sed tunc maxime illi oppugnandae manus sunt, Sen. de Ira, 2, 14, 2: sapiens tunc maxime paupertatem meditatur cum in mediis divitiis constitit,

    id. Vit. Beat. 26, 1.—
    5.
    Tunc interea, Gell. 3, 7, 7; v. supra, I. A. 4. a.—
    6.
    Etiam tunc.
    (α).
    Even then:

    experiri etiam tunc volens an ullae sibi reliquae vires essent, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 16, 3.—
    (β).
    Still:

    quam defunctam praetextatus etiam tunc pro rostris laudavit,

    Suet. Calig. 10.— And with cum, Plaut. Rud. 3, 6, 8; v. supra, II. A. 1. a.—
    7.
    Tunc etiam.
    (α).
    Etiam as connective, tum = eo tempore:

    in civitate plena religionum, tunc etiam ob recentem cladem superstitiosis principibus, ut renovarentur auspicia, res ad interregnum redit,

    Liv. 6, 5, 6.—
    (β).
    Poet. for tum etiam, on account of the vowel:

    ultima prona via est, et eget moderamine certo, Tunc etiam... Tethys solet ipsa vereri,

    Ov. M. 2, 68.—
    8.
    Tunc quoque.
    (α).
    Also then:

    irae adversus Vejentes in insequentem annum dilatae sunt. Tunc quoque ne confestim bellum indiceretur religio obstitit,

    Liv. 4, 30, 13; 44, 37, 12: saepe legit flores;

    et tunc quoque forte legebat,

    Ov. M. 4, 315:

    quare et sereno tonat? quia tunc quoque per quassum et scissum aera spiritus prosilit,

    Sen. Q. N. 2, 18:

    cum quidam histriones producti olim, tunc quoque producerentur,

    Suet. Claud. 21:

    tunc quoque in Hyrcaniam remittitur,

    Just. 38, 9, 9.—
    (β).
    Even then:

    tunc quoque cum antiqui illi viri inclite viverent, cura comere capillum fuit,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, 17, 7:

    faba vero non antequam trium foliorum. Tunc quoque levi sarculo purgare melius quam fodere,

    Plin. 18, 26, 65, § 241; Suet. Ner. 26; Flor. 1, 7, 12.—With tum demum:

    tametsi ad audiendum pigre coitur. Plerique in stationibus sedent... ac sibi nuntiari jubent an jam recitator intraverit... an ex magna parte evolverit librum: tum demum ac tunc quoque lente cunctanterque veniunt,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 13, 2.—
    (γ).
    = sic quoque, even as it was:

    quin nisi firmata extrema agminis fuissent, ingens in eo saltu accipienda clades fuerit. Tunc quoque ad extremum periculi ventum est,

    Liv. 21, 34, 8.—
    C.
    Tunc temporis (postclass.;

    v. tum, III. E.): ex gente obscura tunc temporis Persarum,

    Just. 1, 4, 4:

    parvae tunc temporis vires Atheniensibus erant,

    id. 3, 6, 6:

    ad abolendam invidiae famam qua insignis praeter ceteros tunc temporis habebatur,

    id. 8, 3, 7:

    erat namque tunc temporis urbs Appulis Brundisium,

    id. 12, 2, 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > tunc

  • 19 ad-modum

        ad-modum adv.;    prop., to the proper limit, to full measure; hence, with numerals, full, quite, at least, no less than: noctu turres admodum CXX excitantur, full, Cs.: equites, mille admodum, a round thousand, Cu.; no more than, just, only (late), Cu.—Of degree, fully, highly, completely, entirely, altogether, very: admodum antiqui: admodum amplum et excelsum: neque hi admodum sunt multi, N.: admodum pauci: natio admodum dedita religionibus, Cs.—Esp., with words expressing time of life, as puer, adulescens, iuvenis, senex, etc.: admodum tum adulescens, then a mere youth: non admodum grandis natu: puer admodum, L. —With negatives, just, at all, whatever: litterarum admodum nihil scire: equestris pugna nulla admodum fuit, L.—With advv.: raro admodum exclamant.—With verbs: admodum mirabar quam ob rem, etc.: alqm admodum diligere; delectare. — As an emphatic affirmative, yes, certainly, of course: advenis modo? Pa. admodum, T.

    Latin-English dictionary > ad-modum

  • 20 dēmum

        dēmum adv.    [de with sup. ending], at length, at last, not till then, just, precisely, only: is demum est iustus triumphus: is demum mihi vivere videtur, qui, etc., no one but him, S.: exsilium quantum demum a perpetuā peregrinatione differt?: sciscitando eo demum pervenit, ut, etc., L.: placidā ibi demum morte quievit, V.—With nunc, now, now at length, at last, not till now: nunc demum intellego: nunc demum rescribo iis litteris, quas, etc.—With tum, then at length, then indeed, not till then: tum demum illa omnia victa videbantur, cum, etc.: tum demum inpulsi Latini, L.: Tum demum stagna revisunt, V.: quod si convenerit, tum demum decebit, etc.—With modo, only now, not till now: modone id demum sensti? Do you just begin to see? T.—With ibi, just there: Ibi demum ita aegre tulit, etc., T.—With sic, so at last, thus finally: Sic demum socios consumptā nocte reviso, V.—With abl. of time, just, not till, at last: decimo demum pugnavimus anno, O.: quartā vix demum exponimur horā, H.: his demum exactis, V.—In assurance, in fact, in very truth, assuredly, certainly, indeed: ea demum firma amicitia est, S.: ea sunt enim demum non ferenda in mendacio, quae, etc.
    * * *
    at last, finally; at length, in the end, eventually; other possibilities being dismissed; only/alone, and no other/nowhere else

    Latin-English dictionary > dēmum

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