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injuriā+affici+ab+aliquo

  • 1 injuria

    injūrĭa, ae, f. [injurius], any thing that is done contrary to justice and equity, injury, wrong, violence:

    injuria ex eo dicta est, quod non jure fiat! omne enim, quod non jure fit, injuria fieri dicitur: hoc generaliter. Specialiter autem injuria dicitur contumelia. Interdum injuriae appellatione damnum culpa datum significatur: interdum iniquitatem injuriam dicimus, etc.,

    Dig. 47, 10, 1:

    cum autem duobis modis, id est aut vi aut fraude, fiat injuria,

    Cic. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    injuriae sunt, quae aut pulsatione corpus, aut convicio aures, aut aliqua turpitudine vitam cujuspiam violant,

    Auct. Her. 4, 25, 35.
    I.
    Lit.:

    tibi a me nulla orta est injuria,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 35:

    alienum est a sapiente non modo injuriam cui facere, verum etiam nocere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 21, 71:

    injuriam inferre,

    id. Off. 1, 7, 24:

    injurias contumeliasque imponere,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 9, § 20:

    injuriam jacere et immittere in aliquem,

    id. Par. 4, § 28:

    in populum Romanum,

    Liv. 44, 1, 10:

    accipere ab aliquo,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 18, 60:

    propulsare,

    id. Rosc. Am. 50, 145:

    defendere,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 7:

    condonare alicui,

    id. B. G. 1, 20:

    persequi,

    id. ib. 7, 38:

    ulcisci,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    injuriis onerare,

    Ter. And. 5, 1, 8:

    per injuriam,

    in an unjust manner, unjustly, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 97, § 226.—The abl. injuriā is used adverb., unjustly, undeservedly, without cause:

    ne palma detur cuiquam artifici injuriā,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 37:

    dispertivisti,

    id. Aul. 2, 5, 4:

    si me meis civibus injuriā suspectum viderem,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 7, 17:

    hoc horret Milo: nec injuriā,

    id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 6.
    II.
    Transf., injurious, unlawful, or unjust conduct.
    A. 1.
    Act., injustice, wrongdoing:

    vostrā hercle factum injuriā,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 66:

    quocumque aspexisti, ut furiae, sic tuae tibi occurrunt injuriae,

    Cic. Par. 2, 18:

    ut meum jus teneam et injuriam tuam persequar,

    id. Caecin. 11, 32. —
    2.
    Pass.:

    pro veteribus Helvetiorum injuriis populi Romani,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 30:

    Sabinae mulieres, quarum ex injuria bellum ortum,

    Liv. 1, 13, 1; cf., so of dishonoring, deflowering a virgin, Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 64; id. Cist. 1, 3, 32.—
    B.
    An injurious act, injury, outrage, insult, affront:

    injuriarum multam dicere,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 57:

    injuriarum dicam alicui scribere,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 15: actio injuriarum, an action for a personal injury or affront, Cic. Caecin. 12, 35:

    periculum injuriae muliebris,

    Liv. 26, 49, 12:

    agere injuriarum,

    Dig. 47, tit. 10:

    teneri injuriarum,

    ib. 11: injuriarum experiri, ib. fin.:

    injuriarum judicio convenire quempiam,

    ib. 13:

    tantine injuria cenae?

    the insult of a dinner, Juv. 5, 9.—
    C.
    Unjust severity, harshness, rigor:

    (filius) carens patriā ob meas injurias,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 85; cf.

    paterna,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 39.—
    D.
    Revenge or punishment for injury inflicted:

    injuria consulis, etiam si justa, non tamen in magistratu exercenda,

    Liv. 42, 1, 12:

    injuria caedis nostrae,

    Verg. A. 3, 256.—
    E.
    An unjust acquisition:

    injuriam obtinere,

    Liv. 29, 1, 17.—
    F.
    A damage, harm, injury of any kind, even that which proceeds from inanimate things:

    ab injuria oblivionis aliquem asserere,

    Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 4:

    pluviarum,

    Col. 11, 3, 7:

    ignis,

    id. ib.:

    frigorum, grandinum aut nivis,

    Plin. 13, 24, 47, § 134:

    puellam vinculis onerat, ex quorum injuria decessit,

    Just. 43, 2:

    comparere incolumem ac sine injuria,

    Suet. Aug. 14:

    haerens injuria lumbis,

    pain, disease, Ser. Samm. 38, 452:

    curandum ne magna injuria fiat fortibus,

    Juv. 8, 121.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > injuria

  • 2 aliquō

        aliquō adv.    [aliqui; old dat.], to some place, somewhere, anywhither: quae aliquo abicienda, T.: eum aliquo impellere.—Praegn., somewhere else, to any other place (cf. alio quo): dum proficiscor aliquo, T.: ab eorum oculis aliquo concederes.
    * * *
    to some place/person (or other); in some/any direction/quarter; some/anywhere

    Latin-English dictionary > aliquō

  • 3 aliquo

    ălĭquō, v. aliquis, adv. B.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aliquo

  • 4 injuria

    injury; injustice, wrong, offense; insult, abuse; sexual assault

    Latin-English dictionary > injuria

  • 5 Malum quidem nullum esse sine aliquo bono

    There is, to be sure, no evil without something good. (Pliny the Elder)

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Malum quidem nullum esse sine aliquo bono

  • 6 aliquo

    (adv.) in some direction.

    Latin-English dictionary of medieval > aliquo

  • 7 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 8 absum

    ab-sum, āfui (better than abfui), āfŭtārus (aforem, afore), v. n., in its most general signif., to be away from, be absent.
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    Absol. without designating the distance (opp. adsum):

    num ab domo absum?

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 16:

    me absente atque insciente,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 130:

    domini ubi absunt,

    are not at home, not present, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 53: facile aerumnam ferre possum, si inde abest injuria, Caecil. ap. Non. 430, 18.—
    B.
    With reference to the distance in space or time; which is expressed either by a definite number, or, in gen., by the advs. multum, paulum (not parum, v. below) longe, etc.:

    edixit, ut ab urbe abesset milia pass. ducenta,

    Cic. Sest. 12, 29:

    castra, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    haud longe abesse oportet,

    he ought not to be far hence, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 166:

    legiones magnum spatium aberant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 17:

    menses tres abest,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 66:

    haud permultum a me aberit infortunium,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 2, 1; Cic. Fam. 2, 7.—With the simple abl. for ab:

    paulumque cum ejus villa abessemus,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1 Görenz; but, ab ejus villa, B. and K.; cf.:

    nuptā abesse tuā,

    Ov. R. Am. 774.— With inter:

    nec longis inter se passibus absunt,

    Verg. A. 11, 907.—With prope, propius, proxime, to denote a short distance:

    nunc nobis prope abest exitium,

    is not far from, Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 8;

    so with est: prope est a te Deus, tecum est,

    Sen. Ep. 41:

    loca, quae a Brundisio propius absunt, quam tu, biduum,

    Cic. Att. 8, 14:

    quoniam abes propius,

    since you are nearer, id. ib. 1, 1:

    existat aliquid, quod... absit longissime a vero,

    id. Ac. 2, 11, 36; so id. Deiot. 13; Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 16 al.—Hence the phrase: tantum abest, ut—ut, so far from that, etc. (Zumpt, §

    779), the origin of which is evident from the following examples from Cic. (the first two of which have been unjustly assailed): id tantum abest ab officio, ut nihil magis officio possit esse contrarium, Off. 1, 14 (with which comp. the person. expression: equidem tantum absum ab ista sententia, ut non modo non arbitrer... sed, etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 60, 255):

    tantum abest ab eo, ut malum mors sit, ut verear, ne, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76: ego vero istos tantum abest ut ornem, ut effici non possit, quin eos oderim, so far am I from that, id. Phil. 11, 14; sometimes etiam or quoque is added to the second clause, Lentul. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 15, 2; Suet. Tib. 50; more rarely contra, Liv. 6, 31, 4. Sometimes the second ut is left out:

    tantum afuit, ut inflammares nostros animos: somnum isto loco vix tenebamus,

    Cic. Brut. 80, 278; on the contrary, once in Cic. with a third ut: tantum abest ut nostra miremur, ut usque eo difficiles ac morosi simus, ut nobis non satisfaciat ipse Demosthenes, Or. 29, 104.
    II.
    Hence,
    A.
    To be away from any thing unpleasant, to be freed or free from:

    a multis et magnis molestiis abes,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3:

    a culpa,

    id. Rosc. Am. 20: a reprehensione temeritatis, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23.
    B.
    To be removed from a thing by will, inclination, etc.; to be disinclined to (syn. abhorreo)' a consilio fugiendi, Cic. Att. 7, 24:

    ab istis studiis,

    id. Planc. 25:

    ceteri a periculis aberant,

    kept aloof from, avoided, Sall. C. 6, 3. toto aberant bello, Caes. B. G. 7, 63.
    C.
    To be removed from a thing in regard to condition or quality, i. e. to be different from, to differ = abhorrere abest a tua virtute et fide, Brut. et Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 2: istae kolakeiai non longe absunt a scelere, id. Att. 13, 30:

    haec non absunt a consuetudine somniorum,

    id. Divin. 1, 21, [p. 13] 42.—Since improvement, as well as deterioration, may constitute the ground of difference, so absum may, according to its connection, designate the one or the other:

    nullā re longius absumus a naturā ferarum,

    in nothing are we more elevated above the nature of the brute, Cic. Off. 1, 16, 50;

    so also the much-contested passage,

    Cic. Planc. 7, 17: longissime Plancius a te afuit, i. e. valde, plurimis suffragiis, te vicit, was far from you in the number of votes, i. e. had the majority; v. Wunder ad Planc. proleg. p. 83 sq.; on the other hand, to be less, inferior: longe te a pulchris abesse sensisti, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 339, 23:

    multum ab eis aberat L. Fufius,

    id. Brut. 62, 222; so Hor. A. P. 370.
    D.
    Not to be suitable, proper, or fit for a thing:

    quae absunt ab forensi contentione,

    Cic. Or. 11, 37:

    ab principis personā,

    Nep. Ep. 1, 2.
    E.
    To be wanting, = desum, Pac. ap. Cic. Fin. 5, 11, 31 (Trag. Rel. p. 122 Rib.):

    unum a praeturā tuā abest,

    one thing is wanting to your praetorship, Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 25: quaeris id quod habes;

    quod abest non quaeris,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 16; cf. Lucr. 3, 970 and 1095.—After Cicero, constr. in this signif. with dat.:

    quid huic abesse poterit de maximarum rerum scientiā?

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 48:

    abest enim historia litteris nostris,

    history is yet wanting to our literature, id. Leg. 2, 5.—So esp. in the poets:

    donec virenti canities abest morosa,

    Hor. C. 1, 9, 17; 3, 24, 64; Ov. M. 14, 371.—Hence the phrase non multum (neque multum), paulum, non (haud) procul, minimum, nihil abest, quin. not much, little, nothing is wanting that (Zumpt, Gr. § 540); but not parum, since parum in good classical authors does not correspond in meaning with non multum, but with non satis (v. parum):

    neque multum abesse ab eo, quin, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 2, 2; and absol.:

    neque multum afuit quin,

    id. B. C. 2, 35, 4:

    paulumque afuit quin, ib. § 2: legatos nostros haud procul afuit quin violarent,

    Liv. 5, 4 fin.:

    minimum afuit quin periret,

    was within a little of, Suet. Aug. 14:

    nihil afore credunt quin,

    Verg. A. 8, 147 al.
    F.
    Abesse alicui or ab aliquo, to be wanting to any one, to be of no assistance or service to (opp. adsum):

    ut mirari Torquatus desinat, me, qui Antonio afuerim, Sullam defendere,

    Cic. Sull. 5: facile etiam absentibus nobis ( without our aid) veritas se ipsa defendet, id. Ac. 2, 11, 36:

    longe iis fraternum nomen populi Romani afuturum,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 36. So also Cic. Planc. 5, 13: et quo plus intererat, eo plus aberas a me, the more I needed your assistance, the more you neglected me, v. Wunder ad h. l.; cf. also Sall. C. 20 fin.
    G.
    Cicero uses abesse to designate his banishment from Rome (which he would never acknowledge as such):

    qui nullā lege abessem,

    Cic. Sest. 34, 37; cf.: discessus. —Hence, absens, entis ( gen. plur. regul. absentium;

    absentum,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 5), P. a., absent (opp. praesens).
    A.
    In gen.:

    vos et praesentem me curā levatis et absenti magna solatia dedistis,

    Cic. Brut. 3, 11; so id. Off. 3, 33, 121; id. Verr. 2, 2, 17:

    quocirca (amici) et absentes adsunt et egentes abundant,

    id. Lael. 7, 23:

    ut loquerer tecum absens, cum coram id non licet,

    id. Att. 7, 15:

    me absente,

    id. Dom. 3; id. Cael. 50:

    illo absente,

    id. Tull. 17; id. Verr. 2, 60:

    absente accusatore,

    id. ib. 2, 99 al.— Sup.:

    mente absentissimus,

    Aug. Conf. 4, 4.—Of things (not thus in Cic.):

    Romae rus optas, absentem rusticus urbem tollis ad astra,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 28; so,

    Rhodus,

    id. Ep. 1, 11, 21:

    rogus,

    Mart. 9, 77, 8:

    venti,

    Stat. Th. 5, 87:

    imagines rerum absentium,

    Quint. 6, 2, 29:

    versus,

    Gell. 20, 10.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    In conversat. lang.
    (α).
    Praesens absens, in one's presence or absence:

    postulo ut mihi tua domus te praesente absente pateat,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 29.—
    (β).
    Absente nobis turbatumst, in our absence (so also:

    praesente nobis, v. praesens),

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 7; Afran. ap. Non. 76, 19 (Com. Rel. p. 165 Rib.).—
    2.
    In polit. lang., not appearing in public canvassings as a competitor:

    deligere (Scipio) iterum consul absens,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 11; so Liv. 4, 42, 1; 10, 22, 9.—
    3.
    = mortuus, deceased, Plaut. Cas. prol. 20; Vitr. 7, praef. § 8.—
    4.
    Ellipt.: absens in Lucanis, absent in Lucania, i. e. absent and in Lucania, Nep. Hann. 5, 3; so id. Att. 8, 6.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > absum

  • 9 acta fori

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta fori

  • 10 acta militaria

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta militaria

  • 11 acta publica

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta publica

  • 12 acta triumphorum

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta triumphorum

  • 13 adficio

    af-fĭcĭo (better adf-), affēci (adf-), affectum (adf-), 3, v. a. [facio], to do something to one, i. e. to exert an influence on body or mind, so that it is brought into such or such a state (used by the poets rarely, by Hor. never).
    1.
    Aliquem.
    A.
    Of the body rarely, and then commonly in a bad sense:

    ut aestus, labor, fames, sitisque corpora adficerent,

    Liv. 28, 15:

    contumeliis adficere corpora sua,

    Vulg. Rom. 1, 24:

    non simplex Damasichthona vulnus Adficit,

    Ov. M. 6, 255:

    aconitum cor adficit,

    Scrib. Comp. 188:

    corpus adficere M. Antonii,

    Cic. Phil. 3:

    pulmo totus adficitur,

    Cels. 4, 7; with abl. of spec.:

    stomacho et vesicā adfici,

    Scrib. Comp. 186. —In bon. part.:

    corpus ita adficiendum est, ut oboedire rationi possit,

    Cic. Off. 1, 23.—
    B.
    More freq. of the mind:

    litterae tuae sic me adfecerunt, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 14, 3, 2:

    is terror milites hostesque in diversum adfecit,

    Tac. A. 11, 19:

    varie sum adfectus tuis litteris,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 2:

    consules oportere sic adfici, ut, etc.,

    Plin. Pan. 90:

    adfici a Gratiā aut a Voluptate,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 12; id. Mil. 29, 79:

    sollicitudo de te duplex nos adficit,

    id. Brut. 92, 332:

    uti ei qui audirent, sic adficerentur animis, ut eos adfici vellet orator,

    id. de Or. 1, 19, 87 B. and K.:

    adfici animos in diversum habitum,

    Quint. 1, 10, 25.—
    2.
    With acc. and abl., to affect a person or (rarely) thing with something; in a good sense, to bestow upon, grace with; in a bad sense, to visit with, inflict upon; or the ablative and verb may be rendered by the verb corresponding to the ablative, and if an adjective accompany the ablative, this adjective becomes an adverb.—Of inanimate things (rare): luce locum adficiens, lighting up the place, Varr. ap. Non. p. 250, 2:

    adficere medicamine vultum,

    Ov. Med. Fac. 67:

    factum non eo nomine adficiendum,

    designated, Cic. Top. 24, 94:

    res honore adficere,

    to honor, id. N. D. 1, 15, 38:

    non postulo, ut dolorem eisdem verbis adficias, quibus Epicurus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 2, 7, 18.—
    3.
    Very freq. of persons.
    (α).
    In a good sense:

    Qui praedā atque agro adoreāque adfecit populares suos,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 38:

    quem sepulturā adficit,

    buries, Cic. Div. 1, 27, 56:

    patres adfecerat gloriā,

    id. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    admiratione,

    id. Off. 2, 10, 37:

    voluptate,

    id. Fin. 3, 11, 37:

    beneficio,

    id. Agr. 1, 4, 13:

    honore,

    id. Rosc. Am. 50, 147:

    laude,

    id. Off. 2, 13, 47:

    nomine regis,

    to style, id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    bonis nuntiis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 8:

    muneribus,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 3; Nep. Ages. 3, 3:

    praemio,

    Cic. Mil. 30, 82:

    pretio,

    Verg. A. 12, 352:

    stipendio,

    Cic. Balb. 27, 61.—
    (β).
    In a bad sense: injuriā abs te adficior indignā, pater, am wronged unjustly, Enn. ap. Auct. ad Heren. 2, 24, 38; so Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 3:

    Quantā me curā et sollicitudine adficit Gnatus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 1; so Cic. Att. 1, 18:

    desiderio,

    id. Fam. 2, 12:

    timore,

    to terrify, id. Quint. 2, 6:

    difficultate,

    to embarrass, Caes. B. G. 7, 6:

    molestiā,

    to trouble, Cic. Att. 15, 1:

    tantis malis,

    Vulg. Num. 11, 15:

    maculā,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 39, 113:

    ignominiā,

    id. ib. 39, 123:

    contumeliis,

    Vulg. Ezech. 22, 7; ib. Luc. 20, 11:

    rerum et verborum acerbitatibus,

    Suet. Calig. 2:

    verberibus,

    Just. 1, 5:

    supplicio,

    Cic. Brut. 1, 16; so Caes. B. G. 1, 27:

    poenā,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 2:

    exsilio,

    to banish, id. Thras. 3:

    morte, cruciatu, cruce,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 4, 9:

    morte,

    Vulg. Matt. 10, 21:

    cruce,

    Suet. Galb. 9:

    ultimis cruciatibus,

    Liv. 21, 44:

    leto,

    Nep. Regg. 3, 2.—And often in pass.:

    sollicitudine et inopiā consilii,

    Cic. Att. 3, 6:

    adfici aegritudine,

    id. Tusc. 3, 7, 15:

    doloribus pedum,

    id. Fam. 6, 19:

    morbo oculorum,

    Nep. Hann. 4, 3:

    inopiā rei frumentariae,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17:

    calamitate et injuriā,

    Cic. Att. 11, 2:

    magnā poenā, Auct. B. G. 8, 39: vulneribus,

    Col. R. R. 4, 11:

    torminibus et inflationibus,

    Plin. 29, 5, 33, § 103:

    servitute,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 44.—Hence, affectus ( adf-), a, um, P. a.
    I.
    In a peculiar sense, that on which we have bestowed labor, that which we are now doing, so that it is nearly at an end; cf.: Adfecta, sicut M. Cicero et [p. 67] veterum elegantissime locuti sunt, ea proprie dicebantur, quae non ad finem ipsum, sed proxime finem progressa deductave erant, Gell. 3, 16:

    bellum adfectum videmus et paene confectum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 8, 19:

    in provinciā (Caesar) commoratur, ut ea. quae per eum adfecta sunt, perfecta rei publicae tradat,

    id. ib. 12, 29: cum adfectā prope aestate uvas a sole mitescere tempus, etc., near the end of summer, id. ap. Gell. l. c.:

    Jamque hieme adfectā mitescere coeperat annus,

    Sil. 15, 502:

    in Q. Mucii infirmissimā valetudine adfectāque jam aetate,

    Cic. de Or. 1,45,200; id. Verr. 2,4,43, § 95.—
    II.
    In nearly the same sense as the verb, absol. and with abl.
    A.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Of persons laboring under disease, or not yet quite recovered:

    Qui cum ita adfectus esset, ut sibi ipse diffideret,

    was in such a state, Cic. Phil. 9, 1, 2:

    Caesarem Neapoli adfectum graviter videam,

    very ill, id. Att. 14, 17; so Sen. Ep. 101:

    quem adfectum visuros crediderant,

    ill, Liv. 28, 26:

    corpus adfectum,

    id. 9, 3:

    adfectae vires corporis,

    reduced strength, weakness, id. 5, 18:

    puella,

    Prop. 3, 24, 1:

    aegra et adfecta mancipia,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    jam quidem adfectum, sed tamen spirantem,

    id. Tib. 21.—
    (β).
    Of things, weakened, sick, broken, reduced:

    partem istam rei publicae male adfectam tueri,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 68:

    adfecta res publica,

    Liv. 5, 57:

    Quid est enim non ita adfectum, ut non deletum exstinctumque esse fateare?

    Cic. Fam. 5, 13, 3:

    sic mihi (Sicilia) adfecta visa est, ut hae terrae solent, in quibus bellum versatum est,

    id. Verr. 5, 18, 47:

    adfecta res familiaris,

    Liv. 5, 10:

    opem rebus adfectis orare,

    id. 6, 3; so Tac. H. 2, 69:

    fides,

    id. ib. 3, 65:

    spes,

    Val. Fl. 4, 60.—
    (γ).
    Of persons, in gen. sense, disposed, affected, moved, touched:

    Quonam modo, Philumena mea, nunc te offendam adfectam?

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 45:

    quomodo sim adfectus, e Leptā poteris cognoscere,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 17:

    ut eodem modo erga amicum adfecti simus, quo erga nosmetipsos,

    id. Lael. 16, 56; id. Fin. 1, 20, 68:

    cum ita simus adfecti, ut non possimus plane simul vivere,

    id. Att. 13, 23; id. Fin. 5, 9, 24:

    oculus conturbatus non est probe adfectus ad suum munus fungendum,

    in proper state, id. Tusc. 3, 7, 15:

    oculi nimis arguti, quem ad modum animo adfecti simus, loquuntur,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; id. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Att. 12, 41, 2.—
    (δ).
    As rhet. t. t.: affectus ad, related to, resembling:

    Tum ex eis rebus, quae quodam modo affectae sunt ad id, de quo quaeritur,

    Cic. Top. 2, 8 Forcellini.—
    B.
    With abl. chiefly of persons, in indifferent sense, in good or bad sense (cf.:

    Animi quem ad modum adfecti sint, virtutibus, vitiis, artibus, inertiis, aut quem ad modum commoti, cupiditate, metu, voluptate, molestiā,

    Cic. Part. Or. 10, 35).
    (α).
    In indifferent sense, furnished with, having:

    validos lictores ulmeis affectos lentis virgis,

    Plaut. As. 3, 2, 29:

    pari filo similique (corpora) adfecta figurā,

    Lucr. 2, 341:

    Tantāne adfectum quemquam esse hominem audaciā!

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 84:

    omnibus virtutibus,

    Cic. Planc. 33, 80.—
    (β).
    In bad sense:

    aegritudine, morbo adfectus,

    Col. R. R. 7, 5, 20:

    aerumnis omnibus,

    Lucr. 3, 50:

    sollicitudine,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 40:

    difficultatibus,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 13:

    fatigatione,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    frigore et penuriā,

    id. 7, 3:

    adfecta sterilitate terra, Col. R. R. praef. 1, 2: vitiis,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    ignominiā,

    id. Att. 7, 3:

    supplicio,

    Tac. A. 15, 54:

    verberibus,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    vulnere corpus adfectum,

    Liv. 1, 25:

    morbo,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 6:

    dolore,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 49, 201:

    febre,

    Suet. Vit. 14:

    pestilentiā,

    Liv. 41, 5:

    desperatione,

    Cic. Att. 14, 22:

    clade,

    Curt. 10, 6:

    senectute,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 18, 68:

    aetate,

    id. Cat. 2, 20; id. Sen. 14, 47:

    morte,

    Serv. ad Cic. Fam. 4, 12.— Sup.:

    remiges inopiā adfectissimi,

    Vell. 2, 84.—
    (γ).
    In good sense:

    beneficio adfectus,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 4:

    aliquo honore aut imperio,

    id. Off. 1, 41, 149:

    valetudine optimā,

    id. Tusc. 4, 37, 81:

    laetitiā,

    id. Mur. 2, 4, and ad Brut. 1, 4:

    munere deorum,

    id. N. D. 3, 26, 67:

    praemiis,

    id. Pis. 37, 90.— Adv.: affectē ( adf-), with (a strong) affection, deeply:

    oblectamur et contristamur et conterremur in somniis quam adfecte et anxie et passibiliter,

    Tert. Anim. 45.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adficio

  • 14 afficio

    af-fĭcĭo (better adf-), affēci (adf-), affectum (adf-), 3, v. a. [facio], to do something to one, i. e. to exert an influence on body or mind, so that it is brought into such or such a state (used by the poets rarely, by Hor. never).
    1.
    Aliquem.
    A.
    Of the body rarely, and then commonly in a bad sense:

    ut aestus, labor, fames, sitisque corpora adficerent,

    Liv. 28, 15:

    contumeliis adficere corpora sua,

    Vulg. Rom. 1, 24:

    non simplex Damasichthona vulnus Adficit,

    Ov. M. 6, 255:

    aconitum cor adficit,

    Scrib. Comp. 188:

    corpus adficere M. Antonii,

    Cic. Phil. 3:

    pulmo totus adficitur,

    Cels. 4, 7; with abl. of spec.:

    stomacho et vesicā adfici,

    Scrib. Comp. 186. —In bon. part.:

    corpus ita adficiendum est, ut oboedire rationi possit,

    Cic. Off. 1, 23.—
    B.
    More freq. of the mind:

    litterae tuae sic me adfecerunt, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 14, 3, 2:

    is terror milites hostesque in diversum adfecit,

    Tac. A. 11, 19:

    varie sum adfectus tuis litteris,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 2:

    consules oportere sic adfici, ut, etc.,

    Plin. Pan. 90:

    adfici a Gratiā aut a Voluptate,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 12; id. Mil. 29, 79:

    sollicitudo de te duplex nos adficit,

    id. Brut. 92, 332:

    uti ei qui audirent, sic adficerentur animis, ut eos adfici vellet orator,

    id. de Or. 1, 19, 87 B. and K.:

    adfici animos in diversum habitum,

    Quint. 1, 10, 25.—
    2.
    With acc. and abl., to affect a person or (rarely) thing with something; in a good sense, to bestow upon, grace with; in a bad sense, to visit with, inflict upon; or the ablative and verb may be rendered by the verb corresponding to the ablative, and if an adjective accompany the ablative, this adjective becomes an adverb.—Of inanimate things (rare): luce locum adficiens, lighting up the place, Varr. ap. Non. p. 250, 2:

    adficere medicamine vultum,

    Ov. Med. Fac. 67:

    factum non eo nomine adficiendum,

    designated, Cic. Top. 24, 94:

    res honore adficere,

    to honor, id. N. D. 1, 15, 38:

    non postulo, ut dolorem eisdem verbis adficias, quibus Epicurus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 2, 7, 18.—
    3.
    Very freq. of persons.
    (α).
    In a good sense:

    Qui praedā atque agro adoreāque adfecit populares suos,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 38:

    quem sepulturā adficit,

    buries, Cic. Div. 1, 27, 56:

    patres adfecerat gloriā,

    id. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    admiratione,

    id. Off. 2, 10, 37:

    voluptate,

    id. Fin. 3, 11, 37:

    beneficio,

    id. Agr. 1, 4, 13:

    honore,

    id. Rosc. Am. 50, 147:

    laude,

    id. Off. 2, 13, 47:

    nomine regis,

    to style, id. Deiot. 5, 14:

    bonis nuntiis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 8:

    muneribus,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 3; Nep. Ages. 3, 3:

    praemio,

    Cic. Mil. 30, 82:

    pretio,

    Verg. A. 12, 352:

    stipendio,

    Cic. Balb. 27, 61.—
    (β).
    In a bad sense: injuriā abs te adficior indignā, pater, am wronged unjustly, Enn. ap. Auct. ad Heren. 2, 24, 38; so Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 3:

    Quantā me curā et sollicitudine adficit Gnatus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 1; so Cic. Att. 1, 18:

    desiderio,

    id. Fam. 2, 12:

    timore,

    to terrify, id. Quint. 2, 6:

    difficultate,

    to embarrass, Caes. B. G. 7, 6:

    molestiā,

    to trouble, Cic. Att. 15, 1:

    tantis malis,

    Vulg. Num. 11, 15:

    maculā,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 39, 113:

    ignominiā,

    id. ib. 39, 123:

    contumeliis,

    Vulg. Ezech. 22, 7; ib. Luc. 20, 11:

    rerum et verborum acerbitatibus,

    Suet. Calig. 2:

    verberibus,

    Just. 1, 5:

    supplicio,

    Cic. Brut. 1, 16; so Caes. B. G. 1, 27:

    poenā,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 2:

    exsilio,

    to banish, id. Thras. 3:

    morte, cruciatu, cruce,

    Cic. Verr. 3, 4, 9:

    morte,

    Vulg. Matt. 10, 21:

    cruce,

    Suet. Galb. 9:

    ultimis cruciatibus,

    Liv. 21, 44:

    leto,

    Nep. Regg. 3, 2.—And often in pass.:

    sollicitudine et inopiā consilii,

    Cic. Att. 3, 6:

    adfici aegritudine,

    id. Tusc. 3, 7, 15:

    doloribus pedum,

    id. Fam. 6, 19:

    morbo oculorum,

    Nep. Hann. 4, 3:

    inopiā rei frumentariae,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17:

    calamitate et injuriā,

    Cic. Att. 11, 2:

    magnā poenā, Auct. B. G. 8, 39: vulneribus,

    Col. R. R. 4, 11:

    torminibus et inflationibus,

    Plin. 29, 5, 33, § 103:

    servitute,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 44.—Hence, affectus ( adf-), a, um, P. a.
    I.
    In a peculiar sense, that on which we have bestowed labor, that which we are now doing, so that it is nearly at an end; cf.: Adfecta, sicut M. Cicero et [p. 67] veterum elegantissime locuti sunt, ea proprie dicebantur, quae non ad finem ipsum, sed proxime finem progressa deductave erant, Gell. 3, 16:

    bellum adfectum videmus et paene confectum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 8, 19:

    in provinciā (Caesar) commoratur, ut ea. quae per eum adfecta sunt, perfecta rei publicae tradat,

    id. ib. 12, 29: cum adfectā prope aestate uvas a sole mitescere tempus, etc., near the end of summer, id. ap. Gell. l. c.:

    Jamque hieme adfectā mitescere coeperat annus,

    Sil. 15, 502:

    in Q. Mucii infirmissimā valetudine adfectāque jam aetate,

    Cic. de Or. 1,45,200; id. Verr. 2,4,43, § 95.—
    II.
    In nearly the same sense as the verb, absol. and with abl.
    A.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Of persons laboring under disease, or not yet quite recovered:

    Qui cum ita adfectus esset, ut sibi ipse diffideret,

    was in such a state, Cic. Phil. 9, 1, 2:

    Caesarem Neapoli adfectum graviter videam,

    very ill, id. Att. 14, 17; so Sen. Ep. 101:

    quem adfectum visuros crediderant,

    ill, Liv. 28, 26:

    corpus adfectum,

    id. 9, 3:

    adfectae vires corporis,

    reduced strength, weakness, id. 5, 18:

    puella,

    Prop. 3, 24, 1:

    aegra et adfecta mancipia,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    jam quidem adfectum, sed tamen spirantem,

    id. Tib. 21.—
    (β).
    Of things, weakened, sick, broken, reduced:

    partem istam rei publicae male adfectam tueri,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 68:

    adfecta res publica,

    Liv. 5, 57:

    Quid est enim non ita adfectum, ut non deletum exstinctumque esse fateare?

    Cic. Fam. 5, 13, 3:

    sic mihi (Sicilia) adfecta visa est, ut hae terrae solent, in quibus bellum versatum est,

    id. Verr. 5, 18, 47:

    adfecta res familiaris,

    Liv. 5, 10:

    opem rebus adfectis orare,

    id. 6, 3; so Tac. H. 2, 69:

    fides,

    id. ib. 3, 65:

    spes,

    Val. Fl. 4, 60.—
    (γ).
    Of persons, in gen. sense, disposed, affected, moved, touched:

    Quonam modo, Philumena mea, nunc te offendam adfectam?

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 45:

    quomodo sim adfectus, e Leptā poteris cognoscere,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 17:

    ut eodem modo erga amicum adfecti simus, quo erga nosmetipsos,

    id. Lael. 16, 56; id. Fin. 1, 20, 68:

    cum ita simus adfecti, ut non possimus plane simul vivere,

    id. Att. 13, 23; id. Fin. 5, 9, 24:

    oculus conturbatus non est probe adfectus ad suum munus fungendum,

    in proper state, id. Tusc. 3, 7, 15:

    oculi nimis arguti, quem ad modum animo adfecti simus, loquuntur,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; id. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Att. 12, 41, 2.—
    (δ).
    As rhet. t. t.: affectus ad, related to, resembling:

    Tum ex eis rebus, quae quodam modo affectae sunt ad id, de quo quaeritur,

    Cic. Top. 2, 8 Forcellini.—
    B.
    With abl. chiefly of persons, in indifferent sense, in good or bad sense (cf.:

    Animi quem ad modum adfecti sint, virtutibus, vitiis, artibus, inertiis, aut quem ad modum commoti, cupiditate, metu, voluptate, molestiā,

    Cic. Part. Or. 10, 35).
    (α).
    In indifferent sense, furnished with, having:

    validos lictores ulmeis affectos lentis virgis,

    Plaut. As. 3, 2, 29:

    pari filo similique (corpora) adfecta figurā,

    Lucr. 2, 341:

    Tantāne adfectum quemquam esse hominem audaciā!

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 84:

    omnibus virtutibus,

    Cic. Planc. 33, 80.—
    (β).
    In bad sense:

    aegritudine, morbo adfectus,

    Col. R. R. 7, 5, 20:

    aerumnis omnibus,

    Lucr. 3, 50:

    sollicitudine,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 40:

    difficultatibus,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 13:

    fatigatione,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    frigore et penuriā,

    id. 7, 3:

    adfecta sterilitate terra, Col. R. R. praef. 1, 2: vitiis,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    ignominiā,

    id. Att. 7, 3:

    supplicio,

    Tac. A. 15, 54:

    verberibus,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    vulnere corpus adfectum,

    Liv. 1, 25:

    morbo,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 6:

    dolore,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 49, 201:

    febre,

    Suet. Vit. 14:

    pestilentiā,

    Liv. 41, 5:

    desperatione,

    Cic. Att. 14, 22:

    clade,

    Curt. 10, 6:

    senectute,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 18, 68:

    aetate,

    id. Cat. 2, 20; id. Sen. 14, 47:

    morte,

    Serv. ad Cic. Fam. 4, 12.— Sup.:

    remiges inopiā adfectissimi,

    Vell. 2, 84.—
    (γ).
    In good sense:

    beneficio adfectus,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 4:

    aliquo honore aut imperio,

    id. Off. 1, 41, 149:

    valetudine optimā,

    id. Tusc. 4, 37, 81:

    laetitiā,

    id. Mur. 2, 4, and ad Brut. 1, 4:

    munere deorum,

    id. N. D. 3, 26, 67:

    praemiis,

    id. Pis. 37, 90.— Adv.: affectē ( adf-), with (a strong) affection, deeply:

    oblectamur et contristamur et conterremur in somniis quam adfecte et anxie et passibiliter,

    Tert. Anim. 45.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > afficio

  • 15 agentes

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > agentes

  • 16 ago

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ago

  • 17 cogito

    cōgĭto, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. [contr. from cŏ-ăgito, acc. to Varr. L. L. 6, § 43 Müll.; but more prob. from con and root of aio, Sanscr. ah; cf.: nego, adagium], to pursue something in the mind (cf. agito, II.), i. e.
    I.
    To consider thoroughly, to ponder, to weigh, reflect upon, think (class. in prose and poetry); constr. absol., with aliquid, de aliquo, or de aliquā re, sic, ita, or a rel. -clause: cogitate cum animis vestris si quid, etc., Cato ap. Gell. 16, 1, 4; so Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 13; Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 55; 5, 3, 32; Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64; cf.:

    in animo cogitare,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 5:

    toto animo,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 3:

    coepi egomet mecum Aliam rem ex aliā cogitare,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 2, 3; so id. ib. 4, 2, 8; 1, 1, 19; id. Ad. 5, 3, 22:

    placuit tum id mihi. Sic cogitabam: hic, etc.,

    id. And. 1, 1, 83; cf. id. Eun. 1, 1, 11; 3, 3, 1; 4, 6, 21; Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    sic cogitabam! fore uti, etc.,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    severā fronte curas cogitans (i. e. animo volvens),

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 46; cf. Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 2:

    nec, aequum anne iniquum imperet, cogitabit,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 19; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 291:

    quid agam cogito,

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 21; cf. id. ib. 5, 1, 7 sq.; id. Ad. 4, 2, 30; Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 10; Lucr. 4, 789; cf. id. 4, 782; Cic. Rab. Perd. 10, 29:

    ad haec igitur cogita, vel potius excogita,

    id. Att. 9, 6, 7.—With acc. of person:

    Regulum cogita,

    think, imagine, picture to yourself, Plin. Ep. 4, 2, 2:

    tamquam in eo tragoediae argumento sui oblitus tantum Catonem cogitasset,

    Tac. Or. 2:

    matrem, patrem, propinquos,

    Quint. Decl. 22 fin.; cf.:

    o felicem illum, qui non praesens tantum, sed etiam cogitatus emendat,

    Sen. Ep. 11, 9.—With two accs.:

    quem ultimae gentes castiorem non modo viderunt sed cogitaverunt?

    Cic. Balb. 4, 9:

    Scipionem, Laelium, avum,

    to think of, call to mind, id. Fin. 5, 1, 2:

    et majores et posteros cogitate,

    Tac. Agr. 32 fin.:

    si principem cogitares,

    Plin. Ep. 6, 31, 31:

    cum Persas cogitaret,

    Flor. 2, 8, 2; Sen. Cons. Marc. 3, 4. —
    b.
    cōgĭtāta, ōrum, n. subst., reflections, thoughts, ideas:

    postquam ad judices Ventum est, non potuit cogitata proloqui,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 53:

    so cogitata (mentis) eloqui,

    Cic. Brut. 72, 253:

    perficere,

    id. Deiot. 7, 21:

    patefacere,

    Nep. Paus. 3, 1:

    sapientium,

    Cic. Agr. 1, 1, 1:

    Naevii,

    id. Quint. 29, 90.—Rare in sing.:

    quo neque acutius ullius imperatoris cogitatum neque celerius factum usquam legimus,

    Nep. Dat. 6, 8.—
    B.
    Cogitare in, adversus aliquem, with an adv., to think in some way in respect to one, to be disposed towards (very rare): si humaniter et sapienter et amabiliter in me cogitare vis, etc., Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13, A, 2:

    adversus se,

    Suet. Caes. 75 Bremi; cf. with de aliquo:

    si quid amice de Romanis cogitabis,

    Nep. Hann. 2, 6: ut multi mihi renuntiarent... male eum de me cogitare, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 12, 1; and absol.: male cogitantes, Cato, R. R. praef. 4; cf.:

    Karthagini male jam diu cogitanti bellum multo ante denuntio,

    Cic. Sen. 6, 18.—
    II.
    In respect to a work to be undertaken or a conclusion to be made, to have something in mind, to intend, meditate, design, plan, purpose, etc.
    (α).
    With inf.:

    praedium parare,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 1; 3, 1; Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 163:

    cogitat recipere hunc in aedes,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 58:

    facere,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 46:

    recipere me,

    Cic. Att. 2, 9, 4:

    cenare,

    id. ib. 4, 12, 1:

    uti,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 50:

    ex fumo dare lucem,

    id. A. P. 144:

    deducere exercitum,

    Suet. Ner. 18 al. —
    (β).
    With acc.:

    proscriptiones et dictaturas cogitare,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 20:

    caedem principis et res novas,

    Tac. A. 4, 28 fin.:

    cogitatum facinus,

    Suet. Tib. 19;

    and parricidium,

    id. Calig. 12:

    mecum rem pulcherrimam,

    Curt. 8, 7, 9:

    tantum nefas in aliquem,

    id. 6, 7, 30; 8, 6, 3; cf.:

    si qua cogitarentur, gravius adversus se,

    Suet. Caes. 75:

    quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes cogitet,

    what he plots, devises, Hor. C. 2, 11, 2; and so poet. of the (personified) wind:

    quid cogitet humidus Auster,

    Verg. G. 1, 462 Heyne.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj.:

    neque jam, ut aliquid acquireret... cogitabat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 59:

    quid... viros cogitasse arbitramur? Ut nomen suum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 32; Nep. Dion, 9, 2.—
    (δ).
    With de:

    cogitavit etiam de Homeri carminibus abolendis,

    Suet. Calig. 34:

    de reddendā republicā,

    id. Aug. 28:

    de consciscendā morte,

    id. Caes. 36; id. Claud. 31:

    de quo,

    id. Caes. 9:

    cum spiritus coepit de exitu cogitare,

    Sen. Q. N. 6, 25, 1.—In epistolary style, with ellipsis,
    a.
    Of ire:

    in Pompeianum cogitabam inde Aeculanum,

    Cic. Att. 16, 2, 4; 9, 1, 2; id. Fam. 7, 4 init.; id. Att. 2, 8, 2; 5, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Of manere:

    eo die cogitabam in Anagnino, postero autem in Tusculano,

    Cic. Att. 12, 1, 1; cf.:

    ut eo die apud T. Titium in Anagnino manerem. Postridie autem in Laterio cogitabam,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 5, 4 (2, 7, 1).—Hence, *
    A.
    P. a.: cōgĭtātus, a, um, deliberate:

    utrum perturbatione aliquā animi, an consulto et cogitata fiat injuria,

    Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27 B. and K. (al. cogitato).—
    B.
    cōgĭtātē, adv., with mature reflection, considerately (rare):

    tractare rem suam,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 45:

    meditari,

    id. Mil. 3, 3, 69:

    quae vero accurate cogitateque scripsisset,

    Cic. Arch. 8, 18.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cogito

  • 18 cognosco

    co-gnosco, gnōvi, gnĭtum, 3 ( tempp. perff. contr. cognosti, Ter. And. 3, 4, 7:

    cognostis,

    id. Hec. prol. 8:

    cognoram,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 143; Cat. 66, 26:

    cognoro,

    Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2; id. Fam. 2, 11, 2 fin.: cognorim, Cael. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 9, A, 1:

    cognoris,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 35; Lucr. 6, 534:

    cognorit,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 11:

    cognosses,

    Cic. Fl. 21, 51; Cat. 91, 3:

    cognossent,

    Nep. Lys. 4 fin.:

    cognosse,

    Lucr. 1, 331; Cat. 90, 3; Ov. M. 15, 4 al.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 532; 2, 535), v. a. [nosco].
    I.
    To become thoroughly acquainted with (by the senses or mentally), to learn by inquiring, to examine, investigate, perceive, see, understand, learn; and, in tempp. perff. (cf. nosco) to know (very freq. in all periods and species of composition); constr. with acc., with acc. and inf., or a rel.-clause as object, and with ex, ab, the abl. alone, or per, with the source, etc., of the information, and with de.
    A.
    By the senses:

    credit enim sensus ignem cognoscere vere,

    Lucr. 1, 697; 6, 194; Enn. Ann. ap. Pers. 6, 9 (v. 16 Vahl.); cf.:

    doctas cognoscere Athenas,

    Prop. 1, 6, 13; so,

    regiones,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 7:

    domos atque villas,

    Sall. C. 12, 3:

    Elysios campos, etc.,

    Tib. 3, 5, 23:

    totum amnem,

    Verg. A. 9, 245:

    sepulcra,

    Suet. Calig. 3:

    Aegyptum proficisci cognoscendae antiquitatis,

    Tac. A. 2, 59; cf. Nep. Att. 18, 1:

    infantem,

    Suet. Calig. 13:

    si quid dignum cognitu,

    worth seeing, Suet. Aug. 43 rem, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 275, 22:

    ab iis Caesar haec dicta cognovit, qui sermoni interfuerunt,

    Caes. B. C 3, 18 fin.:

    si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros.. Incipiam, Verg A. 2, 10: verum, quod institui dicere, miserias cognoscite sociorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 27, § 65:

    aliquid et litteris et nuntiis cognoscere,

    id. Fam. 1, 5, 1; 14, 5, 1; 14, 6 init.:

    iter ex perfugis,

    Sall. C. 57, 3; id. J. 112, 1 al:

    per exploratores cognovit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22; 5, 49; 2, 11;

    7, 16: deditio per nuntios cognita,

    Sall. H. Fragm. 2, 22 Gerl.:

    de Marcelli salute, Cic Fam. 4, 4, 3: de Bruto,

    id. Att. 5, 21, 10;

    Sall J. 73, 1: his (quibus) rebus cognitis very freq. in the historians,

    Caes. B G. 1, 19, 1, 33; 2, 17; 4, 30 et saep., so in abl. absol. cognito, vivere Ptolemaeum, Liv. 33, 41, 5, so id. 37, 13, 5, 44, 28, 4 al.; v. Zumpt, Gram. § 647.—
    b.
    Like the Engl. to know, the Heb. (v. Gesen. Lex. s. h. v 3), and the Gr. gignôskô (v. Lidd. and Scott, under the word, III.), euphem of sexual intercourse, Ov. H. 6, 133 aliquam adulterio, Just 5, 2, 5, 22, 1, 13: cognita, Cat 61, 147; Tac. H 4, 44.—
    B.
    Mentally, to become acquainted with, learn, recognize, know:

    nihil certum sciri, nihil plane cognosci et percipi possit,

    Cic. de Or 1, 51, 222, Lucr 2, 840;

    quod Di vitiaci fratris summum in populum Romanum studium cognoverat,

    Caes. B. G 1, 19; cf. Sall. C. 51, 16 quem tu, cum ephebum Temni cognosses, Cic. Fl. 21, 51 et saep.: id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse, knew by their weapons and insignia (diff. from ex and ab aliquo, to learn from any one, v ab), Caes. B G. 1, 22; Ov. P 2, 10, 1; Phaedr. 4, 21, 22.—With acc. and inf: nunc animam quoque ut in membris cognoscere possis esse, Lucr 3, 117; cf. Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25: cum paucitatem mililum ex castrorum exiguitate cognosceret, Caes B G. 4, 30: aetatem eorum ex dentibus, Varr R. R. 2, 8 fin.:

    sed Metello jam antea experimentis cognitum erat, genus Numidarum infidum... esse,

    Sall. J 46, 3 al. —With acc. and part.:

    aliter ac sperarat rempublicam se habentem,

    Nep. Ham. 2, 1.—With rel.- clause:

    tandem cognosti qui siem, Ter And. 3, 4, 7: id socordiāne an casu acciderit, parum cognovi,

    Sall. J. 79, 5 al. —
    II.
    To recognize that which is already known, acknowledge, identify (rare for agnosco): vereor, ne me quoque, cum domum ab Ilio cessim revertero, Praeter canem cognoscat nemo, Varr. ap. Non. p. 276, 9:

    eum haec cognovit Myrrhina,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 32:

    primum ostendimus Cethego signum: cognovit,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 5, 10; cf.:

    sigilla, ova,

    id. Ac. 2, 26, 86; Lucr. 2, 349:

    pecus exceptum est, quod intra dies XXX. domini cognovissent,

    to identify, Liv. 24, 16, 5; cf.:

    ut suum quisque per triduum cognitum abduceret,

    id. 3, 10, 1; Ov. F. 2, 185:

    video et cognosco signum,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 45:

    faciem suam,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 508:

    cognito regis corpore,

    Just. 2, 6, 20:

    mores,

    Ov. P. 3, 2, 105.—So esp., to identify a person before a tribunal:

    cum eum Syracusis amplius centum cives Romani cognoscerent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5, § 14; 2, 5, 28, § 72.—
    III.
    With the access. idea of individual exertion (cf. Gr. gignôskô), to seek or strive to know something, to inquire into, to investigate, examine (so freq. only as a jurid. and milit. t. t.):

    accipe, cognosce signum,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 31.
    A.
    Jurid. t. t., to examine a case in law, to investigate judicially (cf. cognitio):

    Verres adesse jubebat, Verres cognoscebat, Verres judicabat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; cf. Quint. 4, 2, 21; Dig. 13, 4, 4 al.—So absol.:

    si judicas, cognosce,

    Sen. Med. 194.—With acc.:

    causam,

    Quint. 4, 1, 3; cf. id. 11, 1, 77 Spald. N. cr.:

    causas,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 82; id. Verr. 2, 2, 48, § 118. COGNITIONES, Inscr. Orell. 3042.—With de:

    de agro Campano,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 19, 53:

    de Caesaris actis,

    id. Att. 16, 16 B, 8:

    de hereditate,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 19:

    hac de re,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 10, § 27; cf. Quint. 6, 3, 85; 7, 4, 35; 8, 3, 62 al.; Suet. Aug. 55; 93; id. Tib. 33; id. Calig. 38 al.:

    super aliquā re,

    Dig. 23, 2, 13:

    familiae herciscundae, i. e. ex actione familiae herciscundae,

    ib. 28, 5, 35; cf. ib. 27, 2, 2.—
    2.
    Transf., of critics and the criticising public:

    cognoscere atque ignoscere, Quae veteres factitarunt, si faciunt novi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 42; cf. id. Hec. prol. 3 and 8.—And of private persons in gen.:

    et cognoscendi et ignoscendi dabitur peccati locus,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 6.—
    B.
    Milit. t. t., to reconnoitre, to act the part of a scout:

    qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus, qui cognoscerent, misit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21 al— Also merely to inquire into, examine:

    numerum tuorum militum reliquiasque,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91 (al. recognoscere).—Hence, *
    1.
    cognoscens, entis, P. a., acquainted with:

    cognoscens sui,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25. —Subst. in jurid. lang., one who investigates judicially Inscr Orell 3151; 3185.—
    * Adv.: cognoscenter, with knowledge, distinctly:

    ut cognoscenter te videam,

    Tert. adv. Marc. 4, 22.—
    2.
    cognĭtus, a, um, P. a., known, acknowledged, approved. res penitus perspectae planeque cognitae, Cic. de Or. 1, 23, 108, cf. id. ib 1, 20, 92; id. Fam. 1, 7, 2. dierum ratio pervulgata et cognita, id. Mur 11, 25:

    homo virtute cognitā et spectatā fide,

    id. Caecin. 36, 104.—With dat.:

    mihi Galba, Otho, Vitellius nec beneficio nec injuriā cogniti,

    Tac. H. 1, 1, so Plin. 12, 21, 45, § 99.— Comp.:

    cognitiora, Ov Tr. 4, 6, 28. cognitius,

    id. M. 14, 15.— Sup.:

    cognitissima,

    Cat. 4, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cognosco

  • 19 consulo

    consŭlo, lŭi, ltum, 3, v. n. and a. [from con and root sal-; cf. consul and consilium].
    I.
    To consider, reflect, deliberate, take counsel, reflect upon, consult.
    A. 1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    Absol.: quid nunc? etiam consulis? do you still deliberate, i. e. hesitate? Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 171; cf. id. Truc. 2, 4, 75 Speng.: ne quid in consulendo adversi eveniat, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3, 14:

    consulto opus est,

    there is need of deliberation, Sall. C. 1, 6:

    dum tempus consulendi est,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 19:

    satis facere consulentibus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    ut omnium rerum vobis ad consulendum potestas esset,

    Liv. 8, 13, 18:

    ut tot uno tempore motibus animi turbati trepidarent magis quam consulerent,

    id. 21, 16, 2:

    praesidium consulenti curiae,

    Hor. C. 2, 1, 14 et saep.—
    (β).
    With in and acc.:

    consulere in longitudinem,

    to take thought for the future, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 10:

    in commune,

    for the common good, id. And. 3, 3, 16; Liv. 32, 21, 1; Tac. A. 12, 5; id. Agr. 12; Curt. 5, 9, 14;

    and in the same sense: in medium,

    Verg. A. 11, 335; Liv. 24, 22, 15; Tac. H. 2, 5; Luc. 5, 46:

    in unum,

    Tac. H. 1, 68; 4, 70:

    in publicum (opp. suscipere proprias simultates),

    Plin. Ep. 9, 13, 21; Tac. A. 1, 24.—
    (γ).
    With de and abl.:

    bello confecto de Rhodiis consultum est,

    Sall. C. 51, 5; so,

    de communibus negotiis,

    id. J. 105, 1:

    de salute suorum,

    Cic. Sull. 22, 63:

    omnibus de rebus,

    Tac. A. 4, 40.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    consulere vivi ac prospicere debemus, ut illorum (liberorum) solitudo munita sit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, § 153:

    tu ne qua manus se attollere nobis A tergo possit, custodi et consule longe,

    Verg. A. 9, 322.— Impers.:

    ut urbi... satis esset praesidii, consultum atque provisum est,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 26:

    ne deficerent, consulendum esse,

    Cels. 3, 4, 31.—
    2.
    Esp., consulere alicui or alicui rei, to take care for some person or thing, to be mindful of, take care of, look to, have regard for, to counsel or consult for:

    tuae rei bene consulere cupio,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 9:

    quid me fiat, parvi pendis, dum illi consulas,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 37:

    qui parti civium consulunt, partem neglegunt,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 85: consulere eorum commodis et utilitati salutique [p. 442] servire, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 9, § 27; so,

    famae, pudicitiae tuae,

    id. Phil. 2, 2, 3:

    dignitati meae,

    id. Fam. 11, 29, 1:

    suae vitae,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 12:

    receptui sibi,

    id. B. C. 3, 69:

    reipublicae juxta ac sibi,

    Sall. C. 37, 8; id. J. 58, 2; Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 1:

    timori magis quam religioni,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 67; cf.:

    magis irae quam famae,

    Sall. C. 51, 7:

    qui mi consultum optime velit esse,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 1: mi ires consultum male? to counsel evil or badly, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 36; so,

    male patriae,

    Nep. Epam. 10, 1; id. Phoc. 2, 2.—With si:

    melius consulet (sibi), si, etc.,

    Cels. 1, 3, 55.—
    B.
    Act.
    1.
    Consulere aliquem (or aliquid), to consult with one, to ask his opinion or advice, to ask counsel of, to consult, question (for the sake of advice).
    a.
    In gen.:

    cum te consuluissem, quid mihi faciendum esse censeres,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 29, 1:

    te, qui philosophum audis,

    id. ib. 9, 26, 1:

    Apellem tragoedum, uter, etc.,

    Suet. Calig. 33 al. —Of inanim. objects:

    speculum suum,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 136; cf.:

    spectatas undas, quid se deceat,

    id. M. 4, 312:

    nares, an olerent aera Corinthōn,

    Mart. 9, 60, 11:

    diem de gemmis, etc.,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 251 sq.:

    animum nostrum,

    Quint. 4, 2, 52:

    aures meas,

    id. 9, 4, 93:

    suas vires,

    id. 10, 2, 18 al. —With two accs.:

    ibo et consulam hanc rem amicos, quid faciundum censeant,

    Plaut. Men. 4, 3, 26:

    nec te id consulo,

    Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2:

    consulere prudentiorem coepi aetates tabularum,

    Petr. 88.—Freq.,
    b.
    Esp. as t. t.
    (α).
    In the lang. of religion, to consult a deity, an oracle, omens, etc.:

    Apollinem de re,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40:

    deum consuluit auguriis, quae suscipienda essent,

    Liv. 1, 20, 7:

    deos hominum fibris,

    Tac. A. 14, 30 fin.:

    Phoebi oracula,

    Ov. M. 3, 9; Suet. Vesp. 5:

    Tiresiam conjectorem,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 76:

    haruspicem,

    Cic. Div. 2, 4, 11; Suet. Tib. 63; Cato, R. R. 5, 4:

    vates nunc extis, nunc per aves,

    Liv. 2, 42, 10:

    Cumaeam anum,

    Ov. F. 4, 158:

    avem primum visam augur,

    id. ib. 1, 180:

    spirantia exta,

    Verg. A. 4, 64; so,

    trepidantia exta,

    Ov. M. 15, 576:

    sacras sortes,

    id. ib. 11, 412:

    Etrusci haruspices male consulentes,

    Gell. 4, 5, 5.— Pass. impers.:

    si publice consuletur... sin privatim,

    Tac. G. 10. —With dependent question:

    senatus pontificum collegium consuli jussit, num omne id aurum in ludos consumi necessum esset,

    Liv. 39, 5, 9:

    consulti per ludibrium pontifices, an concepto necdum edito partu rite nuberet,

    Tac. A. 1, 10.—
    (β).
    In judic. lang., to ask advice of a lawyer, to consult, etc.:

    quam inanes domus eorum omnium, qui de jure civili consuli solent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46, § 120:

    consuli quidem te a Caesare scribis: sed ego tibi ab illo consuli mallem,

    id. Fam. 7, 11, 2:

    si jus consuleres, peritissimus,

    Liv. 39, 40, 6:

    munus hoc eorum qui consuluntur,

    i. e. who are skilled in the law, Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14; so id. Quint. 16, 53.—

    With dependent question: consulens eum, an seni jam testato suaderet ordinare suprema judicia,

    Quint. 6, 3, 92.—The formula usual in asking advice was, licet consulere? Cic. Mur. 13, 28; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 192.—
    (γ).
    In publicists' lang., to take counsel with the competent authorities, to consult:

    Quirites, utrum, etc.,

    Liv. 31, 7, 2; so,

    senatum,

    Sall. J. 28, 2:

    senatum de foedere,

    id. ib. 39, 2;

    62, 10: populum de ejus morte,

    Cic. Mil. 7, 16:

    plebem in omnia (tribuni),

    Liv. 6, 39, 2 al. —
    2.
    Aliquid.
    a.
    To take counsel or deliberate upon something, to consider:

    est consulere quiddam quod tecum volo,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 53; id. Pers. 5, 2, 63:

    rem delatam consulere ordine non licuit,

    Liv. 2, 28, 2; so,

    consulere et explorare rem,

    Cic. Att. 2, 16, 4:

    consulis rem nulli obscuram,

    Verg. A. 11, 344 al.:

    bis repulsi Galli quid agant consulunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 83.—
    b.
    To advise something, to give advice:

    tun' consulis quicquam?

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 1, 3, 22.— Absol.:

    ab re consulit blandiloquentulus,

    advises to his hurt, Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 17.
    II.
    Sometimes meton. (causa pro effectu).
    A.
    To take a resolution, resolve, conclude, determine.
    1.
    Neutr.; constr. absol. or with de aliquo or in aliquem:

    de nullis quam de vobis infestius aut inimicius consuluerunt,

    Liv. 28, 29, 8; so,

    de perfugis gravius quam de fugitivis,

    id. 30, 43, 13:

    in humiliores libidinose crudeliterque consulebatur,

    id. 3, 36, 7; so,

    crudeliter in deditos victosque,

    id. 8, 13, 15; cf. Tac. Agr. 16. —
    2.
    Act.:

    quid in concilio consuluistis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 6:

    animum ego inducam tamen, ut illud, quod tuam in rem bene conducat, consulam,

    id. Cist. 3, 4: ne quid gravius de salute tuā consulas, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 1:

    pessime istuc in te atque in illum consulis,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 28:

    quae reges irā inpulsi male consuluerint,

    Sall. C. 51, 4:

    nisi quod de uxore potuit honestius consuli,

    id. J. 95, 3.— Pass. impers.:

    aliter mihi de illis ac de me ipso consulendum est,

    Cic. Att. 7, 13, 3.—
    B.
    With the access. idea of judging, in the connection boni, optimi aliquid consulere, to excuse, take in good part, interpret favorably; be contented, pleased, or satisfied with:

    sit consul a consulendo vel a judicando: nam et hoc consulere veteres vocaverunt, unde adhuc remanet illud Rogat boni consulas, id est bonum judices,

    Quint. 1, 6, 32; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 41, 8 Müll.: nemo hoc rex ausus est facere, eane fieri bonis, bono genere gnatis boni consulitis? Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17:

    boni consulendum,

    Varr. L. L. 7, § 40 Müll.:

    tu haec quaeso consule missa boni,

    Ov. P. 3, 8, 24; cf. id. Tr. 4, 1, 106; so,

    nostrum laborem,

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 16; Plin. Ep. 7, 12, 3:

    hoc munus,

    Sen. Ben. 1, 1, 8; id. Prov. 2, 4; id. Ep. 9, 20; 17, 9; 88, 17:

    quaerebat argentum avaritia: boni consuluit interim invenisse minium,

    Plin. 33, prooem. 2, § 4;

    8, 16, 17, § 44: boni et optimi consulere,

    App. M. 8, p. 205, 28.— Hence,
    1.
    consultus, a, um, P. a.
    A.
    Well considered or weighed, deliberated upon, maturely pondered:

    bene consultum consilium surripitur saepissume, si minus, etc.,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 5 sq.:

    ipsi omnia, quorum negotium est, consulta ad nos et exquisita deferunt,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 250: neque eam usquam invenio, neque quo eam, neque quā quaeram consultum'st, I know neither, etc., Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 6:

    operā consultā,

    with mature reflection, Gell. 7 (6), 17, 3;

    in the same sense, consulto consilio,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 9, 6:

    consultius est huic poenalem quoque stipulationem subjungere,

    it is better. more advantageous, Dig. 2, 15, 15.—
    B.
    (Acc. to I. B. 1.) Knowing, skilful, experienced, practised, esp. in law; skilled or learned in the law:

    non ille magis juris consultus quam justitiae fuit,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 5, 10:

    juris atque eloquentiae,

    Liv. 10, 22, 7:

    consultissimus vir omnis divini atque humani juris,

    id. 1, 18, 1; cf. Gell. 1, 13, 10:

    insanientis sapientiae,

    Hor. C. 1, 34, 3:

    universae disciplinae,

    Col. 11, 1, 12.—Hence, subst.: consultus, i, m., a lawyer:

    tu consultus modo rusticus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 17; id. Ep 2, 2, 87; 2, 2, 159; Ov. A. A. 1, 83.— Esp. with juris, often written as one word, jūrisconsultus, i, m., v. h. v.— Absol.:

    ut natura non disciplinā consultus esse videatur,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 78:

    consultorum alterum disertissimum, disertorum alterum consultissimum fuisse,

    id. Brut. 40, 148:

    consultiores sibimet videntur Deo,

    Tert. adv. Marc. 2, 2.—
    2.
    Subst.: consultum, i, n.
    A.
    (Acc. to I. B. 1. b.) A consultation, inquiry of a deity:

    Sostratus (sacerdos) ubi laeta et congruentia exta magnisque consultis annuere deam videt, etc.,

    Tac. H. 2, 4.—
    B.
    (Acc. to II.) A decree, decision, resolution, plan; so first, Senatus consultum, or in one word, Senatusconsul-tum, a decree of the Senate (most freq. in all periods; the senatus consulta were not, like the plebiscita, the supreme law of the republic; but under the emperors, all new laws took this form, v. esp. Sandars, Introd., Just. Inst. § 15;

    1, 2, 5),

    Sall. C. 42, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66, § 149:

    senatus consultum est quod senatus jubet atque constituit, nam cum auctus esset populus Romanus... aequum visum est senatum vice populi consuli,

    Just. Inst. 1, 2, 5;

    for which, consulta Patrum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 41. —Of a decree of the Sicilian council:

    ne senatus consultum Siculi homines facere possent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 65, § 146.—Also in other connections:

    facta et consulta fortium et sapientium,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 24, 62; cf.:

    facta consultaque Alexandri,

    Sall. H. 3, 7 Dietsch:

    consulta et decreta,

    id. J. 11, 5:

    consulta sese omnia cum illo integra habere,

    all objects of consultation, plans, id. ib. 108, 2; cf.:

    ab occultis cavendum hominibus consultisque,

    plans, Liv. 25, 16, 4; and:

    approbare collegam consulta,

    id. 10, 39, 10:

    dum consulta petis,

    responses, oracles, divinations, Verg. A. 6, 151:

    tua magna,

    decisions, id. ib. 11, 410; so,

    mollia,

    Tac. A. 1, 40:

    mala,

    id. ib. 6, 6:

    ex consulto factum,

    purposely, voluntarily, Auct. Her. 2, 30, 49.—Hence, adv., considerately, deliberately, designedly, on purpose.
    (α).
    Form consultō (class. in prose and poetry):

    utrum perturbatione aliquā animi an consulto et cogitata fiat injuria,

    Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; Plaut. Poen. 3, 5, 43; Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 85; id. Leg. 1, 8, 25; Caes. B. G. 5, 16; 5, 37; Sall. J. 60, 5; 64, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 19; Tac. A. 4, 16; Suet. Caes. 56; * Hor. S. 1, 10, 14 al. —
    (β).
    Form consultē (mostly ante- and post-class.):

    qui consulte, docte atque astute cavet,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 7, 14:

    caute atque consulte gesta,

    Liv. 22, 38, 11; Spart. Had. 2.— Comp., Liv. 22, 24, 3; Tac. H. 2, 24. — Sup., Capitol. Pert. 7.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > consulo

  • 20 contra

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra


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