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in dealing with other men's property

  • 1 aliēnus

        aliēnus    [alius].    I. Adj. with comp. and sup, of another, belonging to another, not one's own, foreign, alien, strange: res: puer, the child of another, T.: mos, T.: menses, of other climes, V.: pecuniae: in alienis finibus decertare, Cs.: salus, of others, Cs.: alienis manibus, by the hands of others, L.: insolens in re alienā, in dealing with other men's property: mālis ridens alienis, i. e. a forced laugh, H.: mulier, another man's wife: alieni viri sermones, of another woman's husband, L.: vestigia viri alieni, one not my husband, L.: volnus, intended for another, V.: alienam personam ferre, to assume a false character, L.: cornua, i. e. those of a stag, O.: alieno Marte pugnare (equites), i. e. on foot, L.: aes alienum, another's money, i. e. debt: aes alienum alienis nominibus, debts contracted on the security of others, S.: recte facere alieno metu, fear of another, T.: crevit ex metu alieno audacia, another's fear, L.: sacerdotium genti haud alienum, foreign to, L. — Alien from, not related, not allied, not friendly, strange: ab nostrā familiā, T.: omnia alienissimis crediderunt, to utter strangers, Cs.: ne a litteris quidem alienus, not unversed in.—Strange, unsuitable, incongruous, inadequate, inconsistent, unseasonable, different from: dignitatis alicuius: neque aliena consili (domus), not inconvenient for consultation, S.: illi causae: alienum maiestate suā: aliena huius existimatione suspicio: domus magis his aliena malis, freer from, H.: alienum a vitā meā, T.: a dignitate: non alienum esse videtur, proponere, etc., Cs.: non alienum videtur,... docere, N. — Averse, hostile, unfriendly, unfavorable to: (Caesar) a me: voluntates, unfriendliness: mens, hostility, S.: alieno a te animo: a causā nobilitatis, opposed to: a Murenā nullā re alienus, in nc respect unfriendly: alienum suis rationibus, dangerous to his plans, S.: alieno esse animo in Caesarem, Cs.: alieno loco proelium committunt, unfavorable, Cs.: alienissimo sibi loco conflixit, N. —Of time, unfitting, inconvenient, unfavorable, unseasonable: ad iudicium corrumpendum tempus: ad committendum proelium alienum esse tempus, Cs.: alieno tempore defendisse: alienore aetate, at a less suitable age, T.—Of the mind, estranged, disordered: illis aliena mens erat, qui, etc., S.—    II. Substt.:
    * * *
    I
    aliena -um, alienior -or -us, alienissimus -a -um ADJ
    foreign; unconnected; another's; contrary; unworthy; averse, hostile; mad
    II
    foreigner; outsider; stranger to the family; person/slave of another house

    Latin-English dictionary > aliēnus

  • 2 gracculus

    grācŭlus ( gracc-), i, m. [from its note gra gra, Quint. 1, 6, 37; Isid. Orig. 12, 7, 45], a jackdaw, Corvus monedula, Linn.; Plin. 11, 37, 79, § 201; 11, 47, 107, § 256; 8, 27, 41, § 101; Phaedr. 1, 3, 4; Mart. 1, 116, 6. —
    b.
    Prov.
    (α).
    Vetus adagium est: Nihil cum fidibus graculo, i. e. ignorant persons [p. 821] have nothing to do with poetry, Gell. N. A. praef. § 19.—
    (β).
    Graculus Aesopi, i. e. one who decks himself out in borrowed plumes, makes a fine show with other people's property, Tert. adv. Val. 12 (cf. Phaedr. 1, 3).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > gracculus

  • 3 graculus

    grācŭlus ( gracc-), i, m. [from its note gra gra, Quint. 1, 6, 37; Isid. Orig. 12, 7, 45], a jackdaw, Corvus monedula, Linn.; Plin. 11, 37, 79, § 201; 11, 47, 107, § 256; 8, 27, 41, § 101; Phaedr. 1, 3, 4; Mart. 1, 116, 6. —
    b.
    Prov.
    (α).
    Vetus adagium est: Nihil cum fidibus graculo, i. e. ignorant persons [p. 821] have nothing to do with poetry, Gell. N. A. praef. § 19.—
    (β).
    Graculus Aesopi, i. e. one who decks himself out in borrowed plumes, makes a fine show with other people's property, Tert. adv. Val. 12 (cf. Phaedr. 1, 3).

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > graculus

  • 4 bonae

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonae

  • 5 bonus

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > bonus

  • 6 castus

    1.
    castus, a, um, adj. [i. e. cas-tus, partic., kindr. to Sanscr. çludh, to cleanse; Gr. kath-aros; Germ. keusch, heiter; cf. the opp. in-ces-tus, impure, Bopp, Gloss. 351, 6; Pott. 1, 252].
    I.
    In gen., morally pure, unpolluted, spotless, guiltless, = purus, integer (gen. in respect to the person himself, while candidus signifies pure, just, in respect to other men; v. Doed. Syn. p. 196 sq.;

    class. in prose and poetry): castus animus purusque,

    Cic. Div. 1, 53, 121; cf.:

    vita purissima et castissima,

    id. Rosc. Com. 6, 17; and:

    quis hoc adulescente castior? quis modestior? quis autem illo qui maledicit impurior?

    id. Phil. 3, 6, 15:

    perjurum castus (fraudasse dicatur),

    id. Rosc. Com. 7, 21:

    castissimum quoque hominem ad peccandum potuisse impellere,

    id. Inv. 2, 11, 36:

    nulli fas casto sceleratum insistere limen,

    Verg. A. 6, 563:

    populus Et frugi castusque verecundusque,

    Hor. A. P. 207:

    qui (animi) se integros castosque servavissent,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 72; cf. id. Font. 10, 22; id. Cael. 18, 42:

    M. Crassi castissima domus,

    id. ib. 4, 9:

    signa,

    signs, indications of innocence, Ov. M. 7, 725:

    fides,

    inviolable, Sil. 13, 285:

    Saguntum,

    id. 3, 1.—With ab:

    decet nos esse a culpā castos,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 23; so,

    res familiaris casta a cruore civili,

    Cic. Phil. 13, 4, 8.—
    II.
    In respect to particular virtues.
    A.
    Most freq., esp. in poetry, in regard to sexual morality, pure, chaste, unpolluted, virtuous, continent:

    Latona,

    Enn. Trag. 424 Vahl.; cf.

    Minerva,

    Hor. C. 3, 3, 23; Cat. 16, 5; 62, 23; Tib. 1, 3, 83; Ov. M. 2, 544; 2, 711:

    hostia = Iphigenia,

    Lucr. 1, 98:

    Bellerophon,

    Hor. C. 3, 7, 15:

    matres,

    Verg. A. 8, 665:

    maritae,

    Ov. F. 2, 139.— With ab:

    castus ab rebus venereis,

    Col. 9, 14, 3.—Of inanimate things:

    lectulus,

    Cat. 64, 87:

    cubile,

    id. 66, 83:

    flos virginis,

    id. 62, 46:

    gremium,

    id. 65, 20:

    vultus,

    Ov. M. 4, 799:

    domus,

    Cat. 64, 385; Hor. C. 4, 5, 21 al.—
    b.
    Trop., of style, free from barbarisms, pure:

    Caius Caesar sermonis praeter alios suae aetatis castissimi,

    Gell. 19, 8, 3.—
    B.
    In a religious respect, pious, religious, holy, sacred, = pius:

    hac casti maneant in religione nepotes,

    Verg. A. 3, 409 Wagn.—

    So, Aeneas (for which elsewhere pius in Verg.),

    Hor. C. S. 42:

    sacerdotes,

    Verg. A. 6, 661:

    et sanctus princeps,

    Plin. Pan. 1, 3:

    ego qui castam contionem, sanctum campum defendo (in respect to the preceding: in Campo Martio, comitiis centuriatis auspicato in loco),

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11.—Of things: sacrae, religiosae castaeque res, Varr. ap. Non. p. 267, 8:

    haud satis castum donum deo,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 18, 45; cf.

    festa,

    Ov. Am. 3, 13, 3:

    taedae,

    Verg. A. 7, 71 Serv.:

    ara castis Vincta verbenis,

    Hor. C. 4, 11, 6:

    crines,

    Ov. M. 15, 675:

    laurus,

    Tib. 3, 4, 23:

    castior amnis (sc. Musarum),

    Stat. S. 4, 7, 12; cf.:

    castum flumen (on account of the nymphs),

    Claud. III. Cons. Stil. 260:

    luci,

    Hor. C. 1, 12, 59:

    nemus,

    Tac. G. 40:

    pura castaque mens,

    Plin. Pan. 3 fin.: casta mola genus sacrificii, quod Vestales virgines faciebant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 65 Müll.—As epith. ornans of poetry, since it is used in defence of the Deity: casta poesis, Varr. ap. Non. p. 267, 14 (it is erroneously explained by Non. by suavis, jucundus).—
    2.
    Hence, subst.: castum, i, n., a festival, or period of time consecrated to a god, during which strict continence was enjoined, Fest. p. 124, 25 Müll.:

    Isidis et Cybeles,

    Tert. Jejun. 16.—
    C.
    In respect to the property and rights of others, free from, abstinent, disinterested: manus, Varr. ap. Non. p. 267, 12:

    homo castus ac non cupidus,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    castissimus homo atque integerrimus,

    id. Fl. 28, 68.— Adv.: castē.
    A.
    (Acc. to I.) Purely, spotlessly, without stain, uprightly:

    agere aetatem suam,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 149:

    et integre vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 63; id. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2.—
    B.
    (Acc. to II. A.) Chastely, virtuously: caste se habere a servis, C. Gracch. ap. Gell. 15, 12, 3:

    tueri eloquentiam ut adultam virginem,

    Cic. Brut. 95, 330.—Of language, properly, correctly, classically:

    caste pureque linguā Latinā uti,

    Gell. 17, 2, 7.—
    2.
    (Acc. to II. B.) Piously, religiously:

    placare deos,

    Ov. P. 2, 1, 33; cf. Cic. N. D. 1, 2, 3; Suet. Aug. 6.— Comp., Liv. 10, 7, 5.— Sup., Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 1.
    2.
    castus, ūs (abl. heterocl. casto, Tert. Jejun. 16; Fest. s. v. minuitur, p. 154, 6 Müll.), m. [1. castus], ante- and post-class. for castimonia, an abstinence from sensual enjoyments on religious grounds, Naev. ap. Non. p. 197, 16; Varr. ib.; Gell. 10, 15, 1; Arn. 5, p. 167.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > castus

  • 7 haece

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > haece

  • 8 hic

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > hic

  • 9 Hoc erat quod

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Hoc erat quod

  • 10 Hoc est

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Hoc est

  • 11 hoce

    hīc, haec, hoc ( gen. hujus, monosyl., Plaut. Am. prol. 51; 96; 1, 1, 115; dat. huic, Sidon. Carm. 7, 145; Avien. Descr. Orb. 22; dat. sing. fem. hae rei, Cato, R. R. 14, 3; acc. HONC for hunc, C. I. L. 1, 32; nom. plur. hic, Enn. ap. Philarg. ad Verg. G. 4, 230 = Ann. v. 414 Vahl.; Varr. L. L. 6, § 73 Mull.; fem. haec, v. infra, B. init.; dat. and abl. hibus, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 20; cf. Varr. L. L. 8, § 78 Mull.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 203 sqq.), pron. demonstr. [from the pronom. root i (whence also comes is), with the demonstr. suffix ce ] points to something near or present, or which is conceived of as present, this.
    (α).
    With subst.:

    hic homo sanus non est,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 246:

    rapidus fluvius est hic, non hac temere transiri potest... apud hunc fluvium, etc.,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 53:

    quid praeclarum putet in rebus humanis, qui haec deorum regna perspexerit? etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17:

    genus hoc,

    id. ib. 1, 25:

    hoc avunculo, atque in hac tam clara re publica natus,

    id. ib. 1, 19; cf.:

    quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt, et qui sunt procul ab aetatis hujus memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1:

    his libris,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    hae feriae,

    id. ib. 1, 9; 1, 20; cf.:

    hoc otio,

    id. ib. 9 fin.:

    haec caelestia vel studiosissime solet quaerere,

    id. ib. 1, 10:

    ad haec cituma,

    id. ib. 1, 21:

    hic vir,

    Liv. 7, 39, 12.—
    (β).
    Absol. (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 520):

    hic insidiantes vigilant, Enn. l. l.: hi domum me ad se auferent,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 94: non mihi videtur, quod hi venerunt, alius nobis sermo esse quaerendus, sed agendum accuratius, et dicendum dignum aliquid horum auribus, Cic. Rep. 1, 13:

    feceris (ut etiam pro his dicam) nobis gratum omnibus,

    id. ib. 1, 21 fin.:

    hoc ubi Amphitruo erus conspicatus est, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 87:

    docere hoc poterat ille homines paene agrestes, et apud imperitos audebat haec dicere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 15:

    dixerat hoc ille, cum, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 12:

    haec Scipio cum dixisset,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 7.—
    B.
    More emphatic, in the original full form, hīce, haece, hōce (not, as formerly written, hicce, haecce, hocce; in gen. sing. HVIVSQVE; in nom. plur. hisce, like ieis = ei, and ques = qui, see below; and apocopated in nom. plur. fem. haec for haece, and in gen. plur. horunc, harunc, for horunce, harunce);

    and, with the interrogative particle, hicine, haecine, hocine (mostly ante - class.): hoce haud dubium est quin, etc.,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 17:

    eum hinc profugiens vendidit in Alide Patri hujusce,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 10; so,

    hujusce,

    id. Poen. prol. 120; 5, 4, 76; 87; cf.:

    atque hujusce rei judicium jam continuo video futurum,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 47:

    hisce homines ubi habitent,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 36; v. Ritschl ad h. l.; so,

    hisce,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 125; id. Capt. prol. 35 Fleck.; id. Rud. 2, 1, 5 ib., and perh. also id. Mil. 4, 8, 24 (Ritschl, hice): hice, Att. ap. Non. 15, 29 (Trag. Rel. v. 122 Rib.); Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 38:

    haec aedes,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 1, 53; 3, 1, 117; so,

    haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus Incommoditates,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 58:

    haec (puellae),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 34:

    haec sententiae,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 11, 22; 3, 34, 84; Lucr. 3, 601; Verg. G. 3, 305; cf. Bentl. Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 24:

    aliut posticum harunce aedium,

    Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 41; cf.:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 57:

    sine opera tua nihil di horunc facere possunt,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 53:

    horunc,

    id. Poen. 3, 1, 48; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 97; id. Phorm. 3, 2, 33:

    cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 25:

    harunc aedium,

    id. Merc. 5, 1, 3:

    hisce ego Placidum ted hodie reddam,

    id. Curc. 5, 3, 48; cf.:

    quid dicam hisce, incertus sum,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 36:

    tu ab hisce rebus animum avoca,

    Sulp. in Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 5; so,

    hisce,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 7, 13; id. Most. 1, 3, 81; 1, 4, 23; 2, 2, 71; 4, 2, 35 et saep.: Thr. Tu hosce instrue. Gn Illuc est sapere! ut hosce instruxit, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 11; so,

    hosce,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 71; id. Heaut. 3, 2, 3; 4, 5, 4; id. Ad. 5, 7, 5; id. Phorm. 4, 3, 4:

    apud hasce aedes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 194; so,

    hasce,

    id. As. 2, 3, 1; id. Aul. 2, 4, 2; 2, 8, 15; id. Capt. 4, 2, 51; id. Bacch. 4, 6, 17 et saep.—

    With the interrog. particle: hicin' Achilles est?

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 61; so,

    hicinest?

    id. Pers. 5, 2, 49; cf.:

    hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur?

    Cic. Mil. 38, 104 et saep.:

    haecine,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 206; id. Ep. 4, 2, 5; 5, 1, 15; id. Pers. 4, 3, 75; Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 5; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 24:

    huncine hominem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 68; cf.:

    huncine hominem! hancine impudentiam! judices, hanc audaciam!

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 25, § 62:

    hocine hic pacto potest Inhibere imperium magister?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 43:

    o Juppiter, hoscine mores!

    Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 40:

    hacine victoria sola aut hac praeda contenti estis futuri,

    Liv. 10, 17, 5; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 3;

    so in the shorter form, hicne,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 141:

    ex hocne equo,

    id. Fat. 3, 5:

    cum hocne,

    id. Att. 9, 7, 3:

    ex hacne natura,

    id. Tusc. 1, 25, 62: haece locutus, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 239 Vahl.) al.—So, Fortuna hujusce diei, as a particular deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 11, 28; Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 54;

    in inscrr. also written HVIVSQVE DIEI,

    Inscr. Orell. 5; cf.:

    HVIVSQ. LOCI,

    id. ib. 1580; 2300;

    and HOIVSQVE AEDIS ERGO,

    id. ib. 2488.—
    C.
    With other pronouns:

    hos eosdem motus perturbationes dixerimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 4, 7; cf.:

    cum idem hoc visum diceretur,

    id. Rep. 1, 14:

    hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 15, 2; id. B. C. 1, 74, 5; Quint. 8, 4, 17:

    haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 17 fin.:

    haec eadem genera,

    Quint. 6, 3, 54:

    hoc ipsum civile jus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione,

    Quint. 2, 1, 8; 8, 3, 45:

    ad hunc eum ipsum,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2 Goer. N. cr.; cf.:

    idem hoc ipsum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 9, 26:

    huic illi legato,

    id. Fl. 22, 52:

    hunc illum fatis Portendi generum,

    Verg. A. 7, 255; cf.:

    hic est enim ille vultus semper idem, quem, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31:

    hic est ille status quantitatis,

    Quint. 7, 4, 15: haec est illa, quae deinôsis vocatur, id. 6, 2, 24:

    hujus istius facti stultitia,

    Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 24:

    ista haec epigrammata,

    Sid. Ep. 2, 10: hunc talem virum, Cic. fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 3:

    callidum quendam hunc,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 50, 218.—
    D.
    Opp. to ille, iste, less freq. to hic, alter, alius, etc., this, the latter, to indicate the nearer object (which is to be determined not so much by the phraseology as by the thought; so that hic may refer to that noun whose position in the sentence is the more remote, but which is the most closely connected with the speaker, and of the most importance to him, in which case it is to be rendered by that, the former, etc.):

    ejusdem esse, qui in illa re peccarit, hoc quoque admisisse,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 16, 50:

    in his undis et tempestatibus ad summam senectutem maluit jactari, quam in illa tranquillitate atque otio jucundissime vivere,

    id. Rep. 1, 1:

    si deerunt haec remedia, ad illa declinandum est,

    Quint. 7, 2, 30:

    cum hic testamento, ille proximitate nitatur,

    id. 3, 6, 95:

    in his judicem sibi, in illis alii credere,

    id. 5, 7, 33:

    haec pars perorationis accusatori patronoque ex aequo communis est. Affectibus quoque iisdem fere utuntur: sed varius hic, ille saepius ac magis,

    id. 6, 1, 8; cf. id. 6, 2, 12; 17:

    cum tu ista caelestia de Scipione quaesieris, ego autem haec, quae videntur ante oculos, esse magis putem quaerenda,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 19; id. Fam. 2, 11, 1:

    iisdem enim hic sapiens, de quo loquor, oculis, quibus iste vester, caelum, terram, mare intuebitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 33, 105:

    si hoc loco scripsisset, isto verbo usus non esset, non isto loco verbum istud collocasset,

    id. Inv. 2, 41, 121:

    has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus, haec nunc videamus, quae diu multumque defensa sunt,

    id. Ac. 2, 42, 130:

    Caesar facile diceret: Hic versus Plauti non est, hic est,

    this... that, id. Fam. 9, 16, 4:

    ego hoc dico. adversarius hoc,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    vendidit hic auro patriam... Hic thalamum invasit natae,

    Verg. A. 6, 621 sq.:

    hi molium objectus, hi proximas scaphas scandere,

    Tac. A. 14, 8:

    quid responsuri sint adversarii his et his... cum sciret haec et haec,

    Quint. 6, 1, 3 sq.:

    interim quaeritur: hoc an hoc? furtum an sacrilegium?

    id. 7, 3, 9:

    alter (Roscius) plurimarum palmarum vetus ac nobilis gladiator habetur, hic autem nuper se ad eum lanistam contulit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 6, 17:

    occupat hic collem, cymba sedet alter adunca,

    Ov. M. 1, 293.—
    2.
    Referring to that which in the speaker's mind is the nearer object, although by the position of the words it is the more remote: quam ob rem cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem ipsum, quem Apollo sapientissimum judicavit (i. e. Socratem): Hujus enim (i. e. Catonis, of the former) facta, illius (i. e. Socratis) dicta laudantur, Cic. Lael. 2, 10; id. Rosc. Com. 2, 7:

    hanc posteriorem (artem) et Stoici et Peripatetici, priorem autem illi (i. e. Peripatetici) egregie tradiderunt, hi (i. e. Stoici) ne attigerunt quidem,

    id. Fin. 4, 4, 10:

    hoc Cicero atque Asinius certatim sunt usi: pro Scauro hic, ille pro filio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 21; 3, 10, 1:

    melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria: haec in tua, illa in deorum manu est,

    the former... the latter, Liv. 30, 30, 19:

    quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer: Fluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax,

    Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 24; id. M. 1, 697.—
    E.
    In the neutr. sing. subst., with gen.:

    quid hoc hominist?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 26; cf. Ter. Eun. 3, 4, 8:

    quid hoc morbi est?

    id. ib. 2, 1, 19:

    quid hoc est negoti?

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 71; cf. id. Eun. 3, 4, 6:

    hoc fructi pro labore ab his fero,

    id. Ad. 5, 4, 16:

    edormiscam hoc villi,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 11:

    hoc commodi est, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91:

    hoc copiarum in Hispanias portatum est,

    Liv. 42, 18, 7:

    hoc servitutis injunxisse, ut, etc.,

    id. 5, 2, 8:

    hoc intervalli datum res tranquillas in urbe fecit,

    id. 3, 25, 4:

    hoc consilii,

    id. 5, 39, 6:

    hoc solacii,

    id. 30, 13, 13:

    hoc noctis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 2; 11; 136.—
    F.
    Hoc with verbs impers., pleonast. as a subject (ante-class.):

    eamus, Amphitruo: lucescit hoc jam,

    there is daybreak, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 45: luciscit hoc jam, [p. 853] Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 1:

    lucet hoc,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 63; cf. id. Curc. 1, 3, 26.—
    G.
    Pregn. (qs. pointing to something with the finger), this, this... here (ante-class. and poet.); most freq. of the speaker himself, like the Gr. hode, for ego:

    hic homost omnium hominum praecipuos,

    Plaut. Trin. 5, 1, 1:

    hic si quid nobis forte adversi evenerit, tibi erunt parata verba, huic homini verbera,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 115; so,

    huic homini, i. q. mihi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 38:

    hic homo, i. q. ego,

    id. Curc. 2, 1, 33:

    hunc hominem, i. q. me,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 1; Hor. S. 1, 9, 47; cf.:

    vin' tu huic seni auscultare?

    Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 8; id. And. 2, 1, 10; Tib. 2, 6, 7:

    haec res,

    my property, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 106:

    hunc in collum,

    my neck, id. Pers. 4, 6, 9 Brix (Ritschl, huc): ni haec praesensisset canes, this dog, = ego, id. Trin. 1, 2, 135 Brix ad loc.—In neutr. absol.: tu quod te posterius purges hanc injuriam mihi nolle Factam esse, hujus non faciam, not so much, i. e. not the least, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 9.—
    H.
    With reference to time, of this time, now present, actual, this:

    cena hac annona est sine sacris hereditas,

    in the present scarcity, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 83:

    sed nondum haec, quae nunc tenet saeculum, neglegentia deum venerat,

    Liv. 3, 20:

    his temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 77, 1:

    M. Cato, hujus nostri Catonis pater,

    id. Off. 3, 16, 66; cf.:

    si potius ad antiquorum diligentiam, quam ad horum luxuriam dirigas aedificationem,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 13, 6 sq.:

    etenim qui haec vituperare volunt, Chrysogonum tantum posse queruntur,

    the present times, Cic. Rosc. Am. 48, 138:

    ne horum quidem magnificentia operum,

    Liv. 1, 55 fin.;

    very rarely of time just ended: ante hos annos quadraginta,

    Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 143:

    ante hos sex menses,

    Phaedr. 1, 1, 10:

    ante hoc triduum,

    Front. Ep. ad M. Caes. 2, 5 init.; Aug. Serm. 270, 3.
    II.
    Very freq. referring to a thought that follows, and which may be expressed by a relative sentence, or by a sentence denoting the object, cause, or effect; with qui, quae, quod, an acc. and inf., quod, ut, ne, etc. (more clearly indicative than the determinative, is, ea, id; though freq. confounded with it in MSS. and editt.).
    (α).
    With relat. clause:

    Qui hodie fuerim liber, eum nunc potivit pater Servitutis: hic, qui verna natust, conqueritur,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 24; cf.:

    eos, qui, etc.... his, qui, etc.... longe duco esse anteponendos,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2:

    neque his contentus sum, quae de ista consultatione scripta nobis summi ex Graecia homines reliquerunt, neque ea, quae mihi videntur, anteferre illis audeo,

    id. ib. 1, 22:

    non est tibi his solis utendum existimationibus ac judiciis, qui nunc sunt, hominum, sed iis etiam, qui futuri sunt,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    quis hic est homo, quem ante aedis video hoc noctis?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136:

    unde in laboribus et periculis fortitudo? nempe ab his, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2; 1, 17:

    haec quae sunt in hoc genere,

    id. ib. 1, 11:

    mundus hic totus, quod domicilium di nobis dederunt,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    hoc autem sphaerae genus, in quo, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 14;

    1, 16: in his libris, quos legistis,

    id. Leg. 1, 9, 27; cf. id. Div. 1, 3, 5:

    quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 18, 41 et saep.:

    lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, suis qui filiis fecere insidias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 90; cf. Cic. Tusc. 2, 1, 3; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113:

    servi, qui, cum culpa carint, tamen malum Metuont, hi solent esse eris utibiles,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 2 sq.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 19:

    de Bruti amore etsi mihi nihil novi adfers: tamen hoc audio libentius, quo saepius,

    id. Att. 13, 36 fin.; cf.:

    is porro, quo generosior celsiorque est, hoc majoribus velut organis commovetur,

    Quint. 1, 2, 30:

    hoc primum videamus, quidnam sit, de altero sole quod nuntiatum est in senatu, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10; 1, 24:

    mire tractat hoc Cicero pro Milone quae facturus fuerit Clodius, si praeturam invasisset,

    Quint. 9, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    With acc. and inf.:

    erat tunc haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositum solere deficere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16:

    sed hoc vir excellenti providentia sensit ac vidit, non esse opportunissimos situs maritimos urbibus iis, quae, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 3:

    hoc tantum admiror, Flavum, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 4, 40; 11, 1, 22:

    unum hoc definio, tantam esse necessitatem virtutis, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1: hoc simul accipe dictum: Quorum..., Eorundem libertati me parcere certum est, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 204 Vahl.); cf.

    with appositive clause: sic hoc proloquar: Principio, ut illo advenimus, Continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 48:

    ut hoc: Non debes alienam uxorem optare,

    Quint. 7, 1, 25; cf. id. 9, 4, 97; 9, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    With quod or quia:

    maxime hoc mihi mirum videri solet, quod, qui tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 6:

    quaesierat ex me Scipio, quidnam sentirem de hoc, quod duo soles visos esse constaret,

    id. ib. 1, 13; Quint. 9, 1, 1:

    propter hoc ipsum ostendenda non sunt, quod apparent,

    id. 12, 9, 6:

    nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare... sed hoc superari, quod diuturnitate pugnae, etc.,

    in this that, herein that, Caes. B. G. 3, 4, 3; cf. Quint. 8, 3, 30:

    hoc ipso fidem detrahimus illis, quod sint tam gravia,

    id. 9, 2, 53:

    hoc ipso, quod,

    id. 4, 1, 54; 5, 11, 41; 6, 2, 16 et saep.: consilio vestro utar libenter, et hoc libentius, quod, etc., Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 8, C, 1; cf.:

    id hoc facilius eis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2, 3:

    hoc esse miseriorem gravioremque fortunam Sequanorum quam reliquorum, quod soli, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 32, 4; Quint. 5, 7, 22:

    hoc magis, quod (al. quia) illic ut litigatores loquimur frequentius,

    id. 6, 2, 36:

    hoc sese excruciat animi, Quia leno ademit cistulam ei,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 57:

    quod hoc etiam mirabilius debet videri, quia, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12; cf.:

    hoc sunt exempla potentiora, quia, etc.,

    Quint. 10, 1, 15.—
    (δ).
    With ut or ne:

    nunc hoc me orare a vobis jussit Juppiter, ut conquistores, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 64; cf.:

    hoc quoque etiam mihi in mandatis dedit, Ut conquistores, etc.,

    id. ib. 81:

    atque hoc evenit In labore atque in dolore, ut mors obrepat interim,

    id. Ps. 2, 3, 19:

    nec enim hoc suscepi, ut, etc.... neque hoc polliceor me facturum, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 24:

    neque enim hac nos patria lege genuit aut educavit, ut... sed ut, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4;

    for which: homines sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur, etc.,

    id. ib. 6, 15:

    quare hoc animo in nos esse debebis, ut aetas nostra, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 1 fin.; id. Off. 3, 5, 22; id. Rep. 1, 12:

    plurimum in hoc laboris exhausimus, ut ostenderemus, etc.,

    Quint. 8 praef. § 6; cf.:

    habenda fides est vel in hoc, ut, etc.,

    id. 11, 2, 51; so,

    in hoc, ut,

    id. 6, 3, 15; 10, 3, 29: hoc erit tibi argumentum semper in promptu situm: Ne quid exspectes amicos, quod tute agere possies, Enn. ap. Gell. 2, 29 fin. (Sat. v. 37 Vahl.); so,

    in hoc scilicet, ne suspectus his foret,

    Vell. 2, 41 fin.
    B.
    Hoc est serves to annex a more particular explanation of what has been said, that is, that is to say, namely:

    in hac causa dicam de eo prius, quod apud vos plurimum debet valere, hoc est, de voluntate eorum, quibus injuriae factae sunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    quadriennium, hoc est, ex quo tempore fundus veniit,

    id. Caecin. 7, 19; 34, 100:

    cum honos agebatur amplissimus familiae vestrae, hoc est, consulatus parentis tui,

    id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Fam. 5, 12, 8:

    primum quaero, qua ratione Naevius susceptum negotium non transegerit, hoc est, cur bona non vendiderit,

    id. Quint. 24, 76 et saep.—Sarcastically:

    ut haberet (Clodius) ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad evertendam rem publicam plenum annum,

    Cic. Mil. 9, 24:

    at quam crebro usurpat Et consul et Antonius! Hoc est dicere: Et consul et homo impudicissimus, Et consul et homo nequissimus,

    id. Phil. 2, 28, 70.—
    C.
    Hoc est or ĕrat, quod, with the accessory idea of indignation or reproach, is or was it for this that, etc.:

    hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignis Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus... cernam?

    Verg. A. 2, 664; Petr. 93.—Hence,
    III.
    Advv.
    1.
    hāc, in this place, on this side, this way, here (class.): nunc Juppiter hac stat, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 263 Vahl.); imitated by Verg. A. 12, 565: Ar. Hac quidem non venit. Le. Angiporto Illac per hortum circuit clam, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 151:

    nunc hac An illac eam, incerta sum consili,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 30:

    plenus rimarum sum: hac atque illac perfluo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 25; cf.:

    hac illac circumcursa,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 1; and: mox hac atque illa rapti, Tac. Agr. 28:

    sequere hac, reducam te ubi fuisti,

    this way, hither, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 106; id. As. 4, 2, 1; id. Men. 4, 1, 4; id. Poen. 1, 2, 116; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; cf.:

    sequere hac me intus ad Glycerium nunc,

    Ter. And. 5, 6, 14:

    sequere me ergo hac intro,

    id. Ad. 4, 3, 18:

    i hac mecum intro,

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 56; 62; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 35 sq.:

    quin igitur ad illa spatia nostra pergimus?... Nos vero: et hac quidem adire si placet, per ripam et umbram,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14:

    ab oppido declivis locus tenui fastigio vergebat. Hac nostris erat receptus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45, 5; 2, 2, 3.—Hac-hac, for hac-illac ( poet.):

    namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum Hac fugerent Grai, Hac Phryges,

    Verg. A. 1, 467 sq.; Prop. 1, 3, 13; rarely in full form with the interrog. particle ne:

    utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus?

    Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (cf. Ladewig, Anal. Scaen. p. 22). —
    2.
    hīc (old form heic; and with the interrog. part. ne, hicine), adv. loci, in this place, here.
    I.
    In space.
    A.
    Lit.:

    hos quos videtis stare hic captivos duos, etc.... Senex qui hic habitat, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 1 sq.:

    ego jam dudum hic adsum,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 5:

    quem praestolare hic ante ostium?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 5:

    hic propter hunc adsiste,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 15:

    hic tui omnes valent,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 3:

    non modo hic, ubi, etc... sed, ubicumque, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    mons ibi arduus Nomine Parnasus... hic ubi Deucalion... parva rate vectus adhaesit,

    Ov. M. 1, 319:

    hic (sc. Carthagine) illius (Junonis) arma, Hic currus fuit,

    Verg. A. 1, 16 et saep.: Pa. Philocomasium hicine etiam nunc est? Pe Quom exibam, hic erat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 25; cf.: Ch. Ubi ego sum? hicine an apud mortuos? Eut. Neque apud mortuos neque hic es, id. Merc. 3, 4, 17:

    hicine,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 21; 4, 2, 80; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 al.: Da. Cedo fenus, redde fenus, fenus reddite, etc.... Tr. Fenus illic, fenus hic, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 76:

    facile hic plus mali est, quam illic boni,

    Ter. And. 4, 3, 5; cf. id. Hec. 2, 1, 20:

    hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae,

    Verg. G. 1, 54:

    hic, illic, ubi mors deprenderat, exhalantes,

    Ov. M. 7, 581 (cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 519).—With gen.:

    hic proxume viciniae,

    in this neighborhood, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 2:

    modo vidi virginem hic viciniae miseram,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 45.—With ne: hicine libertatem aiunt aequam esse omnibus? is it here that, etc., Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 29 (cf. hic, I. B. fin.).—
    B.
    Transf., in this affair, on this occasion, in this particular, herein, here:

    hic, quantum in bello fortuna possit, cognosci potuit,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 35, 2; Cic. Verr. 1, 16, 49:

    hic tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas,

    id. Arch. 4, 8; cf.:

    hic vos dubitabitis, judices,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 44, § 109:

    hic miramur, hunc hominem tantum excellere ceteris? etc.,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 39:

    hic jam plura non dicam,

    id. ib. 9, 24; id. Planc. 41, 99; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66 (cf. II. fin. infra):

    hic, ubi opus est, non verentur: illic, ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur,

    Ter. And. 4, 1, 14:

    ut cum hic tibi satisfecerimus, istic quoque nostram in te benevolentiam navare possimus,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3.—Referring to the noun whose position in the sentence is the most remote (cf. I. D. 2.):

    alterius ducis causa melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior: hic omnia speciosa, illic valentia,

    Vell. 2, 49, 3.—
    II.
    Of time, i. q. nunc or tum, now, here; then, hereupon, at this time, at this juncture:

    hic reddes omnia,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 15:

    hic ego quid praedicem?

    Cic. Sest. 5, 12; id. Cat. 1, 10, 26:

    hic cum uterque me intueretur,

    id. Fin. 2, 1, 1; so,

    hic cum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 20, 60; Nep. Milt. 3, 3:

    hic tum Fabricius frequentes eos ad me domum adduxit,

    Cic. Clu. 17, 49; so, hic tum, id. ib 20, 56; 27, 73; id. Verr. 2, 1, 26 §

    66 al.: hic regina gravem poposcit pateram,

    Verg. A. 1, 728.—So very freq. to introduce the beginning of a speech: hic Laelius (inquit); hic Philus;

    hic Scipio, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 23; 24 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; 3, 8, 3; 5, 15, 4; id. Ac. 2, 4, 10; id. de Or. 2, 50, 202; Verg. A. 9, 246 et saep.—
    3.
    huc (access. form hoc), v. huc.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > hoce

  • 12 meliores

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > meliores

  • 13 optimum

    bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Mull.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Mull.), a, um, adj. [for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence deidô, deos], good; comp. melior, us [cf. Gr. mala, mallon], better; sup. optimus ( optumus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best.
    I.
    Attributively.
    A.
    As adjunct of nouns denoting persons.
    1.
    Vir bonus.
    (α).
    A man morally good (kalos kagathos):

    quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60:

    omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28:

    ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem,

    id. Ac. 2, 8, 23:

    sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus,

    id. Off. 3, 15, 64:

    qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc.... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus,

    id. Lael. 5, 19:

    non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro,

    id. Att. 7, 2, 4:

    ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior,

    id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.—
    (β).
    An honest man:

    justitia, ex qua viri boni nominantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71;

    3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset,

    id. ib. 3, 19, 77:

    quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate,

    id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.—
    (γ).
    A man of good standing in the community:

    id viri boni arbitratu deducetur,

    Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149:

    tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet,

    Dig. 17, 1, [p. 244] 35;

    37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55:

    vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men:

    praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.—
    (δ).
    Ironically of bad men:

    sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30:

    expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur,

    Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est,

    id. Agr. 3, 3, 13;

    so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir!

    Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11:

    quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—
    (ε).
    Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.):

    bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi?

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.—
    (ζ).
    As a conventional courtesy:

    homines optimi non intellegunt, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25:

    bone accusator,

    id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58:

    sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus,

    gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.—
    2.
    Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3:

    in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.—
    3.
    With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence:

    bonus consul,

    Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4):

    boni tribuni plebis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25:

    bonus senator,

    id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37:

    senator bonus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8:

    bonus judex,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34:

    bonus augur (ironically),

    id. Phil. 2, 32, 80:

    bonus vates,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27:

    bonus imperator,

    Sall. C. 60, 4:

    bonus dux,

    Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.:

    naturam, optimam ducem,

    the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5):

    bonus miles,

    Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    bonus orator,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    optimus orator,

    id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3:

    poeta bonus,

    id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10:

    scriptor bonus,

    Quint. 10, 1, 104:

    bonus advocatus,

    id. 5, 13, 10:

    bonus defensor,

    id. 5, 13, 3:

    bonus altercator,

    a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10:

    bonus praeceptor,

    id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22:

    bonus gubernator,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100:

    optimus opifex,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 133:

    sutor bonus,

    id. ib. 1, 3, 125:

    actor optimus,

    Cic. Sest. 57, 122:

    cantor optimus est modulator,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 130:

    melior gladiator,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56:

    bonus paterfamilias,

    a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1:

    bonus servus,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58:

    dominus bonus,

    Cato, R. R. 14:

    bonus custos,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57:

    filius bonus,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    patres,

    Quint. 11, 3, 178:

    parens,

    id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15:

    uxor melior,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    amicus,

    id. Fam. 2, 15, 3:

    amicus optimus,

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18:

    optimus testis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    auctor, in two senses,

    good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3;

    and = bonus scriptor (post-class.),

    Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.:

    bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere,

    id. ib. 2, 23, 83:

    eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch:

    optimus et fortissimus civis,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.—
    4.
    Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sed te bonus Mercurius perdat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23:

    fata... bonique divi,

    Hor. C. 4, 2, 38:

    divis orte bonis,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    O bone deus!

    Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.—
    (β).
    Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter:

    (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64:

    Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 3, 36, 87:

    in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22:

    nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi,

    id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.—
    (γ).
    Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise:

    di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac!

    Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16:

    di boni, boni quid porto!

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 1:

    di boni, quid hoc morbi est,

    id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86:

    alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat!

    Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.—
    (δ).
    Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.—
    5.
    Optimus as a laudatory epithet.
    (α).
    Vir optimus:

    per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur,

    Cic. Sest. 1, 2:

    virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium,

    id. ib. 35, 76:

    fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum,

    id. ib.:

    consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos,

    id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.—
    (β).
    Femina bona, optima:

    tua conjunx bona femina,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16:

    hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater,

    id. ib. —
    (γ).
    Senex, pater, frater, etc.:

    optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis,

    Cic. Planc. 41, 97:

    insuevit pater optimus hoc me,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12:

    C. Marcelli, fratris optimi,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.—
    (δ).
    With proper names ( poet.):

    optimus Vergilius,

    Hor. S. 1, 6, 54:

    Maecenas optimus,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 27:

    optime Quinti,

    id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—
    (ε).
    Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors:

    quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen?

    Plin. Pan. 2, 7:

    gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps!

    Sen. Tranq. 14. 4:

    ex epistula optimi imperatoris Antonini,

    Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.:

    bene te patriae pater optime Caesar,

    Ov. F. 2, 637:

    optime Romulae Custos gentis,

    Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.—
    6.
    Bonus and Bona, names of deities.
    (α).
    Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22):

    Bonae Deae pulvinaribus,

    Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf.

    in mal. part.,

    Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.—
    (β).
    Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.—
    (γ).
    Bona Fortuna:

    si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22:

    Bonae Fortunae (signum),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7:

    FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE,

    Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq. —
    (δ).
    Bona Spes:

    Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi,

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12:

    BONAE SPEI,

    Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—
    (ε).
    BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.:

    Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono,

    Prop. 3, 24, 19.
    B.
    With nouns denoting things.
    1.
    Things concrete, denoting excellence:

    navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 13:

    gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc.,

    id. ib. 76, 14:

    id vinum erit lene et bono colore,

    Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9:

    tabulas... collocare in bono lumine,

    Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quavis olea oleum... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3:

    per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato,

    id. ib. 73; cf.:

    bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine,

    Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28:

    praedium bonum caelum habeat,

    good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bona tempestate,

    in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4:

    (praedium) solo bono valeat,

    by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1:

    bonae (aedes) cum curantur male,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24:

    villam bonam,

    Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55:

    bonus pons,

    Cat. 17, 5:

    scyphi optimi (= optime facti),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32:

    perbona toreumata,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 18, §

    38: bona domicilia,

    comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95:

    agrum Meliorem nemo habet,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12:

    fundum meliorem,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14:

    equus melior,

    id. Inv. 1, 31, 52:

    bona cena,

    Cat. 13, 3:

    boni nummi,

    good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91:

    super omnia vultus accessere boni,

    good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678:

    mulier bona forma,

    of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13:

    equus formae melioris,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 52:

    tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur,

    fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33:

    fruges bonae,

    Cat. 34, 19:

    ova suci melioris,

    of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.— Trop.:

    animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.:

    bonum omen, 2. e.),

    Quint. 6, 3, 69:

    scio te bona esse voce, ne clama nimis,

    good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so,

    bona firmaque vox,

    Quint. 11, 3, 13.—
    2.
    Things abstract.
    a.
    Of physical well-being:

    ut si qui neget sine bona valetudine posse bene vivi,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.:

    non bonus somnus de prandio est,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8:

    bona aetas,

    prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48:

    optima aetate,

    id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically:

    bona, inquis, aetate, etc.,

    Sen. Ep. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Of the mind and soul:

    meliore esse sensu,

    Cic. Sest. 21, 47:

    optima indoles,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    bona conscientia,

    Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5:

    bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo,

    with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5:

    mens melior,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31:

    duos optimae indolis filios,

    Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5:

    bonum consilium,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bona voluntas,

    a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31:

    memoria bona,

    Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2:

    bona ratio cum perdita... confligit,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 25:

    bonae rationes,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50:

    pronuntiatio bona,

    Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.—
    c.
    Of moral relations:

    ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1;

    v. e. infra): si ego in causa tam bona cessi tribuni plebis furori,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220:

    fac, sis, bonae frugi sies,

    of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. b.): vilicus disciplina bona utatur. Cato, R. R. 5:

    bona studia,

    moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25:

    quidquid vita meliore parasti,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises:

    Juppiter, te bonas preces precor,

    Cato, R. R. 134; 139.—
    d.
    Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    Optumo optume optumam operam das,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 122:

    bonam dedistis mihi operam,

    a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bona opera aut mala Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102;

    v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    bonum otium,

    valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1:

    bonis versibus,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74:

    versus meliores,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81:

    meliora poemata,

    Hor. A. P. 303:

    in illa pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optima,

    Cic. Or. 8, 26:

    optimas fabulas,

    id. Off. 1, 31, 114:

    melius munus,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.—
    e.
    Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate:

    de Procilio rumores non boni,

    unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5:

    bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est,

    about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1:

    si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortuna,

    id. Pis. 29, 71; cf.

    fortuna optima esse,

    to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2:

    occasio tam bona,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9:

    senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32:

    bona navigatio,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83;

    esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.:

    ego sum spe bona,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; [p. 245] id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16:

    optima spe,

    id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1;

    v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa,

    more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6:

    melior interpretatio,

    Tac. H. 3, 65:

    cum laude et bonis recordationibus,

    id. A. 4, 38:

    amnis Doctus iter melius,

    i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68:

    omen bonum,

    a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf.

    Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen,

    Ov. F. 1, 221;

    optimum,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    bona scaeva,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24:

    auspicio optumo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.:

    memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.—
    f.
    Of public affairs, si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93:

    optima res publica,

    id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19:

    minus bonis temporibus,

    id. Dom. 4, 8; so,

    optimis temporibus,

    id. Sest. 3, 6:

    nostrae res meliore loco videbantur,

    id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1:

    lex optima,

    id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.—
    g.
    Good = large, considerable:

    bono atque amplo lucro,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 6:

    bona librorum copia,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.:

    bona copia cornu,

    Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. g.—
    h.
    Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94:

    si bono genere natus sit,

    Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.—
    k.
    Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases.
    (α).
    Bona venia or cum bona venia, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bona venia orare, expetere, etc.:

    primum abs te hoc bona venia expeto,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31:

    bona tua venia dixerim,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34:

    oravit bona venia Quirites, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 41, 3:

    obsecro vos.. bona venia vestra liceat, etc.,

    id. 6, 40, 10:

    cum bona venia quaeso audiatis, etc.,

    id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.

    . sed des veniam bonus oro = venia bona oro,

    Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Bona pax, without quarrelling:

    bona pax sit potius,

    let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7;

    so especially cum bona pace, or bona pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bona pace incolentium... pervenit,

    without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.—
    (γ).
    Amicitia bona = bona fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship:

    igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit,

    Sall. J. 5, 5.—
    (δ).
    Bona societas, alliance:

    Segestes, memoria bonae societatis, impavidus,

    Tac. A. 1, 58.
    C.
    In particular phrases.
    1.
    Bonae res.
    a.
    = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete:

    concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87:

    optimis rebus usus est,

    he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.—
    b.
    = Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity:

    bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45:

    in bonis rebus,

    Hor. C. 2, 3, 2. —
    c.
    Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth ( poet.): in re bona esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value:

    homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla,

    who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1. —
    d.
    Costly things, articles of luxury:

    capere urbem in Arabia plenam bonarum rerum,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82:

    nimium rei bonae,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 55:

    ignorantia bonarum rerum,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 5 ' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110:

    re bona copiosum esse,

    Gell. 16, 19, 7.—
    e.
    Moral, morally good:

    illi cum res non bonas tractent,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72:

    ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 15:

    quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati?

    id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58:

    quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus,

    id. Sen. 18, 65.—
    f.
    In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions:

    res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8:

    studiis generorum, praesertim in re bona,

    Plaut. Am. 8, 26.—
    2.
    Bonae artes.
    (α).
    A good, laudable way of dealing:

    qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit,

    Sall. C. 2, 9:

    huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit,

    id. ib. 11, 2:

    quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat,

    Tac. A. 6, 46.—
    (β).
    Liberal arts and sciences:

    litteris aut ulli bonae arti,

    Quint. 12, 1, 7:

    conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.:

    optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.—
    3.
    Bona fides, or fides bona.
    a.
    Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bona solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14:

    dic, bona fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33:

    si tibi optima fide omnia concessit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.—
    b.
    Jurid. t. t.
    (α).
    Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another:

    ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bona fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2;

    41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos,

    ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one ' s good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence,
    (β).
    Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the praetorian edict in favor of equity:

    actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc.,

    Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the praetor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bona, or, in full:

    quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona,

    Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66:

    iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bona,

    id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.—
    4.
    Bona verba.
    (α).
    Kind words:

    Bona verba quaeso,

    Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.—
    (β).
    Words of good omen (v. omen):

    dicamus bona verba,

    Tib. 2, 2, 1:

    dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero,

    Ov. F. 2, 638.—
    (γ).
    Elegant or well-chosen expressions:

    quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis,

    Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51:

    verborum bonorum cursu,

    id. Brut. 66, 233:

    omnia verba sunt alicubi optima,

    Quint. 10, 1, 9.—
    (δ).
    Moral sayings:

    non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1. —
    5.
    Bona dicta.
    (α).
    Polite, courteous language:

    hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 25.—
    (β).
    Witticisms ( bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222:

    dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22:

    ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus,

    id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.—
    6.
    Bona facta.
    (α).
    = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds:

    nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant),

    Tac. A. 3, 40.—
    (β).
    Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.):

    bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 16:

    haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit,

    id. ib. 45.— Hence,
    (γ).
    Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well:

    peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit,

    Suet. Caes. 80:

    et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius... usquam esset,

    id. Vit. 14:

    hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus,

    Aur. Vict. 49; cf.:

    o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum,

    Tert. Pud. 1.—
    7.
    Bona gratia.
    (α).
    A friendly understanding:

    cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bona Ut componantur gratia quam cum mala?

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so,

    per gratiam bonam abire,

    to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bona gratia abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.—
    (β).
    Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gratiam habere, to thank (v. B. 2. k.), Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 32; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 99.—
    8.
    Bona pars.
    (α).
    The well-disposed part of a body of persons:

    ut plerumque fit, major pars (i. e. of the senate) meliorem vicit,

    Liv. 21, 4, 1:

    pars melior senatus ad meliora responsa trahere,

    id. 7, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    The good party, i. e. the optimates (gen. in plur.):

    civem bonarum partium,

    Cic. Sest. 32, 77:

    (fuit) meliorum partium aliquando,

    id. Cael. 6, 13:

    qui sibi gratiam melioris partis velit quaesitam,

    Liv. 2, 44, 3.—Paronom.: (Roscius) semper partium in re publica tam quam in scaena optimarum, i. e. party and part in a drama, Cic. Sest. 56, 120.—
    (γ).
    Of things or persons, a considerable part (cf. a good deal):

    bonam partem ad te adtulit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 43:

    bonam partem sermonis in hunc diem esse dilatam,

    Cic. Or. 2, 3, 14:

    bonam magnamque partem exercitus,

    Val. Max. 5, 2, ext. 4:

    bona pars noctium,

    Quint. 12, 11, 19:

    bona pars hominum,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 61:

    meae vocis... bona pars,

    id. C. 4, 2, 46; so id. A. P. 297; Ov. P. 1, 8, 74:

    melior pars diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156.—
    (δ).
    Rarely, and mostly eccl. Lat.: optima pars, the best part or lot:

    nostri melior pars animus est,

    Sen. Q. N. 1, prooem. § 14; cf.:

    quae pars optima est in homine,

    best, most valuable, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 67:

    major pars aetatis, certe melior reipublicae data sit,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 18, 1:

    Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 42.—
    (ε).
    Adverb.:

    bonam partem = ex magna parte,

    Lucr. 6, 1249.—
    (ζ).
    Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably:

    Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit,

    id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3:

    quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias,

    id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.—
    9.
    Dies bonus or bona.
    (α).
    A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus):

    tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 49:

    nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die,

    Ov. F. 1, 72.—
    (β).
    A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.—
    10.
    Bonus mos.
    (α).
    Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits:

    nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56:

    nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6:

    domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur,

    Sall. C. 9, 1:

    propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13:

    cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint,

    Liv. 34, 6, 9:

    mores meliores,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.—
    (β).
    Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4:

    ex optimo more et sanctissima disciplina,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69:

    neglegentia boni moris,

    Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.:

    conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores,

    in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep. —
    11.
    Adverbial phrases.
    a.
    Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere.
    (α).
    To be of good cheer or courage:

    bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo,

    Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72:

    animo bono es,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1:

    bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 26:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29:

    bono animo esse jubere eam consul,

    Liv. 39, 13, 7:

    habe modo bonum animum,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15:

    habe animum bonum,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31:

    bonum animum habe,

    Liv. 45, 8, 5:

    clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet,

    id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.—
    (β).
    Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions:

    audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc.,

    Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) [p. 246] optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2:

    bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56:

    quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.—
    (γ).
    Bonus animus, good temper, patience:

    bonus animus in mala re dimidium mali est,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37:

    vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis,

    Ov. M. 9, 433.—
    b.
    Bono modo.
    (α).
    = placide, with composure, moderation:

    si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet,

    Cato, R. R. 5:

    haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.—
    (β).
    In a decent manner:

    neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62. —
    c.
    Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right:

    te ipse jure optumo incuses licet,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53:

    ut jure optimo me deserere posses,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly:

    ne jure optimo irrideamur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4;

    similarly, optimo judicio,

    Val. Max. 2, 9, 2.
    II.
    As subst.
    A.
    bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons.
    1.
    In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. b, supra, a morally good man.
    (α).
    Plur.:

    bonis quod bene fit haud perit,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2:

    melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto,

    Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71:

    verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam,

    id. Lael. 14, 50:

    diverso itinere malos a bonis loca taetra... habere,

    Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22:

    oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52:

    tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, arum, f., good women:

    quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc.,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.—
    (β).
    Sing.:

    malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8:

    nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.:

    qui meliorem audax vocet in jus,

    Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.—
    2.
    Bonus, a man of honor.
    (α).
    A brave man:

    pro qua (patria) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus?

    Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57:

    libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittat,

    Sall. C. 33, 5:

    fortes creantur fortibus et bonis,

    Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi):

    fama impari boni atque ignavi erant,

    Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2. —
    (β).
    A gentleman:

    quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas... in medium protulit?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.—
    3.
    Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society.
    (α).
    In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.;

    so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 38:

    audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 47, 100:

    ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi,

    id. Pis. 2, 4:

    etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt,

    id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43:

    maledictis increpat omnes bonos,

    Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so,

    optimi,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich:

    bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum,

    id. Att. 8, 1, 3.—
    (β).
    Without reference to political views;

    opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22:

    semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident,

    Sall. C. 37, 3:

    elatus est sine ulla pompa funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia,

    Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one ' s betters:

    ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13:

    da locum melioribus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.—
    4.
    Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.—
    5.
    Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni.
    (α).
    Referring to morality:

    esse aliquid natura pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur,

    every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43:

    qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur,

    id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best:

    quare deus optimum quemque mala valetudine adficit?

    Sen. Prov. 4, 8.—
    (β).
    Of the educated classes:

    adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum,

    Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85:

    Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit,

    Sall. C. 34, 2:

    optimo cuique infesta libertas,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).—
    (γ).
    Honorable, brave:

    optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri,

    Sall. J. 92, 8.—
    (δ).
    In gen., excellent:

    optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat,

    Sall. C. 8, 5.—
    (ε).
    Distributively:

    ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur,

    to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—
    (ζ).
    Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.):

    hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—
    (η).
    Attributively, with a noun:

    optimam quamque causam,

    Cic. Sest. 43, 93:

    optima quaeque dies,

    Verg. G. 3, 66.
    2.
    bŏnum, i, n., plur. bona; mĕlĭus, ōris, n.; optĭmum, i, n. (v. infra); of things in gen.
    1.
    Bonum, or plur. bona, a good, or goods in a moral and metaphysical sense, a moral good, a blessing: sunt autem hae de finibus defensae sententiae: nihil bonum nisi honestum, ut Stoici; nihil bonum nisi voluptatem, ut Epicurus;

    nihil bonum nisi vacuitatem doloris, ut Hieronymus... tria genera bonorum, maxima animi, secunda corporis, externa tertia, ut Peripatetici, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 30, 84 sq.:

    quid est igitur bonum? Si quid recte fit et honeste et cum virtute, id bene fieri vere dicitur, et quod rectum et honestum et cum virtute est, id solum opinor bonum,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 9:

    ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud simplex et verum bonum quod non possit ab honestate sejungi,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 7:

    non-est igitur voluptas bonum,

    id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: finis bonorum et malorum (telos agathôn) = summa bona et mala:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae quae, propositis bonorum et malorum finibus, officium omne pervertant. Nam qui summum bonum sic instituit ut, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5; cf. id. Par. 1, 3, 14; id. Ac. 2, 9, 29; 2, 36, 114; 2, 42, 129; id. Fin. 1, 9, 29; 1, 12, 42; id. Tusc. 4, 31, 66; Sen. Vit. Beat. 24, 5; id. Ep. 117, 1 et saep.—
    2.
    Bonum, what is valuable, beneficial, estimable, favorable, pleasant, physically or mentally:

    quoi boni Tantum adfero quantum ipsus a diis optat,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 1, 9:

    multa bona vobis volt facere,

    will do you much good, id. Poen. 5, 4, 60; id. Am. prol. 43, 49; id. Pers. 4, 8, 4; 2, 3, 14; id. Cas. 2, 8, 32:

    tum demum nostra intellegemus bona quom ea amisimus,

    id. Capt. 1, 2, 33:

    multa tibi di dent bona,

    id. Poen. 1, 1, 80; cf. id. ib. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; id. Mil. 3, 1, 120; id. Men. 3, 3, 34; id. Pers. 4, 3, 23; id. Truc. 1, 2, 23; id. Merc. 1, 2, 40; id. Most. 1, 1, 47:

    omnia Bona dicere,

    to speak in the highest terms of one, Ter. And. 1, 1, 70:

    sed ne vivus quidem bono caret, si eo non indiget,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    cum quaecumque bona Peripateticis, eadem Stoicis commoda viderentur,

    id. ib. 5, 41, 120:

    nihil enim boni nosti,

    nothing that is good for any thing, id. Phil. 2, 7, 16:

    mala pro bonis legere dementia est,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 6, 1; Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3 fin.; Hor. S. 1, 2, 73:

    quia bonum sit valere,

    a good thing, Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 62 (cf. III. A. 5. infra):

    melius: quo quidem haud scio an... quidquam melius sit homini a dis immortalibus datum,

    id. Lael. 6, 20:

    meliora... Aristotelem de istis rebus scripsisse,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 43:

    optimum: difficillimum est formam exponere optimi,

    id. ib. 11, 36.— Here belongs the phrase boni consulere;

    v. consulo.—So after prepositions: in bonum vertere, v. under verto: in melius ire,

    to change for the better, Tac. A. 12, 68.—In the same sense: in melius aliquid referre, or reflectere ( poet.), Verg. A. 1, 281; 11, 426; 10, 632:

    ad melius transcurrere,

    to pass over to something better, Hor. S. 2, 2, 82.—
    3.
    Bonum or bona, prosperity:

    fortiter malum qui patitur, idem post patitur bonum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 58:

    nulli est homini perpetuum bonum,

    id. Curc. 1, 3, 33:

    unā tecum bona, mala tolerabimus,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 23:

    quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus in malis sint, ostenditur ( = in secundis, in adversis rebus),

    Cic. Inv. 1, 55, 107.—
    4.
    Good qualities, gifts:

    omnia adsunt bona, quem penes'st virtus,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 30:

    magnis illi et divinis bonis hanc licentiam adsequebantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148:

    nisi qui se suā gravitate et castimoniā... tum etiam naturali quodam bono defenderet, etc.,

    id. Cael. 5, 11:

    hunc meā sententiā divinis quibusdam bonis instructum atque ornatum puto,

    id. ib. 17, 39:

    non intellego quod bonum cuiquam sit apud tales viros profuturum,

    id. Balb. 28, 63:

    gaude isto tuo tam excellenti bono,

    id. Marcell. 6, 19; so id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—
    5.
    Advantage, benefit:

    si plus adipiscare, re explicatā, boni, quam addubitatā mali,

    Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83:

    saepe cogitavi bonine an mali plus adtulerit... eloquentiae studium,

    id. Inv. 1, 1, 1; 2, 35, 106; id. Off. 2, 2, 5; id. Sest. 10, 24:

    maximum bonum in celeritate ponebat,

    Sall. C. 43, 4; so, bono publico (abl.), for the public good:

    hoc ita si fit, publico fiat bono,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 183; Liv. 2, 44, 3; Dig. 41, 3, 1.—
    6.
    With aequum, what is fair and good, the fair ( thing), fairness, equity:

    si bonum aequomque oras,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 149; so id. Pers. 3, 1, 71; id. Rud. 1, 2, 94; id. Men. 4, 2, 11:

    si tu aliquam partem aequi bonique dixeris,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 32; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 29; id. Ad. 1, 1, 39:

    a quo vivo nec praesens nec absens quidquam aequi bonique impetravit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 37, 94.—Hence, aequo et bono, or ex aequo et bono, in ( with) fairness, in equity, Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 30; Auct. Her. 2, 10, 14; 2, 12, 18; 2, 13, 20; Gai. Inst. 3, 137: aequi bonique, as gen. of value, with facere:

    istuc, Chreme, Aequi bonique facio,

    I place a fair and proper value on it, Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 40.—
    7.
    Bona, one ' s property, fortunes, almost always denoting the whole of one's possessions.
    a.
    In gen.:

    paterna oportet reddi filio bona,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 120:

    bona sua med habiturum omnia,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 6; 4, 2, 29; id. Rud. 2, 6, 22; id. Most. 1, 3, 77; id. Trin. 4, 4, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 4:

    bona mea diripiebantur atque ad consulem deferebantur,

    Cic. Sest. 24, 54:

    cum de capite, civis et de bonis proscriptio ferretur,

    id. ib. 30, 65:

    bona, fortunas, possessiones omnium,

    id. Caecin. 13, 38:

    at mulctantur bonis exsules,

    id. Tusc. 5, 37, 106; id. Off. 2, 23, 81; id. Par. 1, 1, 7; id. Sest. 19, 42; 43, 94; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 26, 64; Caes. B. G. 7, 3; Liv. 2, 3, 5; 2, 5, 5; 4, 15, 8; Tac. A. 2, 48; Quint. 6, 1, 19 et saep.—
    b.
    Bonorum possessio, the possession of one ' s property by another.
    (α).
    Bonorum possessio in consequence of bonorum cessio, i. e. an assignment of one ' s property for the benefit of creditors, Dig. 42, tit. 3.—
    (β).
    Bonorum possessio granted by the prætor against a contumacious or insolvent debtor (in bona mittere, in bona ire jubere, bona possidere jubere, etc.); cf. Dig. 42, tit. 4:

    postulat a Burrieno Naevius ut ex edicto bona possidere liceat,

    Cic. Quint. 6, 25, and the whole of c. 8:

    edixit... neu quis militis... bona possideret aut venderet,

    Liv. 2, 24, 6:

    bona proscribere,

    to offer the property thus transferred for sale, Cic. Quint. 6, 25.—
    (γ).
    Chiefly referring to the property of a defunct person (hereditas), where the prætor, till the heir had proved his right, granted a bonorum possessio secundum tabulas or contra tabulas, Dig. 37, tit. 4; 37, tit. 11.—
    c.
    In bonis esse;

    with reference to the older civil law, which distinguished between civil property (habere rem ex jure Quiritium) and natural property (rem in bonis habere, res in bonis est),

    Gai. Inst. 2, 40, 41; Dig. 40, 12, 38, § 2; 37, 6, 2, § 1; 37, 6, 3, § 2; ib. Fragm. 1, 16; Gai. Inst. 1, 22; 1, 35; 1, 222; 1, 167; Dig. 1, 8, 1; 27, 10, 10:

    neque bonorum possessorum, neque... res pleno jure fiunt, sed in bonis efficiuntur,

    ib. Fragm. 3, 80.—Hence, nullam omnino arbitrabamur de eā hereditate controversiam eum habiturum, et est hodie in bonis, i. e. [p. 247] the bonorum possessio has been granted to him, which did not give full ownership, but effected only that the hereditas was in bonis. Cic. Fam. 13, 30, 1.
    III.
    Predicative use.
    A.
    With nouns or pronouns as subjects.
    1.
    Bonum esse, to be morally good, honest:

    nunc mihi bonae necessum est esse ingratiis, Quamquam esse nolo,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 82:

    bonam ego quam beatam me esse nimio dici mavolo,

    id. Poen. 1, 2, 93; so id. Capt. 2, 1, 44; id. Men. 4, 2, 6; id. Rud. prol. 29:

    itaque viros fortes magnanimos eosdem, bonos et simplices... esse volumus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 63; cf. id. ib. 3, 21, 84; id. Att. 15, 6, 1:

    Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat,

    Sall. C. 54, 5:

    ut politiora, non ut meliora fiant ingenia,

    Val. Max. 5, 4, ext. 5 fin.
    2.
    To be beneficial, prosperous, advantageous, valuable, favorable, serviceable, correct, with reference to both persons and things as subjects, and in regard to physical and mental relations:

    jam istuc non bonumst,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 29; Cato, R. R. 157:

    oleum viridius et melius fiet,

    id. ib. 3:

    vinum ut alvum bonam faciat,

    to correct the bowels, id. ib. 156:

    quid est homini salute melius?

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 127:

    non optuma haec sunt, verum meliora quam deterruma,

    id. Trin. 2, 3, 1:

    quid est quod huc possit quod melius sit accedere?

    Cic. Fin. 1, 12, 41; 1, 18, 57; id. Tusc. 1, 41, 99:

    in quo (vestitu), sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est,

    id. Off. 1, 36, 130; 2, 17, 59; id. Inv. 1, 31, 51; id. Or. 2, 6; 11, 36:

    meliorem tamen militem... in futura proelia id certamen fecit,

    Liv. 2, 51, 3:

    parvus ut est cygni melior canor, ille gruum quam Clamor,

    Lucr. 4, 181; 4, 191:

    si meliora dies, ut vina, poemata reddit,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 34.—So in the optative formula:

    quod bonum, faustum, felixque sit,

    Liv. 1, 28, 7; 1, 17, 10; 39, 15, 1; 3, 54;

    3, 34.—Also, quod bonum atque fortunatum mihi sit,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 50;

    and with a noun as subject: ut nobis haec habitatio Bona, fausta, felix, fortunataque evenat,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 3.—
    3.
    To be kind:

    bonus cum probis'st (erus), malus cum malis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 22:

    hic si vellet bonus ac benignus Esse,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 52.—
    4.
    With reference to the gods:

    ecastor ambae (Fortuna et Salus sunt bonae,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 129:

    Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos (esse),

    Prop. 3, 24, 12 (2, 28, 12).—
    B.
    Impers.
    1.
    Bonum est (very rare for the class. bene est; v. bene).
    (α).
    Without a subject:

    bonum sit!

    may it be fortunate, favorable! Verg. E. 8, 106.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.:

    nam et stulte facere, et stulte fabularier in aetate haud bonum est,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 61:

    bonum est pauxillum amare, insane non bonum est,

    id. Curc. 1, 3,20.—
    2.
    Melius est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    melius sanam est mentem sumere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 51:

    nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125; cf. id. Fin. 1, 19, 62; id. Off. 1, 43, 156; so,

    melius fuit, fuisset, or fuerat,

    it would have been better, id. N. D. 3, 33; id. Sen. 23, 82; id. Off. 3, 25, 94:

    proinde quiesse erit melius,

    Liv. 3, 48, 3; 3, 41, 3; Verg. A. 11, 303.—
    (β).
    With subject inf.-clause:

    meliu'st te quae sunt mandata tibi praevortier,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 125; id. Men. 5, 9, 32.—
    (γ).
    With ut-clause:

    quid melius quam ut hinc intro abeam et me suspendam clanculum,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 145; so id. Ps. 4, 7, 18.—
    (δ).
    With subjectclause in the subjunctive:

    nunc quid mihi meliu'st quam ilico hic opperiar erum,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 22.—
    3.
    Optimum est.
    (α).
    With subject inf.:

    optimum visum est, captivos quam primum deportare,

    Liv. 23, 34, 8:

    si quis dicit optimum esse navigare,

    Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 4 (32 fin.); so, optimum fuit, it would have been better, and optimum erat, it would be better, Quint. 6, prooem. 3; 11, 2, 33; Hor. S. 2, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With inf.-clause:

    constituerunt optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 10: optimum visum est, in fluctuantem aciem tradi equos, etc., Liv 6, 24, 10; 22, 27, 6.—
    (γ).
    With ut and subj:

    hoc vero optimum, ut is qui, etc., id ultimum bonorum, id ipsum quid et quale sit nesciat,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 3, 6.—
    (δ).
    With quod:

    illa vero optima (sunt) quod cum Haluntium venisset Archagathum vocari jussit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 51:

    optimum vero (est) quod dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti,

    id. Phil. 2, 36, 91.—
    (ε).
    With second sup., in the phrase optumum factu est (where factu is redundant):

    sed hoc mihi optumum factu arbitror,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 16:

    optimum factu esse duxerant frumento... nostros prohibere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 30:

    optumum factu credens exercitum augere,

    Sall. C. 32, 1 (Kritz, factum); 57, 5 (Kritz, factum).
    IV.
    Ellipt. use: di meliora, i. e. dent or velint, i. e. let the gods grant better things than what you say, etc.; God forbid! in full:

    di melius duint,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 16:

    di meliora velint!

    Ov. M. 7, 37.—Ellipt.:

    di meliora! inquit,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 47:

    id ubi mulier audivit, perturbata, dii meliora inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2; 9, 9, 6; Verg. G. 3, 513;

    similarly, di melius, i. e. fecerunt,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, ext. 3.
    V.
    With object expressed,
    1.
    By dat.
    (α).
    = good, useful, beneficial for:

    ambula, id lieni optumum est,

    Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 25:

    quia vobis eadem quae mihi bona malaque esse intellexi,

    Sall. C. 20, 3:

    bona bello Cornus, jaculis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 447.—
    (β).
    = benignus or propitius, kind to:

    vicinis bonus esto,

    Cato, R. R. 4:

    bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es,

    Plaut. As. 1, 2, 3:

    vos o mihi Manes, Este boni,

    Verg. A. 12, 647.—
    (γ).
    = idoneus, fit for, adapted to:

    qui locus vino optimus dicetur esse,

    Cato, R. R. 6:

    tum erit ei rei optumum tempus,

    id. ib. 26:

    terra cui putre solum, Optima frumentis,

    Verg. G. 2, 205; 2, 319; 1, 286.—
    (δ).
    With sum and dat., in the phrase alicui bono est, it is of service to one, profits him:

    accusant in quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13:

    bono fuisse Romanis adventum eorum constabat,

    Liv. 7, 12, 4.—Hence, with rel. dat.: cui bono (est), for whose advantage it is:

    quod si quis usurpet illud Cassianum cui bono fuerit, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    cui bono fuisset,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84; id. Mil. 12, 32 Ascon. ad loc.; cf.

    ellipt. form cui bono?

    Prisc. p. 1208 P.—
    (ε).
    With dat. gerund:

    ager oleto conserundo qui in Favonium spectavit, aliis bonus nullus erit,

    Cato, R. R. 6; Varr. R. R. 1, 24:

    (mons) quia pecori bonus alendo erat,

    Liv. 29, 31; 9, 10.—
    2.
    By ad and acc.:

    refert et ad quam rem bona aut non bona sit,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 91:

    occasio quaeritur idoneane fuerit ad rem adoriendam, an alia melior,

    Auct. Her. 2, 4, 7:

    non campos modo militi Romano ad proelium bonos, etc.,

    Tac. A. 2, 14.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > optimum

  • 14 volo

    1.
    vŏlo (2 d pers. sing. vis, orig. veis, Prisc. 9, 1, 6, p. 847 P.; 1 st pers. plur. volumus, but volimus, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 89 Speng.; 3 d pers. sing. volt, and 2 d pers. plur. voltis always in ante-class. writers;

    also volt,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 17, § 42; 2, 5, 49, § 128; id. Sest. 42, 90; id. Phil. 8, 9, 26; id. Par. 5, 1, 34; id. Rep. 3, 33, 45:

    voltis,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 53, § 122; 2, 3, 94, § 219; 2, 5, 5, § 11; 2, 3, 89, § 208; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 33; id. Sest. 30, 64; id. Par. 1, 2, 11 et saep. — Pres. subj. velim, but sometimes volim, Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 44 Ritschl; cf. Prisc. 9, 1, 8, p. 848 P.;

    so volint,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 65 Ritschl), velle, volui ( part. fut. voliturus, Serv. ad Verg. A. 5, 712; contr. forms, vin for visne, freq. in Plaut. and Ter., also Hor. S. 1, 9, 69; Pers. 6, 63:

    sis for si vis,

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 70; id. Merc. 4, 4, 37; id. Pers. 3, 3, 8; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 20; id. Heaut. 1, 2, 38; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18, 42; id. Rosc. Am. 16, 48; id. Mil. 22, 60; Liv. 34, 32, 20:

    sultis for si voltis, only ante-class.,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. As. prol. 1; id. Capt. 2, 3, 96; 3, 5, 9; 4, 4, 11), v. irreg. a. [Sanscr. var-; Gr. bol-, boulomai; cf. the strengthened root Wel- in eeldomai, elpomai; Germ. wollen; Engl. will], expressing any exercise of volition, and corresponding, in most cases, to the Germ. wollen; in Engl. mostly rendered, to wish, want, intend, purpose, propose, be willing, consent, mean, will, and, impersonally, it is my will, purpose, intention, plan, policy (syn.: cupio, opto; but volo properly implies a purpose).
    I.
    In gen.
    A.
    With object-infinitive.
    1.
    With pres. inf.
    a.
    To wish.
    (α).
    Exire ex urbe priusquam luciscat volo, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 35:

    potare ego hodie tecum volo,

    id. Aul. 3, 6, 33:

    ego quoque volo esse liber: nequiquam volo,

    id. Trin. 2, 4, 39; so id. ib. 2, 4, 164:

    ait rem seriam agere velle mecum,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 8:

    natus enim debet quicunque est velle manere In vita,

    Lucr. 5, 177:

    video te alte spectare et velle in caelum migrare,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 34, 82:

    quid poetae? Nonne post mortem nobilitari volunt?

    id. ib. 1, 15, 34:

    si innocentes existimari volumus,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28:

    quoniam opinionis meae voluistis esse participes,

    id. de Or. 1, 37, 172:

    quod eas quoque nationes adire et regiones cognoscere volebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 7:

    si velit suos recipere, obsides sibi remittat,

    id. ib. 3, 8 fin.:

    dominari illi volunt, vos liberi esse,

    Sall. J. 31, 23:

    si haec relinquere voltis,

    id. C. 58, 15:

    priusquam liberi estis, dominari jam in adversarios vultis,

    Liv. 3, 53, 7:

    si quis vestrum suos invisere volt, commeatum do,

    id. 21, 21, 5:

    non enim vincere tantum noluit, sed vinci voluit,

    id. 2, 59, 2:

    suspitionem Caesar quibusdam reliquit, neque voluisse se diutius vivere, neque curasse,

    Suet. Caes. 85:

    Eutrapelus cuicunque nocere volebat, Vestimenta dabat pretiosa,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 31.—
    (β).
    Idiomatically: quid arbitramini Rheginos merere velle ut ab iis marmorea illa Venus auferatur? what do you think the Rhegini would take for, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 60, § 135.—
    (γ).
    Transf., of things: fabula quae posci vult et spectata reponi, a comedy which wishes (i. e. is meant) to be in demand, etc., Hor. A. P. 190:

    neque enim aut hiare semper vocalibus aut destitui temporibus volunt sermo atque epistula,

    Quint. 9, 4, 20; cf. id. 8, prooem. 23.—
    b.
    Of the wishes of those that have a right to command, the gods, masters, parents, commanders, etc., I want, wish, will, am resolved, it is my will:

    in acdibus quid tibi meis erat negoti...? Volo scire,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 14; 3, 2, 17; 3, 2, 18; 3, 6, 27; id. Curc. 4, 3, 11; id. Ep. 3, 4, 74; id. Mil. 2, 3, 74; 3, 1, 17; id. Stich. 1, 2, 56; Ter. And. 1, 2, 9; 4, 2, 17:

    maxima voce clamat populus, neque se uni, nec paucis velle parere,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 35, 55:

    consuesse deos immortalis, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    hic experiri vim virtutemque volo,

    Liv. 23, 45, 9.—
    c.
    = in animo habere, to intend, purpose, mean, design:

    ac volui inicere tragulam in nostrum senem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 4, 14:

    eadem quae illis voluisti facere tu, faciunt tibi,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 11; so id. Most. 2, 2, 5:

    puerumque clam voluit exstinguere,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 23:

    necare candem voluit,

    Cic. Cael. 13, 31: quid enim ad illum qui te captare vult, utrum [p. 2005] tacentem te irretiat an loquentem? id. Ac. 2, 29, 94:

    hostis hostem occidere volui,

    Liv. 2, 12, 9; 7, 34, 11: volui interdiu eum... occidere; volui, cum ad cenam invitavi, veneno scilicet tollere;

    volui... ferro interficere (ironically),

    id. 40, 13, 2:

    tuum crimen erit, hospitem occidere voluisse,

    the intention to kill your guest-friend, Val. Max. 5, 1, 3 fin.; 6, 1, 8:

    non enim vult mori, sed invidiam filio facere,

    Quint. 9, 2, 85.—

    Pregn., opp. optare: non vult mori qui optat,

    Sen. Ep. 117, 24:

    sed eo die is, cui dare volueram (epistulam), non est profectus,

    Cic. Att. 9, 7, 1:

    cum de senectute vellem aliquid scribere,

    id. Sen. 1, 2:

    ego te volui castigare, tu mihi accussatrix ades,

    Plaut. As. 3, 1, 10:

    bonus volo jam ex hoc die esse,

    id. Pers. 4, 3, 10:

    ego jam a principio amici filiam, Ita ut aequom fuerat, volui uxorem ducere,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 46:

    at etiam eo negotio M. Catonis splendorem maculare voluerunt,

    it was their purpose, Cic. Sest. 28, 60:

    eum (tumulum) non tam capere sine certamine volebat, quam causam certaminis cum Minucio contrahere,

    his plan was, Liv. 22, 28, 4.—Of things:

    cum lex venditionibus occurrere voluit,

    when it was the purpose of the law, Dig. 46, 1, 46: sed quid ea drachuma facere vis? Ca. Restim volo Mihi emere... qui me faciam pensilem, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 87: Ch. Revorsionem ad terram faciunt vesperi. Ni. Aurum hercle auferre voluere, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 63:

    si iis qui haec omnia flamma ac ferro delere voluerunt... bellum indixi, etc.,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 10, 24:

    (plebem) per caedem senatus vacuam rem publicam tradere Hannibali velle,

    Liv. 23, 2, 7:

    rem Nolanam in jus dicionemque dare voluerat Poeno,

    id. 23, 15, 9: qui (majores nostri) tanta cura Siculos tueri ac retinere voluerunt ut, etc., whose policy it was to protect, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 6, § 14:

    ut qui a principio mitis omnibus Italicis praeter Romanos videri vellet, etc.,

    Liv. 23, 15, 4: idem istuc, si in vilitate largiri voluisses, derisum tuum beneficium esset, if you had offered to grant the same thing during low prices, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 92, § 215.—
    d.
    = studere, conari, to try, endeavor, attempt:

    quas (i. e. magnas res) qui impedire vult, is et infirmus est mobilisque natura, et, etc.,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 75:

    nam si quando id (exordium) primum invenire volui, nullum mihi occurrit, nisi aut exile, aut, etc.,

    id. Or. 2, 77, 315:

    de Antonio dico, numquam illum... nonnullorum de ipso suspitionem infitiando tollere voluisse,

    that he never attempted to remove, id. Sest. 3, 8; id. Div. 1, 18, 35:

    audes Fatidicum fallere velle deum?

    do you dare attempt? Ov. F. 2, 262.—
    e.
    To mean, of actions and expressions:

    hic respondere voluit, non lacessere,

    the latter meant to answer, not to provoke, Ter. Phorm. prol. 19:

    non te judices urbi sed carceri reservarunt, neque to retinere in civitate, sed exilio privare voluerunt,

    Cic. Att. 1, 16, 9.—So, volo dicere, I mean (lit. I intend to say):

    quid aliud volui dicere?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 51:

    volo autem dicere, illud homini longe optimum esse quod ipsum sit optandum per se,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 20, 46.—Often with the acc. illud or id, as a correction: Tr. Specta quam arcte dormiunt. Th. Dormiunt? Tr. Illut quidem ut conivent volui dicere, I mean how they nod, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 145: Py. Quid? bracchium? Ar. Illud dicere volui femur, id. Mil. 1, 1, 27:

    adduxi volui dicere,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 21; id. Am. 1, 1, 233; 1, 1, 235; id. Cas. 2, 6, 14; id. Mil. 3, 2, 7; id. Ps. 3, 2, 54; id. Rud. 2, 4, 9.—
    f.
    To be going to: haec argumenta ego aedificiis dixi; nunc etiam volo docere ut homines aedium esse similes arbitremini, now I am going to show how, etc., Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 37: quando bene gessi rem, volo hic in fano supplicare, I am going to worship here, etc., id. Curc. 4, 2, 41:

    nunc quod relicuom restat volo persolvere,

    id. Cist. 1, 3, 40:

    sustine hoc, Penicule, exuvias facere quas vovi volo,

    id. Men. 1, 3, 13:

    sinite me prospectare ne uspiam insidiae sint, consilium quod habere volumus,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 3; id. As. 2, 2, 113; id. Cas. 4, 2, 3; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 61:

    si Prometheus, cum mortalibus ignem dividere vellet, ipse a vicinis carbunculos conrogaret, ridiculus videretur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9:

    ait se velle de illis HS. LXXX. cognoscere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 23, § 56:

    hinc se recipere cum vellent, rursus illi ex loco superiore nostros premebant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 45. —
    g.
    To be about to, on the point of: quom mittere signum Volt, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 88 Vahl.):

    quotiens ire volo foras, retines me, rogitas quo ego eam,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 5:

    quae sese in ignem inicere voluit, prohibui,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 113:

    si scires aspidem latere uspiam, et velle aliquem imprudentem super eam adsidere,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 18, 59; id. Div. 1, 52, 118:

    quod cum facere vellent, intervenit M. Manilius,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18:

    qui cum opem ferre vellet, nuntiatum sibi esse aliam classem ad Aegates insulas stare,

    Liv. 22, 56, 7:

    at Libys obstantes dum vult obvertere remos, In spatium resilire manus breve vidit,

    Ov. M. 3, 676; 1, 635:

    P. Claudius cum proelium navale committere vellet,

    Val. Max. 1, 4, 3.—
    h.
    Will, and in oblique discourse and questions would, the auxiliaries of the future and potential: animum advortite: Comediai nomen dari vobis volo, I will give you, etc., Plaut. Cas. prol. 30:

    sed, nisi molestum est, nomen dare vobis volo comediai,

    id. Poen. prol. 50:

    vos ite intro. Interea ego ex hac statua verberea volo erogitare... quid sit factum,

    id. Capt. 5, 1, 30:

    i tu atque arcessi illam: ego intus quod facto est opus volo adcurare,

    id. Cas. 3, 3, 35; id. Cist. 1, 1, 113; id. Most. 1, 1, 63; id. Poen. 2, 44; id. Pers. 1, 3, 85; id. Rud. 1, 2, 33: cum vero (gemitus) nihil imminuat doloris, cur frustra turpes esse volumus? why will ( would) we be disgraceful to no purpose? Cic. Tusc. 2, 24, 57:

    illa enim (ars) te, verum si loqui volumus, ornaverat,

    id. ib. 1, 47, 112:

    ergo, si vere aestimare volumus, etc.,

    Val. Max. 7, 5, 6:

    si vere aestimare Macedonas, qui tunc erant, volumus,

    Curt. 4, 16, 33:

    ejus me compotem facere potestis, si meminisse vultis, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 40, 5:

    visne igitur, dum dies ista venit... interea tu ipse congredi mecum ut, etc....?

    id. 8, 7, 7:

    volo tibi Chrysippi quoque distinctionem indicare,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 14: vis tu homines urbemque feris praeponere silvis? will you prefer, etc., Hor. S. 2, 6, 92; cf. velim and vellem, would, II. A. 2.—
    k.
    Sometimes volui = mihi placuit, I resolved, concluded (generally, in this meaning, followed by an infinitive clause, v. I. B. 4.):

    uti tamen tuo consilio volui,

    still I concluded to follow your advice, Cic. Att. 8, 3, 1.—
    1.
    To be willing, ready, to consent, like to do something: si sine bello velint rapta... tradere... se exercitum domum reducturum, if they were willing, would consent to, would deliver, etc., Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 52:

    is dare volt, is se aliquid posci,

    likes to give, id. As. 1, 3, 29:

    hoc dixit, si hoc de cella concederetur, velle Siculos senatui polliceri frumentum in cellam gratis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 87, § 200:

    ei laxiorem daturos, si venire ad causam dicendam vellet,

    Liv. 39, 17, 2; 5, 36, 4: nemo invenitur qui pecuniam suam dividere velit. Sen. Brev. Vit. 3, 1:

    plerique concessam sibi sub condicione vitam si militare adversus eum vellent, recusarunt,

    Suet. Caes. 68:

    dedere etiam se volebant, si toleranda viris imperarentur,

    Flor. 1, 33 (2, 18), 12.—So with negatives, to be not willing, not to suffer, not to like, not to allow, refuse:

    heri nemo voluit Sostratam intro admittere,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 49:

    cum alter verum audire non vult,

    Cic. Lael. 26, 98: a proximis quisque minime anteiri vult, likes least to be surpassed, etc., Liv. 6, 34, 7:

    nihil ex his praeter... accipere voluit,

    refused to accept, Val. Max. 4, 3, 4.—
    m.
    To do something voluntarily or intentionally: volo facere = mea voluntate or sponte facio: si voluit accusare, pietati tribuo;

    si jussus est, necessitati,

    if he accused of his own free will, I ascribe it to his filial love, Cic. Cael. 1, 2:

    utrum statuas voluerint tibi statuere, an coacti sint,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 65, § 157:

    de risu quinque sunt quae quaerantur... sitne oratoris risum velle permovere,

    on purpose, id. Or. 2, 58, 235:

    laedere numquam velimus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 28.—So, non velle with inf., to do something unwillingly, with reluctance:

    vivere noluit qui mori non vult,

    who dies with reluctance, Sen. Ep. 30, 10.—
    n.
    To be of opinion, think, mean, pretend (rare with inf.; usu. with acc. and inf.; v. B. 8.):

    haec tibi scripsi ut isto ipso in genere in quo aliquid posse vis, te nihil esse cognosceres,

    in which you imagine you have some influence, Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2:

    in hoc homo luteus etiam callidus ac veterator esse vult, quod ita scribit, etc.,

    pretends, means to be, id. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 35: sed idem Aelius Stoicus esse voluit, orator autem nec studuit um quam, nec fuit, id. Brut. 56, 206:

    Pythago. ras, qui etiam ipse augur esse vellet,

    id. Div. 1, 3, 5.—
    o.
    To like, have no objection to, approve of (cf. E. 1. sq.):

    magis eum delectat qui se ait philosophari velle sed paucis: nam omnino haud placere,

    that he liked, had no objection to philosophizing, Cic. Rep. 1, 18, 30; v. also II. A.—
    2.
    With pres. inf. understood.
    a.
    Supplied from a preceding or subsequent clause.
    (α).
    To wish, it is his will, etc. (cf. 1. a. and b. supra):

    nunc bene vivo et fortunate atque ut volo, i. e. vivere,

    as I wish, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 111: quod diu vivendo multa quae non volt (i. e. videre) videt, Caecil. ap. Cic. Sen. 8, 25:

    proinde licet quotvis vivendo condere saecla,

    Lucr. 3, 1090:

    nec tantum proficiebam quantum volebam,

    Cic. Att. 1, 17, 1:

    tot autem rationes attulit, ut velle (i. e. persuadere) ceteris, sibi certe persuasisse videatur,

    id. Tusc. 1, 21, 49:

    sed liceret, si velint, in Ubiorum finibus considere,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 81:

    quo praesidio senatus libere quae vellet decernere auderet,

    id. B. C. 1, 2.—Of things:

    neque chorda sonum reddit quem vult manus et mens,

    Hor. A. P. 348.—
    (β).
    To choose, be pleased (freq.):

    tum mihi faciat quod volt magnus Juppiter,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 50:

    id repetundi copia est, quando velis,

    id. Trin. 5, 2, 7:

    habuit aurum quamdiu voluit,

    Cic. Cael. 13, 31:

    rapiebat et asportabat quantum a quoque volebat Apronius,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 29:

    provincias quas vellet, quibus vellet, venderet?

    id. Sest. 39, 84:

    quotiens ille tibi potestatem facturus sit ut eligas utrum velis,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45:

    daret utrum vellet subclamatum est,

    Liv. 21, 18, 14:

    senatus consultum factum est ut plebes praeficeret quaestioni quem vellet,

    id. 4, 51, 2:

    saxi materiaeque caedendae unde quisque vellet jus factum,

    id. 5, 55, 3; cf. id. 2, 13, 9; 5, 46, 10; 6, 25, 5; 22, 10, 23; 23, 6, 2; 23, 15, 15; 23, 45, 10; 23, 47, 2;

    26, 21, 11: vicem suam conquestus, quod sibi soli non liceret amicis, quatenus vellet, irasci,

    Suet. Aug. 66:

    at tu quantum vis tolle,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 16.—
    (γ).
    To intend, it is my purpose, etc. (v. 1. c. supra):

    sine me pervenire quo volo,

    let me come to my point, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 44:

    scripsi igitur Aristotelio more, quemadmodum quidem volui, tres libros... de Oratore,

    as I intended, Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ut meliore condicione quam qua ipse vult imitetur homines eos qui, etc.,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 8, 25:

    ego istos posse vincere scio, velle ne scirem ipsi fecerunt,

    Liv. 2, 45, 12. —
    (δ).
    To be willing, to consent, I will (v. 1. h. and l. supra): tu eum orato... St. Sane volo, yes, I will, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 57:

    jube me vinciri. Volo, dum istic itidem vinciatur,

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 75:

    patri dic velle (i. e. uxorem ducere),

    that you consent, are willing, Ter. And. 2, 3, 20 (cf.: si vis, II. A. 2, and sis, supra init.).—
    (ε).
    To do something voluntarily (v. 1. m. supra):

    tu selige tantum, Me quoque velle velis, anne coactus amem,

    Ov. Am. 3, 11, 50.—
    b.
    With ellipsis of inf.
    (α).
    Volo, with a designation of place, = ire volo:

    nos in Formiano morabamur, quo citius audiremus: deinde Arpinum volebamus,

    I intended to go to Arpinum, Cic. Att. 9, 1, 3:

    volo mensi Quinctili in Graeciam,

    id. ib. 14, 7, 2:

    hactenus Vitellius voluerat (i. e. procedere),

    Tac. A. 12, 42 fin.
    (β).
    With other omissions, supplied from context: volo Dolabellae valde desideranti, non reperio quid (i. e. to dedicate some writing to him), Cic. Att. 13, 13, 2.—
    (γ).
    In mal. part., Plaut. Aul. 2, 4, 7; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 16; 2. 19, 2; Prop. 1, 13, 36.—
    3.
    With perfect infinitive active (rare).
    a.
    In negative imperative sentences dependent on ne velis, ne velit (in oblique discourse also ne vellet), where ne velis has the force of noli. The perfect infinitive emphatically represents the action as completed (ante-class. and poet.).
    (α).
    In ancient ordinances of the Senate and of the higher officers (not in laws proper): NEIQVIS EORVM BACANAL HABVISE VELET... BACAS VIR NEQVIS ADIESE VELET CEIVIS ROMANVS... NEVE PECVNIAM QVISQVAM EORVM COMOINEM HABVISE VELET... NEVE... QVIQVAM FECISE VELET. NEVE INTER SED CONIOVRASE, NEVE COMVOVISE NEVE CONSPONDISE, etc., S. C. de Bacch. 4-13 ap. Wordsworth, Fragm. and Spec. p. 172.—So, in quoting such ordinances: per totam Italiam edicta mitti ne quis qui Bacchis initiatus esset, coisse aut convenisse causa sacrorum velit. [p. 2006] neu quid talis rei divinae fecisse, Liv. 39, 14, 8:

    edixerunt ne quis quid fugae causa vendidisse neve emisse vellet,

    id. 39, 17, 3. —
    (β).
    In imitation of official edicts: (vilicus) ne quid emisse velit insciente domino, neu quid domino celasse velit, the overseer must not buy any thing, etc., Cato, R. R. 5, 4:

    interdico, ne extulisse extra aedis puerum usquam velis,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 48:

    oscula praecipue nulla dedisse velis (= noli dare),

    Ov. Am. 1, 4, 38:

    ne quis humasse velit Ajacem, Atride, vetas? Cur?

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 187.—
    b.
    In affirmative sentences, implying command (in any mood or tense; mostly poet.): neminem nota strenui aut ignavi militis notasse volui, I have decided to mark no one, etc., Liv. 24, 16, 11: quia pepercisse vobis volunt, committere vos cur pereatis non patiuntur, because they have decided to spare you, etc., id. 32, 21, 33:

    sunt delicta tamen quibus ignovisse velimus (= volumus),

    which should be pardoned, Hor. A. P. 347.—
    c.
    To represent the will as referring to a completed action.
    (α).
    In optative sentences with vellem or velim, v. II. B. 5. b. a, and II. C. 1. b.—
    (β).
    In other sentences ( poet. and post-class.): ex omnibus praediis ex quibus non hac mente recedimus ut omisisse possessionem velimus, with the will to abandon (omittere would denote the purpose to give up at some future time), Dig. 43, 16, 1, § 25; so,

    an erit qui velle recuset Os populi meruisse?

    Pers. 1, 41:

    qui me volet incurvasse querela,

    id. 1, 91.
    B.
    With acc. and inf.
    1.
    To wish (v. A. 1. a.).
    a.
    With a different subject: hoc volo scire te: Perditus sum miser, I wish you to know, etc., Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 46:

    deos volo consilia vostra vobis recte vortere,

    id. Trin. 5, 2, 31:

    emere oportet quem tibi oboedire velis,

    id. Pers. 2, 4, 2:

    scin' quid nunc te facere volo?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 85:

    si perpetuam vis esse adfinitatem hanc,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 10:

    consul ille egit eas res quarum me participem esse voluit,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 17, 41:

    vim volumus exstingui: jus valeat necesse est,

    id. Sest. 42, 92:

    nec mihi hunc errorem extorqueri volo,

    id. Sen. 23, 85:

    hoc te scire volui,

    id. Att. 7, 18, 4:

    harum causarum fuit justissima quod Germanos suis quoque rebus timere voluit,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 16:

    ut equites qui salvam esse rempublicam vellent ex equis desilirent,

    Liv. 4, 38, 2:

    si me vivere vis recteque videre valentem,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 3:

    si vis me flere, dolendum est Primum ipsi tibi,

    id. A. P. 102.—With pass. inf. impers.:

    regnari tamen omnes volebant,

    that there should be a king, Liv. 1, 17, 3:

    mihi volo ignosci,

    I wish to be pardoned, Cic. Or. 1, 28, 130:

    volt sibi quisque credi,

    Liv. 22, 22, 14. —
    b.
    With the same subject.
    (α).
    With inf. act.:

    quae mihi est spes qua me vivere velim,

    what hope have I, that I should wish to live? Plaut. Rud. 1, 3, 33:

    volo me placere Philolachi,

    id. Most. 1, 3, 11; cf. id. Trin. 2, 2, 47; id. Rud. 2, 6, 1:

    judicem esse me, non doctorem volo,

    Cic. Or. 33, 117:

    vult, credo, se esse carum suis,

    id. Sen. 20, 73; so id. Off. 1, 31, 113; id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; 2, 23, 95. —
    (β).
    With inf. pass.:

    quod certiorem te vis fieri quo quisque in me animo sit,

    Cic. Att. 11, 13, 1; cf. id. Fam. 1, 9, 18:

    qui se ex his minus timidos existimari volebant,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 39; cf. id. B. C. 2, 29:

    religionis se causa... Bacchis initiari velle,

    Liv. 39, 10, 2:

    Agrippae se nepotem neque credi neque dici volebat,

    Suet. Calig. 22 fin.
    2.
    Of the will of superiors, gods, etc. (cf. A. 1. b. supra), I want, it is my will:

    me absente neminem volo intromitti,

    Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 21:

    viros nostros quibus tu voluisti esse nos matres familias,

    id. Stich. 1, 2, 41; id. Most. 1, 4, 2; id. Rud. 4, 5, 9; id. Trin. 1, 2, 1:

    pater illum alterum (filium) secum omni tempore volebat esse,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 42:

    (deus) quinque reliquis motibus orbem esse voluit expertem,

    id. Univ. 10; cf. id. Sest. 69, 147; id. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 57; 1, 5, 14:

    causa mittendi fuit quod iter per Alpes... patefieri volebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 1; cf. id. ib. 5, 9; id. B. C. 1, 4:

    quippe (senatus) foedum hominem a republica procul esse volebat,

    Sall. C. 19, 2:

    nec (di) patefieri (crimina) ut impunita essent, sed ut vindicarentur voluerunt,

    Liv. 39, 16, 11; cf. id. 1, 56, 3; 2, 28, 5; 25, 32, 6:

    senatus... Romano sanguini pudicitiam tutam esse voluit,

    Val. Max. 6, 1, 9; cf. id. 6, 9, 2.—So in the historians: quid fieri vellet (velit), after a verbum imperandi or declarandi, he gave his orders, explained his will:

    quid fieri velit praecipit,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 56:

    ibi quid fieri vellet imperabat,

    id. ib. 7, 16:

    quid fieri vellet ostendit,

    id. ib. 7, 27:

    quae fieri vellet edocuit,

    id. B. C. 3, 108; cf. id. B. G. 7, 45; id. B. C. 3, 78; 3, 89:

    quid fieri vellet edixit,

    Curt. 8, 10, 30; 4, 13, 24; Val. Max. 7, 4, 2.— Frequently majores voluerunt, it was the will of our ancestors, referring to ancient customs and institutions:

    sacra Cereris summa majores nostri religione confici caerimoniaque voluerunt,

    Cic. Balb. 24, 55: majores vestri ne vos quidem temere coire voluerunt, cf. id. ib. 17, 39; 23, 54; id. Agr. 2, 11, 26; id. Fl. 7, 15; id. Imp. Pomp. 13, 39; id. Div. 1, 45, 103; id. Font. 24, 30 (10, 20); id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70.—Of testamentary dispositions: cum Titius, heres meus, mortuus erit, volo hereditatem meam ad P. Mevium pertinere, Gai Inst. 2, 277. Except in the institution of the first heir: at illa (institutio) non est comprobata: Titum heredem esse volo, Gai Inst. 2, 117. —
    3.
    Of the intention of a writer, etc., to want, to mean, intend:

    Asinariam volt esse (nomen fabulae) si per vos licet,

    Plaut. As. prol. 12:

    Plautus hanc mihi gnatam esse voluit Inopiam,

    has wanted Poverty to be my daughter, made her my daughter, id. Trin. prol. 9:

    primumdum huic esse nomen Diphilus Cyrenas voluit,

    id. Rud. prol. 33:

    quae ipsi qui scripserunt voluerunt vulgo intellegi,

    meant to be understood by all, Cic. Or. 2, 14, 60:

    si non hoc intellegi volumus,

    id. Fat. 18, 41:

    quale intellegi vult Cicero cum dicit orationem suam coepisse canescere,

    Quint. 11, 1, 31; so id. 9, 4, 82; 9, 3, 9:

    quamquam illi (Prometheo) quoque ferreum anulum dedit antiquitas vinculumque id, non gestamen, intellegi voluit,

    Plin. 33, 1, 4, § 8.—
    4.
    To resolve:

    Siculi... me defensorem calamitatum suarum... esse voluerunt,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 4, 11:

    si a me causam hanc vos (judices) agi volueritis,

    if you resolve, id. ib. 8, 25:

    senatus te voluit mihi nummos, me tibi frumentum dare,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 85, § 196:

    qua (statua) abjecta, basim tamen in foro manere voluerunt,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 66, §

    160: liberam debere esse Galliam quam (senatus) suis legibus uti voluisset,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 45:

    tu Macedonas tibi voluisti genua ponere, venerarique te ut deum,

    Curt. 8 (7), 13.— Hence,
    5.
    To order, command: erus meus tibi me salutem multam voluit dicere, has ordered me, etc., Plaut. Ps. 4, 2, 25:

    montem quem a Labieno occupari voluerit,

    which he had ordered to be occupied, Caes. B. G. 1, 22:

    ibi futuros esse Helvetios ubi eos Caesar... esse voluisset,

    id. ib. 1, 13 (for velitis jubeatis with inf.-clause, v. II. B. 5. d.).—
    6.
    To consent, allow (cf. A. 1. I.):

    obtinuere ut (tribuni) tribuniciae potestatis vires salubres vellent reipublicae esse,

    they prevailed upon them to permit the tribunitian power to be wholesome to the republic, Liv. 2, 44, 5:

    Hiero tutores... puero reliquit quos precatus est moriens ut juvenum suis potissimum vestigiis insistere vellent,

    id. 24, 4, 5:

    petere ut eum... publicae etiam curae ac velut tutelae vellent esse (i. e. senatus),

    id. 42, 19, 5:

    orare tribunos ut uno animo cum consulibus bellum ab urbe ac moenibus propulsari vellent,

    id. 3, 69, 5:

    quam superesse causam Romanis cur non... incolumis Syracusas esse velint?

    id. 25, 28, 8:

    si alter ex heredibus voluerit rem a legatario possideri, alter non, ei qui noluit interdictum competet,

    Dig. 43, 3, 1, § 15.—So negatively = not to let, not to suffer:

    cum P. Attio agebant ne sua pertinacia omnium fortunas perturbari vellet,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 36.—
    7.
    To be of opinion that something should be, to require, demand:

    voluisti enim in suo genere unumquemque... esse Roscium,

    Cic. Or. 1, 61, 258: eos exercitus quos contra se multos jam annos aluerint velle dimitti, he demanded the disbanding of, etc., Caes. B. C. 1, 85:

    (Cicero) vult esse auctoritatem in verbis,

    Quint. 8, 3, 43:

    vult esse Celsus aliquam et superiorem compositionem,

    id. 9, 4, 137:

    si tantum irasci vis sapientem quantum scelerum indignitas exigit,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 9, 4. —
    8.
    To be of opinion that something is or was, = censere, dicere, but implying that the opinion is erroneous or doubtful, usu. in the third pers., sometimes in the second.
    (α).
    To imagine, consider:

    est genus hominum qui esse se primos omnium rerum volunt, Nec sunt,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17:

    semper auget adsentator id quod is cujus ad voluntatem dicitur vult esse magnum,

    Cic. Lael. 26, 98:

    si quis patricius, si quis—quod illi volunt invidiosius esse—Claudius diceret,

    Liv. 6, 40, 13.—
    (β).
    To be of opinion, to hold:

    vultis, opinor, nihil esse... in natura praeter ignem,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 14, 36:

    volunt illi omnes... eadem condicione nasci,

    id. Div. 2, 44, 93:

    vultis evenire omnia fato,

    id. ib. 2, 9, 24:

    alteri censent, etc., alteri volunt a rebus fatum omne relegari,

    id. Fat. 19, 45:

    vultis a dis immortalibus hominibus dispertiri somnia,

    id. N. D. 3, 39, 93; id. Tusc. 1, 10, 20; id. Fin. 3, 11, 36; id. Rep. 2, 26, 48:

    volunt quidam... iram in pectore moveri effervescente circa cor sanguine,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 19, 3.—
    (γ).
    To say, assert:

    si tam familiaris erat Clodiae quam tu esse vis,

    as you say he is, Cic. Cael. 21, 53:

    sit sane tanta quanta tu illam esse vis,

    id. Or. 1, 55, 23:

    ad pastum et ad procreandi voluptatem hoc divinum animal procreatum esse voluerunt: quo nihil mihi videtur esse absurdius,

    id. Fin. 2, 13, 40; 2, 17, 55; 2, 42, 131; 2, 46, 142; id. Fat. 18, 41.—With perf. inf.:

    Rhodi ego non fui: me vult fuisse,

    Cic. Planc. 34, 84.—
    (δ).
    To pretend, with perf. inf., both subjects denoting the same person:

    unde homines dum se falso terrore coacti Effugisse volunt, etc.,

    Lucr. 3, 69 (cf. A. 1. n. supra).—
    (ε).
    To mean, with perf. inf.:

    utrum scientem vultis contra foedera fecisse, an inscientem?

    Cic. Balb. 5, 13.— With pres. inf.:

    quam primum istud, quod esse vis?

    what do you mean by as soon as possible? Sen. Ep. 117, 24.—
    (ζ).
    Rarely in the first pers., implying that the opinion is open to discussion:

    ut et mihi, quae ego vellem non esse oratoris, concederes,

    what according to my opinion is not the orator's province, Cic. Or. 1, 17, 74.—
    9.
    In partic.
    a.
    With things as subjects.
    (α).
    Things personified:

    ne res publica quidem haec pro se suscipi volet,

    would have such things done for it, Cic. Off. 1, 45, 159:

    cui tacere grave sit, quod homini facillimum voluerit esse natura,

    which nature willed should be easiest for man, Curt. 4, 6, 6: fortuna Q. Metellum... nasci in urbe terrarum principe voluit, fate ordained that, etc., Val. Max. 7, 1, 1: nihil rerum ipsa natura voluit magnum effici cito, it is the law of nature that, etc., Quint. 10, 3, 4:

    quid non ingenio voluit natura licere?

    what license did nature refuse to genius? Mart. 8, 68, 9:

    me sine, quem semper voluit fortuna jacere,

    Prop. 1, 6, 25:

    hanc me militiam fata subire volunt,

    id. 1, 6, 30.—
    (β).
    Of laws, to provide:

    duodecim tabulae nocturnum furem... interfici impune voluerunt,

    Cic. Mil. 3, 9:

    lex duodecim tabularum tignum aedibus junctum... solvi prohibuit, pretiumque ejus dari voluit,

    Dig. 46, 3, 98, § 8 fin. (cf. Cic. Div. in Caecil. 6, 21, b. a, infra).—
    b.
    With perf. pass. inf., to represent a state or result wished for.
    (α).
    The inf. being in full, with esse expressed: si umquam quemquam di immortales voluere esse auxilio adjutum, tum me et Calidorum servatum volunt, if it ever was the will of the gods that any one should be assisted, etc., Plaut. Ps. 4, 1, 1: Corinthum patres vestri, totius Graeciae lumen, exstinctum esse voluerunt, it was their will that Corinth should be ( and remain) destroyed, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 11:

    nostri... leges et jura tecta esse voluerunt,

    id. Or. 1, 59, 253:

    propter eam partem epistulae tuae per quam te et mores tuos purgatos et probatos esse voluisti,

    id. Att. 1, 17, 7; id. Fin. 4, 27, 76; id. de Or. 1, 51, 221:

    daturum se operam ne cujus suorum popularium mutatam secum fortunam esse vellent,

    Liv. 21, 45, 6: for velle redundant in this construction, v. II. A. 2. 3. infra.—With pass. inf. impers.:

    sociis maxime lex consultum esse vult,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 6, 21.—
    (β).
    With ellips. of esse (cf. Quint. 9, 3, 9): perdis me tuis dictis. Cu. Imo, servo et servatum volo, and mean that you should remain saved, Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 56:

    aunt qui volum te conventam,

    who want to see you, id. Cist. 4, 2, 39:

    eidem homini, si quid recte cura tum velis, mandes,

    if you want to have anything done well, id. As. 1, 1, 106:

    sed etiam est paucis vos quod monitos voluerim,

    id. Capt. prol. 53: id nunc res indicium haeo [p. 2007] facit, quo pacto factum volueris, this shows now why you wished this to be done, Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 31 (cf. Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 33; id. Aul. 3, 5, 30, II. B. 1, b, and II. B. 3. b. infra): domestica cura te levatum volo, I wish to see you relieved, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 9, 3:

    nulla sedes quo concurrant qui rem publicam defensam velint,

    id. Att. 8, 3, 4:

    rex celatum voluerat (i. e. donum),

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64:

    Hannibal non Capuam neglectam, neque desertos volebat socios,

    Liv. 25, 20, 5; 2, 15, 2; 2, 44, 3; 3, 21, 4; 22, 7, 4;

    26, 31, 6: contemptum hominis quem destructum volebat,

    Quint. 8, 3, 21:

    si te non emptam vellet, emendus erat,

    Ov. Am. 1, 8, 34 (so with velle redundant, v. II. A. 1. d., and II. A. 3. infra).—Both subjects denoting the same person:

    velle Pompeium se Caesari purgatum,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 8.— Esp., with pass. inf. impers.: alicui consultum velle, to take care for or advocate somebody's interests:

    liberis consultum volumus propter ipsos,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 17, 57:

    obliviscere illum aliquando adversario tuo voluisse consultum,

    id. Att. 16, 16 C, 10:

    quibus tribuni plebis nunc consultum repente volunt,

    Liv. 5, 5, 3; so id. 25, 25, 17:

    quamquam senatus subventum voluit heredibus,

    Dig. 36, 1, 1, § 4; so with dep. part., used passively:

    volo amori ejus obsecutum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 63.—
    c.
    With predic. adj., without copula.
    (α).
    The subjects being different (mostly aliquem salvum velle):

    si me vivum vis, pater, Ignosce,

    if you wish me to live, Ter. Heaut. 5, 5, 7:

    ille, si me alienus adfinem volet, Tacebit,

    id. Phorm. 4, 1, 16:

    ut tu illam salvam magis velis quam ego,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 17; 3, 5, 14:

    quoniam ex tota provincia soli sunt qui te salvum velint,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 67, § 150:

    irent secum extemplo qui rempublicam salvam vellent,

    Liv. 22, 53, 7.—
    (β).
    Both subjects denoting the same person (virtually = object infinitive):

    in occulto jacebis quom te maxime clarum voles (= clarus esse voles),

    when you will most wish to be famous, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 38:

    volo me patris mei similem,

    I wish to be like my father, id. As. 1, 1, 54: ut iste qui se vult dicacem et mehercule est, Appius, who means to be witty, etc., Cic. Or. 2, 60, 246:

    qui vero se populares volunt,

    who mean to be popular, id. Off. 2, 22, 78:

    ut integrum se salvumque velit,

    id. Fin. 2, 11, 33:

    ut (omne animal) se et salvum in suo genere incolumeque vellet,

    id. ib. 4, 8, 19. —
    d.
    With an inf.-clause understood.
    (α).
    Velle, to wish: utinam hinc abierit in malam crucem! Ad. Ita nos velle aequom est (ita = eum abire, etc.), Plaut. Poen. 4, 1, 5:

    stulta es, soror, magis quam volo (i.e. te esse),

    id. Pers. 4, 4, 78; id. Trin. 1, 2, 8; 2, 4, 175; id. Stich. 1, 1, 13; id. Ps. 1, 5, 55:

    senatum non quod sentiret, sed quod ego vellem decernere,

    Cic. Mil. 5, 12:

    neque enim facile est ut irascatur cui tu velis judex (= cui tu eum irasci velis),

    id. Or. 2, 45, 190; cf. id. Sest. 38, 82.—
    (β).
    Referring to the will of superiors, etc.:

    deos credo voluisse, nam ni vellent, non fieret,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46: jamne abeo? St. Volo (sc. te abire), so I will, id. Cas. 2, 8, 57; cf. id. Mil. 4, 6, 12; id. Merc. 2, 3, 33.—
    (γ).
    To mean, intend (v. B. 3.):

    acutum etiam illud est cum ex alterius oratione aliud atque ille vult (sc. te excipere),

    Cic. Or. 2, 67, 273.—
    (δ).
    To require, demand (v B. 7.):

    veremur quidem vos, Romani, et, si ita vultis, etiam timemus,

    Liv. 39, 37, 17;

    and of things as subjects: cadentque vocabula, si volet usus (i. e. ea cadere),

    Hor. A. P. 71.—
    (ε).
    To be of opinion, will have (v. B. 8.):

    ergo ego, inimicus, si ita vultis, homini, amicus esse rei publicae debeo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 8, 19:

    nam illi regi tolerabili, aut, si voltis, etiam amabili, Cyro,

    id. Rep. 1, 28, 44; id. Fin. 2, 27, 89; 3, 4, 12; id. Cael. 21, 53; Liv. 21, 10, 7; Quint. 2, 17, 41.—
    (ζ).
    With ellips. of predic. inf. (v. A. 2. b.): cras de reliquiis nos volo (i. e. cenare), it is my intention that we dine, etc., Plaut. Stich. 3, 2, 40:

    volo Varronem (i. e. hos libros habere),

    Cic. Att. 13, 25, 3.
    C.
    With ut, ne, or ut ne.
    1.
    With ut.
    a.
    To wish:

    volo ut quod jubebo facias,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 8, 65:

    quia enim id maxime volo ut illi istac confugiant,

    id. Most. 5, 1, 49:

    ut mihi aedes aliquas conducat volo,

    id. Merc. 3, 2, 17: hoc prius volo meam rem agere. Th. Quid id est? Ph. Ut mihi hanc despondeas, id. Curc. 5, 2, 71: quid vis, nisi ut maneat Phanium? Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 8:

    velim ut tibi amicus sit,

    Cic. Att. 10, 16, 1:

    quare id quoque velim... ut sit qui utamur,

    id. ib. 11, 11, 2:

    maxime vellem, judices, ut P. Sulla... modestiae fructum aliquem percipere potuisset,

    id. Sull. 1, 1:

    equidem vellem uti pedes haberent (res tuae),

    id. Fam. 7, 33, 2:

    his ut sit digna puella volo,

    Mart. 11, 27, 14.—Both subjects denoting the same person: volueram, inquit, ut quam plurimum tecum essem, Brut. ap. Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1.—
    b.
    It is the will of, to want, ordain (v. B. 2.):

    at ego deos credo voluisse ut apud te me in nervo enicem,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 17: numquid me vis? Le. Ut valeas, id. Cist. 1, 1, 120: numquid vis? Ps. Dormitum ut abeas, id. Ps. 2, 2, 70:

    volo ut mihi respondeas,

    Cic. Vatin. 6, 14; 7, 17; 7, 18; 9, 21;

    12, 29: nuntia Romanis, caelestes ita velle ut mea Roma caput orbis terrarum sit,

    Liv. 1, 16, 7.—
    c.
    To intend, it is the purpose, aim, etc., the two subjects being the same:

    id quaerunt, volunt haec ut infecta faciant,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 9.—
    d.
    With other verbs:

    quod peto et volo parentes meos ut commonstres mihi,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 4:

    quasi vero aut populus Romanus hoc voluerit, aut senatus tibi hoc mandaverit ut... privares,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19, § 48;

    with opto,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 16, 48;

    with laboro,

    Liv. 42, 14, 3;

    with aequum censere,

    id. 39, 19, 7.—
    2.
    With ne:

    at ne videas velim,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 23:

    quid nunc vis? ut opperiare hos sex dies saltem modo, ne illam vendas, neu me perdas, etc.,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 102:

    credibile est hoc voluisse legumlatorem, ne auxilia liberorum innocentibus deessent,

    intended, Quint. 7, 1, 56.—
    3.
    With ut ne: quid nunc tibi vis? Mi. Ut quae te cupit, eam ne spernas, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 60.
    D.
    With subjunct. of dependent verb (mostly ante-class.; class. and freq. with velim and vellem; but in Cic. mostly epistolary and colloquial).
    1.
    To wish:

    ergo animum advortas volo,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 23; 2, 3, 28; 2, 3, 70:

    volo amet me patrem,

    id. As. 1, 1, 63 dub.:

    hoc volo agatis,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 83:

    ducas volo hodie uxorem,

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 14:

    quid vis faciam?

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 2, 49; Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 24; Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 64; 2, 3, 65; 2, 6, 65; 3, 3, 3; id. Ps. 4, 1, 17; 4, 7, 19; id. Cas. 2, 3, 56; id. Capt. 1, 2, 12; id. Poen. 3, 2, 16; id. Pers. 2, 4, 23; id. Rud. 5, 2, 45; 5, 3, 58; id. Stich. 5, 2, 21; Ter. Heaut. 4, 6, 14:

    volo etiam exquiras quam diligentissime poteris quid Lentulus agat?

    Cic. Att. 8, 12, 6:

    Othonem vincas volo,

    id. ib. 13, 29, 2:

    eas litteras volo habeas,

    id. ib. 13, 32, 3:

    visne igitur videamus quidnam sit, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 10, 15: visne igitur descendatur ad Lirim? id. Fragm. ap. Macr. S. 6, 4:

    volo, inquis, sciat,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 10, 2.—
    2.
    To be of opinion that something should be, demand, require (v. B. 7.): volo enim se efferat in adulescentia fecunditas, I like to see, etc., Cic. Or. 2, 21, 88:

    volo hoc oratori contingat ut, etc.,

    id. Brut. 84, 290.—
    3.
    With subj.-clause understood:

    abi atque obsona, propera! sed lepide volo (i. e. obsones),

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 55.
    E.
    With object nouns, etc.
    1.
    With acc. of a thing.
    a.
    With a noun, to want, wish for, like to have:

    voltisne olivas, aut pulmentum, aut capparim?

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 90:

    animo male est: aquam velim,

    id. Am. 5, 1, 6:

    quia videt me suam amicitiam velle,

    id. Aul. 2, 3, 68; so,

    gratiam tuam,

    id. Curc. 2, 3, 52; 2, 3, 56:

    aquam,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 34:

    discidium,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 14: nullam ego rem umquam in vita mea Volui quin tu in ea re mihi advorsatrix fueris, I never had any wish in my life, etc., id. Heaut. 5, 3, 5: (dixit) velle Hispaniam, he wanted Spain, i. e. as a province, Cic. Att. 12, 7, 1:

    mihi frumento non opus est: nummos volo,

    I want the money, id. Verr. 2, 3, 85, § 196:

    non poterat scilicet negare se velle pacem,

    id. Att. 15, 1 a, 3; cf. id. ib. 13, 32, 2 (v. II. C. 4. infra):

    si amplius obsidum (= plures obsides) vellet, dare pollicentur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 9 fin.:

    pacem etiam qui vincere possunt, volunt,

    Liv. 7, 40, 18:

    ferunt (eum)... honestum finem voluisse,

    Tac. A. 6, 26:

    cum Scipio veram vellet et sine exceptione victoriam,

    Flor. 1, 33 (2, 18), 12:

    mensae munera si voles secundae, Marcentes tibi porrigentur uvae,

    Mart. 5, 78, 11.—
    b.
    Neutr. adjj., denoting things, substantively used: utrum vis opta, dum licet. La. Neutrum volo, Plaut. Ps. 3, 6, 16:

    quorum isti neutrum volunt,

    acknowledge neither, Cic. Fat. 12, 28:

    voluimus quaedam, contendimus... Obtenta non sunt,

    we aspired to certain things, id. Balb. 27, 61:

    restat ut omnes unum velint,

    hold one opinion, id. Marcell. 10, 32:

    si plura velim,

    if I wished for more, Hor. C. 3, 16, 38:

    per quod probemus aliud legislatorem voluisse,

    that the law-giver intended something different, Quint. 7, 6, 8:

    ut putent, aliud quosdam dicere, aliud velle,

    that they say one thing and mean another, id. 9, 2, 85:

    utrum is qui scripsit... voluerit,

    which of the two was meant by the author, id. 7, 9, 15:

    ut nemo contra id quod vult dicit, ita potest melius aliquid velle quam dicit,

    mean better than he speaks, id. 9, 2, 89:

    quis enim pudor omnia velle?

    to desire every thing, Mart. 12, 94, 11.—
    c.
    With neutr. demonstr. expressed or understood, to want, intend, aim at, like, will:

    immo faenus: id primum volo,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 64:

    proximum quod sit bono... id volo,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 22:

    nisi ea quae tu vis volo,

    unless my purpose is the same as yours, id. Ep. 2, 2, 82:

    siquidem id sapere'st, velle te id quod non potest contingere,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 83:

    hoc (i. e. otium cum dignitate) qui volunt omnes optimates putantur,

    who aim at this, Cic. Sest. 45, 98:

    privatum oportet in re publica ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 124:

    quid est sapientia? Semper idem velle atque idem nolle,

    Sen. Ep. 20, 5:

    pudebit eadem velle quae volueras puer,

    id. ib. 27, 2:

    nec volo quod cruciat, nec volo quod satiat,

    Mart. 1, 57, 4.—With demonstr. in place of inf.-clause:

    hoc Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur Atridae (sc. poenas in me sumi),

    Verg. A. 2, 104:

    hoc velit Eurystheus, velit hoc germana Tonantis (sc. verum esse, Herculem, etc.),

    Ov. H. 9, 7; Hor. S. 2, 3, 88.—
    d.
    With neutr. of interrog. pron.: quid nunc vis? Am. Sceleste, at etiam quid velim, id tu me rogas? what do you want now? Plaut. Am. 4, 2, 5:

    eloquere quid velis,

    id. Cas. 2, 4, 2: heus tu! Si. Quid vis? id. Ps. 4, 7, 21; so Ter. Eun. 2, 1, 11; cf. Hor. S. 2, 3, 152:

    sed plane quid velit nescio,

    what his intentions are, Cic. Att. 15, 1 a, 5; id. de Or. 2, 20, 84:

    mittunt etiam ad dominos qui quaerant quid velint,

    to ask for their orders, id. Tusc. 2, 17, 41:

    quid? Si haec... ipsius amici judicarunt? Quid amplius vultis?

    what more do you require, will you have? id. Verr. 2, 3, 65, § 152:

    quid amplius vis?

    Hor. Epod. 17, 30:

    spectatur quid voluerit scriptor,

    we find out the author's intention, Quint. 7, 10, 1.—Sometimes quid vult = quid sibi vult (v. 4. b.), to mean, signify:

    capram illam suspicor jam invenisse... quid voluerit,

    what it signified, Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 30:

    sed tamen intellego quid velit,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 31, 101:

    quid autem volunt ea di immortales significantes quae sine interpretibus non possimus intellegere? etc.,

    id. Div. 2, 25, 54.—Of things as subjects:

    hunc ensem mittit tibi... Et jubet ex merito scire quid iste velit,

    Ov. H. 11, 96.—
    e.
    With rel. pron.:

    quod volui, ut volui, impetravi... a Philocomasio,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 5, 1:

    ut quod frons velit oculi sciant,

    that the eyes know what the forehead wants, id. Aul. 4, 1, 13:

    illi quae volo concedere,

    to yield to him my wishes, id. Cas. 2, 3, 49:

    si illud quod volumus dicitur,

    what we like, id. Truc. 1, 2, 95:

    multa eveniunt homini quae volt, quae nevolt,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 84; id. Ep. 2, 2, 4:

    quamquam (litterae tuae) semper aliquid adferunt quod velim,

    Cic. Att. 11, 11, 1:

    quae vellem quaeque sentirem dicendi,

    id. Marcell. 1, 1:

    uti ea quae vellent impetrarent,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    satis animi ad id quod tam diu vellent,

    to carry out what they had desired so long, Liv. 4, 54, 5:

    sed quod volebant non... expediebant,

    their purpose, id. 24, 23, 9. —Idiomatically: quod volo = quod demonstrare volo, what I intend to prove:

    illud quod volumus expressum est, ut vaticinari furor vera soleat,

    Cic. Div. 1, 31, 67:

    bis sumpsit quod voluit,

    he has twice begged the question, id. ib. 2, 52, 107.—With indef. relations:

    cornucopia ubi inest quidquid volo,

    whatever I wish for, Plaut. Ps. 2, 3, 5:

    Caesar de Bruto solitus est dicere: magni refert hic quid velit, sed quidquid volt, valde volt,

    whatever he wills he wills strongly, Cic. Att. 14, 1, 2.—
    f.
    With indef. pronn.
    (α).
    Si quid vis, if you want any thing: illo praesente mecum agito si quid voles, [p. 2008] Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 72: Py. Adeat si quid volt. Pa. Si quid vis, adi, mulier, id. Mil. 4, 2, 47:

    eumque Alexander cum rogaret, si quid vellet, ut diceret,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 266; Caes. B. G. 1, 7 fin.
    (β).
    Nisi quid vis, unless you wish to give some order, to make some remark, etc.:

    ego eo ad forum nisi quid vis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 94:

    nunc de ratione videamus, nisi quid vis ad haec,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 18, 42.—
    (γ).
    Numquid vis or ecquid vis? have you any orders to give? a formula used by inferiors before leaving their superiors; cf. Don. ad Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 39:

    visunt, quid agam, ecquid velim,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 113:

    numquid vis aliud?

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 111; 1, 2, 106; id. Ad. 2, 2, 39; 3, 3, 78; id. Hec. 2, 2, 30:

    numquid vellem rogavit,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 6:

    frequentia rogantium num quid vellet,

    Liv. 6, 34, 7:

    rogavit num quid in Sardiniam vellet. Te puto saepe habere qui num quid Romam velis quaerant,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 1.—
    2.
    With acc. of the person: aliquem velle.
    (α).
    To want somebody, i. e. in order to see him, to speak with him (ante-class. and colloq.):

    Demenaetum volebam,

    I wanted, wished to see, Demenoetus, Plaut. As. 2, 3, 12:

    bona femina et malus masculus volunt te,

    id. Cist. 4, 2, 40:

    solus te solum volo,

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 70:

    quia non est intus quem ego volo,

    id. Mil. 4, 6, 40:

    hae oves volunt vos,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 24:

    quis me volt? Perii, pater est,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 1:

    centuriones trium cohortium me velle postridie,

    Cic. Att. 10, 16, 4.—With paucis verbis or paucis, for a few words ( moments):

    volo te verbis pauculis,

    Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 28:

    sed paucis verbis te volo, Palaestrio,

    id. Mil. 2, 4, 22:

    Sosia, Adesdum, paucis te volo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 2.—
    (β).
    To love, like somebody, to be fond of somebody (anteclass. and poet.):

    hanc volo (= amo),

    Plaut. As. 5, 1, 18:

    sine me amare unum Argyrippum... quem volo,

    id. ib. 3, 2, 38:

    quom quae te volt, eamdem tu vis,

    id. Mil. 4, 2, 80:

    aut quae (vitia) corpori' sunt ejus siquam petis ac vis,

    Lucr. 4, 1152:

    quam volui nota fit arte mea,

    Ov. Am. 1, 10, 60: nolo virum, facili redimit qui sanguine famam: hunc volo, laudari qui sine morte potest, I like the one who, etc., Mart. 1, 8, 6.—
    (γ).
    To wish to have:

    roga, velitne an non uxorem,

    whether he wishes to have his wife or not, Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 43:

    ut sapiens velit gerere rem publicam, atque... uxorem adjungere, et velle ex ea liberos (anacoluth.),

    Cic. Fin. 3, 20, 68.—

    With two accusatives: (narrato) illam te amare et velle uxorem,

    that you wish to have her as your wife, Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 25; cf. id. Phorm. 1, 2, 65.—
    3.
    With two accusatives, of the person and the thing: aliquem aliquid velle, to want something of somebody (cf.: aliquem aliquid rogare; mostly ante-class.;

    not in Cic.): numquid me vis?

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 120:

    face certiorem me quid meus vir me velit,

    id. Cas. 2, 6, 1:

    num quidpiam me vis aliud?

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 81:

    nunc verba in pauca conferam quid te velim,

    id. As. 1, 1, 74:

    narrabit ultro quid sese velis,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 60:

    quid me voluisti?

    id. Mil. 4, 2, 35:

    numquid aliud me vis?

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 101:

    quin tu uno verbo dic quid est quod me velis,

    id. And. 1, 1, 18; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 85; id. Cist. 2, 3, 49; id. As. 2, 3, 12; id. Merc. 5, 2, 27; id. Pers. 4, 6, 11; Ter. Heaut. 4, 8, 31; id. Phorm. 2, 4, 18; id. Eun. 2, 3, 47; id. Hec. 3, 4, 15:

    si quid ille se velit, illum ad se venire oportere,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 34:

    cum mirabundus quidnam (Taurea) sese vellet, resedisset Flaccus, Me quoque, inquit, etc.,

    Liv. 26, 15, 11; also, I want to speak with somebody (v. 2. a. a):

    paucis, Euclio, est quod te volo,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 22:

    est quod te volo secreto,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 33.—
    4.
    With acc. of thing and dat. of the person: aliquid alicui velle, to wish something to somebody (= cupio aliquid alicui; v. cupio;

    rare): quamquam vobis volo quae voltis, mulieres,

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 1:

    si ex me illa liberos vellet sibi,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 33:

    praesidium velle se senectuti suae,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 44:

    nihil est mali quod illa non initio filio voluerit, optaverit,

    Cic. Clu. 66, 188:

    rem Romanam huc provectam ut externis quoque gentibus quietem velit,

    Tac. A. 12, 11:

    cui ego omnia meritissimo volo et debeo,

    to whom I give and owe my best wishes, Quint. 9, 2, 35.—Esp., in the phrase quid vis (vult) with reflex. dat. of interest, lit. what do you want for yourself?
    a.
    Quid tibi vis = quid vis, the dat. being redundant (rare):

    quid aliud tibi vis?

    what else do you want? Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 90.—With quisque:

    haud ita vitam agerent ut nunc plerumque videmus Quid sibi quisque velit nescire,

    be ignorant as to their own aims and purposes, Lucr. 3, 1058.—
    b.
    What do you mean? what do you drive at? what is your scope, object, drift (rare in post-Aug. writers; Don. ad Ter. Eun. prol. 45, declares it an archaism).
    (α).
    In 1 st pers. (rare):

    nunc quid processerim huc, et quid mihi voluerim dicam,

    and what I meant thereby, what was the purpose of my coming, Plaut. As. prol. 6:

    quid mihi volui? quid mihi nunc prodest bona voluntas?

    Sen. Ben. 4, 21, 6.—
    (β).
    In 2 d pers.:

    quid nunc tibi vis, mulier, memora,

    what is the drift of your talk? Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 60: sed quid nunc tibi vis? what do you want to come at (i.e. by your preamble)? id. Poen. 1, 1, 24: quid tu tibi vis? Ego non tangam meam? what do you mean? i. e. what is your purpose? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 28:

    quid tibi vis? quid cum illa rei tibi est?

    id. ib. 4, 7, 34:

    quid est quod sic gestis? quid sibi hic vestitus quaerit? Quid est quod laetus sis? quid tibi vis?

    what do you mean by all this? id. ib. 3, 5, 11:

    quid est, inepta? quid vis tibi? quid rides?

    id. ib. 5, 6, 6:

    quid vis tibi? Quid quaeris?

    id. Heaut. 1, 1, 9: Ph. Fabulae! Ch. Quid vis tibi? id. Phorm. 5, 8, 53:

    roganti ut se in Asiam praefectum duceret, Quid tibi vis, inquit, insane,

    Cic. Or. 2, 67, 269; so in 2 d pers. plur.:

    pro deum fidem, quid vobis vultis?

    Liv. 3, 67, 7.—
    (γ).
    In 3 d pers.:

    quid igitur sibi volt pater? cur simulat?

    Ter. And. 2, 3, 1:

    quid hic volt veterator sibi?

    id. ib. 2, 6, 26:

    proinde desinant aliquando me isdem inflare verbis: quid sibi iste vult?... Cur ornat eum a quo desertus est?

    Cic. Dom. 11, 29:

    quid sibi vellet (Caesar)? cur in suas possessiones veniret?

    Caes. B. G. 1, 44 med.:

    conicere in eum oculos, mirantes quid sibi vellet (i. e. by courting the plebeians),

    Liv. 3, 35, 5:

    qui quaererent quid sibi vellent qui armati Aventinum obsedissent,

    id. 3, 50, 15:

    quid sibi voluit providentia quae Aridaeum regno imposuit?

    Sen. Ben. 4, 31, 1: volt, non volt dare Galla mihi, nec dicere possum quod volt et non volt, quid sibi Galla velit, Mart: 3, 90, 2.—
    (δ).
    Transf. of things as subjects, what means, what signifies? quid volt sibi, Syre, haec oratio? Ter. Heaut. 4, 1, 2:

    ut pernoscatis quid sibi Eunuchus velit,

    id. Eun. prol. 45:

    quid ergo illae sibi statuae equestres inauratae volunt?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 150:

    quid haec sibi horum civium Romanorum dona voluerunt?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 80, §

    186: avaritia senilis quid sibi velit, non intellego,

    what is the meaning of the phrase, id. Sen. 18, 66:

    quid ergo illa sibi vult pars altera orationis qua Romanos a me cultos ait?

    Liv. 40, 12, 14:

    tacitae quid vult sibi noctis imago?

    Ov. M. 9, 473.—
    5.
    Bene or male alicui velle, to wish one well or ill, to like or dislike one (ante-class. and poet.): Ph. Bene volt tibi. St. Nequam est illud verbum bene volt, nisi qui bene facit, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 37 sq.:

    jam diu ego huic bene et hic mihi volumus,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 4:

    ut tibi, dum vivam, bene velim plus quam mihi,

    id. Cas. 2, 8, 30:

    egone illi ut non bene vellem?

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 90; cf. id. ib. 2, 4, 95; id. Merc. 2, 1, 21; id. Ps. 4, 3, 7; id. Poen. 3, 3, 9:

    nisi quod tibi bene ex animo volo,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 6:

    quo tibi male volt maleque faciet,

    Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 44:

    atque isti etiam parum male volo,

    id. Truc. 5, 7; cf. id. As. 5, 1, 13:

    utinam sic sient qui mihi male volunt,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 13:

    non sibi male vult,

    he does not dislike himself, Petr. 38; so, melius or optime alicui velle, to like one better or best:

    nec est quisquam mihi aeque melius quoi vellem,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 42; id. Merc. 5, 2, 57:

    illi ego ex omnibus optime volo,

    id. Most. 1, 4, 24.—And bene velle = velle: bene volueris in precatione augurali Messalla augur ait, significare volueris, Fest. s. v. bene sponsis, p. 351.—
    6.
    With abl.: alicujus causa velle, to like one for his own sake, i. e. personally, a Ciceronian phrase, probably inst. of omnia alicujus causa velle; lit. to wish every thing (i.e. good) in somebody's behalf.
    (α).
    With omnia expressed: etsi mihi videor intellexisse cum tecum de re M. Annaeii locutus sum, te ipsius causa vehementer omnia velle, tamen, etc.... ut non dubitem quin magnus cumulus accedat commenda tionis meae, Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1:

    repente coepit dicere, se omnia Verris causa velle,

    that he had the most friendly disposition towards Verres, id. Verr. 2, 2, 26, § 64:

    accedit eo quod Varro magnopere ejus causa vult omnia,

    id. Fam. 13, 22, 1.—
    (β).
    Without omnia:

    per eos qui nostra causa volunt, valentque apud illum,

    Cic. Att. 11, 8, 1:

    sed et Phameae causa volebam,

    id. ib. 13, 49, 1:

    etsi te ipsius Attici causa velle intellexeram,

    id. ib. 16, 16, A, 6:

    valde enim ejus causa volo,

    id. Fam. 16, 17, 2 fin.:

    illud non perficis quo minus tua causa velim,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 6;

    12, 7, 1: si me velle tua causa putas,

    id. ib. 7, 17, 2:

    regis causa si qui sunt qui velint,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 1:

    credo tua causa velle Lentulum,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4, 5; id. Div. in Caecil. 6, 21; cf. id. Imp. Pomp. (v. C. 1. b. supra), where the phrase has its literal meaning; cf. also: alicujus causa (omnia) cupere; v. cupio.—
    7.
    With acc. and subjunct. per ecthesin (ante-class.): nunc ego illum meum virum veniat velim (by mixture of constructions: meum virum velim; and:

    meus vir veniat velim),

    Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 29:

    nunc ego Simonidem mi obviam veniat velim,

    id. Ps. 4, 5, 10:

    nimis hercle ego illum corvum ad me veniat velim,

    id. Aul. 4, 6, 4:

    saltem aliquem velim qui mihi ex his locis viam monstret,

    id. Rud. 1, 3, 35:

    patrem atque matrem viverent vellem tibi,

    id. Poen. 5, 2, 106; cf. id. Merc. 2, 1, 30 (v. E. 1. d. supra).
    F.
    Velle used absolutely, variously rendered to will, have a will, wish, consent, assent:

    quod vos, malum... me sic ludificamini? Nolo volo, volo nolo rursum,

    I nill I will, I will I nill again, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 57: novi ingenium mulierum: Nolunt ubi velis, ubi nolis cupiunt ultro, they will not where you will, etc., id. Eun. 4, 7, 43:

    quis est cui velle non liceat?

    who is not free to wish? Cic. Att. 7, 11. 2:

    in magnis et voluisse sat est,

    Prop. 2, 10 (3, 1), 6:

    tarde velle nolentis est,

    slow ness in consenting betrays the desire to refuse, Sen. Ben. 2, 5, 4:

    quae (animalia) nullam injuriam nobis faciunt, quia velle non possunt, id. Ira, 2, 26, 4: ejus est nolle qui potest velle,

    the power to assent implies the power to dissent, Dig. 50, 17, 3.—So velle substantively:

    sed ego hoc ipsum velle miserius duco quam in crucem tolli,

    that very wishing, Cic. Att. 7, 11, 2: inest enim velle in carendo, the word carere implies the notion of a wish, id. Tusc. 1, 36, 88:

    velle ac posse in aequo positum erat,

    his will and power were balanced, Val. Max. 6, 9, ext. 5:

    velle tuum nolo, Didyme, nolle volo,

    Mart. 5, 83, 2:

    velle suum cuique est,

    each has his own likings, Pers. 5, 53.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Redundant, when the will to do is identified with the act itself.
    1.
    In imperative sentences.
    a.
    In independent sentences introduced by noli velle, where noli has lost the idea of volition:

    nolite, judices, hunc velle maturius exstingui vulnere vestro quam suo fato,

    do not resolve, Cic. Cael. 32, 79:

    nolite igitur id velle quod fieri non potest,

    id. Phil. 7, 8, 25: qui timor bonis omnibus injectus sit... nolite a me commoneri velle, do not wish, expect, to be reminded by me, etc., id. Mur. 25, 50: nolite hunc illi acerbum nuntium velle perferri, let it not be your decision that, etc., id. Balb. 28, 64: cujus auspicia pro vobis experti nolite adversus vos velle experiri, do not desire, etc., Liv. 7, 40, 16:

    noli adversum eos me velle ducere, etc.,

    Nep. Att. 4, 2.—
    b.
    Ne velis or ne velit fecisse = ne feceris, or ne facito (v. I. A. 3. a. supra).—So ne velis with pres. inf.:

    neve, revertendi liber, abesse velis (= neve abfueris),

    Ov. H. 1, 80.—
    c.
    In affirmative imperative sentences (velim esse = esto;

    rare): tu tantum fida sorori Esse velis (= fida esto or sis),

    Ov. M. 2, 745; and in 3 d pers.:

    di procul a cunctis... Hujus notitiam gentis habere velint (= habeant),

    id. P. 1, 7, 8:

    credere modo qui discet velit (= credat qui discet),

    Quint. 8, prooem. 12. —
    d.
    In clauses dependent on verbs of commanding and wishing:

    aut quia significant divam praedicere ut armis Ac virtute velint patriam defendere terram (= ut defendant),

    Lucr. 2, 641: precor quaesoque ne ante oculos patris facere et pati omnia infanda velis (= facias et patiaris). Liv. 23, 9, 2:

    monentes ne experiri vellet imperium cujus vis, etc.,

    id. 2, 59, 4; 39, 13, 2:

    et mea... opto Vulnera qui fecit facta levare velit,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 2, 18: nos contra (oravimus) [p. 2009]... ne vertere secum Cuncta pater fatoque urguenti incumbere vellet, Verg. A. 2, 653. —With pass. perf. inf. (v. I. B. 9. b. b):

    legati Sullam orant ut filii innocentis fortunas conservatas velit (virtually = fortunas conservet),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 9, 25:

    a te peto ut utilitatem sociorum per te quam maxime defensam et auctam velis (= defendas et augeas),

    id. Fam. 13, 9, 3.—So after utinam or ut:

    utinam illi qui prius eum viderint me apud eum velint adjutum tantum quantum ego vellem si quid possem (= utinam illi me adjuvent quantum ego adjuvarem, etc.),

    id. Att. 11, 7, 7:

    cautius ut saevo velles te credere Marti (= utinam te credidisses),

    Verg. A. 11, 153:

    edictum praemittit ad quam diem magistratus... sibi esse praesto Cordubae vellet (= sibi praesto essent),

    Caes. B. C. 1, 19 (cf. also I. B. 9. b. b, and I. B. 2. fin. supra).—
    2.
    In conditional clauses, si facere velim = si faciam, often rendered by the potential or future auxiliaries would or will:

    non tu scis, Bacchae bacchanti si velis advorsarier, ex insana insaniorem facies? (= si advorseris),

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 80:

    si meum Imperium exsequi voluisset, interemptam oportuit (= si executus esset),

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 1, 22:

    si id confiteri velim, tamen istum condemnetis necesse est (= si id confitear),

    if I would acknowledge, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 18, § 45:

    si quis velit ita dicere... nihil dicat (= si quis dicat),

    id. Fat. 14, 32:

    dies deficiat si velim numerare, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 32, 81;

    so,

    id. Tusc. 5, 35, 102; id. Verr. 2, 2, 21, § 52:

    qua in sententia si constare voluissent, suam auctoritatem... recuperassent,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 14; id. Verr. 2, 1, 11, § 31; id. Lael. 20, 75:

    conicere potestis, si recordari volueritis quanta, etc.,

    if you will remember, id. Verr. 2, 4, 58, § 129; so id. Or. 1, 44, 197; id. Brut. 1, 2, 5:

    quod si audire voletis externa, maximas res publicas ab adulescentibus labefactatas reperietis,

    id. Sen. 6, 20; so id. Or. 1, 60, 256; 2, 23, 95:

    ejus me compotem voti vos facere potestis, si meminisse vultis, non vos in Samnio, etc.,

    Liv. 7, 40, 5; 23, 13, 6; 23, 15, 4: cum olera Diogeni lavanti Aristippus dixisset: si Dionysium adulare velles, ista non esses;

    Imo, inquit, si tu ista esse velles, non adulares Dionysium,

    Val. Max. 4, 3, ext. 4:

    ut si his (legibus) perpetuo uti voluissent, sempiternum habituri fuerint imperium,

    id. 5, 3, ext. 3:

    quid enim si mirari velit, non in silvestribus dumis poma pendere,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 10, 6; cf. Curt. 5, 1, 1; 3, 5, 6; Ov. H. 17 (18), 43.—With perf. inf. pass.:

    nisi ea (opera) certi auctores monumentis suis testata esse voluissent,

    Val. Max. 3, 2, 24.—
    3.
    In declarative sentences.
    a.
    Volo in 1 st pers. with perf. pass. inf. or part. (volo oratum esse or oratum = oro; v. I. B. 9. b. a and b):

    vos omnes opere magno esse oratos volo benigne ut operam detis, etc.,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 21:

    justam rem et facilem esse oratam a vobis volo,

    id. Am. prol. 33:

    illud tamen te esse admonitum volo, etc.,

    Cic. Cael. 3, 8:

    sed etiam est paucis vos quod monitos voluerim,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 53:

    illud te, Tulli, monitum velim etc.,

    Liv. 1, 23, 8:

    quamobrem omnes eos oratos volo Ne, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 26; so, factum volo = faciam: serva tibi sodalem, et mihi filium. Mne. Factum volo, I will, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 91: pariter nunc opera me adjuves ac, etc. Nau. Factum volo, Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 4; so Plaut. Pers. 2, 5, 10.—In 3 d pers.:

    esse salutatum vult te mea littera primum,

    Ov. P. 2, 7, 1.—
    b.
    With pres. inf.:

    propterea te vocari ad cenam volo (= voco te),

    Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 72:

    sed nunc rogare hoc ego vicissim te volo: quid fuit, etc. (= nunc te rogo),

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 136.—
    c.
    With perf. act. inf.:

    pace tua dixisse velim (= pace tua dixerim),

    Ov. P. 3, 1, 9.—
    d.
    In other connections, when the will or purpose is made more prominent than the action:

    eorum alter, qui Antiochus vocatur, iter per Siciliam facere voluit (= fecit),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 27, § 61:

    si suscipere eam (religionem) nolletis, tamen in eo qui violasset sancire vos velle oporteret (= sancire vos oporteret),

    id. ib. 2, 4, 51, §

    114: ut insequentibus diebus nemo eorum forum aut publicum adspicere vellet (= adspiceret),

    Liv. 9, 7, 11:

    talentis mille percussorem in me emere voluisti (= emisti),

    Curt. 3, 5, 6: quin etiam senatus gratias ei agentem quod redire voluisset ante portas eduxit (= quod redisset), Val. Max. 3, 4, 4:

    utri prius gratulemur, qui hoc dicere voluit, an cui audire contigit? (= qui hoc dixit),

    id. 4, 7, ext. 2:

    sic tua non paucae carpere facta volent (= carpent),

    Ov. P. 3, 1, 64.
    B.
    Velim, as potential subjunctive (mostly in 1 st pers. sing., as subjunctive of modest statement), = volo, I wish, I should like.
    1.
    With verb in the second person.
    a.
    With pres. subj., so most frequently in Cic.
    (α).
    As a modest imperative of the dependent verb: velim facias = fac, I wish you would do it, please do it:

    ego quae in rem tuam sint, ea velim facias,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 4, 9:

    eas (litteras) in eundem fasciculum velim addas,

    Cic. Att. 12, 53:

    eum salvere jubeas velim,

    id. ib. 7, 7, 7:

    velim me facias certiorem, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 19, 9:

    tu velim saepe ad nos scribas,

    id. ib. 1, 12, 4:

    velim mihi ignoscas,

    id. Fam. 13, 75, 1:

    tu velim animum a me parumper avertas,

    id. Lael. 1, 5; cf. id. Att. 1, 11, 3; 7, 3, 11; 8, 12, 5; id. Fam. 15, 3, 2 et saep.:

    haec pro causa mea dicta accipiatis velim,

    Liv. 42, 34, 13: velim, inquit, hoc mihi probes, Aug. ap. Suet. Aug. 51:

    Musa velim memores, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 53.—
    (β).
    Expressing a wish without a command (v. vellem):

    vera dicas velim,

    I wish you told the truth, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 18:

    quam velim Bruto persuadeas ut Asturae sit,

    Cic. Att. 14, 15, 4:

    ipse velim poenas experiare meas,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 11, 74;

    so in asseverations: ita velim me promerentem ames, dum vivas, mi pater, ut... id mihi vehementer dolet,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 47.—
    b.
    With infinitive clause.
    (α).
    With the force of a modest imperative:

    sed qui istuc credam ita esse, mihi dici velim (i. e. a te),

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 6, 15:

    extremum illud est quod mihi abs te responderi velim,

    Cic. Vat. 17, 41 (may be a dependent subjunctive):

    itaque vos ego, milites, non eo solum animo.... pugnare velim, etc.,

    Liv. 21, 41, 10.—
    (β).
    As a mere wish:

    velim te arbitrari, frater, etc.,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 1:

    primum te arbitrari id quod res est velim,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 9.—With perf. act.:

    hanc te quoque ad ceteras tuas eximias virtutes, Masinissa, adjecisse velim,

    Liv. 30, 14, 6.—With perf. pass., Liv. 1, 23, 8 (v. II. A. 3. a. supra).—
    c.
    With ut (rare):

    de tuis velim ut eo sis animo, quo debes esse,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 14, 4. —
    d.
    With ne (rare), Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 23 (v. I. C. 2. supra).—
    2.
    With dependent verb in the third person, expressing a wish.
    a.
    With pres. subj.:

    ita se defatigent velim Ut, etc.,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 3:

    de Cicerone quae mihi scribis, jucunda mihi sunt: velim sint prospera,

    Cic. Att. 14, 11, 2:

    velim seu Himilco, seu Mago respondeat,

    Liv. 23, 12, 15:

    sint haec vera velim,

    Verg. Cir. 306:

    nulla me velim syllaba effugiat,

    Quint. 11, 2, 45.—With final clause:

    tu velim mihi ad urbem praesto sis, ut tuis consiliis utar,

    Cic. Att. 9, 16, 3; cf. id. ib. 11, 11, 2 (v. I. C. 2. supra).—With ellips. of pres. subj.:

    velim mehercule Asturae Brutus (i. e. sit),

    Cic. Att. 14, 11, 1.—
    b.
    With perf. subj. (a wish referring to the past):

    nimis velim improbissumo homini malas edentaverint,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 2, 48.—
    c.
    With inf.-clause:

    ne ego nunc mihi modium mille esse argenti velim!

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 9: di me perdant! Me. Quodcunque optes, velim tibi contingere, id. Cist. 2, 1, 30:

    velim eum tibi placere quam maxime,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 249: idque primum ita esse velim;

    deinde etiam, si non sit, mihi persuaderi tamen velim,

    id. Tusc. 1, 11, 24:

    quod faxitis, deos velim fortunare,

    Liv. 6, 41, 12.—With perf. pass. inf. (v. I. B. 9. b. b, supra):

    edepol te hodie lapide percussum velim,

    Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 33:

    moribus praefectum mulierum hunc factum velim,

    id. Aul. 3, 5, 30.—With inf.-clause understood:

    nimium plus quam velim nostrorum ingenia sunt mobilia,

    Liv. 2, 37, 4.—
    3.
    With verb in the first person.
    a.
    With inf. pres. (so most freq.):

    atque hoc velim probare omnibus, etc.,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47:

    velim scire ecquid de te recordere,

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 13:

    quare te, ut polliceris, videre plane velim,

    id. Att. 11, 9, 3:

    nec vero velim... a calce ad carceres revocari,

    id. Sen. 23, 83:

    sed multitudo ea quid animorum... habeat scire velim,

    Liv. 23, 12, 7:

    interrogare tamen velim, an Isocrates Attice dixerit,

    Quint. 12, 10, 22.—With perf. inf. act., Ov. P. 3, 1, 9 (v. II. A. 3. c.).—
    b.
    With acc. and inf.:

    quod velis, modo id velim me scire,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 4, 8.—So with perf. pass. inf.:

    ego praeterquam quod nihil haustum ex vano velim, Fabium... potissimum auctorem habui,

    Liv. 22, 7, 4.—
    c.
    With subj. pres.:

    eo velim tam facili uti possim et tam bono in me quam Curione,

    Cic. Att. 10, 8, 10 B. and K. ex conj. Mull. (Lachm., Hoffm. posse; al. possem).—
    4.
    Velim in the principal sentence of conditional clauses, I would, I should be willing:

    aetatem velim servire, Libanum ut (= si) conveniam modo,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 8:

    velim, si fieri possit,

    id. Truc. 2, 4, 12:

    si quid tibi compendi facere possim, factum edepol velim (redundant),

    id. ib. 2, 4, 26:

    si possim, velim,

    id. Stich. 4, 2, 9:

    nec velim (imitari orationes Thucydidis) si possim,

    Cic. Brut. 83, 287:

    si liceat, nulli cognitus esse velim,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 12, 42.—
    5.
    The other persons of velim in potential use (rare).
    a.
    Velis.
    (α).
    Imperatively = cupito:

    quoniam non potest fieri quod vis, Id velis quod possit,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 6:

    atque aliquos tamen esse velis tibi, alumna, penates,

    Verg. Cir. 331.—
    (β).
    Declaratively with indef. subj.: quom inopia'st, cupias; quando ejus copia'st, tum non velis, then you (i.e. people, they) do not want it, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 45.—
    (γ).
    Redundant, as a form of the imperative of the dependent verb, Ov. Am. 1, 4, 38 (v. I. A. 3. a. b); id. H. 1, 80 (v. II. A. 1. b.); id. M. 2, 746 (v. II. A. 1. c.).—
    b.
    Velit.
    (α).
    Modestly for vult:

    te super aetherias licentius auras Haud pater ille velit, etc.,

    Verg. A. 7, 558: nemo enim minui velit id in quo maximus fuit, would like that to be diminished in which, etc., Quint. 12, 11, 6; cf. Verg. A. 2, 104, and Ov. H. 9, 7 (v. I. E. 1. c. supra).— So, poet., instead of vellet with perf. inf.:

    ut fiat, quid non illa dedisse velit?

    Ov. Am. 2, 17, 30.—
    (β).
    = imperative of third person:

    arma velit, poscatque simul rapiatque juventus,

    Verg. A. 7, 340.—Redundantly, giving to the dependent verb the force of an imperative, Quint. 8, prooem. 12 (v. II. A. 1. c. supra; v. also I. A. 3. a. supra).—
    c.
    Velimus.
    (α).
    In the optative sense of velim:

    sed scire velimus quod tibi nomen siet,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 6, 18.—
    (β).
    With imperative sense (= let us, we should, etc.), Quint. 6, 3, 28 (v. I. A. 2. d. supra).—
    d.
    Velitis = velim velitis (i. e. jubeatis, jubete):

    novos consules ita cum Samnite gerere bellum velitis ut omnia ante nos bella gesta sunt,

    Liv. 9, 8, 10.—So especially in velitis jubeatis, a formula in submitting a law to the votes of the people in the comitia centuriata or tributa, let it be resolved and ordered by you:

    rogatus in haec verba populus: velitis jubeatisne haec sic fieri, si respublica populi Romani Quiritium, etc.,

    Liv. 22, 10, 2:

    velitis jubeatis, Quirites... uti de ea re Ser. Sulpicius praetor urbanus ad senatum referat, etc.,

    id. 38, 54, 3.—And parodied by Cic.:

    velitis jubeatis ut quod Cicero versum fecerit,

    Cic. Pis. 29, 72.—So in oblique discourse, vellent juberent:

    rogationem promulgavit, vellent juberent Philippo... bellum indici,

    Liv. 31, 6, 1:

    vellent juberentne se regnare,

    id. 1, 46, 1; cf.

    in the resolution of the people: plebis sic jussit: quod senatus... censeat, id volumus jubemusque,

    id. 26, 33, 14.—
    e.
    Velint, optative and redundant, Cic. Att. 11, 7, 7 (v. II. A. 1. d.); Ov. P. 1, 7, 8 (v. II. A. 1. c.).
    C.
    Vellem, as potential subjunctive, I wish, should like, should have liked, representing the wish as contrary to fact, while velim refers to a wish which may be realized:

    de Menedemo vellem verum fuisset, de regina velim verum sit,

    Cic. Att. 15, 4, 4. It is not used with imperative force; cf.:

    quod scribis, putare te... vellem scriberes, cur ita putares... tu tamen velim scribas,

    Cic. Att. 11, 24, 5.—Often quam vellem, how I wish, i. e. I wish very much; and in the same sense: nimium vellem, v. infra.
    1.
    With verb in first person.
    a.
    With inf. pres., I wish, would like, referring to present or future actions:

    videre equidem vos vellem, cum huic aurum darem,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 68:

    vellem equidem idem posse gloriari quod Cyrus,

    Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    vellem equidem vobis placere, Quirites, sed, etc.,

    Liv. 3, 68, 9:

    quam fieri vellem meus libellus!

    Mart. 8, 72, 9.—With cuperem and optarem:

    nunc ego Triptolemi cuperem conscendere currus... Nunc ego Medeae vellem frenare dracones... Nunc ego jactandas optarem sumere pennas, etc.,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 8, 1 sqq.— [p. 2010] Rarely, I should have liked:

    tum equidem istuc os tuum inpudens videre nimium vellem!

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 49.—And in conditional sense:

    maerorem minui: dolorem nec potui, nec, si possem, vellem (i. e. minuere),

    Cic. Att. 12, 28, 2:

    certe ego, si sineres, titulum tibi reddere vellem,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 5, 13:

    sic nec amari quidem vellem (i. e. if I were in his place),

    Sen. Ira, 1, 20, 4.—
    b.
    With perf. inf., I wish I had:

    abiit, vah! Rogasse vellem,

    I wish I had asked him, Ter. Heaut. 5, 2, 25:

    maxime vellem semper tecum fuisse,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5:

    quam vellem petisse ab eo quod audio Philippum impetrasse,

    id. ib. 10, 4, 10:

    non equidem vellem, quoniam nocitura fuerunt, Pieridum sacris imposuisse manum,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 27:

    ante equidem summa de re statuisse, Latini, Et vellem, et fuerat melius,

    Verg. A. 11, 303. —
    c.
    With inf.-clause, the predicate being a perf. part. (v. I. B. 9. b. b, supra):

    virum me natam vellem,

    would I had been born a man! Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 9.—
    d.
    With subj. imperf. (rare):

    quam vellem, Panaetium nostrum nobiscum haberemus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15.—
    2.
    The subject of the dependent verb in the second person.
    a.
    With subj. imperf. (the regular construction):

    hodie igitur me videbit, ac vellem tum tu adesses,

    I wish you could be present, Cic. Att. 13, 7, 2:

    quam vellem de his etiam oratoribus tibi dicere luberet,

    I wish you would please, id. Brut. 71, 248.—
    b.
    With subj. pluperf., I wish you had:

    vellem Idibus Martiis me ad cenam invitasses,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 4, 1:

    quam vellem te ad Stoicos inclinavisses,

    id. Fin. 3, 3, 10:

    vellem suscepisses juvenem regendum,

    id. Att. 10, 6, 2:

    quam vellem Bruto studium tuum navare potuisses,

    id. ib. 15, 4, 5.—
    c.
    With ne and pluperf. subj.:

    tu vellem ne veritus esses ne parum libenter legerem tuas litteras,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 33, 2.—
    d.
    With ellipsis of verb: vera cantas, vana vellem (i. e. cantares). Plaut. Most. 3, 4, 41.—
    3.
    With verb in third person.
    a.
    With imperf. subj. (the regular construction):

    patrem atque matrem viverent vellem tibi (per ecthesin, v. I. E. b.),

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 106:

    vellem adesset Antonius, modo sine advocatis,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7, 16:

    vellem nobis hoc idem vere dicere liceret,

    id. Off. 3, 1, 1:

    vellem adesse posset Panaetius,

    id. Tusc. 1, 33, 81:

    vellem hoc esset laborare,

    id. Or. 2, 71, 287.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    vellem aliqui ex vobis robustioribus hunc male dicendi locum suscepissent,

    Cic. Cael. 3, 7:

    vellem dictum esset ab eodem etiam de Dione,

    id. ib. 10, 23; so id. ib. 31, 74; id. Brut. 44, 163:

    quam vellem Dareus aliquid ex hac indole hausisset!

    Curt. 3, 32 (12), 26.—
    c.
    With inf.-clause.
    (α).
    With inf. pres., I wish he were:

    quam non abesse ab hujus judicio L. Vulsionem vellem!

    Cic. Clu. 70, 198:

    nunc mihi... Vellem, Maeonide, pectus inesse tuum,

    Ov. F. 2, 120.—
    (β).
    With perf. inf. or part., I wish he had, had been:

    quam vellem Menedemum invitatum!

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 11:

    epistulas, quas quidem vellem mihi numquam redditas,

    Cic. Att. 11, 22, 1.—

    With ellipsis of predicate: illud quoque vellem antea (i. e. factum, or factum esse),

    Cic. Att. 11, 23, 3.—
    d.
    With ut, Cic. Sull. 1, 1; id. Fam. 7, 33, 2 (v. I. C. 1. a. supra).—
    4.
    With acc. of a neuter pronoun or of a noun:

    aliquando sentiam us nihil nobis nisi, id quod minime vellem, spiritum reliquum esse,

    Cic. Att. 9, 19, 2: tris eos libros maxime nunc vellem: apti essent ad id quod cogito, I would like to have (cf. I. E. 1. a.), id. ib. 13, 22, 2.—
    5.
    In the other persons of vellem (mostly poet.).
    a.
    Velles.
    (α).
    In optative sentences redundant, Verg. A. 11, 153 (v. II. A. 1. d.).—
    (β).
    Of an indefinite subject:

    velles eum (Senecam) suo ingenio dixisse, alieno judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 130.—
    b.
    Vellet.
    (α).
    In the potential sense of vellem: vellet abesse quidem;

    sed adest. Velletque videre, Non etiam sentire canum fera facta suorum,

    Ov. M. 3, 247.—
    (β).
    Conditionally:

    quis vellet tanti nuntius esse mali (i. e. if in this situation)?

    Ov. H. 12, 146.—
    c.
    Vellent.
    (α).
    In the potential sense of vellem:

    quam vellent aethere in alto Nunc of pauperiem et duros perferre labores!

    Verg. A. 6, 436.—
    (β).
    Conditionally: nec superi vellent hoc licuisse sibi, would wish, i. e. if in this situation, Mart. 4, 44, 8.
    D.
    Volam and voluero.
    1.
    In gen.: respiciendus erit sermo stipulationis, utrumne talis sit: quem voluero, an quem volam. Nam si talis fuerit quem voluero, cum semel elegerit, mutare voluntatem non poterit;

    si vero... quem volam, donec judicium dictet, mutandi potestatem habebit,

    Dig. 45, 1, 112.—
    2.
    Volam in principal sentences.
    (α).
    = Engl. future, I shall wish, etc.:

    et commeminisse hoc ego volam te,

    I shall require you to recollect this, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 7: cum omnia habueris, tunc habere et sapientiam voles? will you also wish to have wisdom when? etc., Sen. Ep. 17, 8.—
    (β).
    Denoting present probability: et scilicet jam me hoc voles patrem exorare, ut, etc., you doubtless wish me, etc., Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 27.—
    3.
    In clauses dependent on predicates implying a future, generally rendered by an English present:

    quid si sors aliter quam voles evenerit?

    otherwise than as you wish, Plaut. Cas. 2, 5, 35:

    tum te, si voles, cum patriae quod debes solveris, satis diu vixisse dicito,

    then if you choose, if you will, Cic. Marcell. 9, 27:

    decedes cum voles,

    id. Att. 6, 3, 2:

    qui magis effugies eos qui volent fingere?

    those who are bent upon inventing, who will invent, falsehoods, id. ib. 8, 2, 2; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 24:

    quod voles gratum esse, rarum effice,

    Sen. Ben. 1, 14, 1; cf. id. Brev. Vit. 7, 9: si di volent, the gods permitting, August. ap. Suet. Calig. 8:

    invenies, vere si reperire voles,

    Ov. P. 3, 1, 34; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 78; Tib. 1, 4, 45.—So, voluero:

    quem (locum) si qui vitare voluerit, sex milium circuitu in oppidum pervenit,

    who wishes to avoid this spot, Caes. B. C. 2, 24.
    E.
    Si vis, parenthetically.
    1.
    If you please (cf. sis, supra init.):

    paulum opperirier, Si vis,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 52:

    audi, si vis, nunc jam,

    id. Ad. 2, 1, 30:

    dic, si vis, de quo disputari velis,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 5, 13.—
    2.
    If you wish, choose, insist upon it:

    hanc quoque jucunditatem, si vis, transfer in animum,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 4, 14:

    addam, si vis, animi, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 27, 89:

    concedam hoc ipsum, si vis, etc.,

    id. Div. 2, 15, 34.
    F.
    Quam, with any person of the pres. indic. or subj., or imperf. subj. or future, = quamvis, in a concessive sense, virtually, however, however much.
    1.
    3 d pers. sing.:

    quod illa, quam velit sit potens, numquam impetravisset (= quamvis sit potens),

    however powerful she may be, Cic. Cael. 26, 63:

    C. Gracchus dixit, sibi in somnis Ti. fratrem visum esse dicere, quam vellet cunctaretur, tamen eodem sibi leto... esse pereundum,

    id. Div. 1, 26, 56:

    quam volet jocetur,

    id. N. D. 2, 17, 46.—
    2.
    1 st pers. plur.:

    quam volumus licet ipsi nos amemus, tamen, etc.,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 9, 19.—
    3.
    2 d pers. plur.: exspectate facinus quam vultis improbum, vincam tamen, etc., expect a crime, however wicked ( ever so wicked), etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 5, § 11;

    but: hac actione quam voletis multi dicent,

    as many as you choose, id. ib. 2, 2, 42, § 102.—
    4.
    3 d pers. plur.:

    quam volent illi cedant, tamen a re publica revocabuntur,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 44, 113:

    quam volent in conviviis faceti, dicaces, etc., sint, alia fori vis est, alia triclinii,

    id. Cael. 28, 67;

    but: et ceteri quam volent magnas pecunias capere possint,

    as much money as they choose, id. Verr. 2, 2, 58, § 142.
    G.
    Volo = malo, to prefer, with a comparative clause (rare):

    quodsi in ceteris quoque studiis a multis eligere homines commodissimum quodque, quam sese uni alicui certo vellent addicere, = si se eligere mallent quam se uni addicere,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 2, 5:

    malae rei quam nullius duces esse volunt,

    Liv. 3, 68, 11:

    famaene credi velis quanta urbs a te capta sit, quam posteris quoque eam spectando esse?

    id. 25, 29, 6.
    H.
    With magis and maxime.
    1.
    Magis velle: ut tu illam salvam magis velles quam ego, you wish more than I, etc., Ter. Hec. 2, 2, 17.—
    2.
    With maxime, to wish above all, more than any thing or any one else, to be most agreeable to one, to like best, to prefer (among more than two alternatives):

    quia id maxime volo ut illi istoc confugiant,

    wish above all, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 49; so id. Trin. 3, 2, 38:

    maxime vellem, judices, ut P. Sulla, etc.,

    Cic. Sull. 1, 1:

    caritate nos capiunt reges, consilio optimates, libertate populi, ut in comparando difficile ad eligendum sit, quid maxime velis,

    which you prefer, like best, id. Rep. 1, 35, 55; so, quemadmodum ego maxime vellem, id. Att. 13, 1, 1:

    tris eos libros maxime nunc vellem,

    above all others, id. ib. 13, 32, 2:

    alia excusanti juveni, alia recipienti futura, ita ut maxime vellet senatus responderi placuit,

    as it was most agreeable to him, Liv. 39, 47:

    si di tibi permisissent quo modo maxime velles experiri animum meum,

    in the manner most convenient to yourself, Curt. 3, 6, 12.
    K.
    In disjunctive co - ordination.
    1.
    With sive... sive:

    tu nunc, sive ego volo, seu nolo, sola me ut vivam facis,

    whether I choose or not, Plaut. Cist. 3, 14:

    itaque Campanos sive velint, sive nolint, quieturos,

    Liv. 8, 2, 13.—
    2.
    Without connectives.
    a.
    Vis tu... vis:

    congredi cum hoste liceat... vis tu mari, vis terra, vis acie, vis urbibus expugnandis experiri virtutem?

    Liv. 25, 6, 22.—
    b.
    Velim nolim.
    (α).
    Interrogatively, = utrum velim nec ne:

    velit nolit scire, difficile est,

    it is difficult to know whether he intends it or not, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 4.—
    (β).
    = seu velim seu nolim:

    ut mihi, velim nolim, sit certa quaedam tuenda sententia,

    whether I will or not, Cic. N. D. 1, 7, 17:

    velim nolim, in cognomine Scipionum haeream necesse est,

    Val. Max. 3, 7, 3:

    mors interim adest, cui velis nolis vacandum est,

    Sen. Brev. Vit. 8, 5:

    hunc ita fundatum necesse est, velit nolit, sequatur hilaritas continua,

    id. Vit. Beat. 4, 4:

    velint nolint, respondendum est... beate vivere bonum non esse,

    id. Ep. 117, 4:

    praeterea futuri principes, velint nolint, sciant, etc.,

    Plin. Pan. 20 fin. Part. and P. a.: vŏlens, entis.
    A.
    As a part. proper, retaining the meaning and construction of velle, with the force of a relative or adverbial clause.
    1.
    Agreeing with some member of the sentence ( poet. and in post-class. prose;

    rare): neque illum... multa volentem Dicere praeterea vidit (= qui multa voluit dicere),

    Verg. G. 4, 501; id. A. 2, 790:

    nec me vis ulla volentem Avertet (i. e. si adhaerere foederi volo),

    id. ib. 12, 203: decemviri, minuere volentes hujuscemodi violentiam... putaverunt, etc., intending ( who intended) to diminish such a violence, etc., Gell. 20, 1, 34:

    Milo, experiri etiamtunc volens, an ullae sibi reliquae vires adessent... rescindere quercum conatus est,

    id. 15, 16, 3:

    scio quosdam testatores, efficere volentes ne servi sui umquam ad libertatem venirent, etc., hactenus scribere solitos,

    Dig. 40, 4, 61:

    si te volentem ad prohibendum venire, deterruerit aliquis, etc.,

    ib. 43, 24, 1, § 10.—
    2.
    Abl. absol. (not ante-Aug.):

    ne cujus militis scripti nomen nisi ipso volente deleretur,

    except with his consent, Liv. 7, 41, 4; so,

    Teum ex medio cursu classem repente avertit, aut volentibus iis usurus commeatu parato hostibus, aut ipsos pro hostibus habiturus,

    with their consent, id. 37, 27, 3:

    ponuntque ferocia Poeni Corda, volente deo,

    since the god willed it, Verg. A. 1, 303: Thrasippo supplicium a se voluntaria morte exigere volente, while he was about to inflict punishment on himself, etc., Val. Max. 5, 1, ext. 2: scire volentibus immortalibus dis an Romana virtus imperium orbis mereretur, it being the will of the gods to know, etc., Flor. 1, 13, 3 (1, 7, 3): qui sciente aut volente eo ad quem res pertinet, possessionem nanciscitur, with the knowledge and consent of the person who, etc., Dig. 41, 2, 6. —
    B.
    As adj., willing, voluntary, and hence, favorably disposed (opp. invitus).
    1.
    Attributively.
    a.
    In the phrase cum dis volentibus, lit. with the willing or favoring gods, i. e. with the will, permission, or favor of the gods: dono ducite doque volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 208 Vahl.):

    sequere hac, mea gnata, me cum dis volentibus,

    Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 4:

    cum dis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi Mani uti illaec suovetaurilia, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141 (142).— And without cum, abl. absol.:

    virtute ac dis volentibus magni estis et opulenti,

    Sall. J. 14, 19.—
    b.
    Volenti animo.
    (α).
    = cupide, eagerly:

    Romae plebes litteris quae de Metello ac Mario missae erant, volenti animo de ambobus acceperant,

    Sall. J. 73, 3. —
    (β).
    On purpose, intentionally:

    consilio hanc omnes animisque volentibus urbem Adferimur,

    Verg. A. 7, 216.—
    2.
    Predicatively.
    a.
    Agreeing with the subject-nom. or subject - acc.
    (α).
    Voluntarily, willingly, [p. 2011] gladly (class.):

    (hi) divini generis appellentur... vobisque jure et lege volentes pareant,

    Cic. Univ. 11 fin.:

    quas victi ab hostibus poenas metuerant, eas ipsi volentes pendere,

    Sall. J. 76, 6:

    quia volentes in amicitiam non veniebant,

    Liv. 21, 39, 4:

    si volentes ac non coacti mansissent in amicitia,

    id. 24, 37, 7:

    quocunque loco seu volens seu invitus constitisti,

    id. 7, 40, 13:

    itaque se numquam volentem parte qua posset rerum consilio gerendarum cessurum,

    id. 22, 27, 9:

    (virtus), quidquid evenerit, feret, non patiens tantum, sed etiam volens,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5:

    non est referre gratiam quod volens acceperis nolenti reddere,

    id. Ben. 4, 40, 4:

    volens vos Turnus adoro,

    Verg. A. 10, 677; 3, 457; 6, 146;

    12, 833: date vina volentes,

    id. ib. 8, 275: ipsa autem macie tenuant armenta volentes ( on purpose), id. G. 3, 129.—And referring to subjects denoting things: quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura Sponte tulere sua, carpsit ( spontaneously and willingly), Verg. G. 2, 500.—
    (β).
    Favorably; with propitius, favorably and kindly, referring to the gods:

    precantes Jovem ut volens propitius praebeat sacra arma pro patria,

    Liv. 24, 21, 10:

    precantibus ut volens propitiaque urbem Romanam iniret,

    id. 29, 14, 13:

    in ea arce (Victoriam) sacratam, volentem propitiamque, firmam ac stabilem fore populo Romano,

    id. 22, 37, 12; 1, 16, 3; 7, 26, 3; 24, 38, 8; Inscr. Orell. 2489 sq.—Parodied by Plautus:

    agite, bibite, festivae fores! fite mihi volentes propitiae,

    Plaut. Curc. 1, 1, 89.— Abl. absol.:

    omnia diis propitiis volentibusque ea faciemus,

    with the favor and help of the gods, Liv. 39, 16, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    si (Jovem) invocem ut dexter ac volens assit,

    Quint. 4, prooem. 5.—
    b.
    Agreeing with other terms of the sentence (rare): volenti consuli causa in Pamphyliam devertendi oblata est, a welcome cause was offered to the consul, etc., Liv. 38, 15, 3:

    quod nobis volentibus facile continget,

    if we wish, Quint. 6, 2, 30:

    is Ariobarzanem volentibus Armeniis praefecit,

    to their satisfaction, Tac. A. 2, 4:

    gemis... hominem, Urse, tuum, cui dulce volenti servitium... erat,

    to whom his servitude was sweet, since he liked it, Stat. S. 2, 6, 15:

    me mea virtus, etc., fatis egere volentem,

    Verg. A. 8, 133:

    saepe ille volentem castigabat erum,

    administered kindly received rebukes, Stat. S. 2, 6, 50.—
    c.
    In the phrase aliquid mihi volenti est or putatur, etc., something is welcome, acceptable to me, pleases me (= volens habeo or accipio aliquid; cf. the Gr. Humin tauta boulomenois estin, and, mihi aliquid cupienti est; v. cupio;

    rare but class.): uti militibus exaequatus cum imperatore labos volentibus esset,

    that the equalization of labor was acceptable to the soldier, Sall. J. 100, 4:

    quia neque plebei militia volenti putabatur,

    id. ib. 84, 3 Dietsch:

    grande periculum maritumis civitatibus esse, et quibusdam volentibus novas res fore,

    that to some a change of the government would be welcome, Liv. 21, 50, 10:

    quibus bellum volentibus erat, probare exemplum,

    Tac. Agr. 18.— Impers. with subject - inf.: ceterisque remanere et in verba Vespasiani adigi volentibus fuit, to the rest it was acceptable to remain, etc., Tac. H. 3, 43.—With subject-inf. understood:

    si volentibus vobis erit, in medium profero quae... legisse memini,

    Macr. S. 7, 13, 11:

    si volentibus vobis erit, diem fabulis et epulis exigamus,

    id. ib. 1, 7; 2, 3 fin.; 6, 6 init.
    3.
    As subst. (mostly post-Aug.).
    a.
    vŏlens, entis, m., = is qui vult, in the different meanings, and often with the construction of the verb.
    (α).
    One who wishes:

    nunc cis Hiberum castra Romana esse, arcem tutam perfugiumque novas volentibus res,

    Liv. 22, 22, 11:

    consulere se volentibus vacuas aures accommodavit,

    Val. Max. 5, 8, 3:

    quid opus libertate si volentibus luxu perire non licet,

    id. 2, 9, 5:

    discere meliora volentibus promptum est,

    i. e. it depends on our own will to learn better things, Quint. 11, 11, 12:

    nec sum in hoc sollicitus, dum res ipsa volentibus discere appareat,

    to the students, id. 8, 4, 15:

    mori volentibus vis adhibita vivendi,

    Suet. Tib. 61.—
    (β).
    One who intends, is about:

    juris ignorantia non prodest acquirere volentibus,

    i. e. in the acquisition of property, Dig. 22, 6, 7:

    si quis volentem incipere uti frui prohibuit,

    one who is about to enter upon a usufruct, ib. 43, 16, 3, § 14. —
    (γ).
    One who is willing:

    non refert quid sit quod datur, nisi a volente volenti datur,

    unless it is both willingly given and received, Sen. Ben. 2, 18, 8:

    ducunt volentem fata, nolentem trahunt,

    those willing to follow, id. Ep. 107, 11.—
    (δ).
    One who consents:

    tutiusque rati volentibus quam coactis imperitare,

    to rule men with their consent, Sall. J. 102, 6:

    quippe rempublicam si a volentibus nequeat ab invitis jus expetituram,

    peaceably if they could, forcibly if they must, Liv. 3, 40, 4:

    si quis aliam rem pro alia volenti solverit,

    if one pays with the consent of the receiver, Dig. 46, 3, 46:

    nulla injuria est quae in volentem fiat,

    ib. 47, 10, 1, § 5.—
    (ε).
    One who does a thing voluntarily:

    pecuniam etiam a volentibus acceperant,

    the contributions of money were voluntary, Vell. 2, 62, 3:

    parce, puer, stimulis... (solis equi) Sponte sua properant. Labor est inhibere volentis (i. e. properare),

    Ov. M. 2, 128.—
    (ζ).
    Volens = bene volens: munificus nemo habebatur nisi pariter volens, unless he was just as kindly disposed, sc. as he was liberal, Sall. J. 103, 6.—Often referring to a previously mentioned noun:

    hunc cape consiliis socium et conjunge volentem,

    and unite with him, since he wishes it, Verg. A. 5, 712; so may be taken Ov. M. 2, 128 (v. e).—
    b.
    In the neutr. plur. (volentia) rare, always with dat., things pleasing, acceptable:

    Pompeius multis suspitionibus volentia plebi facturus habebatur,

    that he would do what pleased the common people, Sall. H. 4, 31 Dietsch:

    haec atque talia plebi volentia fuere,

    Tac. A. 15, 36 Draeg. ad loc. al.:

    iique Muciano volentia rescripsere,

    id. H. 3, 52.—Hence, adv.: vŏlenter, willingly, App. M. 6, p. 178, 4.
    2.
    vŏlo, āvi, ātum ( part. gen. plur. volantūm, Verg. A. 6, 728; Lucr. 2, 1083), 1, v. n. [Sanscr. val-, to turn one's self, etc.; cf.: vŏlucer, vēlox, and vol- in velivolus], to fly.
    I.
    Lit.: ex alto... laeva volavit avis, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48, 107 (Ann. v. 95 Vahl.):

    aves,

    Lucr. 6, 742:

    accipitres,

    id. 4, 1010:

    corvi,

    id. 2, 822:

    altam supra volat ardea nubem,

    Verg. G. 1, 364:

    volat ille per aëra magnum Remigio alarum,

    id. A. 1, 300:

    columbae venere volantes,

    id. ib. 6, 191; Prop. 2, 30 (3, 28), 30; Juv. 8, 251:

    apes,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 96; cf. Plin. 10, 38, 54, § 112:

    volasse eum (Antonium), non iter fecisse diceres,

    Cic. Phil. 10, 5, 11.—Prov.:

    sine pennis volare haud facile est,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 49.—
    2.
    P. a. as subst.: vŏlantes, ĭum, comm., the birds ( poet.), Lucr. 2, 1083; Verg. A. 6, 239; 6, 728.—
    II.
    Transf., to fly, i. e. to move swiftly like one flying, to fleet, speed, hasten along:

    i sane... vola curriculo,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 17; cf.:

    per summa levis volat aequora curru,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    medios volat ecce per hostes Vectus equo spumante Saces,

    id. ib. 12, 650:

    illa (Argo) volat,

    Ov. H. 6, 66:

    currus,

    Verg. G. 3, 181:

    axis,

    id. ib. 3, 107:

    nubes,

    Lucr. 5, 254:

    fulmina,

    id. 2, 213:

    tempestates,

    id. 6, 612:

    telum,

    id. 1, 971; cf. Sall. J. 60, 2; Verg. A. 9, 698; Liv. 26, 44, 7 al.:

    litterae Capuam ad Pompeium volare dicebantur,

    Cic. Att. 2, 19, 3:

    volat aetas,

    id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76:

    hora,

    Sen. Hippol. 1141:

    fama,

    Verg. A. 3, 121:

    et semel emissum volat irrevocabile verbum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 71.— Poet., with inf.:

    ast Erebi virgo ditem volat aethere Memphim Praecipere et Phariā venientem pellere terrā,

    Val. Fl. 4, 407.
    3.
    vŏlo, ōnis, m. [1. volo], a volunteer, first applied to the slaves who, after the battle at Cannæ, were enrolled upon their own expressed desire to serve (cf. Liv. 22, 57, 11; Val. Max. 7, 6, 1):

    volones dicti sunt milites, qui post Cannensem cladem usque ad octo milia, cum essent servi, voluntarie se ad militiam obtulere,

    Paul. Diac. p. 370:

    volones, quia sponte hoc voluerunt, appellati,

    Macr. S. 1, 11, 30:

    vetus miles tironi, liber voloni sese exaequari sineret,

    Liv. 23, 35, 6; 23, 32, 1; Capitol. Anton. Phil. 21, 6; Macr. S. 1, 11, 30.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > volo

  • 15 ad-eō

        ad-eō adv.    I. To designate a limit, to this, thus far, so far, as far.—Of space, fig.: postremo adeo res rediit, finally it comes to this, T.—Of time, so long (as), so long (till): nusquam destitit... orare usque adeo donec perpulit, T.: usque adeo in periculo fuisse, quoad, etc.—In comparison, in the same degree... in which; so very, so much... as (comic): adeon esse infelicem quemquam, ut ego sum? T.: gaudere adeo, quasi qui cupiunt nuptias, just like those who desire marriage, T.—    II. To give emphasis, so, so much, so very, to such a degree: neminem adeo infatuare, ut crederet, etc.: adeoque inopiā est coactus Hannibal, ut, etc., L.: usque adeo ille pertimuerat, ut, etc.: adeone est fundata leviter fides, ut, etc., L.: Non obtunsa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, i. e. not so blunt but that we know, V. — Hence, adeo non ut... adeo nihil ut... so little that, so far from... that: adeo nihil moverunt quemquam, ut, etc., had so little effect, etc., L.: qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut, etc., was so far from curbing his anger that, etc., L. — Esp., atque adeo, and even, yet more, or rather, I may even say, still further: insector, posco atque adeo flagito crimen: ducem... intra moenia atque adeo in senatu videmus.— Enclitically after an emphatic word (cf. quidem), even, indeed, just, precisely: Haec adeo iam speranda fuerunt, even this, V.: nullā adeo ex re fit, etc., arises from no cause whatever, T.—Often to be translated by and, and just, etc.: idque adeo haud scio mirandumne sit, Cs.: id adeo, si placet, considerate, just that: id adeo malum ex provocatione natum, L.—After a pers. pron.: Teque adeo, te consule, in no consulate but yours, V.: Tuque adeo, thou chiefly, V.—With si or nisi, if indeed, if truly, even if: Si. Num illi molestae haec sunt nuptiae? Da. Nil Hercle: aut si adeo, etc., or even if they are so, T.—With adverbs: magis adeo id facilitate quam culpā meā contigit: nunc adeo, forthwith, V.: iam adeo, at this moment, V.: inde adeo, ever since, T.: hinc adeo, just at this point, V.: sic adeo, thus it is that, V.: Vix adeo adgnovit, scarcely even recognized, V.—With adjectives, indeed, even, very, fully (cf. vel): Trīs adeo incertos soles erramus, three whole days, V.: Quinque adeo urbes, no less than five, V.: Multa adeo gelidā se nocte dedere, V. —With the conjj. sive, aut, et si, or indeed, or rather, or even, etc.: tu virum me aut hominem deputas adeo esse? even a human being? T.: ratio, quā... sive adeo, quā, etc., or rather: et si adeo, and if even, V.—With the imperative, for emphasis, now, I pray: propera adeo puerum tollere hinc ab ianuā, T.—Rarely with other moods: ibo adeo, T. —Poet., indeed, truly, so very, so entirely: eius fratrem repperisse, adulescentem adeo nobilem, so very noble, T.: nec sum adeo informis, nor am I so very ugly, V.—Beginning a clause giving a reason, so, thus (prop. ellipt., to such a degree is it true that, so true was it that, etc.): adeo quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat, indeed, the less there was of property, the less of greed, L.: adeo prope omnis senatus Hannibalis erat, such was the preponderance of Hannibal's party in the Senate, L.—So introducing a parenthesis: adeo civitates eae perpetuo in Romanos odio certavere, L.—With a negative after ne... quidem or quoque, still less, Ta.

    Latin-English dictionary > ad-eō

  • 16 multus

        multus adj.    (for comp. and sup. in use see plūs, plūrimus).    I. Plur., with subst., or with adjec. used as subst, many, a great number: multi alii, T.: multae sunt artes eximiae: tam multis verbis scribere, at such length: Quid multa verba? in short, T.: multa acerba habuit ille annus.—With other adjj., many: multae et magnae contentiones: multis magnisque praesidiis perditis, S.: multi et varii timores, L.: vectigalīs multos ac stipendiarios liberavit: multae liberae civitates, republics: multa libera capita, freemen, L.: multa secunda proelia, victories, L.: multa maiores magna et gravia bella gesserunt: multis suppliciis iustis: utebatur hominibus improbis multis: prodigia multa foeda, L.—As subst m., many men, many: multi pecunias coëgerunt: alter multos fefellit: pro multis dicere.—The multitude, mass, common people, vulgar: unus de multis esse: orator unus e multis, commonplace: numerari in multis, in the herd (of orators): e multis una sit tibi, no better than others, O.: sum unus Multorum, H. —As subst n. (only nom. and acc.), many things, much: quam multa te deficiant vides: quid multis moror? many words, T.: ne multa, in short: quid multa? H.—    II. Sing., distributive, many a (poet.): trudit multā cane Apros in plagas, H.: multā victimā, V.: multā prece prosequi, H.—Of quantity, much, abundant, large, considerable, extensive: exstructa mensa multā carne: multum pro re p. sanguinem effudistis: multa et lauta supellex: lingua Gallica, quā multā utebatur, spoke fluently, Cs.: multus fluens, glibly, H.—In excess, superfluous: supellex modica, non multa, N.: qui in aliquo genere multus est, prolix.—Frequent, frequently, engaged, busy, diligent: ad vigilias multus adesse, S.: cum Timaeo multum fuisse: Multa viri virtus animo recursat, V.—Strong, influential: adeo teneris consuescere multum est, so strong is habit, V.—Of time, full, late: ad multum diem, till late in the day: multa iam dies erat, L.: multā nocte, late at night: multo mane, very early.
    * * *
    multa -um, -, plurimus -a -um ADJ
    much, many, great, many a; large, intense, assiduous; tedious

    Latin-English dictionary > multus

  • 17 -ne

    1.
    (old forms nei and ni; v. the foll.), adv. and conj., the primitive Latin negative particle, no, not; whereas the negative particle non is a derivative (v. non init.) [prob. of pronominal origin; cf. the Anglo-Saxon na and ne (Engl. no), whence naht (Engl. not) is derived; Sanscr. na, not].
    I.
    Adv., with a single word of a proposition (in early Latin): NE MINVS TRINVM NOVNDINVM, not less than, etc., S. C. de Bacch.; cf. with DVM NE MINVS SENATORIBVS C. ADESENT, twice in the same S. C.;

    and in the form ni: DVM NI MINVS VIGINTI ADSIENT,

    Inscr. Grut. 207, 3. So too:

    DVM NE AMPLIOREM MODVM PRATORVM HABEANT QVAM, etc.,

    Inscr. Orell. 3121 (Sententia de finibus inter Genuates et Viturios regundis lata A. U. C. 637). So, ne minores (verres) quam semestres, Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 21. In the time of Plautus the usage was unsettled, non and ne being used indifferently for simple negation; cf. Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 105; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. 1156.—
    2.
    To this is allied the adverbial use of ne in all periods of the language.
    a.
    Ne... quidem, applies the negation with emphasis to the word between them, not even:

    ne sues quidem id velint, non modo ipse,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 38, 92:

    ne in oppidis quidem... ne in fanis quidem,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 2:

    Philippus non item: itaque ne nos quidem,

    id. Att. 14, 12, 2:

    nulla ne minima quidem aura fluctus commovente,

    id. Tusc. 5, 6, 16:

    non potest dici satis, ne cogitari quidem, quantum, etc.,

    id. Mil. 29, 78:

    vita beata, quam ne in deo quidem esse censes, nisi, etc.,

    id. N. D. 1, 24, 67:

    ut in foro et in judicio... ne non timere quidem sine aliquo timore possimus,

    id. Mil. 1, 2:

    ne tondere quidem Vellera possunt,

    Verg. G. 3, 561;

    so after a negative, repeating it with emphasis: non enim praetereundum est ne id quidem,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 60, § 155:

    nulla species ne excogitari quidem potest ornatior,

    id. de Or. 3, 45, 179:

    non praetermittam ne illud quidem,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 5, 2:

    Caesar negat se ne Graeca quidem meliora legisse,

    id. ib. 2, 16, 5:

    numquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi,

    id. Lael. 27, 103; Liv. 28, 42, 16; but when ne... quidem precedes, the negative of the principal verb is omitted:

    sine quā ne intellegi quidem ulla virtus potest,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 13, 31:

    neque enim ipsius quidem regis abhorrebat animus,

    Liv. 29, 12, 10: ne quidem (with no intervening word), not even (late Lat.), Gai Inst. 1, 67; id. ib. 3, 93.—
    b.
    In composition, to make an absolute negation of the principal idea. So in neque and nequiquam; also in nescio and nevolo; and in nefas, nefandus, nepus (for non purus), nequeo, neuter, neutiquam; in nemo, nego, nihil, nullus, numquam, and nusquam; and, lastly, with a paragogic c before o: necopinans and neglego; negotium (i. e. nec-lego; nec-otium). —
    B.
    With a proposition (in all periods of the language, and exclusively),
    1.
    In imperative sentences, to signify that something must not be done.
    (α).
    With imper.: SI HOMINEM FVLMEN IOVIS OCCISIT, NE SVPRA GENVA TOLLITOR, let him not be raised, Leg. Reg.: HOMINEM MORTVVM IN VRBE NE SEPELITO NEVE VRITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23; cf.: MVLIERES GENAS NE RADVNTO NEVE LESSVM FVNERIS ERGO HABENTO, ib.: SI NOLET, ARCERAM NE STERNITO, let him not spread, he need not spread, ib. (cf. Gell. 20, 1, 25):

    VECTIGAL INVITEI DARE NEI DEBENTO,

    Inscr. Orell. 3121; cf.

    art. ni, II.: abi, ne jura: satis credo,

    Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 20; 4, 5, 5:

    ah, ne saevi tantopere,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 27:

    impius ne audeto placare donis iram deorum,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assuescite bella,

    Verg. A. 6, 832.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    ne me moveatis,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 9, 1:

    si certum est facere, facias: verum ne post conferas Culpam in me,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 96:

    si denique veritas extorquebit, ne repugnetis,

    Cic. Clu. 2, 6:

    ne pudori Sit tibi Musa lyrae sollers,

    Hor. A. P. 406.—
    2.
    In wishes and asseverations: ne id Juppiter Opt. Max. sineret, etc., might Jupiter forbid it! etc., Liv. 4, 2; cf.:

    ne istuc Juppiter Opt. Max. sirit, etc.,

    id. 28, 28.—With utinam: utinam ne in nemore Pelio securibus Caesa accedisset abiegna ad terram trabes, would that not, Enn. ap. Cic. Top. 16, 61 (Trag. v. 280 Vahl.): utinam ne umquam, Mede Colchis cupido corde pedem extulisses, Enn ap. Non. 297, 18 (Trag. v. 311 ib.):

    illud utinam ne vere scriberem!

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3; v. utinam.—With si:

    ne vivam, si scio,

    may I not live, may I die, if I know, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 8:

    sed ne vivam, si tibi concedo,

    id. Fam. 7, 23, 19:

    ne sim salvus, si aliter scribo ac sentio,

    id. ib. 16, 13, 1.—
    3.
    In concessive and restrictive clauses (conceived as softened commands; cf. II. init.).
    (α).
    In concessions, nemo is, inquies, umquam fuit. Ne fuerit:

    ego enim, etc.,

    there may not have been; suppose there was not, Cic. Or. 29, 101; cf.:

    pugnes omnino, sed cum adversario facili. Ne sit sane: videri certe potest,

    id. Ac. 2, 26, 85; 2, 32, 102:

    ne sit sane summum malum dolor: malum certe est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 5, 14:

    ne sint in senectute vires: ne postulantur quidem vires a senectute,

    id. Sen. 11, 34:

    ne sit igitur sol, ne luna, ne stellae, quoniam nihil esse potest, nisi quod attigimus aut vidimus,

    id. N. D. 1, 31, 88; Liv. 31, 7:

    nec porro malum, quo aut oppressus jaceas, aut, ne opprimare, mente vix constes?

    though you be not crushed; supposing you are not crushed, Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 39.—
    (β).
    In restrictive clauses:

    sint sane liberales ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericordes in furibus aerarii, ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur, etc.,

    only let them not; if they only will not, Sall. C. 52, 12. So, dum ne, dummodo ne, modo ne, and dum quidem ne; v. dum and modo: me vero nihil istorum ne juvenem quidem movit umquam: ne nunc senem, much less now I am old = nedum, Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 2; cf.:

    vix incedo inanis, ne ire posse cum onere existumes,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 174: scuta si homines inviti dant, etsi ad salutem communem dari sentiunt: ne quem putetis sine maximo dolore argentum caelatum domo protulisse, much less can you suppose, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 52; Liv. 3, 52.—
    4.
    In clauses which denote a purpose or result.
    a.
    Ut ne, that not, lest, so that not (very rare after the August. period; in Livy only in a few doubtful passages; in Cæsar, Seneca, and Tacitus not at all; v. under II.): quos ego ope meā Pro incertis certos... Dimitto, ut ne res temere tractent turbidas, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 1, 45, 199 (Trag v. 189 Vahl.): vestem ut ne inquinet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 17. pergunt turbare usque, ut ne quid possit conquiescere, id. Most. 5, 1, 12:

    haec mihi nunc cura est maxima, ut ne cui meae Longinquitas aetatis obstet,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 19:

    ego, pol, te ulciscar, ut ne impune nos illuseris,

    id. Eun. 5, 4, 19:

    excitandam esse animadversionem et diligentiam, ut ne quid inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 29, 103:

    equidem soleo dare operam, ut de suā quisque re me ipse doceat, et, ut ne quis alius assit, quo, etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 24, 102.—
    b.
    Ut... ne separated:

    quam plurimis de rebus ad me velim scribas, ut prorsus ne quid ignorem,

    Cic. Att. 3, 10, 3:

    ut causae communi salutique ne deessent,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140:

    lata lex est, ne auspicia valerent, ut omnibus fastis diebus legem ferri liceret: ut lex Aelia, lex Fufia ne valeret,

    id. Sest. 15, 33; id. N. D. 1, 7, 17:

    vos orant atque obsecrant, judices, ut in actore causae suae deligendo vestrum judicium ab suo judicio ne discrepet,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 14.—
    c.
    Qui ne, quo ne, and quomodo ne (ante- and post-class. for ut ne):

    ego id agam, mihi qui ne detur,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 35:

    moxque ad aram, quo ne hostis dolum persentisceret, aversusque a duce assistit,

    Dict. Cret. 4, 11: quaeritis maximis sumptibus faciendis, quomodo ne tributa conferatis, Gr. hôs mê, Rutil. Lup. 1, 9.
    II.
    In the several uses of the adv. ne, described above, the transition to its use to connect clauses is clearly seen (v. esp. I. B. 3. and 4.). In intentional clauses, and after verbs of fearing and avoiding, ne becomes a conjunction.
    A.
    In intentional clauses for ut ne, that not, lest: nolite, hospites, ad me adire: ilico isti! Ne contagio mea bonis umbrave obsit, approach me not; let not my presence harm you, i. e. lest my presence should harm you, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 12, 26 (Trag. v. 405 Vahl.):

    omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt... ne quis se aut suorum aliquem praetermissum queratur,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1; 1, 7, 12; 1, 5, 9:

    Caesarem complexus obsecrare coepit, ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 20.—Esp. after verbs expressing forethought, care, etc.:

    vide sis, ne quid imprudens ruas,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 128:

    considera, ne in alienissimum tempus cadat adventus tuus,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 14, 4:

    Cocceius, vide, ne frustretur,

    Cic. Att. 12, 18, 3 et saep.—
    B.
    After verbs signifying to fear, frighten, etc. (esp. metuo, timeo, vereor, horreo, paveo, terreo, conterreo; also, timor est, metus est, spes est, periculum est), to express the wish that something may not take place; represented in English by that (because in English the particle depends on the idea of fearing, not of wishing):

    metuo et timeo, ne hoc tandem propalam flat,

    that it will be discovered, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 38:

    timeo ne malefacta mea sint inventa omnia,

    id. Truc. 4, 2, 61:

    vereor ne quid Andria apportet mali,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 46:

    metuebat ne indicarent,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 57:

    mater cruciatur et sollicita est, ne filium spoliatum omni dignitate conspiciat,

    id. Mur. 41, 88:

    hic ne quid mihi prorogetur, horreo,

    id. Att. 5, 21, 3:

    id paves, ne ducas tu illam, tu autem ut ducas,

    Ter. And. 2, 2, 12:

    esse metus coepit, ne, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 715:

    terruit gentīs, grave ne rediret Saeculum Pyrrhae,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 5:

    non periclumst, nequid recte monstres,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 55:

    pavor ceperat milites, ne mortiferum esset vulnus,

    Liv. 24, 42 —
    b.
    When the dependent clause is negative, with non or nihil, that not:

    vereor ne exercitum firmum habere non possit,

    Cic. Att. 7, 12, 2:

    unum vereor ne senatus Pompeium nolit dimittere,

    id. ib. 5, 18, 1:

    timeo ne non impetrem,

    id. ib. 9, 6, 6; id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76.—
    c.
    With the negative before the verb:

    non vereor, ne quid temere facias,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 1; 2, 1, 4:

    timere non debeo, ne non iste illā cruce dignus judicetur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 171.—
    C.
    After verbs signifying to avoid, warn, hinder, forbid, refuse (caveo, impedio, resisto, interdico, refuto, rarely veto), instead of the simple object, that not, lest:

    qui cavet, ne decipiatur, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    cavete, judices, ne nova proscriptio instaurata esse videatur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 53, 153; id. Fam. 3, 12, 4;

    v. caveo: casus quidam ne facerem impedivit,

    Cic. Fat. 1, 1:

    unus ne caperetur urbs causa fuit,

    Liv. 34, 39. [p. 1194]
    2.
    - (also apocopated n' and only n), interrog. and enclit. part. [weakened from nē]. It simply inquires, without implying either that a negative or an affirmative reply is expected (cf. num, nonne), and emphasizes the word to which it is joined;

    which is always, in classic Latin, the first word of the clause (ante- class. after other words: sine dote uxoremne?

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 94; 1, 2, 141; id. As. 5, 2, 78; id. Mil. 3, 1, 92). In direct questions it is translated by giving an interrogative form to the sentence; in indirect interrogations by whether.
    (α).
    In direct interrogations, with indic.:

    meministine me in senatu dicere? etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7:

    potestne rerum major esse dissensio?

    id. Fin. 3, 13, 44:

    tune id veritus es?

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 1:

    jamne vides, belua, jamne sentis? etc.,

    id. Pis. 1, 1:

    quid, si etiam falsum illud omnino est? tamenne ista tam absurda defendes?

    id. N. D. 1, 29, 81; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 15, 44:

    quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos?

    Verg. A. 4, 538:

    tun' te audes Sosiam esse dicere?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 217:

    valuistin?

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 12.—After an elided s:

    satin habes, si feminarum nulla'st: quam aeque diligam?

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 11:

    pergin autem?

    id. ib. 1, 3, 41:

    vin commutemus?

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 21 al. —
    (β).
    Esp. with rel. pron.; ellipt.: quemne ego servavi? i. e. do you mean the one whom? etc., Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 13: quodne vobis placeat, displiceat mihi? can it be that what pleases? etc., id. ib. 3, 1, 19; id. Merc. 3, 3, 12; id. Am. 2, 2, 65;

    so quin for quine,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 79 Brix ad loc.; id. Bacch. 2, 3, 98; id. Most. 3, 2, 50 al.—So with ut and si:

    utine adveniens vomitum excutias mulieri?

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 3, 15; id. Rud. 4, 4, 19:

    sin, saluti quod tibi esse censeo, id. consuadeo,

    id. Merc. 1, 2, 32.—
    (γ).
    In indirect interrogations, with subj., whether:

    ut videamus, satisne ista sit justa defectio,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 43:

    Publilius iturusne sit in Africam et quando, ex Aledio scire poteris,

    id. Att. 12, 24, 1:

    videto vasa, multane sient,

    Cato, R. R. 1:

    quem imitari possimusne, ipse liber erit indicio,

    Varr. L. L. 7, § 4 Müll.; cf. id. ib. 10, § 9.—
    (δ).
    Sometimes affixed to an interrogative pronoun, Plaut. Cist. 4, 1, 2:

    quone malo mentem concussa? Timore deorum,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 295; cf.:

    uterne Ad casus dubios fidet sibi certius?

    id. ib. 2, 2, 107; and:

    illa rogare: Quantane?

    id. ib. 2, 3, 317.—
    (ε).
    -ne is sometimes used for nonne, where an affirmative reply is expected:

    misine ego ad te epistulam?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 22; id. Trin. 1, 2, 92; 99; id. Most. 2, 1, 15:

    rectene interpretor sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37; id. Fin. 2, 32, 104.—
    (ζ).
    Rarely = num:

    potestne virtus servire?

    Cic. de Or. 1, 52, 226:

    potesne dicere?

    id. Tusc. 1, 27, 67; id. Sen. 16, 56.—
    b.
    With an, annon, or anne, in the second interrogation, v. an.—With necne, v. neque.—Sometimes pleonastic with utrum, followed by an (mostly anteclass.):

    est etiam illa distinctio, utrum illudne non videatur aegre ferendum... an, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 27, 59:

    sed utrum strictimne attonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem, nescio,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 18 Brix ad loc.; id. Most. 3, 1, 151; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 42; cf. Madv. Gram. § 452, obs. 1.—Sometimes, in the second interrogation, ne for an (mostly poet.):

    Smyrna quid et Colophon? Majora minorane fama?

    Hor. Ep. 1, 11, 3:

    ut in incerto fuerit, vicissent victine essent,

    Liv. 5, 28, 5:

    cum interrogaretur, utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4.
    3.
    , interj. (incorrectly written nae), = nai, nê, truly, verily, really, indeed (only joined with pers. pron. ego, tu, and with the demonstratives ille, iste, hic, and their advv.; in class, prose usually with a conditional clause).
    I.
    In gen.:

    ne ego homo infelix fui, Qui non alas intervelli,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 169; cf.:

    ne ego haud paulo hunc animum malim quam, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 99:

    ne ego, inquam, si ita est, velim tibi eum placere quam maxime,

    id. Brut. 71, 249. So, ne tu, etc., id. Phil. 2, 2, 3; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 54; Liv. 26, 6, 15: ne ille, Naev. ap. Non. 73, 18 (Trag. Rel. p. 9 v. 40 Rib.); Plaut. Ps. 3, 1, 3; Cic. Cat. 2, 3, 6:

    ne iste,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 24; id. Heaut. 4, 1, 8 al.—
    II.
    Connected with other affirmative particles, as hercle, edepol, mecastor, medius fidius:

    ne tu hercle,

    Plaut. As. 2, 4, 6; id. Curc. 1, 3, 38: ne ille hercle, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 76:

    edepol ne ego,

    id. Men. 5, 5, 10:

    edepol ne tu,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 50:

    ne ista edepol,

    id. Am. 2, 2, 213:

    ne istuc mecastor,

    id. Men. 5, 1, 34 (729 Ritschl):

    ne ille, medius fidius,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 74; cf.:

    medius fidius ne tu,

    id. Att. 4, 4, 6, § 2.— Rarely with a pron. poss.:

    edepol ne meam operam, etc.,

    Ter. Hec. 5, 3, 1. (All passages in which ne stands in classic prose without a pronoun are probably corrupt; cf. Haase in Reisig's Vorles. p. 379 sq.; v. Liv. 26, 31, 10; 34, 4, 16 Weissenb.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > -ne

  • 18 ac

    atque or āc (atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac, in class. lang., only before consonants; v. infra, I.), conj. [at has regularly in the compound atque a continuative, as in atqui it has an adversative force; pr. and further, and besides, and also; cf. in Gr. pros de, pros de eti, eti kai, eti de, and te kai; v. at init., and for the change of form atque, ac, cf. neque, nec; in MSS. and inscriptions sometimes written adque, and sometimes by confusion atqui ], a copulative particle, and also, and besides, and even, and (indicating a close internal connection between single words or whole clauses; while et designates an external connection of diff. objects with each other, v. et; syn.: et, -que, autem, praeterea, porro, ad hoc, ad haec).
    I.
    In joining single words, which is its most common use.
    A.
    In gen. (The following representation is based on a collection of all the instances of the use of atque and ac in Cic. Imp. Pomp., Phil. 2, Tusc. 1, and Off. 1; in Caes. B. G. 1 and 2; in Sall. C.; and in Liv. 21; and wherever in the account either author or work is not cited, there atque or ac does not occur.)
    1.
    The form atque.
    a.
    Before vowels and h. —Before a (very freq.):

    sociorum atque amicorum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6; 3, 7; id. Phil. 2, 13, 33; id. Tusc. 1, 34, 122; Caes. B. G. 1, 2; 1, 18; 1, 26; 2, 14; Sall. C. 5, 8; 7, 5; Liv. 21, 3; 21, 12.—Before e (very freq.):

    deposci atque expeti,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 5; 6, 16; 10, 28; id. Phil, 2, 21, 51; 2, 21, 52; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Caes. B. G. 1, 6; 1, 15; 1, 18; 2, 19; Sall. C. 14, 6; 49, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 37.—Before i (very freq.):

    excitare atque inflammare,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6; 3, 7; 7, 18; id. Phil. 2, 15, 37; 2, 21, 50; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; 1, 40, 97; Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 1, 20; 1, 22; 2, 1 bis; Sall. C. 2, 3; 3, 5; 14, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 6; 21, 10.—Before o (freq. in Cic.):

    honestissimus atque ornatissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 17; 8, 21; 11, 31; id. Off. 1, 25, 86; 1, 27, 94; Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 14; Sall. C. 10, 6; Liv. 21, 8.—Before u (very rare), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7; 5, 11; 6, 15; Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 2, 20; Sall. C. 31, 6; 42, 1.—Before h (not infreq.):

    Sertorianae atque Hispaniensis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 7, 19; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 69; id. Off. 1, 24, 87; Caes. B. G. 1, 19; 2, 9; 2, 10; Sall. C. 6, 1; 12, 2; Liv. 21, 37.—
    b.
    Before consonants.—Before b (very rare):

    Gallorum atque Belgarum,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; so,

    Cassius atque Brutus,

    Tac. A. 3, 76.—Before c (infreq. in Cic., freq. in Sall.):

    in portubus atque custodiis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 16; 8, 21; id. Phil. 2, 8, 18; id. Tusc. 1, 18, 42; id. Off. 1, 25, 88; Sall. C. 2, 3; 7, 4; 16, 3; 26, 4; 29, 3.—Before d (infreq.):

    superatam esse atque depressam,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 8, 21; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114: id. Off. 1, 6, 19; 1, 25, 85; 1, 33, 119; Sall. C. 4, 1; 20, 7; 20, 10.—Before f (infreq.):

    vitiis atque flagitiis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 30, 72; id. Off. 1, 28, 98; 1, 28, 100; Caes. B. G. 1, 2; Sall. C. 1, 4; 2, 9; 11, 2.— Before g (very rare):

    dignitate atque gloria,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 11; 5, 12:

    virtute atque gloria,

    Sall. C. 3, 2; 61, 9.—Before j (very rare):

    labore atque justitia,

    Sall. C. 10, 1; 29, 3.—Before l (rare):

    hilari atque laeto,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 100; id. Off. 1, 19, 64; Sall. C. 14, 3; 21, 2; 28, 4.—Before m (infreq. in Cic., once in Caes.):

    multae atque magnae,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 17, 50; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; id. Off. 1, 29, 103; 1, 31, 110; Caes. B. G. 1, 34; Sall. C. 18, 4; 31, 7; 34, 1; 51, 1.—Before n (infreq.):

    adventu atque nomine,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 13; 20, 60; id. Off. 1, 28, 101; Sall. C. 2, 2 bis. —Before p (infreq. in Cic.):

    magna atque praeclara,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 11, 31; 16, 48; id. Off. 1, 44, 156; Sall. C. 4, 1; 4, 4; 16, 2; 20, 3.—Before q (does not occur).—Before r (rare):

    se conlegit atque recreavit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 58.— Before s (rare in Cic.):

    provinciarum atque sociorum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 24, 71; id. Off. 1, 9, 30; 1, 21, 72; Sall. C. 2, 5; 2, 7; 6, 1.— Before t (infreq.):

    parietum atque tectorum,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69; id. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Sall. C. 42, 2; 50, 3; 51, 38.—Before v (infreq.):

    gravis atque vehemens,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 9, 25; id. Tusc. 1, 23, 54; Sall. C. 1, 1; 12, 3; 45, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 30.—
    2.
    The form ac before consonants.—Before b (very rare):

    sentientes ac bene meritos,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149:

    feri ac barbari,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31 and 33.—Before c (very rare):

    liberis ac conjugibus,

    Liv. 21, 30:

    Romae ac circa urbem,

    id. 21, 62.—Before d (freq. in Cic.):

    periculum ac discrimen,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; 9, 23; 12, 33; id. Tusc. 1, 17, 40; 1, 28, 69; id. Off. 1, 14, 42:

    usus ac disciplina,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 31; Sall. C. 5, 4; 5, 8; 28, 1; Liv. 21, 10; 21, 18; 21, 19.—Before f (infreq.):

    opima est ac fertilis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; 7, 19; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2; 1, 27, 66; id. Off. 1, 29, 103:

    potentissimos ac firmissimos,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 3; 1, 48; 2, 12;

    2, 13: pessuma ac flagitiosissima,

    Sall. C. 5, 9; Liv. 21, 17; 21, 20.—Before g (does not occur).—Before j (very rare):

    nobilitatis ac juventutis,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 15, 37.—Before l (not infreq. in Liv.), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 9; 23, 66; id. Phil. 2, 22, 54; Caes. B. G. 1, 12; 1, 23; 2, 23; Liv. 21, 13; 21, 14; 21, 35.—Before m (not infreq. in Cic.):

    terrore ac metu,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 18, 54 bis; 20, 59; id. Tusc. 1, 40, 95; id. Off. 1, 30, 106; Caes. B. G. 1, 39; 2, 14; Sall. C. 2, 4; 10, 1; Liv. 21, 8; 21, 60.—Before n (not infreq. in Cic.):

    insedit ac nimis inveteravit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7:

    gentes ac nationes,

    id. ib. 11, 31; 12, 35 bis; id. Phil. 2, 21, 50; id. Tusc. 1, 21, 48; Caes. B. G. 1, 20; 2, 28; Liv. 21, 32.—Before p (not infreq. in Cic., Caes., and Liv.):

    celeberrimum ac plenissimum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; 12, 35; 13, 36; id. Phil. 2, 15, 39; id. Tusc. 1, 17, 41; id. Off. 1, 20, 68; Caes. B. G. 1, 18; 1, 20; 2, 13; 2, 19; Sall. C. 5, 9; Liv. 21, 25; 21, 34; 21, 35.—Before q (does not occur).—Before r (infreq.):

    firmamenti ac roboris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 8, 21; 15, 45; id. Off. 1, 5, 15; Caes. B. G. 1, 25; Liv. 21, 41; 21, 44.—Before s (freq. in Cic. and Liv., infreq. in Caes.):

    vectigalibus ac sociis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 4; 4, 10; 11, 30; id. Phil. 2, 27, 66; Caes. B. G. 1, 25; 1, 31; 1, 33; 2, 24; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 33 bis; 21, 36.—Before t (infreq. in Cic., freq. in Liv.):

    tantis rebus ac tanto bello,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27 bis; 19, 56; 20, 59; Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 1, 39; 2, 6; Liv. 21, 7 ter; 21, 10; 21, 14; 21, 25.—Before v (not in Cic., only once in Caes. and Sall., but freq. in Liv.):

    armatos ac victores,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    inconsulte ac veluti etc.,

    Sall. C. 42, 2:

    opera ac vineae,

    Liv. 21, 7; 21, 22; 21, 40; 21, 43. —(So in the phrases treated below: atque adeo, atque alter or alius, atque eccum, atque eo, atque etiam, atque illuc, atque is or hic, atque iterum, atque omnia, atque ut, atque late, atque sic, atque velut, but ac ne, ac si, and ac tamen).—With simul:

    Britannorum acies in speciem simul ac terrorem editioribus locis constiterat,

    Tac. Agr. 35:

    in se simul atque in Herculem,

    id. G. 34:

    suos prosequitur simul ac deponit,

    id. ib. 30; so,

    sociis pariter atque hostibus,

    id. H. 4, 73:

    innocentes ac noxios juxta cadere,

    id. A. 1, 48.—Hence, sometimes syn. with et—et, ut—ita, aeque ac; both—and, as—so, as well—as, as well as: hodie sero ac nequiquam [p. 190] voles, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103 (cf. Cic. Quinct. 25, 79:

    verum et sero et nequidquam pudet): copia sententiarum atque verborum,

    Cic. Cael. 19, 45:

    omnia honesta atque inhonesta,

    Sall. C. 30, 4:

    nobiles atque ignobiles,

    id. ib. 20, 7:

    caloris ac frigoris patientia par,

    Liv. 21, 4; 6, 41; Vell. 2, 127:

    vir bonus et prudens dici delector ego ac tu,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 32.—
    B.
    Esp.
    a.
    In a hendiadys:

    utinam isto animo atque virtute in summa re publica versari quam in municipali maluisset,

    with this virtuous feeling, Cic. Leg. 3, 16, 36:

    de conplexu ejus ac sinu,

    of his bosom embrace, id. Cat. 2, 10, 22:

    me eadem, quae ceteros, fama atque invidia vexabat, i. e. invidiosa fama,

    Sall. C. 3 fin.:

    clamore atque adsensu,

    shout of applause, Liv. 21, 3.—
    b.
    In joining to the idea of a preceding word one more important, and indeed, and even, and especially (v. Kritz ad Sall. J. 4, 3).
    (α).
    Absol.: Pa. Nempe tu istic ais esse erilem concubinam? Sc. Atque arguo me etc., yea and I maintain that I etc., Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 66: Ph. Tun vidisti? Sc. Atque his quidem oculis, id. ib. 2, 4, 15: Ps. Ecquid habet is homo aceti in pectore? Ch. Atque acidissimi, id. Ps. 2, 4, 49; so id. Bacch. 3, 6, 9; id. Men. 1, 2, 40: Py. Cognoscitne (ea)? Ch. Ac memoriter, Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 6:

    Faciam boni tibi aliquid pro ista re ac lubens,

    and with a good will, id. Heaut. 4, 5, 15:

    rem difficilem (dii immortales) atque omnium difficillimam,

    and indeed, Cic. Or. 16, 52:

    magna diis immortalibus habenda est gratia atque huic ipsi Jovi Statori, etc.,

    and especially, id. Cat. 1, 5, 11:

    hebeti ingenio atque nullo,

    and in fact, id. Tusc. 5, 15, 45:

    ex plurimis periculis et insidiis atque ex media morte,

    and even, id. Cat. 4, 9:

    fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo interfecto,

    and at the same time, Sall. J. 14, 11:

    intra moenia atque in sinu urbis,

    id. C. 52, 35.—
    (β).
    With adeo, and that too, and even:

    intra moenia atque adeo in senatu,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5:

    qui in urbe remanserunt atque adeo qui contra urbis salutem etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 12, 27:

    insto atque urgeo, insector, posco atque adeo flagito crimen,

    id. Planc. 19 fin.:

    non petentem atque adeo etiam absentem,

    Liv. 10, 5.—And with autem also added:

    atque adeo autem quor etc.,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 42.—
    (γ).
    With etiam:

    id jam populare atque etiam plausibile factum est,

    and also, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 3, 8:

    ne Verginio commeatum dent atque etiam in custodia habeant,

    Liv. 3, 46.—
    (δ).
    With the dem. pron. hic, is:

    negotium magnum est navigare atque id mense Quintili,

    and besides, and that, and that too, Cic. Att. 5, 12; 1, 14:

    maximis defixis trabibus atque eis praeacutis,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 27:

    Asseres pedum XII. cuspidibus praefixis atque hi maximis ballistis missi,

    id. ib. 2, 2:

    duabus missis subsidio cohortibus a Caesare, atque his primis legionum duarum,

    id. B. G. 5, 15; id. B. C. 3, 70:

    flumen uno omnino loco pedibus atque hoc aegre transiri potest,

    id. B. G. 5, 18:

    ad celeritatem onerandi subductionesque paulo facit humiliores... atque id eo magis, quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 5, 1; cf. without id (perh. to avoid the repetition of the pron.): qua (sc. virtute) nostri milites facile superabant, atque eo magis, quod, etc., and that the more because etc., id. ib. 3, 8 fin.:

    dicendi artem apta trepidatione occultans atque eo validior,

    Tac. H. 1, 69; 2, 37; id. A. 4, 22; 4, 46.—
    II.
    In comparisons.
    A.
    Of equality (Rudd. II. p. 94; Zumpt, § 340); with par, idem, item, aequus, similis, juxta, talis, totidem, etc., as: et nota, quod ex hujus modi structura Graeca (sc. homoios kai, etc.) frequenter Latini ac et atque in significatione similitudinis accipiunt, Prisc. pp. 1192 and 1193 P.; cf. Gell. 10, 29; Lidd. and Scott, s. v. kai, III.:

    si parem sententiam hic habet ac formam,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 36: quom opulenti loquuntur pariter atque ignobiles, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4:

    Ecastor pariter hoc atque alias res soles,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 1, 52:

    pariter nunc opera me adjuves ac re dudum opitulata es,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 3:

    neque enim mihi par ratio cum Lucilio est ac tecum fuit,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 3:

    parique eum atque illos imperio esse jussit,

    Nep. Dat. 3, 5:

    magistrum equitum pari ac dictatorem imperio fugavit,

    id. Hann. 5, 3:

    pariter patribus ac plebi carus,

    Liv. 2, 33: nam et vita est eadem et animus te erga idem ac fuit, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 24:

    In hanc argumentationes ex eisdem locis sumendae sunt atque in causam negotialem,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 23, 70:

    equi quod alii sunt ad rem militarem idonei, alii ad vecturam... non item sunt spectandi atque habendi,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 15; id. L. L. 10, § 74 Mull.:

    cum ex provincia populi Romani aequam partem tu tibi sumpseris atque populo Romano miseris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19:

    Modo ne in aequo (jure) hostes apud vos sint ac nos socii,

    Liv. 39, 37 (exs. with aeque; v. aeque, d); Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 83 fin.:

    et simili jure tu ulcisceris patrui mortem atque ille persequeretur fratris sui, si, etc.,

    id. Rab. Perd. 5; id. Phil. 1, 4; id. Agr. 1, 4 fin.:

    similem pavorem inde ac fugam fore, ac bello Gallico fuerit,

    Liv. 6, 28; Col. 5, 7, 3:

    contendant, se juxta hieme atque aestate bella gerere posse,

    Liv. 5, 6; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 1, 54, 9:

    faxo eum tali mactatum, atque hic est, infortunio,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 39; Cic. Vatin. 4, 10:

    cum totidem navibus atque erat profectus,

    Nep. Milt. 7, 4.—
    B.
    Of difference; with alius and its derivv., with dissimile, contra, contrarius, secus, etc., than:

    illi sunt alio ingenio atque tu,

    other than, different from, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 35 al.; v. the passages under alius, I. B. a:

    aliter tuum amorem atque est accipis,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 23 al.; v. the passages under aliter, 1. a.; cf.

    also aliorsum, II., and aliusmodi: quod est non dissimile atque ire in Solonium,

    Cic. Att. 2, 3:

    simulacrum in excelso collocare et, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    id. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24 fin.; id. Verr. 2, 1, 46:

    qui versantur retro, contrario motu atque caelum,

    id. Rep. 6, 17, 17:

    membra paulo secus a me atque ab illo partita,

    id. de Or. 3, 30, 119:

    cujus ego salutem non secus ac meam tueri debeo,

    id. Planc. 1 fin. al.; v. contra, contrarius, secus, etc.—
    C.
    Sometimes, in cases of equality or difference, atque with ut or ac with si (with aliter affirm. Cic. appears to connect only atque ut, not ac si;

    once, however, non aliter, ac si,

    Cic. Att. 13, 51;

    v. aliter, 1. b.): pariter hoc fit atque ut alia facta sunt,

    Plaut. Am. 4, 1, 11:

    nec fallaciam Astutiorem ullus fecit poeta atque Ut haec est fabre facta a nobis,

    id. Cas. 5, 1, 6 sqq.:

    quod iste aliter atque ut edixerat decrevisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46:

    et qui suos casus aliter ferunt atque ut auctores aliis ipsi fuerunt, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 3, 30, 73:

    si mentionem fecerint, quo aliter ager possideretur atque ut ex legibus Juliis,

    id. Att. 2, 18, 2; 16, 13, c; cf. Wopk. Lect. Tull. 1, 15, p. 118; Dig. 43, 13, 11:

    Egnatii absentis rem ut tueare, aeque a te peto ac si mea negotia essent,

    just as if, Cic. Fam. 13, 43:

    tu autem similiter facis ac si me roges, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 3, 8:

    reliquis officiis, juxta ac si meus frater esset, sustentavit,

    id. Post. Red. in Sen. 8, 20:

    quod dandum est amicitiae, large dabitur a me non secus ac si meus esset frater,

    id. Mur. 4 fin.:

    haec sunt, tribuni, consilia vestra, non, hercule, dissimilia, ac si quis, etc.,

    Liv. 5, 5 fin. al. —
    D.
    More rare with nimis, in partem, pro eo, etc.;

    in Plaut. also with mutare or demutare = aliud esse: nimis bellus, atque ut esse maxume optabam, locus,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 73:

    haud centensumam Partem dixi atque, otium rei si sit, possim expromere,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 168: sane quam pro eo ac debui graviter molesteque tuli, just as was my duty, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5:

    debeo sperare, omnes deos, qui huic urbi praesident, pro eo mihi, ac mereor, relaturos gratiam esse,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 2:

    pro eo, ac si concessum sit, concludere oportebit argumentationem,

    id. Inv. 1, 32, 54:

    non possum ego non aut proxime atque ille aut etiam aeque laborare,

    nearly the same as he, id. Fam. 9, 13, 2:

    neque se luna quoquam mutat atque uti exorta est semel,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 118:

    num quid videtur demutare atque ut quidem Dixi?

    id. Mil. 4, 3, 37.—
    E.
    Sometimes the word indicating comparison (aeque, tantopere, etc.) is to be supplied from the connection (in the class. per. perh. used only once by Cassius in epist. style):

    nebula haud est mollis atque hujus est,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 21:

    quem esse amicum ratus sum atque ipsus sum mihi,

    id. Bacch. 3, 6, 20:

    quae suco caret atque putris pumex,

    Priap. 32, 7 (Mull., est putusque): digne ac mereor commendatus esse, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 13; Dig. 2, 14, 4; 19, 2, 54.—
    F.
    Poet. or in post-Aug. prose with comparatives (for quam), than:

    amicior mihi nullus vivit atque is est,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 56:

    non Apollinis magis verum atque hoc responsum est,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 15 Ruhnk.:

    Illi non minus ac tibi Pectore uritur intimo Flamma,

    Cat. 61, 172:

    haud minus ac jussi faciunt,

    Verg. A. 3, 561:

    Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 46 Bentl. and Heind. (cf. infra:

    nihilo plus accipias quam Qui nil portarit): qui peccas minus atque ego,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 96:

    Artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex,

    id. Epod. 15, 5; Suet. Caes. 14 Ruhnk. —
    G.
    In the comparison of two periods of time, most freq. with simul (v. examples under simul); ante- or post-class. with principio, statim:

    principio Atque animus ephebis aetate exiit,

    as soon as, Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 40:

    judici enim, statim atque factus est, omnium rerum officium incumbit,

    Dig. 21, 1, 25:

    quamvis, statim atque intercessit, mulier competierat,

    ib. 16, 1, 24.—
    III.
    To connect a negative clause which explains or corrects what precedes; hence sometimes with potius (class.; in Cic. very freq., but rare in the poets), and not, and not rather.
    a.
    Absol.:

    Decipiam ac non veniam,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 4, 6:

    si fidem habeat,... ac non id metuat, ne etc.,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 60:

    perparvam vero controversiam dicis, ac non eam, quae dirimat omnia,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 20, 54:

    quasi nunc id agatur, quis ex tanta multitudine occiderit, ac non hoc quaeratur, eum, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 33:

    si (mundum) tuum ac non deorum immortalium domicilium putes, nonne plane desipere videare?

    id. N. D. 2, 6, 17:

    nemo erat, qui illum reum ac non miliens condemnatum arbitraretur,

    id. Att. 1, 16:

    si hoc dissuadere est, ac non disturbare ac pervertere,

    id. Agr. 2, 37, 101:

    si res verba desideraret ac non pro se ipsa loqueretur,

    id. Fam. 3, 2 fin.: hoc te exspectare tempus tibi turpe est ac non ei rei sapientia tua te occurrere, Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 6:

    velut destituti ac non qui ipsi destituissent,

    Liv. 8, 27; 7, 3 fin.:

    si mihi mea sententia proferenda ac non disertissimorum,

    Tac. Or. 1.—
    b.
    With potius:

    Quam ob rem scriba deducet, ac non potius mulio, qui advexit?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 79 (B. and K., et):

    quis (eum) ita aspexit, ut perditum civem, ac non potius ut importunissimum hostem?

    id. Cat. 2, 6, 12.— Pliny the elder commonly employs in this sense atque non, not ac non:

    concremasse ea (scrinia) optuma fide atque non legisse,

    Plin. 7, 25, 26, § 94; 22, 24, 50, § 108; 29, 2, 9, § 29; 27, 9, 55, § 78; 31, 7, 39, § 73 et saep. —
    IV.
    In connecting clauses and beginning periods.
    1.
    In gen., and, and so, and even, and too: Pamph. Antiquam adeo tuam venustatem obtines. Bacch. Ac tu ecastor morem antiquom atque ingenium obtines, And you too, Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 20:

    atque illi (philosopho) ordiri placet etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 183: Africanus indigens mei? Minime hercle. Ac ne ego quidem illius, And I indeed not, etc., id. Lael. 9, 30; id. Fin. 5, 11, 33:

    cum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, etc.... Atque ego cum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, Versiculos, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 10, 31:

    multa quippe et diversa angebant: validior per Germaniam exercitus, etc.... quos igitur anteferret? ac (i. e. similiter angebat), ne postpositi contumelia incenderentur,

    Tac. A. 1, 47:

    Minime, minime, inquit Secundus, atque adeo vellem maturius intervenisses,

    Tac. Or. 14:

    ac similiter in translatione, etc.,

    Quint. 3, 6, 77.—
    2.
    In adducing new arguments of similar force in favor of any assertion or making further statements about a subject, etc.; cf. Beier ad Cic. Off. 3, 11, 487.
    a.
    Absol.:

    maxima est enim vis vetustatis et consuetudinis: atque in ipso equo, cujus modo mentionem feci, si, etc.,

    and furthermore, and moreover, Cic. Lael. 19, 68: Atque, si natura confirmatura jus non erit, virtutes omnes tollentur, id. Leg. 1, 15, 42 B. and K. —
    b.
    Often with etiam:

    Atque alias etiam dicendi virtutes sequitur,

    Cic. Or. 40, 139:

    Atque hoc etiam animadvertendum non esse omnia etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 61, 251; so id. Off. 1, 26, 90; id. N. D. 2, 11, 30; Col. 2, 2, 3.—
    c.
    Sometimes with quoque:

    Atque occidi quoque Potius quam cibum praehiberem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 133; so Cic. N. D. 2, 12, 32; Col. 2, 13, 3, and Cels. 2, 3; 3, 22.—
    d.
    And even with quoque etiam: Atque ego [p. 191] quoque etiam, qui Jovis sum filius, Contagione etc., Plaut. Am. prol. 30.—
    3.
    In narration:

    aegre submoventes obvios intrare portam, qui adducebant Philopoemenem, potuerunt: atque conferta turba iter reliquum clauserat,

    Liv. 39, 49; 5, 21 fin.:

    completur caede, quantum inter castra murosque vacui fuit: ac rursus nova laborum facies,

    Tac. H. 3, 30; cf. Caes. B. C. 2, 28 fin. and 2, 29 init.
    4.
    In introducing comparisons, atque ut, atque velut (mostly poet., esp. in epic poetry):

    Atque ut perspicio, profecto etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 53:

    ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta est Seditio.... Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, etc.,

    Verg. A. 1, 148; so id. G. 4, 170; id. A. 2, 626; 4, 402; 4, 441; 6, 707; 9, 59; 10, 405; 10, 707; 10, 803; 11, 809; 12, 365; 12, 521; 12, 684; 12, 715;

    12, 908: Inclinare meridiem Sentis ac, veluti stet volucris dies, Parcis deripere etc.,

    Hor. C. 3, 28, 6; Val. Fl. 6, 664;

    and so, Ac velut in nigro jactatis turbine nautis, etc.... Tale fuit nobis Manius auxilium,

    Cat. 68, 63 (for which Sillig and Muller read:

    Hic velut, etc.): Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 2, 5, 16:

    Atque ut hujus mores veros amicos parere non potuerunt, sic etc.,

    id. Lael. 15, 54.—
    5.
    In connecting two acts or events.
    a.
    In the order of time, and then; hence the ancient grammarians assume in it the notion of quick succession, and explain it, though improperly, as syn. with statim, ilico, without any accompanying copulative, v. Gell. 10, 29; Non. p. 530, 1 sq. (only in the poets and histt.): Atque atque accedit muros Romana juventus (the repetition of the atque represents the approach step by step), Enn. ap. Gell. and Non. l. l. (Ann. v. 527 Mull.): Quo imus una;

    ad prandium? Atque illi tacent,

    And then they are silent, Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 19:

    Ubi cenamus? inquam, atque illi abnuunt,

    and upon this they shake their head, id. ib. 3, 1, 21; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33:

    dum circumspecto atque ego lembum conspicor,

    id. Bacch. 2, 3, 45; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 32; 2, 1, 35; id. Most. 5, 1, 9:

    lucernam forte oblitus fueram exstinguere: Atque ille exclamat derepente maximum,

    and then he suddenly exclaims, id. ib. 2, 2, 57: cui fidus Achates It comes... atque illi Misenum in litore sicco Ut venere, vident, etc., and as they thus came, etc., Verg. A. 6, 162:

    dixerat, atque illi sese deus obtulit ultro,

    Stat. Th. 9, 481; 12, 360; Liv. 26, 39, 16; Tac. H. 3, 17:

    tum Otho ingredi castra ausus: atque illum tribuni centurionesque circumsistunt,

    id. ib. 1, 82. —Sometimes with two imperatives, in order to indicate vividly the necessity of a quicker succession, or the close connection between two actions:

    cape hoc argentum atque defer,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 3:

    abi domum ac deos comprecare,

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 65:

    tace modo ac sequere hac,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 16:

    Accipe carmina atque hanc sine tempora circum hederam tibi serpere,

    Verg. E. 8, 12; id. G. 1, 40; 3, 65; 4, 330:

    Da auxilium, pater, atque haec omina firma,

    id. A. 2, 691; 3, 89; 3, 250; 3, 639; 4, 424; 9, 90; 10, 624; 11, 370.—
    b.
    In the order of thought, and so, and thus, and therefore.
    (α).
    Absol.:

    si nunc de tuo jure concessisses paululum, Atque adulescenti morigerasses,

    and so, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 10.—
    (β).
    With ita or sic:

    Ventum deinde ad multo angustiorem rupem, atque ita rectis saxis, etc.,

    Liv. 21, 36; Plin. 10, 58, 79, § 158:

    ac sic prope innumerabiles species reperiuntur,

    Quint. 12, 10, 67.—
    c.
    Connecting conclusion and condition, so, then (cf. at, II. F.):

    non aliter quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum Remigiis subigit, si bracchia forte remisit, Atque illum praeceps prono rapit alveus amni,

    Verg. G. 1, 203 (here explained by statim by Gell. 10, 29, and by Servius, but thus its connective force is wholly lost; cf. also Forbig ad h. l. for still another explanation).—
    6.
    (As supra, I. c.) To annex a thought of more importance:

    Satisne videtur declarasse Dionysius nihil esse ei beatum, cui semper aliqui terror impendeat? atque ei ne integrum quidem erat, ut ad justitiam remigraret,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 62; id. Tull. 4:

    hoc enim spectant leges, hoc volunt, incolumem esse civium conjunctionem, quam qui dirimunt, eos morte... coercent. Atque hoc multo magis efficit ipsa naturae ratio,

    id. Off. 3, 5, 23; id. Fam. 6, 1, 4: hac spe lapsus Induciomarus... exsules damnatosque tota Gallia magnis praemiis ad se allicere coepit;

    ac tantam sibi jam iis rebus in Gallia auctoritatem comparaverat, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 55 fin.; Nep. Hann. 13, 2; Quint. 1, 10, 16.—Hence also in answers, in order to confirm a question or assertion:

    Sed videone ego Pamphilippum cum fratre Epignomo? Atque is est,

    And he it is, Yes, it is he, Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 4; so id. Truc. 1, 2, 24: Th. Mihin malum minitare? Ca. Atque edepol non minitabor, sed dabo, id. Curc. 4, 4, 15: Ch. Egon formidulosus? nemost hominum, qui vivat, minus. Th. Atque ita opust, Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 20.—
    7.
    In expressing a wish, atque utinam:

    Veritus sum arbitros, atque utinam memet possim obliscier! Att., Trag. Rel. p. 160 Rib.: videmus enim fuisse quosdam, qui idem ornate ac graviter, idem versute et subtiliter dicerent. Atque utinam in Latinis talis oratoris simulacrum reperire possemus!

    Cic. Or. 7, 22; so id. Rep. 3, 5, 8:

    Atque utinam pro decore etc.,

    Liv. 21, 41, 13:

    Atque utinam ex vobis unus etc.,

    Verg. E. 10, 35; id. A. 1, 575:

    Atque utinam... Ille vir in medio fiat amore lapis!

    Prop. 2, 9, 47; 3, 6, 15; 3, 7, 25; 3, 8, 19 al.—
    8.
    To connect an adversative clause, and often fully with tamen, and yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless.
    a.
    Absol.: Mihi quidem hercle non fit veri simile;

    atque ipsis commentum placet,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 20 Ruhnk. (atque pro tamen, Don.):

    ego quia non rediit filius, quae cogito!... Atque ex me hic natus non est, sed ex fratre,

    id. Ad. 1, 1, 15 (Quasi dicat, ex me non est, et sic afficior: quid paterer si genuissem? Don.; cf. Acron. ap. Charis. p. 204 P.); Cic. Off. 3, 11, 48 Beier; id. Mur. 34, 71 Matth.:

    ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quae ingenio exercentur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum... Atque ego credo fore qui, etc.,

    and yet I believe, Sall. J. 4, 1 and 3 Corte; id. C. 51, 35:

    observare principis egressum in publicum, insidere vias examina infantium futurusque populus solebat. Labor parentibus erat ostentare parvulos... Ac plerique insitis precibus surdas principis aures obstrepebant,

    Plin. Pan. 26.—
    b.
    With tamen:

    nihil praeterea est magnopere dicendum. Ac tamen, ne cui loco non videatur esse responsum, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 85:

    discipulos dissimilis inter se ac tamen laudandos,

    id. de Or. 3, 10, 35; id. Rep. 1, 7, 12:

    Atque in his tamen tribus generibus etc.,

    id. Off. 3, 33, 118; id. Pis. 1, 3; 13, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16; 7, 15 fin. (cf. in reference to the last four passages Wund. Varr. Lectt. p. lviii. sq.):

    ac tamen initia fastigii etc.,

    Tac. A. 3, 29; 3, 56; 12, 56;

    14, 21: pauciores cum pluribus certasse, ac tamen fusos Germanos,

    id. H. 5, 16.—
    9.
    To connect a minor affirmative proposition (the assumptio or propositio minor of logical lang.) in syllogisms, now, but, but now (while atqui is used to connect either an affirmative or negative minor premiss: v. atqui): Scaptius quaternas postulabat. Metui, si impetrasset, ne tu ipse me amare desineres;

    ... Atque hoc tempore ipso impingit mihi epistulam etc.,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 6.—Sometimes the conclusion is to be supplied:

    nisi qui naturas hominum, penitus perspexerit, dicendo, quod volet, perficere non poterit. Atque totus hic locus philosophorum putatur proprius (conclusion: ergo oratorem philosophiam cognoscere oportet),

    Cic. de Or. 1, 12, 53 and 54.—
    10.
    In introducing a purpose (freq. in Cic.).
    a.
    A negative purpose, and esp. in anticipating an objection:

    Ac ne sine causa videretur edixisse,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 9, 24:

    Ac ne forte hoc magnum ac mirabile esse videatur,

    id. de Or. 2, 46, 191; so id. Fam. 5, 12, 30:

    Ac ne saepius dicendum sit,

    Cels. 8, 1:

    Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 13:

    Ac ne forte putes,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 208:

    Ac ne forte putes etc.,

    Ov. R. Am. 465 (Merkel, Et).—
    b.
    A positive purpose:

    Atque ut ejus diversa studia in dissimili ratione perspicere possitis, nemo etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 5, 9:

    Atque ut omnes intellegant me etc.... dico etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 8, 20; 2, 4; id. Clu. 14, 43; id. Sull. 2, 5; id. de Or. 3, 11, 40:

    Atque ut C. Flaminium relinquam etc.,

    id. Leg. 3, 9, 20; id. Fin. 3, 2, 4.—
    11.
    a.. In continuing a thought in assertions or narration, and, now, and now, Plaut. Aul. prol. 18: audistis, cum pro se diceret, genus orationis, etc.,... perspexistis. Atque in eo non solum ingenium ejus videbatis, etc., Cic. Cael. 19, 45; so id. de Or. 3, 32, 130; 2, 7, 27; 3, 10, 39 al.; Caes. B. G. 2, 29; Nep. Ages. 7, 3; 8, 1, Eum. 10, 3 Bremi; Tac. A. 14, 64; 15, 3; Verg. A. 9, 1; Sil. 4, 1 al.: ac si, sublato illo, depelli a vobis omne periculum judicarem, now if I, etc., Cic. Cat. 2, 2, 3:

    atque si etiam hoc natura praescribit, etc.,

    id. Off. 3, 6, 27; so Quint. 10, 1, 26; 10, 2, 8.—
    b.
    In introducing parentheses:

    vulgo credere, Penino (atque inde nomen et jugo Alpium inditum) transgressum,

    Liv. 21, 38:

    omne adfectus genus (atque ea maxime jucundam et ornatam faciunt orationem) de luxuria, etc.,

    Quint. 4, 3, 15 MSS., where Halm after Spalding reads et quae.
    c.
    At the conclusion of a discourse (not infreq. in Cic.): Atque in primis duabus dicendi partibus qualis esset, summatim breviterque descripsimus, And thus have we, then, briefly described, etc., Cic. Or. 15, 50:

    Ac de primo quidem officii fonte diximus,

    id. Off. 1, 6, 19:

    Ac de inferenda quidem injuria satis dictum est,

    id. ib. 1, 8, 27; id. Inv. 2, 39, 115 al.—
    V.
    In particular connections and phrases.
    A.
    Unus atque alter, one and the other; alius atque alius, one and another; now this, now that:

    unae atque alterae scalae,

    Sall. J. 60, 7:

    quarum (coclearum) cum unam atque alteram, dein plures peteret,

    id. ib. 93, 2:

    unum atque alterum lacum integer perfluit,

    Tac. H. 5, 6:

    dilatisque alia atque alia de causa comitiis,

    Liv. 8, 23, 17; Col. 9, 8, 10:

    alius atque alius,

    Tac. H. 1, 46; 1, 50 (v. alius, II. D.).—Also separated by several words:

    aliud ejus subinde atque aliud facientes initium,

    Sen. Ep. 32, 2.—
    B.
    Etiam atque etiam. again and again:

    temo Stellas cogens etiam atque etiam Noctis sublime iter, Enn., Trag. Rel. p. 39 Rib.: etiam atque etiam cogita,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 11:

    etiam atque etiam considera,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 46:

    monitos eos etiam atque etiam volo,

    id. Cat. 2, 12, 27.—So, semel atque iterum, Cic. Font. 26; id. Clu. 49; Tac. Or. 17; and:

    iterum atque iterum,

    Verg. A. 8, 527; Hor. S. 1, 10, 39.—
    C.
    Huc atque illuc, hither and thither, Cic. Q. Rosc. 37; id. de Or. 1, 40, 184; Verg. A. 9, 57; Ov. M. 2, 357; 10, 376; Tac. Agr. 10; id. H. 1, 85.—
    D.
    Longe atque late, far and wide, Cic. Marcell. 29:

    atque eccum or atque eccum video, in colloquial lang.: Heus vocate huc Davom. Atque eccum,

    but here he is, Ter. And. 3, 3, 48:

    Audire vocem visa sum modo militis. Atque eccum,

    and here he is, id. Eun. 3, 2, 2; so id. Hec. 4, 1, 8.—
    E.
    Atque omnia, in making an assertion general, and so generally:

    Atque in eis omnibus, quae sunt actionis, inest quaedam vis a natura data,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 223:

    quorum (verborum) descriptus ordo alias alia terminatione concluditur, atque omnia illa et prima et media verba spectare debent ad ultimum,

    id. Or. 59, 200; id. de Or. 2, 64, 257: commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere, and so rather, etc., id. Off. 2, 23, 83:

    nihil acerbum esse, nihil crudele, atque omnia plena clementiae, humanitatis,

    id. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    Atque omnis vitae ratio sic constat, ut, quae probamus in aliis, facere ipsi velimus,

    Quint. 10, 2, 2.—
    F.
    With other conjunctions.
    1.
    After et:

    equidem putabam virtutem hominibus instituendo et persuadendo, non minis et vi ac metu tradi,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 247:

    Magnifica vero vox et magno viro ac sapiente digna,

    id. Off. 3, 1, 1; id. Cael. 13:

    vanus aspectus et auri fulgor atque argenti,

    Tac. Agr. 32.:

    denuntiarent, ut ab Saguntinis abstineret et Carthaginem in Africam traicerent ac sociorum querimonias deferrent,

    Liv. 21, 6, 4:

    ubi et fratrem consilii ac periculi socium haberem,

    id. 21, 41, 2:

    et uti liter demum ac Latine perspicueque,

    Quint. 8, 3, 3:

    Nam et subtili plenius aliquid atque subtilius et vehementi remissius atque vehementius invenitur,

    id. 12, 10, 67. —
    2.
    After que, as in Gr. te kai: litterisque ac laudibus aeternare, Varr. ap. Non. p. 75, 20:

    submoverique atque in castra redigi,

    Liv. 26, 10:

    terrorem caedemque ac fugam fecere,

    id. 21, 52:

    mus Sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit,

    Verg. G. 1, 182; 3, 434; id. A. 8, 486.—
    3.
    Before et:

    caelum ipsum ac mare et silvas circum spectantes,

    Tac. Agr. 32.—
    4.
    After neque (only in the poets and post - Aug. prose):

    nec clavis nec canis atque calix,

    Mart. 1, 32, 4: naturam Oceani atque aestus [p. 192] neque quaerere hujus operis est, ac multi retulere, Tac. Agr. 10:

    mediocritatem pristinam neque dissimulavit umquam ac frequenter etiam prae se tulit,

    Suet. Vesp. 12.—
    G.
    Atque repeated, esp. in arch. Lat.: Scio solere plerisque hominibus in rebus secundis atque prolixis atque prosperis animum excellere atque superbiam atque ferociam augescere atque crescere, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3: Dicere possum quibus villae atque aedes aedificatae atque expolitae maximo opere citro atque ebore atque pavimentis Poenicis stent, Cato ap. Fest. p. 242 Mull.:

    atque ut C. Flamininum atque ea, quae jam prisca videntur, propter vetustatem relinquam,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20:

    omnem dignitatem tuam in virtute atque in rebus gestis atque in tua gravitate positam existimare,

    id. Fam. 1, 5, 8.—Esp. freq. in enumerations in the poets:

    Haec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia,

    Cat. 68, 152:

    Mavortia tellus Atque Getae atque Hebrus,

    Verg. G. 4, 463:

    Clioque et Beroe atque Ephyre Atque Opis et Asia,

    id. ib. 4, 343.—And sometimes forming a double connective, both— and = et—et:

    Multus ut in terras deplueretque lapis: Atque tubas atque arma ferunt crepitantia caelo Audita,

    Tib. 2, 5, 73:

    complexa sui corpus miserabile nati Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater,

    Verg. E. 5, 23; Sil. 1, 93; v. Forbig ad Verg. l. l.
    ► Atque regularly stands at the beginning of its sentence or clause or before the word it connects, but in poetry it sometimes, like et and at, stands:
    a.
    In the second place:

    Jamque novum terrae stupeant lucescere solem, Altius atque cadant imbres,

    Verg. E. 6, 38 Rib., ubi v. Forbig.:

    Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta,

    id. A. 3, 250, and 10, 104 (animis may, however, here be taken with Accipite, as in id. ib. 5, 304):

    Esto beata, funus atque imagines Ducant triumphales tuum,

    Hor. Epod. 8, 11; id. S. 1, 5, 4; 1, 6, 111; 1, 7, 12 (ubi v. Fritzsche).—
    b.
    In the third place:

    quod pubes hedera virente Gaudeant pulla magis atque myrto,

    Hor. C. 1, 25, 18; cf. at fin. (Vid. more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 452-513.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ac

  • 19 adque

    atque or āc (atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac, in class. lang., only before consonants; v. infra, I.), conj. [at has regularly in the compound atque a continuative, as in atqui it has an adversative force; pr. and further, and besides, and also; cf. in Gr. pros de, pros de eti, eti kai, eti de, and te kai; v. at init., and for the change of form atque, ac, cf. neque, nec; in MSS. and inscriptions sometimes written adque, and sometimes by confusion atqui ], a copulative particle, and also, and besides, and even, and (indicating a close internal connection between single words or whole clauses; while et designates an external connection of diff. objects with each other, v. et; syn.: et, -que, autem, praeterea, porro, ad hoc, ad haec).
    I.
    In joining single words, which is its most common use.
    A.
    In gen. (The following representation is based on a collection of all the instances of the use of atque and ac in Cic. Imp. Pomp., Phil. 2, Tusc. 1, and Off. 1; in Caes. B. G. 1 and 2; in Sall. C.; and in Liv. 21; and wherever in the account either author or work is not cited, there atque or ac does not occur.)
    1.
    The form atque.
    a.
    Before vowels and h. —Before a (very freq.):

    sociorum atque amicorum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6; 3, 7; id. Phil. 2, 13, 33; id. Tusc. 1, 34, 122; Caes. B. G. 1, 2; 1, 18; 1, 26; 2, 14; Sall. C. 5, 8; 7, 5; Liv. 21, 3; 21, 12.—Before e (very freq.):

    deposci atque expeti,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 5; 6, 16; 10, 28; id. Phil, 2, 21, 51; 2, 21, 52; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Caes. B. G. 1, 6; 1, 15; 1, 18; 2, 19; Sall. C. 14, 6; 49, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 37.—Before i (very freq.):

    excitare atque inflammare,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6; 3, 7; 7, 18; id. Phil. 2, 15, 37; 2, 21, 50; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; 1, 40, 97; Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 1, 20; 1, 22; 2, 1 bis; Sall. C. 2, 3; 3, 5; 14, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 6; 21, 10.—Before o (freq. in Cic.):

    honestissimus atque ornatissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 17; 8, 21; 11, 31; id. Off. 1, 25, 86; 1, 27, 94; Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 14; Sall. C. 10, 6; Liv. 21, 8.—Before u (very rare), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7; 5, 11; 6, 15; Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 2, 20; Sall. C. 31, 6; 42, 1.—Before h (not infreq.):

    Sertorianae atque Hispaniensis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 7, 19; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 69; id. Off. 1, 24, 87; Caes. B. G. 1, 19; 2, 9; 2, 10; Sall. C. 6, 1; 12, 2; Liv. 21, 37.—
    b.
    Before consonants.—Before b (very rare):

    Gallorum atque Belgarum,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6; so,

    Cassius atque Brutus,

    Tac. A. 3, 76.—Before c (infreq. in Cic., freq. in Sall.):

    in portubus atque custodiis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 16; 8, 21; id. Phil. 2, 8, 18; id. Tusc. 1, 18, 42; id. Off. 1, 25, 88; Sall. C. 2, 3; 7, 4; 16, 3; 26, 4; 29, 3.—Before d (infreq.):

    superatam esse atque depressam,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 8, 21; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114: id. Off. 1, 6, 19; 1, 25, 85; 1, 33, 119; Sall. C. 4, 1; 20, 7; 20, 10.—Before f (infreq.):

    vitiis atque flagitiis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 30, 72; id. Off. 1, 28, 98; 1, 28, 100; Caes. B. G. 1, 2; Sall. C. 1, 4; 2, 9; 11, 2.— Before g (very rare):

    dignitate atque gloria,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 11; 5, 12:

    virtute atque gloria,

    Sall. C. 3, 2; 61, 9.—Before j (very rare):

    labore atque justitia,

    Sall. C. 10, 1; 29, 3.—Before l (rare):

    hilari atque laeto,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 100; id. Off. 1, 19, 64; Sall. C. 14, 3; 21, 2; 28, 4.—Before m (infreq. in Cic., once in Caes.):

    multae atque magnae,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 17, 50; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; id. Off. 1, 29, 103; 1, 31, 110; Caes. B. G. 1, 34; Sall. C. 18, 4; 31, 7; 34, 1; 51, 1.—Before n (infreq.):

    adventu atque nomine,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 13; 20, 60; id. Off. 1, 28, 101; Sall. C. 2, 2 bis. —Before p (infreq. in Cic.):

    magna atque praeclara,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 11, 31; 16, 48; id. Off. 1, 44, 156; Sall. C. 4, 1; 4, 4; 16, 2; 20, 3.—Before q (does not occur).—Before r (rare):

    se conlegit atque recreavit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 58.— Before s (rare in Cic.):

    provinciarum atque sociorum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 24, 71; id. Off. 1, 9, 30; 1, 21, 72; Sall. C. 2, 5; 2, 7; 6, 1.— Before t (infreq.):

    parietum atque tectorum,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69; id. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Sall. C. 42, 2; 50, 3; 51, 38.—Before v (infreq.):

    gravis atque vehemens,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 9, 25; id. Tusc. 1, 23, 54; Sall. C. 1, 1; 12, 3; 45, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 30.—
    2.
    The form ac before consonants.—Before b (very rare):

    sentientes ac bene meritos,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149:

    feri ac barbari,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31 and 33.—Before c (very rare):

    liberis ac conjugibus,

    Liv. 21, 30:

    Romae ac circa urbem,

    id. 21, 62.—Before d (freq. in Cic.):

    periculum ac discrimen,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; 9, 23; 12, 33; id. Tusc. 1, 17, 40; 1, 28, 69; id. Off. 1, 14, 42:

    usus ac disciplina,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 31; Sall. C. 5, 4; 5, 8; 28, 1; Liv. 21, 10; 21, 18; 21, 19.—Before f (infreq.):

    opima est ac fertilis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; 7, 19; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2; 1, 27, 66; id. Off. 1, 29, 103:

    potentissimos ac firmissimos,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 3; 1, 48; 2, 12;

    2, 13: pessuma ac flagitiosissima,

    Sall. C. 5, 9; Liv. 21, 17; 21, 20.—Before g (does not occur).—Before j (very rare):

    nobilitatis ac juventutis,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 15, 37.—Before l (not infreq. in Liv.), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 9; 23, 66; id. Phil. 2, 22, 54; Caes. B. G. 1, 12; 1, 23; 2, 23; Liv. 21, 13; 21, 14; 21, 35.—Before m (not infreq. in Cic.):

    terrore ac metu,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 18, 54 bis; 20, 59; id. Tusc. 1, 40, 95; id. Off. 1, 30, 106; Caes. B. G. 1, 39; 2, 14; Sall. C. 2, 4; 10, 1; Liv. 21, 8; 21, 60.—Before n (not infreq. in Cic.):

    insedit ac nimis inveteravit,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7:

    gentes ac nationes,

    id. ib. 11, 31; 12, 35 bis; id. Phil. 2, 21, 50; id. Tusc. 1, 21, 48; Caes. B. G. 1, 20; 2, 28; Liv. 21, 32.—Before p (not infreq. in Cic., Caes., and Liv.):

    celeberrimum ac plenissimum,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; 12, 35; 13, 36; id. Phil. 2, 15, 39; id. Tusc. 1, 17, 41; id. Off. 1, 20, 68; Caes. B. G. 1, 18; 1, 20; 2, 13; 2, 19; Sall. C. 5, 9; Liv. 21, 25; 21, 34; 21, 35.—Before q (does not occur).—Before r (infreq.):

    firmamenti ac roboris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 8, 21; 15, 45; id. Off. 1, 5, 15; Caes. B. G. 1, 25; Liv. 21, 41; 21, 44.—Before s (freq. in Cic. and Liv., infreq. in Caes.):

    vectigalibus ac sociis,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 4; 4, 10; 11, 30; id. Phil. 2, 27, 66; Caes. B. G. 1, 25; 1, 31; 1, 33; 2, 24; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 33 bis; 21, 36.—Before t (infreq. in Cic., freq. in Liv.):

    tantis rebus ac tanto bello,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27 bis; 19, 56; 20, 59; Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 1, 39; 2, 6; Liv. 21, 7 ter; 21, 10; 21, 14; 21, 25.—Before v (not in Cic., only once in Caes. and Sall., but freq. in Liv.):

    armatos ac victores,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    inconsulte ac veluti etc.,

    Sall. C. 42, 2:

    opera ac vineae,

    Liv. 21, 7; 21, 22; 21, 40; 21, 43. —(So in the phrases treated below: atque adeo, atque alter or alius, atque eccum, atque eo, atque etiam, atque illuc, atque is or hic, atque iterum, atque omnia, atque ut, atque late, atque sic, atque velut, but ac ne, ac si, and ac tamen).—With simul:

    Britannorum acies in speciem simul ac terrorem editioribus locis constiterat,

    Tac. Agr. 35:

    in se simul atque in Herculem,

    id. G. 34:

    suos prosequitur simul ac deponit,

    id. ib. 30; so,

    sociis pariter atque hostibus,

    id. H. 4, 73:

    innocentes ac noxios juxta cadere,

    id. A. 1, 48.—Hence, sometimes syn. with et—et, ut—ita, aeque ac; both—and, as—so, as well—as, as well as: hodie sero ac nequiquam [p. 190] voles, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103 (cf. Cic. Quinct. 25, 79:

    verum et sero et nequidquam pudet): copia sententiarum atque verborum,

    Cic. Cael. 19, 45:

    omnia honesta atque inhonesta,

    Sall. C. 30, 4:

    nobiles atque ignobiles,

    id. ib. 20, 7:

    caloris ac frigoris patientia par,

    Liv. 21, 4; 6, 41; Vell. 2, 127:

    vir bonus et prudens dici delector ego ac tu,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 32.—
    B.
    Esp.
    a.
    In a hendiadys:

    utinam isto animo atque virtute in summa re publica versari quam in municipali maluisset,

    with this virtuous feeling, Cic. Leg. 3, 16, 36:

    de conplexu ejus ac sinu,

    of his bosom embrace, id. Cat. 2, 10, 22:

    me eadem, quae ceteros, fama atque invidia vexabat, i. e. invidiosa fama,

    Sall. C. 3 fin.:

    clamore atque adsensu,

    shout of applause, Liv. 21, 3.—
    b.
    In joining to the idea of a preceding word one more important, and indeed, and even, and especially (v. Kritz ad Sall. J. 4, 3).
    (α).
    Absol.: Pa. Nempe tu istic ais esse erilem concubinam? Sc. Atque arguo me etc., yea and I maintain that I etc., Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 66: Ph. Tun vidisti? Sc. Atque his quidem oculis, id. ib. 2, 4, 15: Ps. Ecquid habet is homo aceti in pectore? Ch. Atque acidissimi, id. Ps. 2, 4, 49; so id. Bacch. 3, 6, 9; id. Men. 1, 2, 40: Py. Cognoscitne (ea)? Ch. Ac memoriter, Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 6:

    Faciam boni tibi aliquid pro ista re ac lubens,

    and with a good will, id. Heaut. 4, 5, 15:

    rem difficilem (dii immortales) atque omnium difficillimam,

    and indeed, Cic. Or. 16, 52:

    magna diis immortalibus habenda est gratia atque huic ipsi Jovi Statori, etc.,

    and especially, id. Cat. 1, 5, 11:

    hebeti ingenio atque nullo,

    and in fact, id. Tusc. 5, 15, 45:

    ex plurimis periculis et insidiis atque ex media morte,

    and even, id. Cat. 4, 9:

    fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo interfecto,

    and at the same time, Sall. J. 14, 11:

    intra moenia atque in sinu urbis,

    id. C. 52, 35.—
    (β).
    With adeo, and that too, and even:

    intra moenia atque adeo in senatu,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5:

    qui in urbe remanserunt atque adeo qui contra urbis salutem etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 12, 27:

    insto atque urgeo, insector, posco atque adeo flagito crimen,

    id. Planc. 19 fin.:

    non petentem atque adeo etiam absentem,

    Liv. 10, 5.—And with autem also added:

    atque adeo autem quor etc.,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 42.—
    (γ).
    With etiam:

    id jam populare atque etiam plausibile factum est,

    and also, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 3, 8:

    ne Verginio commeatum dent atque etiam in custodia habeant,

    Liv. 3, 46.—
    (δ).
    With the dem. pron. hic, is:

    negotium magnum est navigare atque id mense Quintili,

    and besides, and that, and that too, Cic. Att. 5, 12; 1, 14:

    maximis defixis trabibus atque eis praeacutis,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 27:

    Asseres pedum XII. cuspidibus praefixis atque hi maximis ballistis missi,

    id. ib. 2, 2:

    duabus missis subsidio cohortibus a Caesare, atque his primis legionum duarum,

    id. B. G. 5, 15; id. B. C. 3, 70:

    flumen uno omnino loco pedibus atque hoc aegre transiri potest,

    id. B. G. 5, 18:

    ad celeritatem onerandi subductionesque paulo facit humiliores... atque id eo magis, quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 5, 1; cf. without id (perh. to avoid the repetition of the pron.): qua (sc. virtute) nostri milites facile superabant, atque eo magis, quod, etc., and that the more because etc., id. ib. 3, 8 fin.:

    dicendi artem apta trepidatione occultans atque eo validior,

    Tac. H. 1, 69; 2, 37; id. A. 4, 22; 4, 46.—
    II.
    In comparisons.
    A.
    Of equality (Rudd. II. p. 94; Zumpt, § 340); with par, idem, item, aequus, similis, juxta, talis, totidem, etc., as: et nota, quod ex hujus modi structura Graeca (sc. homoios kai, etc.) frequenter Latini ac et atque in significatione similitudinis accipiunt, Prisc. pp. 1192 and 1193 P.; cf. Gell. 10, 29; Lidd. and Scott, s. v. kai, III.:

    si parem sententiam hic habet ac formam,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 36: quom opulenti loquuntur pariter atque ignobiles, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4:

    Ecastor pariter hoc atque alias res soles,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 1, 52:

    pariter nunc opera me adjuves ac re dudum opitulata es,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 3:

    neque enim mihi par ratio cum Lucilio est ac tecum fuit,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 3:

    parique eum atque illos imperio esse jussit,

    Nep. Dat. 3, 5:

    magistrum equitum pari ac dictatorem imperio fugavit,

    id. Hann. 5, 3:

    pariter patribus ac plebi carus,

    Liv. 2, 33: nam et vita est eadem et animus te erga idem ac fuit, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 24:

    In hanc argumentationes ex eisdem locis sumendae sunt atque in causam negotialem,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 23, 70:

    equi quod alii sunt ad rem militarem idonei, alii ad vecturam... non item sunt spectandi atque habendi,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 15; id. L. L. 10, § 74 Mull.:

    cum ex provincia populi Romani aequam partem tu tibi sumpseris atque populo Romano miseris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19:

    Modo ne in aequo (jure) hostes apud vos sint ac nos socii,

    Liv. 39, 37 (exs. with aeque; v. aeque, d); Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 83 fin.:

    et simili jure tu ulcisceris patrui mortem atque ille persequeretur fratris sui, si, etc.,

    id. Rab. Perd. 5; id. Phil. 1, 4; id. Agr. 1, 4 fin.:

    similem pavorem inde ac fugam fore, ac bello Gallico fuerit,

    Liv. 6, 28; Col. 5, 7, 3:

    contendant, se juxta hieme atque aestate bella gerere posse,

    Liv. 5, 6; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 1, 54, 9:

    faxo eum tali mactatum, atque hic est, infortunio,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 39; Cic. Vatin. 4, 10:

    cum totidem navibus atque erat profectus,

    Nep. Milt. 7, 4.—
    B.
    Of difference; with alius and its derivv., with dissimile, contra, contrarius, secus, etc., than:

    illi sunt alio ingenio atque tu,

    other than, different from, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 35 al.; v. the passages under alius, I. B. a:

    aliter tuum amorem atque est accipis,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 23 al.; v. the passages under aliter, 1. a.; cf.

    also aliorsum, II., and aliusmodi: quod est non dissimile atque ire in Solonium,

    Cic. Att. 2, 3:

    simulacrum in excelso collocare et, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    id. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24 fin.; id. Verr. 2, 1, 46:

    qui versantur retro, contrario motu atque caelum,

    id. Rep. 6, 17, 17:

    membra paulo secus a me atque ab illo partita,

    id. de Or. 3, 30, 119:

    cujus ego salutem non secus ac meam tueri debeo,

    id. Planc. 1 fin. al.; v. contra, contrarius, secus, etc.—
    C.
    Sometimes, in cases of equality or difference, atque with ut or ac with si (with aliter affirm. Cic. appears to connect only atque ut, not ac si;

    once, however, non aliter, ac si,

    Cic. Att. 13, 51;

    v. aliter, 1. b.): pariter hoc fit atque ut alia facta sunt,

    Plaut. Am. 4, 1, 11:

    nec fallaciam Astutiorem ullus fecit poeta atque Ut haec est fabre facta a nobis,

    id. Cas. 5, 1, 6 sqq.:

    quod iste aliter atque ut edixerat decrevisset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46:

    et qui suos casus aliter ferunt atque ut auctores aliis ipsi fuerunt, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 3, 30, 73:

    si mentionem fecerint, quo aliter ager possideretur atque ut ex legibus Juliis,

    id. Att. 2, 18, 2; 16, 13, c; cf. Wopk. Lect. Tull. 1, 15, p. 118; Dig. 43, 13, 11:

    Egnatii absentis rem ut tueare, aeque a te peto ac si mea negotia essent,

    just as if, Cic. Fam. 13, 43:

    tu autem similiter facis ac si me roges, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 3, 8:

    reliquis officiis, juxta ac si meus frater esset, sustentavit,

    id. Post. Red. in Sen. 8, 20:

    quod dandum est amicitiae, large dabitur a me non secus ac si meus esset frater,

    id. Mur. 4 fin.:

    haec sunt, tribuni, consilia vestra, non, hercule, dissimilia, ac si quis, etc.,

    Liv. 5, 5 fin. al. —
    D.
    More rare with nimis, in partem, pro eo, etc.;

    in Plaut. also with mutare or demutare = aliud esse: nimis bellus, atque ut esse maxume optabam, locus,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 73:

    haud centensumam Partem dixi atque, otium rei si sit, possim expromere,

    id. Mil. 3, 1, 168: sane quam pro eo ac debui graviter molesteque tuli, just as was my duty, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5:

    debeo sperare, omnes deos, qui huic urbi praesident, pro eo mihi, ac mereor, relaturos gratiam esse,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 2:

    pro eo, ac si concessum sit, concludere oportebit argumentationem,

    id. Inv. 1, 32, 54:

    non possum ego non aut proxime atque ille aut etiam aeque laborare,

    nearly the same as he, id. Fam. 9, 13, 2:

    neque se luna quoquam mutat atque uti exorta est semel,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 118:

    num quid videtur demutare atque ut quidem Dixi?

    id. Mil. 4, 3, 37.—
    E.
    Sometimes the word indicating comparison (aeque, tantopere, etc.) is to be supplied from the connection (in the class. per. perh. used only once by Cassius in epist. style):

    nebula haud est mollis atque hujus est,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 21:

    quem esse amicum ratus sum atque ipsus sum mihi,

    id. Bacch. 3, 6, 20:

    quae suco caret atque putris pumex,

    Priap. 32, 7 (Mull., est putusque): digne ac mereor commendatus esse, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 13; Dig. 2, 14, 4; 19, 2, 54.—
    F.
    Poet. or in post-Aug. prose with comparatives (for quam), than:

    amicior mihi nullus vivit atque is est,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 56:

    non Apollinis magis verum atque hoc responsum est,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 15 Ruhnk.:

    Illi non minus ac tibi Pectore uritur intimo Flamma,

    Cat. 61, 172:

    haud minus ac jussi faciunt,

    Verg. A. 3, 561:

    Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 46 Bentl. and Heind. (cf. infra:

    nihilo plus accipias quam Qui nil portarit): qui peccas minus atque ego,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 96:

    Artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex,

    id. Epod. 15, 5; Suet. Caes. 14 Ruhnk. —
    G.
    In the comparison of two periods of time, most freq. with simul (v. examples under simul); ante- or post-class. with principio, statim:

    principio Atque animus ephebis aetate exiit,

    as soon as, Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 40:

    judici enim, statim atque factus est, omnium rerum officium incumbit,

    Dig. 21, 1, 25:

    quamvis, statim atque intercessit, mulier competierat,

    ib. 16, 1, 24.—
    III.
    To connect a negative clause which explains or corrects what precedes; hence sometimes with potius (class.; in Cic. very freq., but rare in the poets), and not, and not rather.
    a.
    Absol.:

    Decipiam ac non veniam,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 4, 6:

    si fidem habeat,... ac non id metuat, ne etc.,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 60:

    perparvam vero controversiam dicis, ac non eam, quae dirimat omnia,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 20, 54:

    quasi nunc id agatur, quis ex tanta multitudine occiderit, ac non hoc quaeratur, eum, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 33:

    si (mundum) tuum ac non deorum immortalium domicilium putes, nonne plane desipere videare?

    id. N. D. 2, 6, 17:

    nemo erat, qui illum reum ac non miliens condemnatum arbitraretur,

    id. Att. 1, 16:

    si hoc dissuadere est, ac non disturbare ac pervertere,

    id. Agr. 2, 37, 101:

    si res verba desideraret ac non pro se ipsa loqueretur,

    id. Fam. 3, 2 fin.: hoc te exspectare tempus tibi turpe est ac non ei rei sapientia tua te occurrere, Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 6:

    velut destituti ac non qui ipsi destituissent,

    Liv. 8, 27; 7, 3 fin.:

    si mihi mea sententia proferenda ac non disertissimorum,

    Tac. Or. 1.—
    b.
    With potius:

    Quam ob rem scriba deducet, ac non potius mulio, qui advexit?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 79 (B. and K., et):

    quis (eum) ita aspexit, ut perditum civem, ac non potius ut importunissimum hostem?

    id. Cat. 2, 6, 12.— Pliny the elder commonly employs in this sense atque non, not ac non:

    concremasse ea (scrinia) optuma fide atque non legisse,

    Plin. 7, 25, 26, § 94; 22, 24, 50, § 108; 29, 2, 9, § 29; 27, 9, 55, § 78; 31, 7, 39, § 73 et saep. —
    IV.
    In connecting clauses and beginning periods.
    1.
    In gen., and, and so, and even, and too: Pamph. Antiquam adeo tuam venustatem obtines. Bacch. Ac tu ecastor morem antiquom atque ingenium obtines, And you too, Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 20:

    atque illi (philosopho) ordiri placet etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 183: Africanus indigens mei? Minime hercle. Ac ne ego quidem illius, And I indeed not, etc., id. Lael. 9, 30; id. Fin. 5, 11, 33:

    cum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, etc.... Atque ego cum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, Versiculos, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 10, 31:

    multa quippe et diversa angebant: validior per Germaniam exercitus, etc.... quos igitur anteferret? ac (i. e. similiter angebat), ne postpositi contumelia incenderentur,

    Tac. A. 1, 47:

    Minime, minime, inquit Secundus, atque adeo vellem maturius intervenisses,

    Tac. Or. 14:

    ac similiter in translatione, etc.,

    Quint. 3, 6, 77.—
    2.
    In adducing new arguments of similar force in favor of any assertion or making further statements about a subject, etc.; cf. Beier ad Cic. Off. 3, 11, 487.
    a.
    Absol.:

    maxima est enim vis vetustatis et consuetudinis: atque in ipso equo, cujus modo mentionem feci, si, etc.,

    and furthermore, and moreover, Cic. Lael. 19, 68: Atque, si natura confirmatura jus non erit, virtutes omnes tollentur, id. Leg. 1, 15, 42 B. and K. —
    b.
    Often with etiam:

    Atque alias etiam dicendi virtutes sequitur,

    Cic. Or. 40, 139:

    Atque hoc etiam animadvertendum non esse omnia etc.,

    id. de Or. 2, 61, 251; so id. Off. 1, 26, 90; id. N. D. 2, 11, 30; Col. 2, 2, 3.—
    c.
    Sometimes with quoque:

    Atque occidi quoque Potius quam cibum praehiberem,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 133; so Cic. N. D. 2, 12, 32; Col. 2, 13, 3, and Cels. 2, 3; 3, 22.—
    d.
    And even with quoque etiam: Atque ego [p. 191] quoque etiam, qui Jovis sum filius, Contagione etc., Plaut. Am. prol. 30.—
    3.
    In narration:

    aegre submoventes obvios intrare portam, qui adducebant Philopoemenem, potuerunt: atque conferta turba iter reliquum clauserat,

    Liv. 39, 49; 5, 21 fin.:

    completur caede, quantum inter castra murosque vacui fuit: ac rursus nova laborum facies,

    Tac. H. 3, 30; cf. Caes. B. C. 2, 28 fin. and 2, 29 init.
    4.
    In introducing comparisons, atque ut, atque velut (mostly poet., esp. in epic poetry):

    Atque ut perspicio, profecto etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 53:

    ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta est Seditio.... Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, etc.,

    Verg. A. 1, 148; so id. G. 4, 170; id. A. 2, 626; 4, 402; 4, 441; 6, 707; 9, 59; 10, 405; 10, 707; 10, 803; 11, 809; 12, 365; 12, 521; 12, 684; 12, 715;

    12, 908: Inclinare meridiem Sentis ac, veluti stet volucris dies, Parcis deripere etc.,

    Hor. C. 3, 28, 6; Val. Fl. 6, 664;

    and so, Ac velut in nigro jactatis turbine nautis, etc.... Tale fuit nobis Manius auxilium,

    Cat. 68, 63 (for which Sillig and Muller read:

    Hic velut, etc.): Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 2, 5, 16:

    Atque ut hujus mores veros amicos parere non potuerunt, sic etc.,

    id. Lael. 15, 54.—
    5.
    In connecting two acts or events.
    a.
    In the order of time, and then; hence the ancient grammarians assume in it the notion of quick succession, and explain it, though improperly, as syn. with statim, ilico, without any accompanying copulative, v. Gell. 10, 29; Non. p. 530, 1 sq. (only in the poets and histt.): Atque atque accedit muros Romana juventus (the repetition of the atque represents the approach step by step), Enn. ap. Gell. and Non. l. l. (Ann. v. 527 Mull.): Quo imus una;

    ad prandium? Atque illi tacent,

    And then they are silent, Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 19:

    Ubi cenamus? inquam, atque illi abnuunt,

    and upon this they shake their head, id. ib. 3, 1, 21; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33:

    dum circumspecto atque ego lembum conspicor,

    id. Bacch. 2, 3, 45; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 32; 2, 1, 35; id. Most. 5, 1, 9:

    lucernam forte oblitus fueram exstinguere: Atque ille exclamat derepente maximum,

    and then he suddenly exclaims, id. ib. 2, 2, 57: cui fidus Achates It comes... atque illi Misenum in litore sicco Ut venere, vident, etc., and as they thus came, etc., Verg. A. 6, 162:

    dixerat, atque illi sese deus obtulit ultro,

    Stat. Th. 9, 481; 12, 360; Liv. 26, 39, 16; Tac. H. 3, 17:

    tum Otho ingredi castra ausus: atque illum tribuni centurionesque circumsistunt,

    id. ib. 1, 82. —Sometimes with two imperatives, in order to indicate vividly the necessity of a quicker succession, or the close connection between two actions:

    cape hoc argentum atque defer,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 3:

    abi domum ac deos comprecare,

    id. Ad. 4, 5, 65:

    tace modo ac sequere hac,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 16:

    Accipe carmina atque hanc sine tempora circum hederam tibi serpere,

    Verg. E. 8, 12; id. G. 1, 40; 3, 65; 4, 330:

    Da auxilium, pater, atque haec omina firma,

    id. A. 2, 691; 3, 89; 3, 250; 3, 639; 4, 424; 9, 90; 10, 624; 11, 370.—
    b.
    In the order of thought, and so, and thus, and therefore.
    (α).
    Absol.:

    si nunc de tuo jure concessisses paululum, Atque adulescenti morigerasses,

    and so, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 10.—
    (β).
    With ita or sic:

    Ventum deinde ad multo angustiorem rupem, atque ita rectis saxis, etc.,

    Liv. 21, 36; Plin. 10, 58, 79, § 158:

    ac sic prope innumerabiles species reperiuntur,

    Quint. 12, 10, 67.—
    c.
    Connecting conclusion and condition, so, then (cf. at, II. F.):

    non aliter quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum Remigiis subigit, si bracchia forte remisit, Atque illum praeceps prono rapit alveus amni,

    Verg. G. 1, 203 (here explained by statim by Gell. 10, 29, and by Servius, but thus its connective force is wholly lost; cf. also Forbig ad h. l. for still another explanation).—
    6.
    (As supra, I. c.) To annex a thought of more importance:

    Satisne videtur declarasse Dionysius nihil esse ei beatum, cui semper aliqui terror impendeat? atque ei ne integrum quidem erat, ut ad justitiam remigraret,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 62; id. Tull. 4:

    hoc enim spectant leges, hoc volunt, incolumem esse civium conjunctionem, quam qui dirimunt, eos morte... coercent. Atque hoc multo magis efficit ipsa naturae ratio,

    id. Off. 3, 5, 23; id. Fam. 6, 1, 4: hac spe lapsus Induciomarus... exsules damnatosque tota Gallia magnis praemiis ad se allicere coepit;

    ac tantam sibi jam iis rebus in Gallia auctoritatem comparaverat, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 55 fin.; Nep. Hann. 13, 2; Quint. 1, 10, 16.—Hence also in answers, in order to confirm a question or assertion:

    Sed videone ego Pamphilippum cum fratre Epignomo? Atque is est,

    And he it is, Yes, it is he, Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 4; so id. Truc. 1, 2, 24: Th. Mihin malum minitare? Ca. Atque edepol non minitabor, sed dabo, id. Curc. 4, 4, 15: Ch. Egon formidulosus? nemost hominum, qui vivat, minus. Th. Atque ita opust, Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 20.—
    7.
    In expressing a wish, atque utinam:

    Veritus sum arbitros, atque utinam memet possim obliscier! Att., Trag. Rel. p. 160 Rib.: videmus enim fuisse quosdam, qui idem ornate ac graviter, idem versute et subtiliter dicerent. Atque utinam in Latinis talis oratoris simulacrum reperire possemus!

    Cic. Or. 7, 22; so id. Rep. 3, 5, 8:

    Atque utinam pro decore etc.,

    Liv. 21, 41, 13:

    Atque utinam ex vobis unus etc.,

    Verg. E. 10, 35; id. A. 1, 575:

    Atque utinam... Ille vir in medio fiat amore lapis!

    Prop. 2, 9, 47; 3, 6, 15; 3, 7, 25; 3, 8, 19 al.—
    8.
    To connect an adversative clause, and often fully with tamen, and yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless.
    a.
    Absol.: Mihi quidem hercle non fit veri simile;

    atque ipsis commentum placet,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 20 Ruhnk. (atque pro tamen, Don.):

    ego quia non rediit filius, quae cogito!... Atque ex me hic natus non est, sed ex fratre,

    id. Ad. 1, 1, 15 (Quasi dicat, ex me non est, et sic afficior: quid paterer si genuissem? Don.; cf. Acron. ap. Charis. p. 204 P.); Cic. Off. 3, 11, 48 Beier; id. Mur. 34, 71 Matth.:

    ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quae ingenio exercentur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum... Atque ego credo fore qui, etc.,

    and yet I believe, Sall. J. 4, 1 and 3 Corte; id. C. 51, 35:

    observare principis egressum in publicum, insidere vias examina infantium futurusque populus solebat. Labor parentibus erat ostentare parvulos... Ac plerique insitis precibus surdas principis aures obstrepebant,

    Plin. Pan. 26.—
    b.
    With tamen:

    nihil praeterea est magnopere dicendum. Ac tamen, ne cui loco non videatur esse responsum, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 85:

    discipulos dissimilis inter se ac tamen laudandos,

    id. de Or. 3, 10, 35; id. Rep. 1, 7, 12:

    Atque in his tamen tribus generibus etc.,

    id. Off. 3, 33, 118; id. Pis. 1, 3; 13, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16; 7, 15 fin. (cf. in reference to the last four passages Wund. Varr. Lectt. p. lviii. sq.):

    ac tamen initia fastigii etc.,

    Tac. A. 3, 29; 3, 56; 12, 56;

    14, 21: pauciores cum pluribus certasse, ac tamen fusos Germanos,

    id. H. 5, 16.—
    9.
    To connect a minor affirmative proposition (the assumptio or propositio minor of logical lang.) in syllogisms, now, but, but now (while atqui is used to connect either an affirmative or negative minor premiss: v. atqui): Scaptius quaternas postulabat. Metui, si impetrasset, ne tu ipse me amare desineres;

    ... Atque hoc tempore ipso impingit mihi epistulam etc.,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 6.—Sometimes the conclusion is to be supplied:

    nisi qui naturas hominum, penitus perspexerit, dicendo, quod volet, perficere non poterit. Atque totus hic locus philosophorum putatur proprius (conclusion: ergo oratorem philosophiam cognoscere oportet),

    Cic. de Or. 1, 12, 53 and 54.—
    10.
    In introducing a purpose (freq. in Cic.).
    a.
    A negative purpose, and esp. in anticipating an objection:

    Ac ne sine causa videretur edixisse,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 9, 24:

    Ac ne forte hoc magnum ac mirabile esse videatur,

    id. de Or. 2, 46, 191; so id. Fam. 5, 12, 30:

    Ac ne saepius dicendum sit,

    Cels. 8, 1:

    Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 13:

    Ac ne forte putes,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 208:

    Ac ne forte putes etc.,

    Ov. R. Am. 465 (Merkel, Et).—
    b.
    A positive purpose:

    Atque ut ejus diversa studia in dissimili ratione perspicere possitis, nemo etc.,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 5, 9:

    Atque ut omnes intellegant me etc.... dico etc.,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 8, 20; 2, 4; id. Clu. 14, 43; id. Sull. 2, 5; id. de Or. 3, 11, 40:

    Atque ut C. Flaminium relinquam etc.,

    id. Leg. 3, 9, 20; id. Fin. 3, 2, 4.—
    11.
    a.. In continuing a thought in assertions or narration, and, now, and now, Plaut. Aul. prol. 18: audistis, cum pro se diceret, genus orationis, etc.,... perspexistis. Atque in eo non solum ingenium ejus videbatis, etc., Cic. Cael. 19, 45; so id. de Or. 3, 32, 130; 2, 7, 27; 3, 10, 39 al.; Caes. B. G. 2, 29; Nep. Ages. 7, 3; 8, 1, Eum. 10, 3 Bremi; Tac. A. 14, 64; 15, 3; Verg. A. 9, 1; Sil. 4, 1 al.: ac si, sublato illo, depelli a vobis omne periculum judicarem, now if I, etc., Cic. Cat. 2, 2, 3:

    atque si etiam hoc natura praescribit, etc.,

    id. Off. 3, 6, 27; so Quint. 10, 1, 26; 10, 2, 8.—
    b.
    In introducing parentheses:

    vulgo credere, Penino (atque inde nomen et jugo Alpium inditum) transgressum,

    Liv. 21, 38:

    omne adfectus genus (atque ea maxime jucundam et ornatam faciunt orationem) de luxuria, etc.,

    Quint. 4, 3, 15 MSS., where Halm after Spalding reads et quae.
    c.
    At the conclusion of a discourse (not infreq. in Cic.): Atque in primis duabus dicendi partibus qualis esset, summatim breviterque descripsimus, And thus have we, then, briefly described, etc., Cic. Or. 15, 50:

    Ac de primo quidem officii fonte diximus,

    id. Off. 1, 6, 19:

    Ac de inferenda quidem injuria satis dictum est,

    id. ib. 1, 8, 27; id. Inv. 2, 39, 115 al.—
    V.
    In particular connections and phrases.
    A.
    Unus atque alter, one and the other; alius atque alius, one and another; now this, now that:

    unae atque alterae scalae,

    Sall. J. 60, 7:

    quarum (coclearum) cum unam atque alteram, dein plures peteret,

    id. ib. 93, 2:

    unum atque alterum lacum integer perfluit,

    Tac. H. 5, 6:

    dilatisque alia atque alia de causa comitiis,

    Liv. 8, 23, 17; Col. 9, 8, 10:

    alius atque alius,

    Tac. H. 1, 46; 1, 50 (v. alius, II. D.).—Also separated by several words:

    aliud ejus subinde atque aliud facientes initium,

    Sen. Ep. 32, 2.—
    B.
    Etiam atque etiam. again and again:

    temo Stellas cogens etiam atque etiam Noctis sublime iter, Enn., Trag. Rel. p. 39 Rib.: etiam atque etiam cogita,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 11:

    etiam atque etiam considera,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 46:

    monitos eos etiam atque etiam volo,

    id. Cat. 2, 12, 27.—So, semel atque iterum, Cic. Font. 26; id. Clu. 49; Tac. Or. 17; and:

    iterum atque iterum,

    Verg. A. 8, 527; Hor. S. 1, 10, 39.—
    C.
    Huc atque illuc, hither and thither, Cic. Q. Rosc. 37; id. de Or. 1, 40, 184; Verg. A. 9, 57; Ov. M. 2, 357; 10, 376; Tac. Agr. 10; id. H. 1, 85.—
    D.
    Longe atque late, far and wide, Cic. Marcell. 29:

    atque eccum or atque eccum video, in colloquial lang.: Heus vocate huc Davom. Atque eccum,

    but here he is, Ter. And. 3, 3, 48:

    Audire vocem visa sum modo militis. Atque eccum,

    and here he is, id. Eun. 3, 2, 2; so id. Hec. 4, 1, 8.—
    E.
    Atque omnia, in making an assertion general, and so generally:

    Atque in eis omnibus, quae sunt actionis, inest quaedam vis a natura data,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 223:

    quorum (verborum) descriptus ordo alias alia terminatione concluditur, atque omnia illa et prima et media verba spectare debent ad ultimum,

    id. Or. 59, 200; id. de Or. 2, 64, 257: commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eadem continere, and so rather, etc., id. Off. 2, 23, 83:

    nihil acerbum esse, nihil crudele, atque omnia plena clementiae, humanitatis,

    id. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    Atque omnis vitae ratio sic constat, ut, quae probamus in aliis, facere ipsi velimus,

    Quint. 10, 2, 2.—
    F.
    With other conjunctions.
    1.
    After et:

    equidem putabam virtutem hominibus instituendo et persuadendo, non minis et vi ac metu tradi,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 247:

    Magnifica vero vox et magno viro ac sapiente digna,

    id. Off. 3, 1, 1; id. Cael. 13:

    vanus aspectus et auri fulgor atque argenti,

    Tac. Agr. 32.:

    denuntiarent, ut ab Saguntinis abstineret et Carthaginem in Africam traicerent ac sociorum querimonias deferrent,

    Liv. 21, 6, 4:

    ubi et fratrem consilii ac periculi socium haberem,

    id. 21, 41, 2:

    et uti liter demum ac Latine perspicueque,

    Quint. 8, 3, 3:

    Nam et subtili plenius aliquid atque subtilius et vehementi remissius atque vehementius invenitur,

    id. 12, 10, 67. —
    2.
    After que, as in Gr. te kai: litterisque ac laudibus aeternare, Varr. ap. Non. p. 75, 20:

    submoverique atque in castra redigi,

    Liv. 26, 10:

    terrorem caedemque ac fugam fecere,

    id. 21, 52:

    mus Sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit,

    Verg. G. 1, 182; 3, 434; id. A. 8, 486.—
    3.
    Before et:

    caelum ipsum ac mare et silvas circum spectantes,

    Tac. Agr. 32.—
    4.
    After neque (only in the poets and post - Aug. prose):

    nec clavis nec canis atque calix,

    Mart. 1, 32, 4: naturam Oceani atque aestus [p. 192] neque quaerere hujus operis est, ac multi retulere, Tac. Agr. 10:

    mediocritatem pristinam neque dissimulavit umquam ac frequenter etiam prae se tulit,

    Suet. Vesp. 12.—
    G.
    Atque repeated, esp. in arch. Lat.: Scio solere plerisque hominibus in rebus secundis atque prolixis atque prosperis animum excellere atque superbiam atque ferociam augescere atque crescere, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3: Dicere possum quibus villae atque aedes aedificatae atque expolitae maximo opere citro atque ebore atque pavimentis Poenicis stent, Cato ap. Fest. p. 242 Mull.:

    atque ut C. Flamininum atque ea, quae jam prisca videntur, propter vetustatem relinquam,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20:

    omnem dignitatem tuam in virtute atque in rebus gestis atque in tua gravitate positam existimare,

    id. Fam. 1, 5, 8.—Esp. freq. in enumerations in the poets:

    Haec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia,

    Cat. 68, 152:

    Mavortia tellus Atque Getae atque Hebrus,

    Verg. G. 4, 463:

    Clioque et Beroe atque Ephyre Atque Opis et Asia,

    id. ib. 4, 343.—And sometimes forming a double connective, both— and = et—et:

    Multus ut in terras deplueretque lapis: Atque tubas atque arma ferunt crepitantia caelo Audita,

    Tib. 2, 5, 73:

    complexa sui corpus miserabile nati Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater,

    Verg. E. 5, 23; Sil. 1, 93; v. Forbig ad Verg. l. l.
    ► Atque regularly stands at the beginning of its sentence or clause or before the word it connects, but in poetry it sometimes, like et and at, stands:
    a.
    In the second place:

    Jamque novum terrae stupeant lucescere solem, Altius atque cadant imbres,

    Verg. E. 6, 38 Rib., ubi v. Forbig.:

    Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta,

    id. A. 3, 250, and 10, 104 (animis may, however, here be taken with Accipite, as in id. ib. 5, 304):

    Esto beata, funus atque imagines Ducant triumphales tuum,

    Hor. Epod. 8, 11; id. S. 1, 5, 4; 1, 6, 111; 1, 7, 12 (ubi v. Fritzsche).—
    b.
    In the third place:

    quod pubes hedera virente Gaudeant pulla magis atque myrto,

    Hor. C. 1, 25, 18; cf. at fin. (Vid. more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 452-513.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adque

  • 20 aliorsum

    ălĭorsum or aliorsus, also twice not contr. ălĭo-vorsum and ălĭō-versus, adv.
    I.
    Lit., directed to another place ( other men, objects; cf.: alias, alibi, alio, etc.), in another direction, elsewhither, elsewhere (Aliorsum et illorsum sicut introrsum dixit Cato, Paul. ex. Fest. p. 27 Müll.; only ante- and post-class.).
    A.
    Of place:

    mater ancillas jubet... aliam aliorsum ire,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 47 (where aliam aliorsum is like alius alio, etc.):

    jumentum aliorsum ducere,

    Gell. 7, 15:

    lupi aliorsum grassantes,

    App. M. 8, p. 209.—
    B.
    Of persons:

    infantis aliorsum dati facta amolitio,

    Gell. 12, 1.—
    C.
    Of things:

    sed id aliorsum pertinet,

    Gell. 17, 1.—
    II.
    Fig., = in aliam partem or rationem, in another manner, in a different sense; so in Terence: aliorsum aliquid accipere, to receive something in another manner or otherwise, to take it differently:

    vereor, ne aliorsum atque ego feci acceperit,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 1; cf. Plaut. Aul. 2, 4, 8, atqui ego istuc, Antrax, aliovorsum dixeram, with another design, in a different sense: alioversus, uncontr. in Lact. 1, 17, 1. Cf. Hand, Turs. I. pp. 241 and 242.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > aliorsum

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