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gentile (non-Israelite) Christians

  • 1 ἔθνος

    ἔθνος, ους, τό (Hom.+).
    a body of persons united by kinship, culture, and common traditions, nation, people, τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρείας the Samaritan people Ac 8:9 (cp. Jos., Ant. 18, 85). τῶν Ἰουδαίων 10:22 (Polyb. in Jos., Ant. 12, 135; Agatharchides: 86 Fgm. 20b Jac. [in Jos., Ant. 12, 6]; Diod S 34+35 Fgm. 1, 2 τὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἔθνος; Philo, Decal. 96 al.; Just., D. 56, 10 ὑμῶν al.) ἐ. the (specific) people, contextually the people of Israel (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 5, 15, 24; Did., Gen. 209, 14) J 11:48, 50ff; 18:35. δώδεκα ἔ. Hs 9, 17, 2.—B 13:2 (Gen 25:23); ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χανάαν seven nations in Canaan Ac 13:19 (Dt 7:1). The people in contrast to heads of state 9:15. ἔθνος ἐπὶ ἔθνος one nation against another Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:10 (cp. 2 Ch 15:6); πάντα τὰ ἔ. (Ar. 12, 1; Ath. 14, 2; cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 106 §440 ἐν ἔθνεσιν ἅπασι; Jos., Ant. 11, 215 ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ.) Mt 24:14; 28:19 (SKio, BT 41, ’90, 230–38, prefers 2 below); Mk 11:17 (Is 56:7); 13:10. More specif. πάντα τὰ ἔ. τοῦ κόσμου Lk 12:30; cp. ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ. 1 Cl 59:4; ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔ. 2 Cl 13:2. πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων every nation of humankind Ac 17:26. ἄρχοντες ἐθνῶν Mt 20:25; also οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν τῶν ἐ. Mk 10:42; οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐ. Lk 22:25 (cp. Ath. 34, 2 ἡγεμόνας τῶν ἐ.).—In Mt 21:43 ἔ. (not gentiles) in contrast to the leaders described vv. 23; 45.
    (τὰ) ἔθνη people groups foreign to a specific people group (corresp. to Heb. גּוֹיִם in LXX; a nationalistic expression, also usu. in Gk. for foreigners: Aristot., Pol. 1324b, 10 [opp. Ἕλληνες]; Ael. Aristid. 45, p. 3 D.; Cass. Dio 36, 41; Ps.-Callisth. 2, 7, 4 [opp. ἡ Ἑλλάς]; IG II/1, 445 Fgm. ab, 8; Fgm. c, 5; 448, 15 and 17 [c. 150 B.C.]; SIG 760; PStras 22, 19; PFay 20, 11; this is an expression favored by Appian in Rome for foreign peoples in contrast to the Italians: Bell. Civ. 2, 26 §99; 2, 28 §107; 3, 35 §140; 4, 57 §246 and oft.; s. Nägeli 46; B-D-F §254, 3) in our lit.
    those who do not belong to groups professing faith in the God of Israel, the nations, gentiles, unbelievers (in effect=‘polytheists’) w. ἡγεμόνες κ. βασιλεῖς Mt 10:18. Named w. Israelites (Jos., Ant. 13, 196; cp. SibOr 3, 663; Just., A I, 53, 3ff and D. 123, 2 al.) Ac 14:5; 21:21; 26:17; Ro 3:29; 9:24; 15:10 (Dt 32:43); ISm 1:2. They, too, are to share in salvation (Did., Gen. 182, 19); cp. Ac 11:1, 18; 14:27; 15:3, 7; cp. 2 Cl 13:3 (Just., D. 26, 1 al.) (MKiddle, The Admission of the Gentiles in Lk and Ac: JTS 36, ’35, 160–73; JJeremias, Jesu Verheissung für die Völker ’56 [lit.], Eng. tr. Jesus’ Promise to the Nations ’58). But s. Mt 10:5f (MHooker, ET 82, ’71, 361–65). Their sacrificial rites 1 Cor 10:20 v.l. Paul as διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν 1 Ti 2:7; 2 Ti 1:11 v.l. Contrasted w. Christians Hs 1:10. Offended by Christian behavior ITr 8:2.
    non-Israelite Christians, gentiles of Christian congregations composed of more than one nationality and not limited to people of Israel (οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν πιστεύοντες Orig., C. Cels. 2, 1, 9; 8, 29, 24): πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν Ro 16:4, and their members: μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν it was his custom to eat w. gentile (non-Israelite) Christians Gal 2:12; cp. vs. 14. ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν τῶν ἐθνῶν for you gentile Christians Eph 3:1. Somet. the word connotes Israelite allegations of religious and moral inferiority of gentiles Mt 6:32 (s. Goodsp., Probs., 26f); Lk 12:30; Hm 4, 1, 9; ἔ. καὶ ἁμαρτωλοί Hs 4:4 al. ἄνομα ἔ. lawless gentiles (= polytheists) MPol 9:2. Contrasted w. the δίκαιοι (w. ἀποστάται) Hv 1, 4, 2; cp. 2, 2, 5.—RFeldmeier/UHeckel, edd., Die Heiden ’94 (essays by a number of scholars); JLaGrand, Proliferation of the ‘Gentile’ in the NRSV: BR 41, ’96, 77–87 (against use of ‘Gentiles’ as a rendering of ἔθνη).—B. 1315; 1489. M-M. TW. Sv.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἔθνος

  • 2 ἐθνικός

    ἐθνικός, ή, όν (since Polyb. 30, 13, 6; BGU 1764, 13 [I B.C.] and Philo, Mos. 1, 69; 188=national; so also Jos., Ant. 12, 36) in our lit. pert. to nationhood foreign to a specific national group, w. focus on morality or belief, unbelieving, worldly, polytheistic (a Christian source in Kaibel 430, 6 [III/IV A.D.] ἐθνικῇ ἐν σοφίᾳ=in gentile learning) φιλίαι ἐθνικαί friendships w. unbelievers Hm 10, 1, 4. In the NT only as subst. ὁ ἐθνικός the non-Israelite/gentile in contrast to descendants of Abraham Mt 5:47; 6:7. W. τελώνης Mt 18:17.— 3J 7 evangelists look for support only fr. Christians.—M-M. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > ἐθνικός

  • 3 Ἰουδαῖος

    Ἰουδαῖος, αία, αῖον (Clearchus, the pupil of Aristotle, Fgm. 6 [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 179]; Theophr., Fgm. 151 W. [WJaeger, Diokles v. Karystos ’38, 134–53: Theophrastus and the earliest Gk. report concerning the Judeans or Jews]; Hecataeus of Abdera [300 B.C.]: 264 Fgm. 25, 28, 2a Jac. [in Diod S 1, 28, 2] al.; Polyb.; Diod S; Strabo; Plut.; Epict. 1, 11, 12f, al.; Appian, Syr. 50 §252f, Mithrid. 106 §498, Bell. Civ. 2, 90 §380; Artem. 4, 24 p. 217, 13; Diog. L. 1, 9; OGI 73, 4; 74, 3; 726, 8; CIG 3418; CB I/2, 538 no. 399b τ. νόμον τῶν Εἰουδέων [on Ἰ. in ins s. RKraemer, HTR 82, ’89, 35–53]; Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 55; 56 [both III B.C.]; 57 [II B.C.]; BGU 1079, 25 [41 A.D.]; PFay 123, 16 [100 A.D.]; POxy 1189, 9; LXX; TestSol; AscIs 2:7; EpArist; SibOr; Philo, Joseph., Ar., Just., Tat. For a variety of synonyms s. Schürer III 87–91.). Gener. as description of ‘one who identifies with beliefs, rites, and customs of adherents of Israel’s Mosaic and prophetic tradition’ (the standard term in the Mishnah is ‘Israelite’). (Since the term ‘Judaism’ suggests a monolithic entity that fails to take account of the many varieties of thought and social expression associated with such adherents, the calque or loanword ‘Judean’ is used in this and other entries where Ἰ. is treated. Complicating the semantic problem is the existence side by side of persons who had genealogy on their side and those who became proselytes [on the latter cp. Cass. Dio 37, 17, 1; 67, 14, 2; 68, 1, 2]; also of adherents of Moses who recognized Jesus as Messiah [s. Gal 2:13 in 2d below; s. also 2eα] and those who did not do so. Incalculable harm has been caused by simply glossing Ἰ. with ‘Jew’, for many readers or auditors of Bible translations do not practice the historical judgment necessary to distinguish between circumstances and events of an ancient time and contemporary ethnic-religious-social realities, with the result that anti-Judaism in the modern sense of the term is needlessly fostered through biblical texts.)
    pert. to being Judean (Jewish), with focus on adherence to Mosaic tradition, Judean, as a real adj. (Philo, In Flacc. 29; Jos., Ant. 10, 265) ἀνὴρ Ἰ. (1 Macc 2:23; 14:33) Judean Ac 10:28; 22:3. ἄνθρωπος 21:39. ἀρχιερεύς 19:14. ψευδοπροφήτης 13:6. ἐξορκισταί 19:13. γυνή (Jos., Ant. 11, 185) 16:1. χώρα Mk 1:5.—But γῆ J 3:22 is to be taken of Judea in the narrower sense (s. Ἰουδαία 1), and means the Judean countryside in contrast to the capital city. Of Drusilla, described as οὔσα Ἰουδαία being Judean or Jewish, but for the view that Ἰ. is here a noun s. 2b.
    one who is Judean (Jewish), with focus on adherence to Mosaic tradition, a Judean, Ἰουδαῖος as noun (so predom.). Since Jerusalem sets the standard for fidelity to Israel’s tradition, and since Jerusalem is located in Judea, Ἰ. frequently suggests conformity to Israel’s ancestral belief and practice. In turn, the geographical name provided outsiders with a term that applied to all, including followers of Jesus, who practiced customs variously associated with Judea (note the Roman perception Ac 18:15 [‘Judeans’ at Corinth]; 23:28).
    (ὁ) Ἰ. Judean (w. respect to birth, nationality, or cult) J 3:25; (Mitt-Wilck. I/2, 57, 5 [II B.C.] παρʼ Ἰουδαίου=from a Judean) 4:9; 18:35; Ac 18:2, 24; 19:34; Ro 1:16; 2:9f, 17, 28f (on the ‘genuine’ Judean cp. Epict. 2, 9, 20f τῷ ὄντι Ἰουδαῖος … λόγῳ μὲν Ἰουδαῖοι, ἔργῳ δʼ ἄλλο τι); 10:12; Gal 2:14; 3:28; Col 3:11.—Collective sing. (Thu. 6, 78, 1 ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, ὁ Συρακόσιος; EpArist 13 ὁ Πέρσης; B-D-F §139; Rob. 408) Ro 3:1.
    of Drusilla οὔσα Ἰουδαία being a Judean Ac 24:24, but for the simple adjectival sense s. 1 end.
    (οἱ) Ἰουδαῖοι (on the use of the art. B-D-F §262, 1; 3) the Judeans οἱ Φαρισαῖοι κ. πάντες οἱ Ἰ. Mk 7:3; τὸ πάσχα τῶν Ἰ. J 2:13; cp. 5:1; 6:4; 7:2; ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰ. (Appian, Mithrid. 117 §573 Ἰουδαίων βασιλεὺς Ἀριστόβουλος) Mt 2:2; 27:11, 29 (in these three last pass., Ἰ. is used by non-Israelites; Mt’s preferred term is Ἰσραήλ); Mk 15:2 and oft. πόλις τῶν Ἰ. Lk 23:51; ἔθνος τῶν Ἰ. Ac 10:22; λαὸς τῶν Ἰ. 12:11. χώρα τῶν Ἰ. 10:39 (Just., A I, 34, 2; cp. A I, 32, 4 ἡ γῆ Ἰουδαίων). ἄρχων τῶν Ἰ. J 3:1; συναγωγὴ τῶν Ἰ. Ac 14:1a. Cp. J 2:6; 4:22; 18:20. Ἰ. καὶ Ἕλληνες (on the combination of the two words s. B-D-F §444, 2: w. τε … καί) Judeans and Hellenes Ac 14:1b; 18:4; 19:10; 20:21; 1 Cor 1:24; 10:32; 12:13; PtK 2 p. 15, 7; ἔθνη τε καὶ Ἰ.= non-Judeans and Judeans Ac 14:5; cp. ISm 1:2. Ἰ. τε καὶ προσήλυτοι Judeans and proselytes Ac 2:11; cp. 13:43; οἱ κατὰ τὰ ἔθνη Ἰ. the Judeans who live among the nations (in the Diaspora) 21:21. Judeans and non-Judeans as persecutors of Christians MPol 12:2; cp. also 13:1; 17:2; 18:1; 1 Th 2:14 (Polytheists, Jews, and Christians Ar. 2, 1).—Dg 1.—Without the art. (cp. 19:3 φαρισαῖοι) Mt 28:15, suggesting that not all ‘Judeans’ are meant, and without ref. to Israel, or Jews, as an entity.
    a Mosaic adherent who identifies with Jesus Christ Judean Gal 2:13; cp. Ac 21:20 and eα below. On Rv 2:9; 3:9 s. Mussies 195.
    in J Ἰουδαῖοι or ‘Judeans’ for the most part (for exceptions s. a and c) constitute two groups
    α. those who in various degrees identify with Jesus and his teaching J 8:52; 10:19–21; 11:45; 12:11 al.
    β. those who are in opposition to Jesus, with special focus on hostility emanating from leaders in Jerusalem, center of Israelite belief and cult; there is no indication that John uses the term in the general ethnic sense suggested in modern use of the word ‘Jew’, which covers diversities of belief and practice that were not envisaged by biblical writers, who concern themselves with intra-Judean (intra-Israelite) differences and conflicts: 1:19; 2:18, 20; 5:10, 15f; 6:41, 52 (a debate); 7:1, 11, 13; 9:18, 22; 10:24, 31, 33 (in contrast to the πολλοί from ‘beyond the Jordan’, 10:40–42, who are certainly Israelites) 11:8; 13:33; 18:14. S. Hdb. exc. on J 1:19 and, fr. another viewpoint, JBelser, TQ 84, 1902, 265ff; WLütgert, Heinrici Festschr. 1914, 147ff, Schlatter Festschr. 1922, 137–48; GBoccaccini, Multiple Judaisms: BRev XI/1 ’95, 38–41, 46.—J 18:20 affirms that Jesus did not engage in sectarian activity. Further on anti-Judean feeling in J, s. EGraesser, NTS 11, ’64, 74–90; DHare, RSR, July, ’76, 15–22 (lit.); Hdb. exc. on J 1:19; BHHW II 906–11, 901f, 905.—LFeldman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World ’93.—MLowe, Who Were the Ἰουδαῖοι?: NovT 18, ’76, 101–30; idem Ἰουδαῖοι of the Apocrypha [NT]: NovT 23, ’81, 56–90; UvonWahlde, The Johannine ‘Jews’—A Critical Survey: NTS 28, ’82, 33–60; JAshton, ibid. 27, ’85, 40–75 (J).—For impact of Ἰουδαῖοι on gentiles s. ESmallwood, The Jews under Roman Rule fr. Pompey to Diocletian ’81; SCohen, Crossing the Boundary and Becoming a Jew: HTR 82, ’89, 13–33; PvanderHorst, NedTTs 43, ’89, 106–21 (c. 200 A.D.); PSchäfer, Judeophobia, Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World ’97.—On the whole word s. Ἱσραήλ end. For Ἰουδαῖοι in ins s. SEG XXXIX, 1839. M-M. EDNT. TW.

    Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία > Ἰουδαῖος

  • 4 ἁμαρτωλός

    ἁμαρτωλός, όν pert. to behavior or activity that does not measure up to standard moral or cultic expectations (being considered an outsider because of failure to conform to certain standards is a freq. semantic component. Persons engaged in certain occupations, e.g. herding and tanning, that jeopardized cultic purity, would be considered by some as ‘sinners’, a term tantamount to ‘outsider’. Non-Israelites were esp. considered out of bounds [cp. Ac 10:28 and s. b, below]).
    as adj. (Aristoph., Th. 1111; Aristot., EN 2, 9, 1109a 33; Philod., Ira p. 73 W.; Plut., Mor. 25c; LXX; TestAbr A 9 p. 86, 22 [Stone p. 20]; Just., A I, 15, 5, D. 43, 3 al.) sinful ἐν τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ τῇ μοιχαλίδι καὶ ἁ. in this adulterous (=unfaithful) and sinful generation Mk 8:38. ἵνα γένηται καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ἁ. ἡ ἁμαρτία that sin might become sinful in the extreme Ro 7:13.—With focus on cultic nonconformity ἀνὴρ ἁ. (Sir 15:12; 27:30; 1 Macc 2:62) a sinner Lk 5:8; 19:7; ἄνθρωπος ἁ. (Sir 11:32; 32:17) J 9:16; pl. (Num 32:14; Just., D. 23, 2) Lk 24:7.
    as subst.
    α. ὁ ἁ. the sinner, gener. w. focus on wrongdoing as such (ins from Lycia ἁ. θεοῖς ‘sinner against the gods’ [IAsMinLyk I, 30, no. 7; CIG 4307; Lyc. ins: ARW 19, 1919, 284] or ἁ. θεῶν [IAsMinLyk II, 36, no. 58; OGI 55, 31f; CIG 4259, 6]; other ins: Steinleitner [see ἁμαρτάνω, end] p. 84f; LXX, En, TestAbr, ApcEsdr, ApcSed, ApcMos, Test12Patr; Just., A I, 15, 8 al.) ἁ. παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους greater sinners than all the other Galileans Lk 13:2; (opp. δίκαιος as En 104:6) οὐκ ἦλθον καλέσαι δικαίους, ἀλλὰ ἁ. Mt 9:13; Mk 2:17; Lk 5:32; 2 Cl 2:4; B 5:9; cp. Hs 3:2f; 4:2ff. W. ἀσεβής (En 5:6) 1 Ti 1:9; 1 Pt 4:18 (Pr 11:31); B 11:7 (Ps 1:5); w. πονηρός (Gen 13:13) 4:2; w. ἄπιστος Rv 21:8 v.l.; ἁ. εἰμι Hm 4, 2, 3. οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἁ. ἐστιν J 9:24; cp. vs. 25. ἁ. μετανοῶν a sinner who repents Lk 15:7, 10. μετάνοια τῶν ἁ. Hs 8, 6, 6. ἁμαρτωλοὺς προσδέχεσθαι Lk 15:2. ἁ. σῶσαι 1 Ti 1:15; ἐπιστρέφειν ἁ. Js 5:20; ἱλάσθητί μοι τῷ ἁ. Lk 18:13. ἁμαρτωλῶν οὐκ ἀκούει of God J 9:31. ἡ ἁμαρτωλός the sinful woman Lk 7:37, 39 (PJoüon, RSR 29, ’39, 615–19). In rhetorical address Js 4:8.
    β. with focus on status of outsider—w. τελώνης (IAbrahams, Publicans and Sinners: Stud. in Pharisaism and the Gospels I 1917, 54ff; JJeremias, ZNW 30, ’31, 293–300; WRaney, JR 10, 1930, 578–91; Goodsp., Probs. 28f) irreligious, unobservant people, outsiders of those who did not observe the Law in detail and therefore were shunned by observers of traditional precepts Mt 9:10f; 11:19; Mk 2:15f; Lk 5:30; 7:34; 15:1.—Lk 6:32 has ἁ., whereas its parallel Mt 5:46 has τελώνης. W. ἔθνη Hs 4:4; more precisely ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἁμαρτωλοί, which means, in the usage of Judeans and Judean Christians, no ‘sinners’ of gentile descent Gal 2:15. Gener. a favorite term for non-Israelites (Is 14:5; Tob 13:8; 1 Macc 1:34 al.); hence the irony in ὁ υἱὸς τ. ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται εἰς (τὰς) χεῖρας (τῶν) ἁ. (the Israelite Jesus delivered to the ‘outsiders’, gentiles) Mt 26:45; Mk 14:41 (on χεῖρ. ἁ. cp. Ps 70:4; 81:4; 96:10); cp. Lk 6:32ff, whose parallel Mt 5:47 has ἐθνικός. (ἡ) ὁδὸς ἁμαρτωλῶν the way of sinners B 10:10 (Ps 1:1). Its adj. character is wholly lost in Jd 15, where it is itself modif. by ἀσεβεῖς (En 1:9).—Of the state of a person who is not yet reconciled ἔτι ἁ. ὄντων ἡμῶν Ro 5:8. ἁ. κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί the many (i.e. ‘humanity’; opp., ‘the one’, Adam) were constituted sinners (=were exposed to being treated as sinners; s. καθίστημι 3) 5:19. ὡς ἁμαρτωλὸς κρίνομαι Ro 3:7. εὑρέθημεν ἁμαρτωλοί Gal 2:17. Opp. κεχωρισμένος ἀπὸ τῶν ἁ. separated from sinners of Jesus Hb 7:26. ὑπό τῶν ἁ. … ἀντιλογίαν 12:3.—ESjöberg, Gott u. die Sünder im paläst. Judentum ’38.—DELG s.v. ἁμαρτάνω. M-M. TW.

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