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gegnt

  • 1 gegnt

    1) adv. straight; compar., gegnra, gegnara, more straight; superl., gegnst, gegnast, the shortest way; most right, meetest;
    2) prep. with dat. over against, opposite to (g. konungi).
    * * *
    adv.:
    I. almost like a prep. with dat. opposite to, = gagnvart, q. v.; Laugabær stendr gegnt Tungu, Ld. 122; í öndvegi gegnt konungi, Eg. 304; yfir gegnt þeim á brekkunni, Ísl. ii. 200; gegnt rekkju þeirri er Kjartan var vanr at liggja í, Ld. 202; í öðru öndvegi g. honum, Ó. H. 43; gegnt Hofi, Sd. 142: vóru þá komnir mjök svá þar gegnt, Nj. 247.
    II. really as adv. straight; svá gegnt (so straight, with so good an aim) at í sitt auga kom hver örin, Fas. i. 271.
    2. compar. gegnra or gegnara, more straight; gegnra skauztu í sumar, Fms. viii. 140; hann mun miklu lengra skjóta ok gegnara, ii. 266.
    3. superl. gegnst, [Swed. genast = at once; Dan. gjennest], the ‘ganest,’ shortest way; hann stefnir þegar et gegnsta, the ‘ganest’ way, Ld. 240; ok it gegnsta reið hann til Þyrils, Ísl. ii. 109; ok skal gerða it gegnsta þar, Grág. ii. 264; for Öngull þar á land sem honum þótti gegnast (‘ganest,’ shortest), Grett. 155 A.
    β. metaph. meetest, most right or just; spyrja vitrir menn hvat gegnast muni í þessu máli, Ld. 80: cp. the adj. gegn.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > gegnt

  • 2 gegnt

    neighborhood; area (region, district)
    * * *
    (m./f.) neighborhood

    Yiddish-English dictionary (in roman letters) > gegnt

  • 3 gegnt

    I.
    adv.
    II.
    praep. (dat.)
    напротив, на противоположной стороне, = gagnvart

    Old Norse-ensk orðabók > gegnt

  • 4 gegnt

    [g̊ʲε(i)ηtʰ]
    I praep (D)
    II adv

    Íslensk-Russian dictionary > gegnt

  • 5 gegnt

    prep (dat)
    naproti, proti

    Íslensk-tékknesk orðabók > gegnt

  • 6 געגנט

    gegnt f. [-n]
    область; окрестность

    Идиш-русский словарь > געגנט

  • 7 JAFN

    * * *
    a.
    1) even; jöfn tala, even number;
    2) equal, the same; þínar (viz. ferðir) verða flestar jafnastar, thy doings are mostly the same, all equally bad; hann var ellefu vetra ok sterkr at jöfnum aldri, and strong for his age; jafn e-m, equal to one; jafnt er sem þér sýnist, af er fótrinn, it is just as it appears to thee, the leg is off; komast til jafns við e-n, hafa e-t til jafns við e-n, to equal one, be one’s match in a thing; at jöfnu, equally, in equal shares.
    * * *
    adj., also spelt jamn, f. jöfn, neut. jafnt, often spelt as well as proncd. jamt; compar. jafnari, superl. jafnastr: [Ulf. ibns, Luke vi. 17; A. S. efen; Engl. and Dutch even; old Fr. ivin; O. H. G. eban; mod. Germ. eben; Dan. jevn; Swed. jemn; akin to Lat. aequus by interchange of palatal and labial, see Grimm’s Dict. s. v. eben]:—even, equal, but, like Lat. aequus, mostly in a metaph. sense, for sléttr (q. v.) answers to Lat. planus; often followed by a dat., jafn e-u, equal to a thing, in comparison:
    I. equal, equal to; jöfn eyri (dat.) gulls, K. Þ. K. 72; jafn Guði, equal to God; jafn mér, passim.
    2. equal, the same; enda er jöfn helgi hans meðan hann ferr svá með sér, Grág. i. 93; ella er jöfn sök við hann fram á leið, 322; at ek verða jafn drengr í hvert sinn, Sd. 188; þínar verða flestar jafnastar, thy acts are mostly the same, i. e. all bad, Fms. viii. 409.
    3. fixed, unchanged; með jafnri leigu, jöfnum kaupum, jöfnum skildaga, Rétt. 2. 7, Stat. 264, Fb. ii. 137; hann var ellefu vetra eðr tíu, ok sterkr at jöfnum aldri, and strong for his age, Eg. 188, 592; eiga þeir jöfnum höndum (see hönd) allt þat er þeir taka, Grág. ii. 66.
    4. even, even-tempered; jafn ok úmíslyndr, Mar.: of numbers, jöfn tala, even in tale, equal, opp. to odda-tala, Alg. 356.
    II. neut. jafnt or jamt, almost adverbially, equally, just; jafnt utan sem innan, Grág. i. 392: as, just as, ok hafa eitt atferli báðar jamt, both together, both alike, Fms. xi. 137; jafnt er sem þér sýnisk (‘tis as it appears, indeed), af er fótrinn, Nj. 97; jafnt þrælar sem frjálsir menn, Fms. i. 113: jamt sem, just as, equally as; jafnt sem í fjórðungs-dómi, jamt skal eiga féránsdóm eptir fjörbaugs-mann sem eptir skógar-mann, Grág. i. 87; skal hann láta virða fé þat jamt sem úmaga-eyri, 189; menn skulu svá sakir hluta, jamt sem á alþingi, 122; jafnt hefir komit er þú spáðir, it has happened just as thou didst foretel, Niðrst. 8: ellipt., ok skal hann þá jamt (sem þeir) allri bót upp halda, Grág. ii. 182.
    2. temp. at the same time, just; ek skíri þik, ok nefna barn, í nafni Föður, ok drepa barninu í vatn um sinn jafnt fram fyrir sik, and dip the bairn each time info the water, K. Þ. K. 10: just, precisely, in the very moment, þat var jamt Jóla-aptan sjálfan er þeir börðusk, Fms. xi. 15; jamt í því hann stakaði. 133.
    3. adverb., at jöfnu, equally, in equal shares, Fms. xi. 131.
    4. til jafns, vóru þeir engir at né eina íþrótt hefði til jafns við hann, Nj. 46; halda til jafns við e-n, Ld. 40; komask til jafns við e-n, Fb. i. 261.
    B. COMPDS:
    I. such a, so … a; Karvel jafn-frægum dreng, so fine a fellow as K., Karl. 103; er þat skömm jafn-mörgum mönnum, ‘tis a shame for so many men, Gísl. 51: with the particle sem, jafn-ungr sem hann var, young as he was, i. e. so young as he was for his age, Vápn. 5; vel hafi þér mínu máli komit, jafn-úvænt sem var, Þiðr. 136; kvað þat ekki hæfa á jafn-mikilli hátið sem ( in such a feast as) í hönd ferr, Fb. i. 376; at eigi skyldi Hugon keisari yfir þá stíga jafn-reiðr sem hann varð þeim, Karl. 478; undraðisk hón hversu fríðr ok fagr hann var jafn-gamall maðr ( for his age), Stj. 225; mikill maðr ertú þó Þórir, jafn-gamall, Ó. H. 176; Þórir Oddsson var sterkastr jafn-gamall, Gullþ. 4.
    II. mod. phrases such as, það er jafngott fyrir hann, it serves him right; hann er jafngóðr fyrir því, it won’t hurt him; or honum er það jafn-gott, it will do him good, serve him right; vera jafn-nær, to be equally near, i. e. none the better; hann fór jafnnær, it was all of no use.
    III. in countless COMPDS (esp. adjectives) with almost any participle or adverb, rarely with verbs and nouns, and denoting equal, as, the same, as seen from the context often followed by a dat., e. g. jafn-gamall e-m, of the same age as another person:—of these compds only some can be noticed: jafn-aldri, a, m. one of the same age, Fms. i. 13, vii. 199, Bs. i. 179, Eg. 25, 84. jafn-auðigr, adj. equally wealthy, Band. 2: equally happy, hann setr hund sinn jafnaudigan okkr undir borði, Bjarn. 27. jafn-auðsær, adj. as perspicuous, Eluc. 41. jafn-auðveldr, adj. as easy, Ld. 78. jafn-ágætr, adj. as good, as noble, Nj. 129. jafn-ákafr, adj. as impetuous, Fms. xi. 137. jafn-beinn, adj. as straight, Sturl. i. 196. jafn-berr, adj. equally bare, Fas. i. 67. jafn-bitinn, part. evenly bitten or grazed, of a field, Gþl. 407. jafn-bitr, jafn-beittr, adj. as sharp, keen. jafn-bjartr, adj. as bright, Nj. 208: neut., Sks. 69. jafn-bjóða, bauð; j. e-m, to be a match for one, Finnb. 260: to be equal to, contest on equal terms with one, Fms. ii. 27, vii. 22; gripr betri en þeim peningum jafnbjóði, 655 xxx. 10. jafn-blíðr, adj. equally mild, Fær. 154. jafn-borinn, part. of equal birth, Ld. 332, Fms. x. 79 (v. l.), Gþl. 133; j. til e-s, having equal birthright to, Fms. vii. 8, x. 407. jafn-brattr, adj. as steep. jafn-brátt, n. adj. as soon, at the same moment, Hom. 114. jafn-breiðr, adj. equally broad, Edda 28, Gþl. 355. jafn-búinn, part. equally ‘boun’ or armed, Fms. ii. 165: ready, prepared, Stj. jafn-deildr, part. equally shared, Hom. 148. jafn-digr, adj. as stout, Sturl. iii. 63. jafn-djúpr, adj. as deep. jafn-djúpvitr, adj. as deep-scheming, Orkn. 214, Hkr. iii. 95. jafn-drengilegr, adj. as gallant, Ísl. ii. 446. jafn-drjúgdeildr, part. going as far, of stores, Sturl. i. 166. jafn-drjúgr, adj. keeping as long, Sturl. i. 216, Rb. 18. jafn-dýrligr, adj. equally splendid, Bs. i. 454. jafn-dýrr, adj. as costly, glorious, of the same price, K. Þ. K. 28, Nj. 56, Grett. 104 A, N. G. L. i. 150, 348. jafn-dægri, n. (mod. jafndægr), the equinox, both dægr (q. v.) being equally long, Edda 103, Rb. 454, 456, 472, and passim: equal length, of day and night, Fb. i. 539; see eykt. jafn-dæmi, n. equal judgment, justice, Fms. vi. 431, Pr. 413. jafn-dæmr, adj. just, giving equal judgment, Rb. 364. jafn-einfaldr, adj. as simple, guileless, Hom. 50. jafn-fagr, adj. as fair, Nj. 112. jafn-fallegr, adj. as handsome. jafn-fastr, adj. equally firm, Grág. i. 7, K. Þ. K. 166: as adv., Fms. x. 270, Finnb. 338. jafn-fáir, adj. as few. jafn-feigr, adj. as fey. jafn-feitr, adj. as fat. jafn-fimlega, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as alert, Fms. ii. 273. jafn-fimr, adj. as alert, Fær. 272, Hkr. i. 291, v. l. jafn-fjær, adv. as far. jafn-fjölmennr, adj. with as many men, Nj. 222. jafn-flatt, n. adj.; fara j., to fare so ill, Fms. vi. 379; see flatr. jafn-fljótr, adj. as swift. jafn-fram, adv. equally forward, side by side: with dat., jafnfram skipi Rúts, Nj. 8: locally, of places, over against, (= gegnt and gagn-vart, q. v.); with dat., er hann kom jafnfram Borgund, Hkr. ii. 309; j. Eiðsvelli, Vermá, Fms. ix. 408; j. gagntaki konungs sonar, j. boðanum, vii. 170, ix. 387 (v. l.): as adv., standa jafnfram, to stand evenly, in a straight line; standa allir j. fyrir konungs borðinu, i. 16, Eg. 581, Nj. 140, Rb. 466, Sturl. iii. 244: temp. at the same moment, of two things happening together, Fms. vi. 24; þeir riðu til þings jafnfram Skeggja, Þórð. 18 new Ed.; hann ferr ávalt jafnfram í frásogn æfi Guðs-sonar, follows parallel in the story, 625. 83: in equal share, taka arf j., Gþl. 248; at the same time, also, hugsa þat j., at the same time consider, Stj. 156; jafnfram sem, jafnfram ok, as soon as, Karl. 158, Pr. 413. jafn-framarla, -framar, -liga, adv. as forward, as far, just as well, Ld. 254, Bs. i. 778. jafn-frammi, adv. = jafnframt, Sks. 364, Sturl. i. 32: temp., Fms. iii. 218. jafn-framt, adv. = jafnfram, Háv. 42: temp., Sturl. i. 1: along with, with dat., Pass. viii. 9: equally, in the same degree, Ld. 62. jafn-fríðr, adj. as fair, Fms. i. 8: as valuable, K. Þ. K. 172. jafn-frjáls, adj. equally free, Fas. iii. 8. jafn-frjálsliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as freely, as liberally, Hkr. i. 78. jafn-fróðr, adj. as wise, as knowing, Sks. 544. jafn-frægr, adj. as famous, Fas. i. 277. jafn-frækn, adj. equally gallant, Edda. jafn-fullr, adj. as full, Grág. i. 20, 68, Gþl. 477. jafn-fúinn, adj. equally rotten, jafn-fúss, adj. equally willing, Sturl. i. 190. jafn-færr, adj. as able, Nj. 97. jafn-fætis, adv. on equal footing; standa j. e-m, Sturl. ii. 134, Hkr. ii. 153. jafn-gamall, adj. of the same age, Ld. 108, Fms. i. 60, xi. 96. jafn-geði, n. evenness of temper, Sks. 435. jafn-gefinn, part. equally given to, Fas. i. 268. jafn-gegnt, adv. just opposite to, Sks. 63, Fms. ix. 463; see gegnt. jafn-girnd, f. and jafn-girni, f. fairness, equity, Sks. 273, 639, Hom. 17. jafn-gjarn, adj. as eager, Hom. 19: as equitable, Sks. 355, Hom. 135, Karl. 495. jafn-gjarna (- gjarnliga), adv. as willingly, as readily, Fms. iii. 45 (v. l.), ix. 508, Stj. jafn-glaðr, adj. as glad, as cheerful, Eb. 88: neut., mér er ekki jafnglatt sem áðr, Fas. i. 106. jafn-glöggt, n. adj. as clearly, Bs. i. 352. jafn-góðr, adj. equally good, as good, Nj. 18, Eg. 54, Gþl. 233, N. G. L. i. 347, Dipl. v. 16: unhurt, none the worse, see (II) above. jafn-góðviljaðr, adj. with equally good will, Stj. 629. jafn-grannr, adj. equally thin. jafn-grimmliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as fiercely, Th. jafn-grimmr, adj. as fierce, Sks. 79. jafn-grunnr, adj. as shallow. jafn-gæfr, adj. as meek, Rb. 397. jafn-göfigr, adj. as good, as famous, Sturl. iii. 11, Bs. i. 133. jafn-görla, adv. as clearly, Grág. i. 299, Fms. ii. 171, Fas. i. 271. jafn-hafðr, part. equally used, N. G. L. i. 249. jafn-hagliga, adv. as skilfully, Krók. 53. jafn-hagr, adj. as skilful in handiwork, Nj. 147. jafn-harðr, adj. as hard, as severe, Nj. 79: neut. jafn-hart, as fast, Fas. iii. 488: jafn-harðan, adv. instantly. jafn-harðsnúinn, part. as hard-twisted, as tight, Nj. 79. jafn-hár, adj. as high, as tall, as loud, Rb. 112, 474, Fas. ii. 79: of metre, see hár (I. 3), Fms. vi. 386, Skálda 182, 190: neut., Stj. 79. jafnhátta-góðr, adj. as well-mannered, Ld. 174. jafn-heilagr, adj. as holy, as inviolable, Sks. 674, Grág. i. 90. jafn-heill, adj. as hale, as whole, Eg. 425, v. l. jafn-heimoll, adj. equally open to use, Eg. 47, Ld. 70, Gþl. 214, 353: equally bound, 57. jafn-heimskr, adj. equally stupid, Fms. ii. 156, Sd. 178. jafn-heitr, adj. as hot, Sks. 540. jafn-hentr, adj. as well fitted, Sturl. i. 196. jafn-hlær, adj. equally snug, Rb. 440. jafn-hollr, adj. equally sincere, Orkn. 166. jafn-hógværliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as meekly, Krók. 36. jafn-hógværr, adj. as gentle. jafn-hraustr, adj. as valiant, Fms. ii. 356, Krók. 51. jafn-hryggr, adj. as distressed, Hkr. iii. 269. jafn-hugaðr, adj. even-tempered, Sks. 24: of one mind, 300: as daring. jafn-hvass, adj. as sharp, Ld. 306: blowing as hard. jafn-hvatr, adj. as bold, as quick, Sturl. i. 112, v. l. jafn-hvítr, adj. equally white. jafn-hæðiligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as ridiculous, Fas. iii. 91. jafn-hægr, adj. equally easy, ready, meek, Fms. ii. 106, Fær. 69, Grág. i. 264, ii. 257. jafn-hættr, adj. as dangerous, Sks. 540. jafn-höfigr, adj. as heavy, Rb. 102, Edda 38. jafn-ílla, adv. as badly, Fms. viii. 140 (v. l.), Ísl. ii. 181. jafn-ílliligr, adj. (-liga, adv.) as ill-looking, Fas. ii. 207. jafn-íllr, adj. equally bad, Grág. ii. 145, Fas. ii. 513. jafn-kaldr, adj. as cold, Sks. 215. jafn-keypi, n. an equal bargain, Fs. 25. jafn-kominn, part. on even terms, Sks. 455: neut. an even match, jafnkomit er á með ykkr, ye are well-matched, Nj. 59; hann kvað jafnkomit með þeim fyrir aldrs sakir, Fms. iii. 76; jafnkomnir til erfðar, with equal title to, Grág. i. 304; jafnkomnir til fyrir ættar sakir, Fms. i. 220; jafnkomnir at frændsemi, Ísl. ii. 315. jafn-kosta, adj. well-matched, good enough, of wedlock, Stj. 204. jafn-kostgæfinn, adj. equally painstaking, Bs. i. 681. jafn-krappr, adj. as straight, narrow; í jafnkrappan stað, in such a strait, Ld. 168. jafn-kringr, adj. equally dexterous, Sks. 381. jafn-kristinn, adj. a fellow Christian, Jb. 92, Barl. 44. jafn-kunnigr, adj. as well known, Grett. 162 A: knowing as well. jafn-kunnr, adj. as well known, Hom. 90. jafn-kurteis, adj. as courteous, Sturl. i. 165. jafn-kyrr, adj. as quiet. jafn-kýta, t, with dat. = jafnyrða. jafn-kænn, adj. as ‘cunning,’ as well versed, Stj. 561. jafn-kærr, adj. as dear, as beloved, Fms. i. 215, xi. 319. jafn-langr, adj. as long, equally long, Fms. xi. 376, Gþl. 350, 355, Ísl. ii. 219, Grág. i. 406, Edda 138 ( of the same length): neut., en ef þær segja jafnlangt, if they say both the same, Grág. i. 7. jafn-lágr, adj. equally low. jafn-leiðr, adj. equally loathed, Fms. viii. 240. jafn-leiki, n. = jafnleikit. jafn-leikit, n. part. an equal game, Fms. xi. 131. jafn-lendi, n. a level, even piece of ground, Eg. 584. jafn-lengd, f. ‘even-length,’ the return to the same time in the next day, week, month, year, etc.: of a day, til jafnlengdar annars dags, Grág. ii. 16, Stj. 49; þann sama dag tók Gormr konungr sótt, ok andaðisk annan dag at jafnlengdinni, Fms. i. 119, Fas. ii. 30, 37: of a year, anniversary, skal eigi brullaup vera fyrr en at jafnlengd, Grág. i. 311; tíu aurar sé leigðir eyri til jafnlengdar (a year’s rent), 390; at jafnlengd it síðasta, 487; eigi síðarr en fyrir jafnlengd, Fms. xi. 397; halda hátíð at jafnlengdum, Greg. 13, Hom. 98; jafnlengdar-dagr, 129, Fms. v. 214, Dipl. v. 8; jafnlengdar hátíð, an anniversary, Greg. 13. jafn-lengi, adv. as long, Grág. i. 423, Fms. iii. 9, MS. 732. 7. jafn-léttmæltr, adj. equally easy, just as pleasant in one’s speech, Fms. vii. 227. jafn-léttr, adj. as light, as easy, Sturl. iii. 90: neut. (adverb.), Kjartani var ekki annat jafn-létthjalat, K. liked not to speak of anything so much, Ld. 214. jafn-léttvígr, adj. as ready in wielding arms, Sturl. iii. 90. jafn-liða, adj. with an equal number of men, Eb. 144. jafn-liga, adv. equally, fairly; sýnisk mér eigi j. á komit, Bs. i. 531, Vm. 169; skipta j., Fb. ii. 300: perpetually, all along, always, usually, Fms. i. 191, x. 88, 89, Dipl. v. 8, Rb. 348, 472, Stj. 77. jafn-ligr, adj. equal, fair, Hkr. ii. 149, Háv. 57, Eg. 488; er þat miklu jafnligra, a more equal match, Fms. vii. 115. jafn-líkligr, adj. as likely, Sturl. iii. 7, Lv. 77. jafn-líkr, adj. as like, Lv. 58, Fas. ii. 478: equal, alike, j. sem hornspónar efni, Bs. i. 59. jafn-lítill, adj. as little, Fas. iii. 487. jafn-ljóss, adj. as bright, Bret. 62. jafn-ljótr, adj. as ugly, Fms. iv. 175. jafn-ljúfr, adj. as willing. jafn-lygn, adj. as ‘loun,’ as calm, of the wind. jafn-lyndi, n., fem. in Mar. 848; evenness of temper, Stj., Fagrsk. 132, Bs. i. 141, Mar. passim. jafn-lyndr, adj. even-tempered, Fms. vi. 287, viii. 447 (v. l.) jafn-lýðskyldr, adj. equally bound, as liegemen, Sks. 270. jafn-lærðr, adj. as learned. jafn-magr, adj. equally meagre. jafn-maki, a, m. an equal, a match, Sks. 22, 255. jafn-mannvænn, adj. equally promising, Þorf. Karl. 382. jafn-margr, adj. as many, Nj. 104, Grág. ii. 210, 403, Fms. i. 152, ii. 34. jafn-máttugr, adj. as mighty, Fms. ii. 157, Eluc. 6. jafn-máttuligr, adj. equally possible, 655 xxii. B. jafn-menni, n. an equal, a match, Ld. 132, Ísl. ii. 358, Fms. vi. 345, vii. 103. jafn-menntr, adj. of equal rank, Hrafn. 10. jafn-merkiligr, adj. equally dignified, Bs. i. 148. jafn-mikill, adj. as great, Grág. ii. 264, 403, Fms. i. 1, Gþl. 363: equally big, tall, Fms. x. 202, Nj. 11: neut. as much, Fms. vii. 240, Skálda 168. jafn-mildr, adj. as mild, as gracious, Rb. 366. jafn-minnigr, adj. having as good a memory, Bs. i. 681. jafn-mjúkliga, adv. as meekly, as gently, Lv. 50. jafn-mjúkr, adj. equally soft. jafn-mjök, adv. as much, as strongly, Grág. ii. 140, Skálda 168. jafn-myrkr, adj. equally dark, Skálda 209. jafn-mæli, n. fair play, equality, Fb. i. 407, Fms. vi. 206, Grág. i. 88, 200, Ld. 258, H. E. i. 247, Karl. 99. jafn-naumr, adj. as close. jafn-náinn, adj.; j. at frændsemi, equally near akin, Grág. i. 171, ii. 67, Eb. 124, Ísl. ii. 315, (jafnan, Ed.) jafn-nær, mod. jafn-nærri, adv. equally near: loc., er Ólafs mark j. báðum, Fms. vii. 64, 268, Sks. 63, 216: as near, at honum væri úvarligt at láta jafnmarga heiðna menn vera j. sér, Fms. ii. 34: equally near (by birth), i. 123: metaph., eigi hefir honum jafnnærri gengit újafnaðr þeirra sem mér, Sturl. iii. 238: also jafn-nær, adj. equally nigh, not a whit the better, see (II) above. jafn-nætti, n. the equinox, 673. 54, Stj. 15. jafn-oki, a, m. = jafnmaki, an equal, a match for one, Sks. 22: a play-fellow, Stj. 497, Þiðr. 213. jafn-opt, adv. as often, Nj. 211, Rb. 566, Grág. i. 186. jafn-ótt, adj., neut. as adv., at the same, time, immediately. Pass. 20. 2: one after another, taka e-ð jafnótt og það kemr. jafn-rakkr, adj. as strong, as straight, Ld. 168. jafn-ramr, adj. as mighty, as great a wizard, Vþm. 2. jafn-rangr; adj. as wrong. jafn-ráðinn, part. equally determined, Grett. 149. jafn-reiðr, adj. equally angry, Háv. 52. jafn-rétti, n. an equal right. jafnréttis-maðr, m. a man with equal right, N. G. L. i. 31. jafn-réttr, adj. as right, as lawful, Edda 93, Grág. i. 18: of equal authority, Hkr. iii. 79. jafn-réttvíss, adj. equally just, Sks. 670. jafn-rífligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as large, Lv. 75. jafn-ríkr, adj. as rich, equally mighty. jafn-rjóðr, adj. as ruddy, Hkr. i. 102. jafn-rúmr, adj. equally large, Bjarn. jafn-ræði, n. an equal match, Fms. ii. 22, Glúm. 350, Nj. 49, Gþl. 215. jafn-röskr, adj. as brisk, as quick, Fms. iii. 225, vi. 96. jafn-saman, adv.; fyrir þessa hugsan alla jafnsaman, all at once, all together, Fms. i. 185, Ld. 326, Ó. H. 46, Stj. 86, 121, Barl. 191. jafn-sannr, adj. equally true, 671. 1, Edda 19, Stj. 471. jafn-sárr, adj. as sore, as smarting, Mar. jafn-seinn, adj. as slow. jafn-sekr, adj. just as guilty, Grág. ii. 64, 89. jafn-síðis, adv. along with. jafn-síðr, adj. as long, of a garment (síðr), Stj. 563. jafn-sjúkr, adj. as sick, Fms. v. 324. jafn-skammr, adj. as short, Al. 129. jafn-skarpliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as briskly, Nj. 199, v. l. jafn-skarpr, adj. as sharp, as keen. jafn-skipti, n. equal, fair dealing. jafn-skiptiliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), equally, mutually, Stj. 159. jafn-skiptr, part. equally shared. jafn-skjótr, adj. as swift, Fms. vii. 169, Rb. 454:—jafn-skjótt, neut. as adv. immediately, at once, Eg. 87, 291, 492, Fms. ii. 10; jafnskjótt sem, as soon as, Nj. 5, Barl. 176, Karl. 409, 441. jafn-skygn, adj. as clear-sighted, 655 xiii. A, Bjarn. 59. jafn-skyldliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as dutifully, Ver. 3. jafn-skyldr, adj. equally bound or obliged, Grág. ii. 362, 403, Gþl. 70, 477, Fms. vii. 274. jafn-sköruliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), equally bold, Nj. 199. jafn-slétta, u, f. even, level ground. jafn-sléttr, adj. equally level, Stj. 79: as easily, Fas. ii. 48. jafn-slægr, adj. as cunning, Fær. 99. jafn-snarpr, adj. (-snarpligr, adj., -liga, adv.), as sharp, Fms. vi. 156. jafn-snarr, adj. as alert. jafn-snart, adj., neut. as adv., as soon, instantly, Fas. iii. 434, Matth. xxvii. 48. jafn-snauðr, adj. as poor. jafn-snemma, adv. at the very same moment, of a coincidence, Eg. 425, Nj. 253, Fms. vi. 221; allir j., all at once, ix. 506, xi. 368 ( both together); vóru þessir atburðir margir jafnsnemma, en sumir litlu fyrr eðr síðar, Hkr. ii. 368. jafn-snjallr, adj. equal, Glúm., Bjarn. (in a verse). jafn-spakr, adj. equally wise, Hm. 53. jafn-sparr, adj. as saving, as close, Grág. i. 197, 222. jafn-sterkr, adj. as strong, Fms. i. 43. jafn-stirðr, adj. as stiff. jafn-stórlátr, adj. as proud, Ld. 116. jafn-stórliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as proudly, Ölk. 34. jafn-stórr, adj. as big, as great. jafn-stórættaðr, adj. of equally high birth, Fms. iv. 26. jafn-stríðr, adj. as hard, severe, Sks. 639. jafn-stuttr, adj. equally short, brief. jafn-syndligr, adj. as sinful, Sks. 674. jafn-sætr, adj. as sweet, Fb. i. 539. jafn-sætti, n. an agreement on equal terms, Nj. 21, Sturl. iii 253, Fb. i. 126. jafn-tamr, adj. equally alert. jafn-tefli, n. an equal, drawn game, Vígl. 32. jafn-tengdr, part. in equal degrees of affinity, Grág. ii. 183. jafn-tíðhjalat, n. part. as much talked about, Nj. 100. jafn-tíðrætt, n. adj. = jafntíðhjalat, Nj. 100. jafn-tíguliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), equally lordly, Fms. x. 109. jafn-títt, n. adj. as often, as frequent, Niðrst. 10. jafn-torogætr, adj. as rarely to be got, choice, Bs. i. 143. jafn-torsótligr, adj. as hard to get at, Fms. x. 358. jafn-trauðr, adj. as unwilling. jafn-traustr, adj. as much to be trusted, Fms. vi. 244. jafn-trúr, jafn-tryggr, adj. as faithful. jafn-undarligr, adj. (-liga, adv.), as strange, Sks. 80. jafn-ungr, adj. as young, Fms. iii. 60, iv. 383. jafn-úbeint, n. adj. as far from the mark, of a bad shot, Fms. viii. 140. jafn-úfærr, adj. as unpassable, Sturl. iii. 163. jafn-úhefnisamr, adj. as tame, Rb. 366. jafn-úráðinn, part. as irresolute, Grett. 153. jafn-úspakr, adj. as unruly, Sturl. ii. 63. jafn-útlagr, adj. having to lay out the same fine, N. G. L. i. 158. jafn-vandhæfr, adj. as dangerous to keep, treat, Grág. i. 89. jafn-vandliga, adv. as carefully, Grág. ii. 249. jafn-varliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), as warily, Fms. vii. 127. jafn-varmr, adj. as warm, Sks. 217. jafn-varr, adj. as well aware, as much on one’s guard, Dropl. 28. jafn-vaskliga, adv. as gallantly, Fms. vii. 127, Ld. 272. jafn-vaskligr, adj. as gallant. jafn-vaskr, adj. as bold, Str. 3. jafn-vátr, adj. equally wet. jafn-veginn, part. of full weight, Stj. 216. jafn-vegit, n. a law phrase, used when an equal number has been slain on both sides, in which case there were no further proceedings, Glúm. 383, Fas. ii. 208. jafn-vel, adv. as well, equally well, Nj. 48, Eg. 111, Gþl. 354: likewise, hafa fyrirgört fé ok friði ok jafnvel óðals-jörðum sínum, 142; en þenna eið skulu jafnvel biskupar ábyrgjask við Guð …, jafnvel sem ( as well as) hinir úlærðu, 57; jafnvel af sænum sem af landinu, Al. 2; ok jamvel sendir jarl þeim mönnum orð, sem …, Fms. xi. 120: even, dögföll um nætr jafnvel at heiðskírum veðrum, Stj. 17; jafnvel eptir þat er þau misgörðu, 40; jafnvel sýniliga, j. oss önduðum, 9, Bs. i. 549, Barl. 170, 176, Gísl. 83; this last sense is very freq. in mod. usage. jafn-velviljaðr, part. as well wishing, Sks. 312. jafn-vesall, adj. as wretched, Krók. 54. jafn-virði, n. equal wirth, Bs. i. 9, Al. 48. jafn-vægi, n. equal weight, equilibrium, Hkr. ii. 250, Fas. i. 121; bóandi ok húsfreyja j. sitt, i. e. both of them equally, N. G. L. i. 6. jafn-vægja, ð, to weigh the same as another, Fms. iii. 120. jafn-vægr, adj. of equal weight, Sks. 644. jafn-vænn, adj. equally fine, handsome, promising, Fms. x. 429, Sturl. iii. 67. jafn-vætta, t, to weigh against, counterbalance, Stj. 13, Þorst. Síðu H. 14. jafn-yrða, ð, with dat. to altercate, bandy words, Sturl. iii. 213. jafn-þarfr, adj. as useful, Arnor. jafn-þéttr, adj. pressed as closely together. jafn-þjófgefinn, adj. as thievish. jafn-þolinmóðr, adj. as patient, Rb. 366. jafn-þolinn, adj. as enduring. jafn-þreyttr, part. as weary. jafn-þrifinn, adj. as cleanly. jafn-þröngr, adj. as tight. jafn-þungr, adj. as heavy, pressing, Fms. v. 264, Stj. 278. jafn-þurr, adj. equally dry. jafn-þykkr, adj. as thick, Hkr. iii. 159. jafn-þyrstr, part. as thirsty. jafn-æfr, adj. as impetuous. jafn-æstr, part. equally excited, Band. 34 new Ed. jafn-örr, adj. as eager, as liberal. jafn-öruggr, adj. as firm, steadfast.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > JAFN

  • 8 önd-vegi

    and önd-ugi, n. [from and- ( opposite) and vegr]:—an ‘opposite-seat,’ high-seat, so called because two seats are placed opposite to one another; in ancient timbered halls the benches were placed longways, running along the walls of the halls (sec bekkr), with the two seats of honour in the middle facing one another; the northern bench facing the sun, was called öndvegi it æðra, the higher or first high-seat, the opposite or southern bench being it úæðra, the lower or second high-seat; the two high-seats were the most honoured places in the hall, and a chief guest used to be placed in the southern high-seat. In England the master and mistress sitting opposite one another at each end of the table may be a remnant of this old Scandinavian custom. The sides of the high-seat were ornamented with uprights (öndugis-súlur) carved with figures, such as a head of Thor or the like; these posts were regarded with religious reverence; many of the settlers of Iceland are said to have taken the high-seat posts with them, and when near Iceland to have thrown them over-board to drift ashore, and where they found them, there they took up their abode. When a man of rank died, the son, after all rites performed, solemnly seated himself in his father’s seat, as a token of succession: in Vd. ch. 23, the sons sat not in the father’s seat before they had avenged his death.
    B. References in illustration of this: Þorgerðr sat á tali við Þorstein bróður sinn í öndvegi, Ísl. ii. 200; var þeim Illuga ok sonum hans skipat í öndvegi, en þeim brúðguma á annat öndvegi gegnt Illuga, konur sátu a palli, 250; Guðmundr sat í öndvegi, en Þórir Helgason gagnvart honum, en konur sátu á palli, brúðr sat á miðjan pall, etc., Lv. 37; á hinn úæðra bekk gagnvert öndugi mínu (better, ‘útar frá öndnginu,’ v. l.), Nj. 129; þat var forn siðr í Noregi ok svá í Danmörk ok Svíþjóðu, at konungs hásæti var á miðjan langbekk í veizlustofum, sat þar dróttning til vinstri handar konungi, var þat kallat konungs öndvegi …, annat öndvegi var á hinn úæðra pall, etc., Fms. vi. 439; af öllum hirðmönnum virði konungr mest skáld sín, þeir skipuðu annat öndvegi, Eg. 24; konungr tekr blíðliga við Hjálmari, ok skipar í öndvegi gegnt sér, Fms. iii. 79; þér mun skipat á inn óæðra bekk gegnt öndugi Rúts, Nj. 32; reis hann þá upp or rekkju ok settisk í öndvegi, Eg. 644; eta at ölkrásim ok í öndugi at senda, Akv. 36; nú skal presti bjóða ok konu hans til erfis, sitja skal hann í andvegi ok kona hans í hjá honum, N. G. L. i. 404; hann gékk í höllina ok sá þar sitja í öndugi Baldr bróður sinn, Edda 38; jarl gékk inn í stofuna, var þar fjölmenni mikit, þar sat í öndugi maðr gamall … jarl settisk öðrum-megin gagnvart Þorgný, Ó. H. 66; hann sá mann mikinn ok vegligan í öndvegi, Glúm. 336; ef maðr verðr dauðr, þá skal arfi í öndvegi setjask, Js. 75; heim skal búanda stemna ok til húss fara … stemni hann honum inn til andvegis, N. G. L. i. 217, 219: the saying, eigi verðr öllum í öndvegi skipað, it is not for all to sit on the high-seat, cp. Horace’s non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum.
    COMPDS: öndugishöldr, öndvegissúla, öndvegissæti.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > önd-vegi

  • 9 BERA

    * * *
    I)
    (ber; bar, bárum; borinn), v.
    I.
    1) to bear, carry, convey (bar B. biskup í börum suðr í Hvamm);
    bera (farm) af skipi, to unload a ship;
    bera (mat) af borði, to take (the meat) off the table;
    bera e-t á hesti, to carry on horseback;
    2) to wear (bera klæði, vápn, kórónu);
    bera œgishjálm, to inspire fear and awe;
    3) to bear, produce, yield (jörðin berr gras; tré bera aldin, epli);
    4) to bear, give birth to, esp. of sheep and cows;
    kýr hafði borit kálf, had calved;
    absol., ván at hón mundi bera, that the cow would calve;
    the pp. is used of men; hann hafði verit blindr borinn, born blind;
    verða borinn í þenna heim, to be born into this world;
    þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, born to;
    borinn e-m, frá e-m (rare), born of;
    Nótt var Nörvi borin, was the daughter of N.;
    borinn Sigmundi, son of S.;
    5) bera e-n afli, ofrafli, ofrliði, ofrmagni, ofríki, to bear one down, overcome, oppress, one by odds or superior force;
    bera e-n ráðum, to overrule one;
    bera e-n bjóri, to make drunk with beer;
    verða bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise;
    borinn verkjum, overcome by pains;
    þess er borin ván, there is no hope, all hope is gone;
    borinn baugum, bribed; cf. bera fé á e-n, to bribe one;
    6) to lear, be capable of bearing (of a ship, horse, vehicle);
    þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, with as much as they could carry;
    fig., to sustain, support (svá mikill mannfjöldi, at landit fekk eigi borit);
    of persons, to bear up against, endure, support (grief, sorrow, etc.);
    absol., bar hann drengiliga, he bore it manfully;
    similarly, bera (harm) af sér, berast vel (illa, lítt) af;
    bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore up bravely;
    hversu berst Auðr af um bróðurdauðann, how does she bear it?
    hon berst af lítt, she is much cast down;
    bera sik vel upp, to bear well up against;
    7) bera e-t á, e-n á hendr e-m, to charge or tax one with (eigi erum vér þess valdir, er þú berr á oss);
    bera (kvið) á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty (í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn);
    bera af e-m (kviðinn), to give a verdict for;
    bera e-t af sér, to deny having done a thing;
    bera or bera vitni, vætti, to bear witness, testify;
    bera or bera um e-t, to give a verdict in a case;
    bera e-n sannan at sök, to prove guilty by evidence;
    bera e-n undan sök, to acquit;
    bera í sundr frændsemi þeirra, to prove (by evidence) that they are not relations;
    refl. (pass.), berast, to be proved by evidence (þótt þér berist þat faðerni, er þú segir);
    8) to set forth, report, tell;
    bera e-m kveðju (orð, orðsending), to bring one a greeting, compliments (word, message);
    bera or bera fram erindi sín fyrir e-n, to state (tell) one’s errand or to plead one’s case before one;
    bera e-m njósn, to apprise one;
    bera e-t upp, to produce, mention, tell;
    bera upp erindi sín, to state one’s errand;
    bera saman ráð sín, to consult together;
    eyddist það ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed;
    9) to keep, hold, bear, of a title (bera jarlnafn, konnungsnafn);
    bera (eigi) giptu, gæfu, hammingju, auðnu til e-s, (not) to have the good fortune to do a thing (bar hann enga gæfu til at þjóna þér);
    bera vit, skyn, kunnáttu á e-t, to have knowledge of, uniderstanding about;
    bera hug, áræði, þor, traust til e-s, to have courage, confidence to do a thing;
    bera áhyggju fyrir e-u, to be concerned about;
    bera ást, elsku, hatr til e-s, to bear affection, love, hatred to;
    10) to bear off or away, carry off (some gain);
    bera sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in;
    hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orustum, he had been victorious in two battles;
    bera hærra (lægra) hlut to get the best (the worst) of it;
    bera efra (hærra) skjöld, to gain the victory;
    bera hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), to be in high (low) spirits;
    bera halann bratt, lágt, to cock up or let fall the tail, to be in high or low spirits;
    11) with preps.:
    bera af e-m, to surpass;
    en þó bar Bolli af, surpassed all the rest;
    bera af sér högg, lag to ward off, parry a blow or thrust;
    bera eld at, to set fire to;
    bera fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one;
    bera á or í, to smear, anoint (bera vatn í augu sér, bera tjöru í höfuð sér);
    bera e-t til, to apply to, to try if it fits (bera til hvern lykil af öðrum at portinu);
    bera e-t um, to wind round;
    þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body;
    bera um með e-n, to bear with, have patience with;
    bera út barn, to expose a child;
    12) refl., berast mikit (lítit) á, to bear oneself proudly (humbly);
    láta af berast, to die;
    láta fyrir berast e-s staðar, to stay, remain in a place (for shelter);
    berast e-t fyrir, to design a thing (barst hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur);
    at njósna um, hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about;
    berast vápn á, to attack one another;
    berast at or til, to happen;
    þat barst at (happened) á einhverju sumri;
    ef svá harðliga kann til at berast, if that misfortune does happen;
    berast í móti, to happen, occur;
    hefir þetta vel í móti borizt, it is a happy coincidence;
    berast við, to be prevented;
    ok nú lét almáttugr guð við berast kirkjubrunann, prevented, stopped the burning of the church;
    II. impers., denoting a sort of passive or involuntary motion;
    alla berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end);
    bar hann (acc.) þá ofan gegnt Ösuri, he happened to come down just opposite to Ö.;
    esp. of ships and sailors; berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eða annarra landa, we drift to Iceland or other countries;
    þá (acc.) bar suðr í haf, they were carried out southwards;
    Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, S. came suddenly upon them;
    ef hann (acc.) skyldi bera þar at, if he should happen to come there;
    e-n berr yfir, one is borne onwards, of a bird flying, a man riding;
    hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, it passed quickly (of a flying meteor);
    2) followed by preps.:
    Gunnar sér, at rauðan kyrtil bar við glugginn, that a red kirtle passed before the window;
    hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, there was nowhere a shadow;
    e-t berr fram (hátt), is prominent;
    Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingu ok bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, stood out conspicuously;
    e-t berr á milli, comes between;
    leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect;
    fig. e-m berr e-t á milli, they are at variance about a thing;
    mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, many things come now before my eyes;
    veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m, game falls to one’s lot;
    e-t berr undan, goes amiss, fails;
    bera saman, to coincide;
    bar nöfn þeirra saman, they had the same name;
    fig., with dat.; bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the stories agreed well together;
    fund várn bar saman, we met;
    3) bera at, til, við, at hendi, til handa, to befall, happen, with dat. of the person;
    svá bar at einn vetr, it happened one winter;
    þó at þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, has befallen us;
    bar honum svá til, it so befell him;
    þat bar við (it so happened), at Högni kom;
    raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by fact;
    4) of time, to fall upon;
    ef þing (acc.) berr á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls in the holy week;
    bera í móti, to coincide, happen exactly at the same time;
    5) denoting cause;
    e-t berr til, causes a thing;
    konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief;
    ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til bera, that that was the reason;
    berr e-m nauðsyn til e-s, one is obliged to do a thing;
    6) e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person’s lot;
    hon á arf at taka, þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn;
    e-t berr frá, is surpassing;
    er sagt, at þat (acc.) bæri frá, hvé vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they spoke;
    7) e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden;
    e-t berr stóru, stórum (stœrrum), it amounts to much (more), it matters a great deal (more), it is of great (greater) importance;
    8) absol. or with an adv., vel, illa, with infin.;
    e-m berr (vel, illa) at gera e-t, it becomes, beseems one (well, ill) to do a thing (berr yðr vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli);
    used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, or unbeseeming, improper, unfit (þat þykkir eigi illa bera, at).
    (að), v. to make bare (hon beraði likam sinn).
    * * *
    1.
    u, f.
    I. [björn], a she-bear, Lat. ursa; the primitive root ‘ber’ remains only in this word (cp. berserkr and berfjall), björn (q. v.) being the masc. in use, Landn. 176, Fas. i. 367, Vkv. 9: in many Icel. local names, Beru-fjörðr, -vík, from Polar bears; fem. names, Bera, Hallbera, etc., Landn.
    II. a shield, poët., the proverb, baugr er á beru sæmstr, to a shield fits best a baugr (q. v.), Lex. Poët., Edda (Gl.); hence names of poems Beru-drápa, Eg.
    2.
    bar, báru, borit, pres. berr,—poët. forms with the suffixed negative; 3rd pers. sing. pres. Indic. berrat, Hm. 10; 3rd pers. sing. pret. barat, Vellekla; 1st pers. sing. barkak, Eb. 62 (in a verse); barkat ek, Hs. 8; 2nd pers. sing. bartattu; 3rd pers. pl. bárut, etc., v. Lex. Poët. [Gr. φέρειν; Lat. ferre; Ulf. bairan; A. S. beran; Germ. gebären; Engl. bear; Swed. bära; Dan. bære].
    A. Lat. ferre, portare:
    I. prop. with a sense of motion, to bear, carry, by means of the body, of animals, of vehicles, etc., with acc., Egil tók mjöðdrekku eina mikla, ok bar undir hendi sér, Eg. 237; bar hann heim hrís, Rm. 9; konungr lét bera inn kistur tvær, báru tveir menn hverja, Eg. 310; bera farm af skipi, to unload a ship, Ld. 32; bera (farm) á skip, to load a ship, Nj. 182; tóku alla ösku ok báru á á ( amnem) út, 623, 36; ok bar þat ( carried it) í kerald, 43, K. Þ. K. 92; b. mat á borð, í stofu, to put the meat on table, in the oven; b. mat af borði, to take it off table, Eb. 36, 266, Nj. 75, Fms. ix. 219, etc.
    2. Lat. gestare, ferre, denoting to wear clothes, to carry weapons; skikkja dýr er konungr hafði borit, Eg. 318; b. kórónu, to wear the crown, Fms. x. 16; atgeir, Nj. 119; vápn, 209: metaph., b. ægishjálm, to inspire fear and awe; b. merki, to carry the flag in a battle, Nj. 274, Orkn. 28, 30, 38, Fms. v. 64, vi. 413; bera fram merki, to advance, move in a battle, vi. 406.
    3. b. e-t á hesti (áburðr), to carry on horseback; Auðunn bar mat á hesti, Grett. 107; ok bar hrís á hesti, 76 new Ed.; þeir báru á sjau hestum, 98 new Ed.
    II. without a sense of motion:
    1. to give birth to; [the root of barn, bairn; byrja, incipere; burðr, partus; and burr, filius: cp. Lat. parĕre; also Gr. φέρειν, Lat. ferre, of child-bearing.] In Icel. prose, old as well as mod., ‘ala’ and ‘fæða’ are used of women; but ‘bera,’ of cows and sheep; hence sauðburðr, casting of lambs, kýrburðr; a cow is snembær, siðbær, Jólabær, calves early, late, at Yule time, etc.; var ekki ván at hon ( the cow) mundi b. fyr en um várit, Bs. i. 193, 194; kýr hafði borit kálf, Bjarn. 32; bar hvárrtveggi sauðrinn sinn burð, Stj. 178: the participle borinn is used of men in a great many compds in a general sense, aptrborinn, árborinn, endrborinn, frjálsborinn, goðborinn, höldborinn, hersborinn, konungborinn, óðalborinn, samborinn, sundrborinn, velborinn, úborinn, þrælborinn, etc.; also out of compds, mun ek eigi upp gefa þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, … entitled to by inheritance, Ld. 102; hann hafði blindr verit borinn, born blind, Nj. 152, Hdl. 34, 42, Vsp. 2: esp. borinn e-m, born of one, Rm. 39, Hdl. 12, 23, 27, Hðm. 2, Gs. 9, Vþm. 25, Stor. 16, Vkv. 15; borinn frá e-m, Hdl. 24: the other tenses are in theol. Prose used of Christ, hans blezaða son er virðist at láta berast hingað í heim af sinni blezaðri móður, Fms. i. 281; otherwise only in poetry, eina dóttur (acc.) berr álfröðull (viz. the sun, regarded as the mother), Vþm. 47; hann Gjálp um bar, hann Greip um bar …, Hdl. 36: borit (sup.), Hkv. 1. 1.
    β. of trees, flowers; b. ávöxt, blóm …, to bear fruit, flower … (freq.); bar aldinviðrinn tvennan blóma, Fms. ix. 265; cp. the phrase, bera sitt barr, v. barr.
    2. denoting to load, with acc. of the person and dat. of the thing:
    α. in prop. sense; hann hafði borit sik mjök vápnum, he had loaded himself with arms, i. e. wore heavy armour, Sturl. iii. 250.
    β. but mostly in a metaph. sense; b. e-n ofrafli, ofrmagni, ofrliði, ofríki, magni, to bear one down, to overcome, oppress one, by odds or superior force, Grág. i. 101, ii. 195, Nj. 80, Hkr. ii. 371, Gþl. 474, Stj. 512, Fms. iii. 175 (in the last passage a dat. pers. badly); b. e-n ráðum, to overrule one, Nj. 198, Ld. 296; b. e-n málum, to bearhim down (wrongfully) in a lawsuit, Nj. 151; b. e-n bjóri, to make drunk, Vkv. 26: medic., borinn verkjum, sótt, Bjarn. 68, Og. 5; bölvi, Gg. 2: borne down, feeling heavy pains; þess er borin ván, no hope, all hope is gone, Ld. 250; borinn sök, charged with a cause, Fms. v. 324, H. E. i. 561; bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise, Fms. iv. 111; b. fé, gull á e-n, to bring one a fee, gold, i. e. to bribe one, Nj. 62; borinn baugum, bribed, Alvm. 5; always in a bad sense, cp. the law phrase, b. fé í dóm, to bribe a court, Grág., Nj. 240.
    3. to bear, support, sustain, Lat. sustinere, lolerare, ferre:
    α. properly, of a ship, horse, vehicle, to bear, be capable of bearing; þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, all that they could carry, Eb. 302;—a ship ‘berr’ ( carries) such and such a weight; but ‘tekr’ ( takes) denotes a measure of fluids.
    β. metaph. to sustain, support; dreif þannig svá mikill mannfjöldi at landit fékk eigi borit, Hkr. i. 56; but metaph. to bear up against, endure, support grief, sorrow, etc., sýndist öllum at Guð hefði nær ætlað hvat hann mundi b. mega, Bs. i. 139; biðr hann friðar ok þykist ekki mega b. reiði hans, Fms. iii. 80: the phrase, b. harm sinn í hljóði, to suffer silently; b. svívirðing, x. 333: absol., þótti honum mikit víg Kjartans, en þó bar hann drengilega, he bore it manfully, Ld. 226; er þat úvizka, at b. eigi slíkt, not to bear or put up with, Glúm. 327; b. harm, to grieve, Fms. xi. 425: in the phrases, b. sik, b. af sér, berask, berask vel (illa, lítt), to bear oneself, to bear up against misfortune; Guðrúnu þótti mikit fráfall Þorkels, en þó bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore her bravely up, Ld. 326–328; lézt hafa spurt at ekkjan bæri vel af sér harmana, Eb. 88; berask af; hversu bersk Auðr af um bróðurdauðann? (how does she bear it?); hón bersk af lítt ( she is much borne down) ok þykir mikit, Gísl. 24; niun oss vandara gört en öðrum at vér berim oss vel (Lat. fortiter ferre), Nj. 197; engi maðr hefði þar jamvel borit sik, none bad borne himself so boldly, Sturl. iii. 132; b. sik vel upp, to bear well up against, bear a stout heart, Hrafn. 17; b. sik beiskliga ( sorely), Stj. 143; b. sik lítt, to be downcast, Fms. ii. 61; b. sik at göra e-t, to do one’s best, try a thing.
    III. in law terms or modes of procedure:
    1. bera járn, the ordeal of bearing hot iron in the hand, cp. járnburðr, skírsla. This custom was introduced into Scandinavia together with Christianity from Germany and England, and superseded the old heathen ordeals ‘hólmganga,’ and ‘ganga undir jarðarmen,’ v. this word. In Norway, during the civil wars, it was esp. used in proof of paternity of the various pretenders to the crown, Fms. vii. 164, 200, ix. Hák. S. ch. 14, 41–45, viii. (Sverr. S.) ch. 150, xi. (Jómsv. S.) ch. 11, Grett. ch. 41, cp. N. G. L. i. 145, 389. Trial by ordeal was abolished in Norway A. D. 1247. In Icel. It was very rarely mentioned, vide however Lv. ch. 23 (paternity), twice or thrice in the Sturl. i. 56, 65, 147, and Grág. i. 341, 361; it seems to have been very seldom used there, (the passage in Grett. S. l. c. refers to Norway.)
    2. bera út (hence útburðr, q. v.), to expose children; on this heathen custom, vide Grimm R. A. In heathen Icel., as in other parts of heathen Scandinavia, it was a lawful act, but seldom exercised; the chief passages on record are, Gunnl. S. ch. 3 (ok þat var þá siðvandi nokkurr, er land var allt alheiðit, at þeir menn er félitlir vórn, en stóð ómegð mjök til handa létu út bera börn sín, ok þótti þó illa gört ávalt), Fs. Vd. ch. 37, Harð. S. ch. 8, Rd. ch. 7, Landn. v. ch. 6, Finnb. ch. 2, Þorst. Uxaf. ch. 4, Hervar. S. ch. 4, Fas. i. 547 (a romance); cp. Jómsv. S. ch. 1. On the introduction of Christianity into Icel. A. D. 1000, it was resolved that, in regard to eating of horse-flesh and exposure of children, the old laws should remain in force, Íb. ch. 9; as Grimm remarks, the exposure must take place immediately after birth, before the child had tasted food of any kind whatever, and before it was besprinkled with water (ausa vatni) or shown to the father, who had to fix its name; exposure, after any of these acts, was murder, cp. the story of Liafburga told by Grimm R. A.); v. Also a Latin essay at the end of the Gunnl. S. (Ed. 1775). The Christian Jus Eccl. put an end to this heathen barbarism by stating at its very beginning, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, i. e. all children, if not of monstrous shape, shall be brought up, N. G. L. i. 339, 363.
    β. b. út (now more usual, hefja út, Am. 100), to carry out for burial; vera erfðr ok tit borinn, Odd. 20; var hann heygðr, ok út borinn at fornum sið, Fb. i. 123; b. á bál, to place (the body and treasures) upon the pile, the mode of burying in the old heathen time, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse); var hon borin á bálit ok slegit í eldi, Edda 38.
    B. Various and metaph. cases.
    I. denoting motion:
    1. ‘bera’ is in the Grág. the standing law term for delivery of a verdict by a jury (búar), either ‘bera’ absol. or adding kvið ( verdict); bera á e-n, or b. kvið á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty; bera af e-m, or b. af e-m kviðinn, to give a verdict for; or generally, bera, or b. um e-t, to give a verdict in a case; bera, or b. vitni, vætti, also simply means to testify, to witness, Nj. 111, cp. kviðburðr ( delivering of verdict), vitnisburðr ( bearing witness), Grág. ii. 28; eigi eigu búar ( jurors) enn at b. um þat hvat lög eru á landi hér, the jurors have not to give verdict in (to decide) what is law in the country, cp. the Engl. maxim, that jurors have only to decide the question of evidence, not of law, Grág. (Kb.) ch. 85; eigi eru búar skildir at b. um hvatvetna; um engi mál eigu þeir at skilja, þau er erlendis ( abroad) hafa görzt, id.; the form in delivering the verdict—höfum vér ( the jurors), orðit á eitt sáttir, berum á kviðburðinn, berum hann sannan at sökinni, Nj. 238, Grág. i. 49, 22, 138, etc.; í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn, id.; b. annattveggja af eðr á; b. undan, to discharge, Nj. 135; b. kvið í hag ( for), Grág. i. 55; b. lýsingar vætti, Nj. 87; b. vitni ok vætti, 28, 43, 44; b. ljúgvitni, to bear false witness, Grág. i. 28; b. orð, to bear witness to a speech, 43; bera frændsemi sundr, to prove that they are not relations, N. G. L. i. 147: reflex., berask ór vætti, to prove that oneself is wrongly summoned to bear witness or to give a verdict, 44: berask in a pass. sense, to be proved by evidence, ef vanefni b. þess manns er á hönd var lýst, Grág. i. 257; nema jafnmæli berisk, 229; þótt þér berisk þat faðerni er þú segir, Fms. vii. 164; hann kvaðst ætla, at honum mundi berask, that he would be able to get evidence for, Fs. 46.
    β. gener. and not as a law term; b. á, b. á hendr, to charge; b. e-n undan, to discharge, Fs. 95; eigi erum vér þessa valdir er þú berr á oss, Nj. 238, Ld. 206, Fms. iv. 380, xi. 251, Th. 78; b. e-m á brýnn, to throw in one’s face, to accuse, Greg. 51; b. af sér, to deny; eigi mun ek af mér b., at… ( non diffitebor), Nj. 271; b. e-m gott vitni, to give one a good…, 11; b. e-m vel (illa) söguna, to bear favourable (unfavourable) witness of one, 271.
    2. to bear by word of mouth, report, tell, Lat. referre; either absol. or adding kveðju, orð, orðsending, eyrindi, boð, sögu, njósn, frétt…, or by adding a prep., b. fram, frá, upp, fyrir; b. kveðju, to bring a greeting, compliment, Eg. 127; b. erindi (sín) fyrir e-n, to plead one’s case before one, or to tell one’s errand, 472, 473; b. njósn, to apprise, Nj. 131; b. fram, to deliver (a speech), talaði jungherra Magnús hit fyrsta erindi (M. made his first speech in public), ok fanst mönnum mikit um hversu úbernsliga fram var borit, Fms. x. 53; (in mod. usage, b. fram denotes gramm. to pronounce, hence ‘framburðr,’ pronunciation); mun ek þat nú fram b., I shall now tell, produce it, Ld. 256, Eg. 37; b. frá, to attest, relate with emphasis; má þat frá b., Dropl. 21; b. upp, to produce, mention, tell, þótt slík lygi sé upp borin fyrir hann, though such a lie be told him, Eg. 59; þær (viz. charges) urðu engar upp bornar ( produced) við Rút, Nj. 11; berr Sigtryggr þegar upp erindi sín (cp. Germ. ojfenbaren), 271, Ld. 256; b. upp gátu, to give (propound) a riddle, Stj. 411, Fas. i. 464; b. fyrir, to plead as an excuse; b. saman ráð sín, or the like, to consult, Nj. 91; eyddist þat ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed, Post. 656 A. ii; b. til skripta, to confess (eccl.), of auricular confession, Hom. 124, 655 xx.
    II. in a metaphorical or circumlocutory sense, and without any sense of motion, to keep, hold, bear, of a title; b. nafn, to bear a name, esp. as honour or distinction; tignar nafn, haulds nafn, jarls nafn, lends manns nafn, konungs nafn, bónda nafn, Fms. i. 17, vi. 278, xi. 44, Gþl. 106: in a more metaph. sense, denoting endowments, luck, disposition, or the like, b. (ekki) gæfu, hamingju, auðnu til e-s, to enjoy (enjoy not) good or bad luck, etc.; at Þórólfr mundi eigi allsendis gæfu til b. um vináttu við Harald, Eg. 75, 112, 473, Fms. iv. 164, i. 218; úhamingju, 219; b. vit, skyn, kunnáttu á (yfir) e-t, to bring wit, knowledge, etc., to bear upon a thing, xi. 438, Band. 7; hence vel (illa) viti borinn, well (ill) endowed with wit, Eg. 51; vel hyggjandi borinn, well endowed with reason, Grág. ii; b. hug, traust, áræði, þor, til e-s, to have courage, confidenceto do a thing, Gullþ. 47, Fms. ix. 220, Band. 7; b. áhyggju, önn fyrir, to care, be concerned about, Fms. x. 318; b. ást, elsku til e-s, to bear affection, love to one; b. hatr, to hate: b. svört augu, to have dark eyes, poët., Korm. (in a verse); b. snart hjarta, Hom. 5; vant er þat af sjá hvar hvergi berr hjarta sitt, where he keeps his heart, Orkn. 474; b. gott hjarta, to bear a proud heart, Lex. Poët., etc. etc.; b. skyndi at um e-t, to make speed with a thing, Lat. festinare, Fms. viii. 57.
    2. with some sense of motion, to bear off or away, carry off, gain, in such phrases as, b. sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in …; hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orrustum, er frægstar hafa verit, he had borne off the victory in two battles, Fms. xi. 186; bera banaorð af e-m, to slay one in a fight, to be the victor; Þorr berr banaorð af Miðgarðsormi, Edda 42, Fms. x. 400: it seems properly to mean, to bear off the fame of having killed a man; verðat svá rík sköp, at Regin skyli mitt banorð bera, Fm. 39; b. hærra, lægra hlut, ‘to bear off the higher or the lower lot,’ i. e. to get the best or the worst of it, or the metaphor is taken from a sortilege, Fms. ii. 268, i. 59, vi. 412; b. efra, hærra skjöld, to carry the highest shield, to get the victory, x. 394, Lex. Poët.; b. hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), i. e. to be in high or low spirits, Nj. 91; but also, b. halann bratt (lágt), to cock up or let fall the tail (metaph. from cattle), to be in an exultant or low mood: sundry phrases, as, b. bein, to rest the bones, be buried; far þú til Íslands, þar mun þér auðið verða beinin at b., Grett. 91 A; en þó hygg ek at þú munir hér b. beinin í Norðrálfunni, Orkn. 142; b. fyrir borð, to throw overboard, metaph. to oppress; verðr Þórhalli nú fyrir borð borinn, Th. was defied, set at naught, Fær. 234; b. brjóst fyrir e-m, to be the breast-shield, protection of one, Fms. vii. 263: also, b. hönd fyrir höfuð sér, metaph. to put one’s hand before one’s head, i. e. to defend oneself; b. ægishjálm yfir e-m, to keep one in awe and submission, Fm. 16, vide A. I. 2.
    III. connected with prepp., b. af, and (rarely) yfir (cp. afburðr, yfirburðr), to excel, surpass; eigi sá hvárttveggja féit er af öðrum berr, who gets the best of it, Nj. 15; en þó bar Bolli af, B. surpassed all the rest, Ld. 330; þat mannval bar eigi minnr af öðrum mönnum um fríðleik, afi ok fræknleik, en Ormrinn Langi af öðrum skipum, Fms. ii. 252; at hinn útlendi skal yfir b. ( outdo) þann sem Enskir kalla meistara, xi. 431: b. til, to apply, try if it fits; en er þeir báru til (viz. shoes to the hoof of a horse), þá var sem hæfði hestinum, ix. 55; bera til hvern lykil at öðrum at portinu, Thom. 141; b. e-t við, to try it on (hence viðburðr, experiment, effort): b. um, to wind round, as a cable round a pole or the like, Nj. 115; þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body, Fms. ix. 219; ‘b. e-t undir e-n’ is to consult one, ellipt., b. undir dóm e-s; ‘b. e-t fyrir’ is to feign, use as excuse: b. á, í, to smear, anoint; b. vatn í augu sér, Rb. 354; b. tjöru í höfuð sér, Nj. 181, Hom. 70, 73, cp. áburðr; b. gull, silfr, á, to ornament with gold or silver, Ld. 114, Finnb. 258: is now also used = to dung, b. á völl; b. vápn á e-n, to attack one with sharp weapons, Eg. 583, Fms. xi. 334: b. eld at, to set fire to, Nj. 122; b. fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one, Fms. x. 172, Hm. 150: metaph. reflex., bönd berask at e-m, a law term, the evidence bears against one; b. af sér, to parry off; Gyrðr berr af sér lagit, G. parries the thrust off, Fms. x. 421; cp. A. II. 3. β.
    IV. reflex., berask mikit á (cp. áburðr), to bear oneself proudly, or b. lítið á, to bear oneself humbly; hann var hinn kátasti ok barst á mikit, Fms. ii. 68, viii. 219, Eb. 258; b. lítið á, Clem. 35; láta af berask, to die; Óttarr vill skipa til um fjárfar sitt áðr hann láti af b., Fms. ii. 12: berask fyrir, to abide in a place as an asylum, seek shelter; hér munu vit láta fyrir b., Fas. iii. 471; berask e-t fyrir, to design a thing, be busy about, barsk hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur, Greg. 53; at njósna um hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about, Fms. iv. 184, Vígl. 19.
    β. recipr. in the phrase, berask banaspjót eptir, to seek for one another’s life, Glúm. 354: b. vápn á, of a mutual attack with sharp weapons, Fms. viii. 53.
    γ. pass., sár berask á e-n, of one in the heat of battle beginning to get wounds and give way, Nj.:—berask við, to be prevented, not to do; ok nú lét Almáttugr Guð við berast kirkjubrunnann, stopped, prevented the burning of the church, Fms. v. 144; en mér þætti gott ef við bærist, svá at hón kæmi eigi til þín, vi. 210, vii. 219; ok var þá búit at hann mundi þegar láta hamarinn skjanna honum, en hann lét þat við berask, he bethought himself and did not, Edda 35; því at mönnum þótti sem þannig mundi helzt úhæfa við berask, that mischief would thus be best prevented, Sturl. ii. 6, iii. 80.
    C. IMPERS.:—with a sort of passive sense, both in a loc. and temp. sense, and gener. denotes an involuntary, passive motion, happening suddenly or by chance:
    I. with acc. it bears or carries one to a place, i. e. one happens to come; the proverb, alla (acc.) berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end), Lat. omnes una manet nox; bar hann þá ofan gegnt Özuri, he happened to come in his course just opposite to Ö., Lat. delatus est, Dropl. 25: esp. of ships or sailors; nú berr svá til ( happens) herra, at vér komum eigi fram ferðinni, berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eðr annara landa, it bore us to I., i. e. if we drive or drift thither, Fms. iv. 176; þá (acc. pl.) bar suðr í haf, they drifted southwards, Nj. 124.
    β. as a cricketing term, in the phrase, berr (bar) út knöttinn, the ball rolls out, Gísl. 26, cp. p. 110 where it is transit.; berr Gísli ok út knöttinn, vide Vígl. ch. 11, Grett. ch. 17, Vd. ch. 37, Hallfr. S. ch. 2.
    γ. Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, Sk. came suddenly upon them, Nj. 144; bar at Hróaldi þegar allan skjöldinn, the shield was dashed against H.’s body, 198; ok skyldu sæta honum, ef hann (acc.) bæri þar at, if he should per chance come, shew himself there, Orkn. 406; e-n berr yfir, it bears one, i. e. one is borne onwards, as a bird flying, a man riding; þóttist vita, at hann (acc.) mundi fljótara yfir bera ef hann riði en gengi, that he would get on more fleetly riding than walking, Hrafn. 7; hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, he passed quickly, of a flying meteor, Nj. 194; e-n berr undan, escapes.
    2. also with acc. followed by prepp. við, saman, jafnframt, hjá, of bodies coinciding or covering one another: loc., er jafnframt ber jaðrana tungls ok sólar, if the orb of the moon and sun cover each other, Rb. 34; þat kann vera stundum, at tunglit (acc.) berr jafht á millum vár ok sólar (i. e. in a moon eclipse), 108; ber nokkut jaðar (acc.) þess hjá sólar jaðri, 34; Gunnarr sér at rauðan kyrtil (acc.) bar við glugginn, G. sees that a red kirtle passed before the window, Nj. 114; bar fyrir utan þat skip vápnaburð (acc.) heiðingja (gen. pl.), the missiles of the heathens passed over the ship without hurting them, flew too high, Fms. vii. 232; hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, nowhere a shadow, all bright, Nj. 118; þangat sem helzt mátti nokkut yfir þá skugga bera af skóginum, where they were shadowed (hidden) by the trees, Fms. x. 239; e-t berr fram (hátt), a body is prominent, Lat. eminet; Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingunni, bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, king O. stood out conspicuously, ii. 308; b. yfir, þótti mjök bera hljóð (acc.) þar yfir er Ólafr sat, the sound was heard over there where O. sat, Sturl. i. 21; b. á milli, something comes between; leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect, Nj. 263: metaph., e-m berr e-t á milli, they come to dissent, 13, v. 1.; b. fyrir augu (hence fyrirburðr, vision), of a vision or the like; mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, ek sé …, many things come now before my eyes, 104; hann mundi allt þat er fyrir hann hafði borit, i. e. all the dream, 195; eina nótt berr fyrir hann í svefni mikla sýn, Fms. i. 137, Rd. 290; veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m (a metaphor from hunting), sport falls to one’s lot; hér bæri veiði í hendr nú, here would be a game, Nj. 252; e-t berr undan (a metaphor from fishing, hunting term), when one misses one’s opportunity; vel væri þá … at þá veiði (acc.) bæri eigi undan, that this game should not go amiss, 69; en ef þetta (acc.) berr undan, if this breaks down, 63; hon bað hann þá drepa einhvern manna hans, heldr en allt (acc.) bæri undan, rather than that all should go amiss, Eg. 258: absol., þyki mér illa, ef undan berr, if I miss it, Nj. 155; viljum vér ekki at undan beri at…, we will by no means miss it…, Fms. viii. 309, v. 1. The passage Bs. i. 416 (en fjárhlutr sá er átt hafði Ari, bar undan Guðmundi) is hardly correct, fjárhlut þann would run better, cp. bera undir, as a law term, below.
    II. adding prepp.; b. við, at, til, at hendi, at móti, til handa …, to befall, happen, Lat. accidere, occurrere, with dat. of the person, (v. atburðr, viðburðr, tilburðr); engi hlut skyldi þann at b., no such thing should happen as…, Fms. xi. 76; svá bar at einn vetr, it befell, x. 201; þat hefir nú víst at hendi borit, er…, Nj. 174; þó þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, Eg. 7; b. til handa, id., Sks. 327; bar honum svá til, so it befell him, Fms. xi. 425; at honum bæri engan váðaligan hlut til á veginum, that nothing dangerous should befall him on the way, Stj. 212; bæri þat þá svá við, at hann ryfi, it then perchance might happen, that …, 102; þat bar við at Högni kom, 169, 172, 82; raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by the fact, event, Fms. ix. 474, x. 185.
    2. temp., e-t berr á, it happens to fall on …; ef þing (acc.) ber á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls on the holy week (Whitsun), Grág. i. 106; ef Crucis messu (acc.) berr á Drottins dag, Rb. 44; berr hana (viz. Petrs messu, June 29) aldrei svá optarr á öldinni, 78; þat er nú berr oss næst, what has occurred of late, Sturl. iii. 182: b. í móti, to happen exactly at a time; þetta (acc.) bar í móti at þenna sama dag andaðist Brandr biskup, Bs. i. 468; b. saman, id.; bar þat saman, at pá var Gunnarr at segja brennusöguna, just when G. was about telling the story, Nj. 269.
    3. metaph. of agreement or separation; en þat (acc.) þykir mjök saman b. ok þessi frásögn, Fms. x. 276: with dat., bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the records agreed well together, Nj. 100, v. l.; berr nú enn í sundr með þeim, Bjarna ok Þorkatli at sinni, B. and Th. missed each other, Vápn. 25.
    4. denoting cause; e-t (acc.) berr til …, causes a thing; ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til bera, that that was the reason, Nj. 75; at þat beri til skilnaðar okkars, that this will make us to part (divorce), 261; konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief? Fms. vi. 355; þat berr til tunglhlaups, Rb. 32.
    β. meiri ván at brátt beri þat (acc.) til bóta, at herviliga steypi hans ríki, i. e. there will soon come help (revenge), Fms. x. 264; fjórir eru þeir hlutir er menn (acc.) berr í ætt á landi hér, there are four cases under which people may be adopted, Grág. i. 361.
    γ. e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person’s lot; hon á arf at taka þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn, 179; mikla erfð (acc.) bar undir hana, Mar. (Fr.); berr yfir, of surpassing, Bs. ii. 121, 158; b. frá, id. (fráburðr); herðimikill svá at þat (acc.) bar frá því sem aðrir menn, Eg. 305; er sagt, at þat bæri frá hve vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they did speak, Jb. 11; bar þat mest frá hversu illa hann var limaðr, but above all, how…, Ó. H. 74.
    5. with adverbial nouns in a dat. form; e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden; berr þetta (acc.) nú allbráðum, Fms. xi. 139; cp. vera bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise (above); berr stórum, stærrum, it matters a great deal; ætla ek stærrum b. hin lagabrotin (acc.), they are much more important, matter more, vii. 305; var þat góðr kostr, svá at stórum bar, xi. 50; hefir oss orðit svá mikil vanhyggja, at stóru berr, an enormous blunder, Gísl. 51; svá langa leið, at stóru bar, Fas. i. 116; þat berr stórum, hversu mér þóknast vel þeirra athæfi, it amounts to a great deal, my liking their service, i. e. I do greatly like, Fms. ii. 37; eigi berr þat allsmám hversu vel mér líkar, in no small degree do I like, x. 296.
    β. with dat., it is fitting, becoming; svá mikit sem landeiganda (dat.) berr til at hafa eptir lögum, what he is legally entitled to, Dipl. iii. 10; berr til handa, it falls to one’s lot, v. above, Grág. i. 93.
    III. answering to Lat. oportet, absolutely or with an adverb, vel, illa, with infinit.; e-m berr, it beseems, becomes one; berr þat ekki né stendr þvílíkum höfuðfeðr, at falsa, Stj. 132; berr yðr (dat.) vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli, Fms. ix. 326; sagði, at þat bar eigi Kristnum mönnum, at særa Guð, x. 22; þá siðu at mér beri vel, Sks. 353 B: used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, unbeseeming, unfit, improper; athæfi þat er vel beri fyrir konungs augliti, 282; þat þykir ok eigi illa bera, at maðr hafi svart skinn til hosna, i. e. it suits pretty well, 301: in case of a pers. pron. in acc. or dat. being added, the sentence becomes personal in order to avoid doubling the impers. sentence, e. g. e-m berr skylda (not skyldu) til, one is bound by duty; veit ek eigi hver skylda (nom.) yðr (acc.) ber til þess at láta jarl einn ráða, Fms. i. 52: also leaving the dat. out, skylda berr til at vera forsjámaðr með honum, vii. 280; eigi berr hér til úviska mín, it is not that I am not knowing, Nj. 135.
    IV. when the reflex. inflexion is added to the verb, the noun loses its impers. character and is turned from acc. into nom., e. g. þar (þat?) mun hugrinn minn mest hafa fyrir borizt, this is what I suspected, fancied, Lv. 34; cp. hugarburðr, fancy, and e-t berr fyrir e-n (above, C. I. 2); hefir þetta (nom.) vel í móti borizt, a happy coincidence, Nj. 104; ef svá harðliga kann til at berask, if the misfortunes do happen, Gþl. 55; barsk sú úhamingja (nom.) til á Íslandi, that mischief happened (no doubt the passage is thus to be emended), Bs. i. 78, but bar þá úhamingju …; þat (nom.) barsk at, happened, Fms. x. 253; fundir várir (nom.) hafa at borizt nokkurum sinnum, vii. 256; þat barsk at á einhverju sumri, Eg. 154; bærist at um síðir at allr þingheimrinn berðist, 765, cp. berast við, berask fyrir above (B. V.): berast, absol., means to be shaken, knocked about; var þess ván, at fylkingar mundu berast í hergöngunni, that they would be brought into some confusion, Fms. v. 74; Hrólfr gékk at ramliga, ok barst Atli (was shaken, gave away) fyrir orku sakir, þar til er hann féll. Fas. iii. 253; barst Jökull allr fyrir orku sakir (of two wrestling), Ísl. ii. 467, Fms. iii. 189: vide B. IV.
    D. In mod. usage the strong bera—bar is also used in impersonal phrases, denoting to let a thing be seen, shew, but almost always with a negative preceding, e. g. ekki bar (ber) á því, it could ( can) not be seen; að á engu bæri, láta ekki á bera ( to keep tight), etc. All these phrases are no doubt alterations from the weak verb bera, að, nudare, and never occur in old writers; we have not met with any instance previous to the Reformation; the use is certainly of late date, and affords a rare instance of weak verbs turning into strong; the reverse is more freq. the case.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > BERA

  • 10 GEGN

    * * *
    I)
    prep. with dat., against (í gegn vindi sem forvindis);
    í gegn eðli, against nature.
    a.
    1) honest (sannorðr ok gegn);
    2) fit (fór Ó. þar á land, sem honum þótti gegnast);
    3) direct, straight (hinn gegnsta veg).
    * * *
    1.
    adv., old form gögn, with dat. [not found in Ulf., who uses and and viþra; A. S. gegn in compds; Engl. gain- (in gain-say), a-gain; Germ. gegen; Dan. igjen; Swed. gen: cp. the adj. gegn]
    1. against, right opposite; í gegn vindi sem forvindis, Bs. i. 22; gegn veðri, Bjarn. 52; sjá í gegn sólu, to look straight at the sun, Fms. viii. 114; þeir áttu at vega í gegn jelinu, xi. 136.
    2. metaph. against, contrary to; Örn var til móts, en mestr hluti manna honum í gegn, voted against him, Ld. 74; rísa í gegn e-m, Fms. i. 221; í gegn slíku ofrefli, viii. 29; í gegn eðli, against nature, Bs. i. 335; þat eitt er eigi mæli því í gegn, which is not contrary to it, Grág. i. 7; ok mælti því manngi í gegn, Íb. 17, Anecd. 72: in medic. sense, þar eru alls-kyns tré ok aldin í gegn ( against) meinum manna, Eluc. 24, (rare.)
    β. absol. or ellipt., svá bjartr at þeir þorðu eigi í gegn at vega, Fms. v. 161; þó vörðusk þeir eigi né í gegn hjöggu, 655 xi. 1: so the law phrase, ganga í gegn e-u, to avow or meet a charge; mod. to gainsay, deny, vide ganga.
    γ. þar er vígt í gegn þeim öllum, Grág. ii. 9; skalat húsum skipta í gegn land, i. e. land shall not be exchanged against houses, 256.
    3. [Engl. again], in turn; hann sendi rit Drottni ok tók við í gegn af honum, 623. 52; en þeir hétu honum gulli í gegn, Sl. 21; þar í gegn (again, Germ. dagegen), Stj. 76; grát at gamni skaltú í gögn hafa ( in turn), Skm. 30.
    2.
    adj. [North. E. and Scot. gone; Swed. gen; Dan. gjen:—akin to the adv. gegn; cp. gagn-, gegnt, gegnum]
    I. prop. ‘gane,’ short; hinn gegnsta veg, Mar. 545; a ‘gane’ way, the ‘ganest’ road are found in Old Engl. and Scot., and still remain in the northern provinces; cp. the prefix gagn- signf. B, and gegnt.
    II. metaph. ‘gane,’ i. e. ready, serviceable, kindly, a usage also found in old North. E. and Scot., vide Jamieson; gegn ok sannorðr, Band. 10; gegn ok öruggr, ‘gane’ and steady, Fs. 129; gegn ok vitr, Fms. v. 194; gegn ok úskapbráðr, ‘gane’ and good-tempered, Sturl. iii. 126; gegn ok gæfr, ‘gane’ and gentle, Grett. 90; gegn ok góðfengr, 92: in poët. compds, bráð-gegn, fjöl-g., frið-g., hvar-g., hyggju-g., ráð-g., i. e. good, wise, gentle, Lex. Poët.; ó-gegn, ‘ungainly,’ ungentle.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > GEGN

  • 11 á-drykkja

    u, f. [drekka á], prop. a drinking to, pledging, esp. used n the phrase, at sitja fyrir ádrykkju e-s;—a custom of the olden time. The master of the house, for instance, chose one of his guests as his ‘cup-fellow,’ seated him over against himself in the hall, drank to him, and then sent the cup across the hall to him, so that they both drank of it by turns. This was deemed a mark of honour. Thus, Egill at fyrir ádrykkju Arinbjarnar, Egil sale over against Arinbjorn as his cup-mate, Eg. 253; skal hann sitja fyrir á. minni í kveld, in the pretty story of king Harold and the blind skald Stuf, Fms. vi. 391; cp. annat öndvegi var á hinn æðra pall gegnt konungi, skyldi þar itja hinn æðsti ráðgjafi (the king’s highest councillor) konungs fyrir hans á. ok þótti þat mest virðing at sitja fyrir konungs á., 439; sat Gizurr fyrir á. konungs innarr enn lendir menn, Bs. i. 19. See also the description of the banquet in Flugumyri on the 19th Oct. in the year 1253,—drukku þeir af einu silfrkeri ok mintust við jafnan um daginn þá er hvorr drakk til annars, Sturl. iii. 183.
    COMPD: ádrykkjuker.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > á-drykkja

  • 12 bera

    * * *
    I)
    (ber; bar, bárum; borinn), v.
    I.
    1) to bear, carry, convey (bar B. biskup í börum suðr í Hvamm);
    bera (farm) af skipi, to unload a ship;
    bera (mat) af borði, to take (the meat) off the table;
    bera e-t á hesti, to carry on horseback;
    2) to wear (bera klæði, vápn, kórónu);
    bera œgishjálm, to inspire fear and awe;
    3) to bear, produce, yield (jörðin berr gras; tré bera aldin, epli);
    4) to bear, give birth to, esp. of sheep and cows;
    kýr hafði borit kálf, had calved;
    absol., ván at hón mundi bera, that the cow would calve;
    the pp. is used of men; hann hafði verit blindr borinn, born blind;
    verða borinn í þenna heim, to be born into this world;
    þann sóma, sem ek em til borinn, born to;
    borinn e-m, frá e-m (rare), born of;
    Nótt var Nörvi borin, was the daughter of N.;
    borinn Sigmundi, son of S.;
    5) bera e-n afli, ofrafli, ofrliði, ofrmagni, ofríki, to bear one down, overcome, oppress, one by odds or superior force;
    bera e-n ráðum, to overrule one;
    bera e-n bjóri, to make drunk with beer;
    verða bráðum borinn, to be taken by surprise;
    borinn verkjum, overcome by pains;
    þess er borin ván, there is no hope, all hope is gone;
    borinn baugum, bribed; cf. bera fé á e-n, to bribe one;
    6) to lear, be capable of bearing (of a ship, horse, vehicle);
    þeir hlóðu bæði skipin sem borð báru, with as much as they could carry;
    fig., to sustain, support (svá mikill mannfjöldi, at landit fekk eigi borit);
    of persons, to bear up against, endure, support (grief, sorrow, etc.);
    absol., bar hann drengiliga, he bore it manfully;
    similarly, bera (harm) af sér, berast vel (illa, lítt) af;
    bar hon sköruliga af sér, she bore up bravely;
    hversu berst Auðr af um bróðurdauðann, how does she bear it?
    hon berst af lítt, she is much cast down;
    bera sik vel upp, to bear well up against;
    7) bera e-t á, e-n á hendr e-m, to charge or tax one with (eigi erum vér þess valdir, er þú berr á oss);
    bera (kvið) á e-n, to give a verdict against, declare guilty (í annat sinn báru þeir á Flosa kviðinn);
    bera af e-m (kviðinn), to give a verdict for;
    bera e-t af sér, to deny having done a thing;
    bera or bera vitni, vætti, to bear witness, testify;
    bera or bera um e-t, to give a verdict in a case;
    bera e-n sannan at sök, to prove guilty by evidence;
    bera e-n undan sök, to acquit;
    bera í sundr frændsemi þeirra, to prove (by evidence) that they are not relations;
    refl. (pass.), berast, to be proved by evidence (þótt þér berist þat faðerni, er þú segir);
    8) to set forth, report, tell;
    bera e-m kveðju (orð, orðsending), to bring one a greeting, compliments (word, message);
    bera or bera fram erindi sín fyrir e-n, to state (tell) one’s errand or to plead one’s case before one;
    bera e-m njósn, to apprise one;
    bera e-t upp, to produce, mention, tell;
    bera upp erindi sín, to state one’s errand;
    bera saman ráð sín, to consult together;
    eyddist það ráð, er þeir báru saman, which they had designed;
    9) to keep, hold, bear, of a title (bera jarlnafn, konnungsnafn);
    bera (eigi) giptu, gæfu, hammingju, auðnu til e-s, (not) to have the good fortune to do a thing (bar hann enga gæfu til at þjóna þér);
    bera vit, skyn, kunnáttu á e-t, to have knowledge of, uniderstanding about;
    bera hug, áræði, þor, traust til e-s, to have courage, confidence to do a thing;
    bera áhyggju fyrir e-u, to be concerned about;
    bera ást, elsku, hatr til e-s, to bear affection, love, hatred to;
    10) to bear off or away, carry off (some gain);
    bera sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry off the victory from or in;
    hann hafði borit sigr af tveim orustum, he had been victorious in two battles;
    bera hærra (lægra) hlut to get the best (the worst) of it;
    bera efra (hærra) skjöld, to gain the victory;
    bera hátt (lágt) höfuðit, to bear the head high (low), to be in high (low) spirits;
    bera halann bratt, lágt, to cock up or let fall the tail, to be in high or low spirits;
    11) with preps.:
    bera af e-m, to surpass;
    en þó bar Bolli af, surpassed all the rest;
    bera af sér högg, lag to ward off, parry a blow or thrust;
    bera eld at, to set fire to;
    bera fjötur (bönd) at e-m, to put fetters (bonds) on one;
    bera á or í, to smear, anoint (bera vatn í augu sér, bera tjöru í höfuð sér);
    bera e-t til, to apply to, to try if it fits (bera til hvern lykil af öðrum at portinu);
    bera e-t um, to wind round;
    þá bar hann þá festi um sik, made it fast round his body;
    bera um með e-n, to bear with, have patience with;
    bera út barn, to expose a child;
    12) refl., berast mikit (lítit) á, to bear oneself proudly (humbly);
    láta af berast, to die;
    láta fyrir berast e-s staðar, to stay, remain in a place (for shelter);
    berast e-t fyrir, to design a thing (barst hann þat fyrir at sjá aldregi konur);
    at njósna um, hvat hann bærist fyrir, to inquire into what he was about;
    berast vápn á, to attack one another;
    berast at or til, to happen;
    þat barst at (happened) á einhverju sumri;
    ef svá harðliga kann til at berast, if that misfortune does happen;
    berast í móti, to happen, occur;
    hefir þetta vel í móti borizt, it is a happy coincidence;
    berast við, to be prevented;
    ok nú lét almáttugr guð við berast kirkjubrunann, prevented, stopped the burning of the church;
    II. impers., denoting a sort of passive or involuntary motion;
    alla berr at sama brunni, all come to the same well (end);
    bar hann (acc.) þá ofan gegnt Ösuri, he happened to come down just opposite to Ö.;
    esp. of ships and sailors; berr oss (acc.) til Íslands eða annarra landa, we drift to Iceland or other countries;
    þá (acc.) bar suðr í haf, they were carried out southwards;
    Skarpheðin (acc.) bar nú at þeim, S. came suddenly upon them;
    ef hann (acc.) skyldi bera þar at, if he should happen to come there;
    e-n berr yfir, one is borne onwards, of a bird flying, a man riding;
    hann (acc.) bar skjótt yfir, it passed quickly (of a flying meteor);
    2) followed by preps.:
    Gunnar sér, at rauðan kyrtil bar við glugginn, that a red kirtle passed before the window;
    hvergi bar skugga (acc.) á, there was nowhere a shadow;
    e-t berr fram (hátt), is prominent;
    Ólafr konungr stóð í lyptingu ok bar hann (acc.) hátt mjök, stood out conspicuously;
    e-t berr á milli, comes between;
    leiti (acc.) bar á milli, a hill hid the prospect;
    fig. e-m berr e-t á milli, they are at variance about a thing;
    mart (acc.) berr nú fyrir augu mér, many things come now before my eyes;
    veiði (acc.) berr í hendr e-m, game falls to one’s lot;
    e-t berr undan, goes amiss, fails;
    bera saman, to coincide;
    bar nöfn þeirra saman, they had the same name;
    fig., with dat.; bar öllum sögum vel saman, all the stories agreed well together;
    fund várn bar saman, we met;
    3) bera at, til, við, at hendi, til handa, to befall, happen, with dat. of the person;
    svá bar at einn vetr, it happened one winter;
    þó at þetta vandræði (acc.) hafi nú borit oss (dat.) at hendi, has befallen us;
    bar honum svá til, it so befell him;
    þat bar við (it so happened), at Högni kom;
    raun (acc.) berr á, it is proved by fact;
    4) of time, to fall upon;
    ef þing (acc.) berr á hina helgu viku, if the parliament falls in the holy week;
    bera í móti, to coincide, happen exactly at the same time;
    5) denoting cause;
    e-t berr til, causes a thing;
    konungr spurði, hvat til bæri úgleði hans, what was the cause of his grief;
    ætluðu þat þá allir, at þat mundi til bera, that that was the reason;
    berr e-m nauðsyn til e-s, one is obliged to do a thing;
    6) e-t berr undir e-n, falls to a person’s lot;
    hon á arf at taka, þegar er undir hana berr, in her turn;
    e-t berr frá, is surpassing;
    er sagt, at þat (acc.) bæri frá, hvé vel þeir mæltu, it was extraordinary how well they spoke;
    7) e-t berr bráðum, happens of a sudden;
    e-t berr stóru, stórum (stœrrum), it amounts to much (more), it matters a great deal (more), it is of great (greater) importance;
    8) absol. or with an adv., vel, illa, with infin.;
    e-m berr (vel, illa) at gera e-t, it becomes, beseems one (well, ill) to do a thing (berr yðr vel, herra, at sjá sannindi á þessu máli);
    used absol., berr vel, illa, it is beseeming, proper, fit, or unbeseeming, improper, unfit (þat þykkir eigi illa bera, at).
    (að), v. to make bare (hon beraði likam sinn).
    * * *
    að, [berr, nudus], to make bare, Lat. nudare; hon beraði líkam sinn, Bret. 22: impers., berar hálsinn (acc.), the neck became bare, Bs. i. 624.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > bera

  • 13 MINNI

    * * *
    I)
    n.
    1) memory (hann missti minnis ok þótti nær sem vitstolinn) leggja e-t í m., to lay up in the mind; reka m. til e-s, to call to mind;
    2) esp. in pl. memorials (slík m. hafa Íslendingar Haralds konungs ok mörg önnur); settir eptir (viz. dauða) bautasteinar til minnis, as a memorial;
    3) memory, of past time; þeir er vóru fyrir várt m., who lived before we can remember;
    4) memorial cup, toast (at old sacrifices and banquets); mæla fyrir minnum, to propose a toast.
    a. compar., answering to lítill, less, smaller; least, smallest (var minna karp þitt, meðan H. konungr lifði); er sá kallaðr minni maðr (lower in rank), er öðrum fóstrar barn.
    n. mouth (of a river, fjord, valley), = mynni.
    * * *
    1.
    compar. and superl. minnstr, answering to lítill, q. v.: [Ulf. miniza and minists; O. H. G. miniro; Germ. minder, minderste; Dan.-Swed. mindre, mindst; Lat. minor, minimus]:—lesser, smaller, and superl. least, smallest, of stature, quantity, following the same rule as lítill (q. v.), and opp. to meiri; minna lið, Grág. i. 44; minni laun, Nj. 10; máttr sem minnstr, Fms. xi. 102; minnstr ok vesalligstr, Háv. 53; var minna karp þitt, er …, Fms. vii. 21; þeir áttu minna í at hefna, Eg. 86; liggja í minna rúmi, Mork. 183; svá sem hann má minnstu við koma, Grág. i. 140.
    II. metaph., minnstir fyrir sér, Eg. 123; þú ert minni fyrir þér en ek hugða, Edda 33; þat lið er honum þótti minni fylgð í, Fms. iv. 350; sá er kallaðr minni maðr ( lower in rank) er öðrum fóstrar barn, Ld. 108: hence vera minni maðr, of a person who has done a dishonourable deed, dishonoured [cp. Lat. capitis minor]: eigi at minna, nevertheless, 216. minni-háttar and minnst-háttar, adv. of lesser, least degree, the least, Fs. 59.
    2.
    n. [Ulf. ga-minþi = μνεία; A. S. mynd; Engl. mind]:— memory; minni, vit ok skilning, minni at muna…, Skálda 169, Fbr. 137; hann misti minnis ok þótti nær sem vitstolinn, Fms. vi. 198; sumir hafa eigi m. þá er frá líðr hvernig þeim var sagt, ok gengusk þeim mjök í minni optliga, Ó. H. (pref.); leggja í minni, to keep in memory, Fb. ii. 353; því er ek má mínu minni á koma, Str. 2; reka minni til, Fms. vi. 256, Fb. i. 262; festask e-m í minni, Ó. H. 46; reka minni til e-s.
    2. memorials, esp. in pl.; þvílík minni hafa menn þar Haralds konungs, Fagrsk. 127; ok settir eptir bautasteinar til minnis, Ó. H. (pref.); hann hjó þat högg er menn hafa síðan at minnum haft, Fb. ii. 23, Fms. xi. 109: old saws or the like, hölzti eru þau minnin forn, Mkv.; ok skal orðtak vera forn minni, Edda (Ht.) 125.
    3. memory, of past time; þeirra er vóru fyrir várt minni, who lived before our memory, Íb. 16; þat er ór manna m., beyond the memory of man, D. N. iii. 34; ér erfðuð hann, þat er í mínu m., Skálda 171; ú-minni, lethargy.
    4. mind, consent (Dan. minde, ‘give sit minde til noget;’ Engl. ‘give one’s mind to it’); með sjálfs síns minni, K. Á. 70; utan biskup minni, D. N. i. 382.
    II. a memorial cup or toast, at old sacrifices and banquets: these memorial toasts were in the heathen age consecrated (signuð) to the gods Thor, Odin, Bragi, Frey, Njord, who, on the introduction of Christianity, were replaced by Christ, the Saints, the Archangel Michael, the Virgin Mary, and St. Olaf; the toasts to the Queen, Army, etc. in English banquets are probably a relic of this ancient Teutonic ceremony; Krists-minni, Fms. vii. 148; Máriu-m., x. 19; Ólafs-minni, N. G. L. ii. 445, cp. in the heathen age Braga-full; þar vóru öll minni signuð Ásum at fornum sið, Ó. H. 102; bera minni um eld, O. H. L. 18; bera öl um eld ok drekka m. á þann er gegnt var, Fms. vi. 442; fóru minni mörg ok skyldi horn drekka í minni hvert, Eg. 206; drakk hann þá öll minni krossalaus þau er bændr skenktu honum, Hkr. i. 144; mæla fyrir minnum, to speak to a toast, propose, give a toast, Orkn. 246, Fs. 147; skyldi þar um gólf ganga at minnum öllum, Eg. 253; Þorgils skyldi mæla fyrir minnum, en hann veik til Þórðar ok bað hann ráða hver minni fyrst væri drukkin, i. e. that Th. should be the toast-master, Sturl. i. 20 (the banquet in Reykhólar, A. D. 1119). At a funeral banquet the minni of the deceased was proposed by the heir, who at the same time made a vow (strengja heit); this rite performed, he took his father’s scat in the hall, and was henceforth the lawful heir, Fms. i. 161: a minni to a living person is nowhere mentioned. For the classical passages see Hák. S. Góða ch. 16, 17, Fms. i. 280; and for funeral banquets, Fagrsk. ch. 55.
    COMPDS: minnisdrykkja, minnisgóðr, minnishorn, minnislauss, minnisleysi, minnisstæðr, minnisveig, minnisverðr, minnisöl.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > MINNI

  • 14 mis-göng

    n. pl., mis-ganga, u, f., Orkn. 266: in the Kb. spelt miss-öng, even in the very old vellums 1812 and 625; which may be the true, and misgöng a later etymologising form, from miss and an inflexive -ang, cp. hunang, analogous to misseri, q. v.
    B. ‘Mis-tide,’ ‘tide-change,’ i. e. the spring tides at new moon and at full moon; the spring at full moon was called missöng in meiri, high spring tide, opp. to missöng in minni, the low springs at new moon; as to the seasons, the midsummer springs (the sun in Cancer) were called high, as opp. to the low spring tides at midwinter time (the sun in Capricorn), see the Rb.; geisar þá flóðit miklu meirr en áðr ok köllu vér þat in meiri misgöng, verða þá misgöng at nýi meiri en áðr, 732. 1, 4; en ek veit at þér flytisk eigi ór höfninni fyrir misgöngin, not before the next spring tide, Ísl. ii. 127 (where misgöngin is = misgöng in meiri); þau flóð köllu vér missöng at nýi hverju, … köllu vér þat en meiri missöng, … tungl er fullt eðr ekki at sýn þá er missöng eru ok fjara verðr nær miðdegi eðr miðnætti, … verða þá missöng at nýi meir en áðr, Rb. 442, 444, 448, 478: the vellum 732 uses mostly misgöng or misgavng; thus, en þá er tunglit stendr gegnt sól eru misgöng af vellu sólar-hita … sól í Krabba-merki ok misgöng, … sól í Steingeitar-merki ok misgöng minni …; again, ok þau köllu vér flóð missöng at nýi hverju, see Ísl. ii. 512 (the foot-note); þeir mundi þess bíða, þá er á stæðisk misganga straumanna (= the spring tide), ok austan-veðr, þvíat þá er varla fært milli Vestreyjar ok Hrosseyjar, Orkn. 266. The word is now obsolete, and instead of it Icel. say stór-straumr, stór-streymt, = spring tide, opp. to smá-straumr, smá-streymt, = neap tide, which words, on the other hand, do not occur in old writers: miðs göng, = waning moon, is still said to be in use in eastern Iceland.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > mis-göng

  • 15 MJÖK

    adv.
    1) with verbs, much, greatly (hann skaut m. til ráða dóttur sinnar);
    2) with adjs. and advs. very (harðlyndr m.);
    3) almost, very nearly (hann var dauðr m. af kulda).
    * * *
    adv., mod. mjög, compar. meirr (q. v.), superl. mest; [Engl. much, see mikill or mykill]:—much; svá mjök, at …, so much, that …, Fms. i. 46; Væringjar alþýddusk mjök til hans, vi. 135; sem Erlingi gengi þat mjök til, at …, vii. 258; hafða ek mjög fjár-varðveizlur búanda, Eg. 235; hann skaut mjök til ráða dóttur sinnar, Bjarn. 5:—svá mjök, rather much; hann var svá mjök hendisamr í afréttum, Glúm. 364; alls mjök, over-much, Stj.
    2. very; hyrndir mjök, Fms. xi. 6; steint mjök fyrir ofan sjó, Eg. 68; ekki mjök, not very. Sturl. iii. 234.
    3. much, almost, very nearly but not quite; þeir vóru mjök komnir at hinni meiri eyjunni, þá sá þeir …, Fms. ii. 93; hann var dauðr mjök af kulda, ix. 467; þat legg ek til ráða, at vér hafim mjök alltr eina frásögn um þenna atburð, xi. 65; mjök örend, Mar.; eitt mannshar svá langt, at þat var mjök mannshátt, Fas. iii. 266; ok eru þeir mjök komnir at Austrey, Fær. 105; vóru þá komnir mjök svá ( almost quite) þar gegnt, Nj. 247, Fms. vi. 164; svá vóru konungar, mjök svá allir, þeir er hans ríki höfðu hvárr eptir annan, Rb. 386.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > MJÖK

  • 16 ÖND

    * * *
    I)
    f. porch, = anddyri.
    (gen. andar, pl. endr and andir), f. duck (fundu þeir þar andir margar; endr ok elptr).
    (gen. andar, dat. önd and öndu; pl. andir), f.
    1) breath; draga öndina, to draw breath; verpa, varpa öndu, to draw a sigh;
    2) breath, life; týna öndu, to lose breath, die; fara öndu e-s, to put to death;
    3) soul; fela guði önd sína á hendi, to give over one’s soul into God’s hands.
    * * *
    1.
    f., gen. andar, pl. endr and andir, and so in mod. usage; [A. S. ened; Dutch eend; O. H. G. anut; Germ. ente; Dan. and, pl. ænder; Lat. anas, anatis; Gr. νηττα]:—a duck, Edda (Gl.); flaug mikill fjöldi anda (gen. pl.) … eina öndina, Art. 38; endr ok elptr, Karl. 477; vali, álptir, gæss ok andir, Grág. ii. 346, passim; brim-önd, töpp-önd.
    COMPDS: andaregg, andarfygli, andarsteggi.
    2.
    f., gen. andar; spelt önn, Skm. l. c.; [and-, p. 19, col. 2]:— a porch = and-dyri, prop. the place opposite the door; skynda út at andar, Bjarn. (in a verse); síðan gékk hann eptir gólfi ok útar í öndina, ok lét fyrir lokuna, Lv. 60; ok er þau kóma fram um dyrr, gékk hón í öndina gegnt úti-dyrum ok kembir þar Oddi syni sínum, Eb. 92; vertú sem þistill þrunginn í önn (= önd) ofan verða, Skm. 31; see þröngva.
    3.
    f., gen. andar, dat. öndu, and abbreviated önd; pl. andir; [önd and andi (p. 20) are twin words, for the origin see anda, to which add the Scot. aind or aynd]:—the breath; önd gaf Óðinn, Vsp.; en er barnit skaut upp öndu, Ó. H. 122; var þá niðri öndin ( no sign of breathing), síðan skaut hón upp öndinni, began to draw breath, Bs. i. 378; tók hann önd í kafi ( under water) svá at hann drakk eigi, 355; hann tók aldri til andar, ii. 225; draga öndina, to draw breath, ísl. ii. 413; Armóði var við andhlaupi ( choking), en er hann fékk öndunni frá ser hrundit, Eg. 553; varpa mædiliga öndinni, to draw a deep breath, Orkn. 140; öndunni, Nj. 272; kona varp öndu, to draw a deep sigh, Bkv. 2. 29; meðan í önd hixti, Am. 39; hann rann … skrefaði, meðan hann þolði önd einu sinni, in one breath, Rb. 482; hence the mod. phrase, þola önn (sic) fyrir e-t, to hold one’s breath for anxiety; nú þrýtr öndin, the breath is stopped, Fas. i. 204.
    2. breath, life; öndin blaktir á skari, blaktir önd í brjósti, the breath (life) flutters in the breast; ef maðr hrapar svá grepti, at kviðr berr at önd sé í brjósti, K. Þ. K. 26; skal hann heldr eta kjöt en fara öndu sinni fyrir matleysi … svá skal hann eta, at hann ali önd sína við, 130; þá skal hann kjöt eta ok bjarga svá öndu sinni, N. G. L. i. 12; fugla, kvikenda ok hverrar lifandi andar, every living soul, Stj.; at eigi saurgisk andir yðrar, 317; andar gustr, a gush of breath, 17: týna öndu, to lose breath, die, Hkv. Hjörv. 37, Skv. 3. 58; fara öndu e-s, to put to death, Sdm. 25; krefi Guð hann andar sinnar, if God call him, Sks. 720, N. G. L. iii. 79; Guð krafði konung andar, Fms. xi. (in a verse); áðr Guð kveddi andar hans, D. N. iii. 165; þá menn er sjálfir spilla öndu sinni, to spill one’s breath, commit suicide, N. G. L. i. 13.
    3. eccl. the soul; aldri hafði önd mín tvá líkami, Fms. iv. 121; önd þjófs á krossi, Pr. 67; þau fálu Guði önd sína á hendi, Nj. 201; mín önd miklar Dróttinn og minn andi gladdist í Guði heilsu-gjafara mínum, Luke i. 46 (Vídal.); andar-dauði, spiritual death, Greg. 42; andar-dauðr, spiritually dead, 6l; andar-heilsa, hreinson, kraptr, hefnd, siðr, synd, þorsti, soul’s health, cleansing, … thirst, Hom. 4, 45, 73, Greg. 5, Mar., MS. 623. 19, Stj. 29; andar-sýn, soul’s sight, a vision, Karl. 553, Bs. ii. 11; andar-gjöf, a spiritual gift, id.; andar-kraptr, 153; andar-sár, mental wounds, Bs. i.
    COMPDS: andardráttr, andarvana.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > ÖND

  • 17 געגנט

    (m.)
    [gegnt]
    Approximate Pronunciation (Northern / Southern) [∙]
    neighborhood

    Yiddish-English dictionary > געגנט

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