Перевод: с латинского на английский

с английского на латинский

exercitum+omni+copia+cs

  • 1 compleo

    com-plĕo ( conp-), ēvi, ētum, 2 (contr. forms: complerunt, complerint, complerat, complesse, etc., for compleverunt, etc., very often), v. a. [pleo, whence suppleo, plenus], to fill up, fill full, fill out (class. in prose and poetry).
    I.
    Lit., of material objects.
    A.
    In gen., with acc. of place, vessel, etc., filled.
    (α).
    Alone:

    hostes fossam complent,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Auct. B. Hisp. 16; Tac. H. 2, 25:

    tune aut inane quicquam putes esse, cum ita conpleta et conferta sint omnia, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125:

    metu, ne compleantur navigia,

    Liv. 41, 3, 2:

    deducunt socii navis et litora conplent,

    Verg. A. 3, 71:

    conplebant Laidos aedes (amatores),

    Prop. 2, 6, 1:

    corpora quae loca complerent,

    occupy space, Lucr. 1, 522:

    legiones cum loca Camporum complent,

    id. 2, 324:

    milites complent murum,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 27:

    vigiles domum Flavii complevere,

    Tac. H. 3, 69; id. A. 15, 33:

    scrobem ad medium,

    Col. Arb. 4, 5:

    non bene urnam,

    Ov. M. 12, 616:

    vascula,

    Quint. 1, 2, 28:

    paginam,

    to fill out, write full, Cic. Att. 13, 34 fin.:

    speluncas, of the winds,

    Lucr. 6, 197.—
    (β).
    With abl. of material, etc.:

    fossas sarmentis et virgultis,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 18:

    totum prope caelum... humano genere conpletum est,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28:

    mundum animorum multitudine,

    id. Div. 2, 58, 119:

    bestiis omnium gentium circum conplere,

    Liv. 44, 9, 4:

    naufragorum trepidatione passim natantium flumen conpleverunt,

    id. 42, 62, 6:

    Hispanias Gallias Italiam monumentis ingentium rerum,

    id. 30, 28, 4:

    quos (gradus) ubi accusator concitatis hominibus complerat,

    Cic. Clu. 34, 93:

    munus Apolline dignum libris,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 217:

    late loca milite,

    Verg. A. 2, 495:

    naves serpentibus,

    Nep. Hann. 11, 6:

    amphoras plumbo,

    id. ib. 9, 3:

    statuas aëneas pecuniā,

    id. ib. 9, 3:

    horrea messibus,

    Luc. 3, 66:

    complentur moenia et tecta maerentium turbā,

    Tac. A. 3, 1:

    Palatium multitudine et clamoribus complebant,

    id. ib. 14, 61:

    virgultibus et cratibus et corporibus exanimis complere lossas,

    id. ib. 4, 51; cf.

    also: et terrae... stirpium renovatione complentur,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51, 128.—
    (γ).
    With gen.:

    conviviumque vicinorum cottidie conpleo,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 46:

    cum completus jam mercatorum carcer esset,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 57, § 147:

    quae causa... ararum conpleverit urbis,

    Lucr. 5, 1162.—
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    In milit. lang.
    a.
    To make the army, a legion, etc., of a full number, to complete, fill up:

    legiones in itinere,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 25:

    cohortes pro numero militum complet,

    Sall. C. 56, 1; Nep. Milt. 5, 1:

    legione completā per maniplos,

    Sil. 8, 119.—
    b.
    To man, fill with men:

    classem Romanam sociis navalibus,

    Liv. 24, 11, 9:

    naves colonis pastoribusque,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 56; cf.:

    has (naves) sagittariis tormentisque compleverunt,

    id. ib. 2, 4:

    naves bis denas aut plures,

    Verg. A. 11, 327 Serv.—
    2.
    To fill, impregnate:

    alias (mulieres),

    Lucr. 4, 1249; 4, 1275.—
    3.
    Transf., of light, sound, etc. (freq.).
    a.
    To fill with light, maké full:

    ut cuncta suā luce conpleat (sol),

    Cic. Rep. 6, 17, 17:

    mundum suā luce,

    id. N. D. 2, 46, 119:

    terras largā luce,

    id. ib. 2, 19, 43:

    orbem (luna),

    Tib. 2, 4, 18:

    lunae se cornua lumine complent,

    Verg. A. 3, 645:

    quod maria ac terras omnis caelumque rigando Conpleat (sol),

    Lucr. 5, 595.—
    b.
    To fill with sound, cause to resound, etc., to fill, make full:

    omnia clamoribus,

    Lucr. 4, 1014:

    omnia vocibus,

    id. 5, 1065:

    nemus querellis,

    id. 2, 358; cf.:

    nemus timendā voce,

    Hor. Epod. 6, 9:

    aëra tinnitibus et murmure,

    Ov. M. 14, 537:

    atria ululatu,

    id. ib. 5, 153:

    atria fremitu,

    id. ib. 5, 3 et saep.:

    fremitu aequora,

    Prop. 2, 16 (3, 8), 37:

    aures (sonus),

    Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 18; cf. id. Agr. 3, 1, 3:

    caelum clamore,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 798: aures sermonibus, Claud. Cons. Prob. et Olyb. 31: clamor omnia variis terrentium ac paventium vocibus complet, Liv. 5, 21, 11.—
    c.
    Of odors, etc.:

    omnia primo motu ac spiritu suo, vini, unguenti, corporis odore complesset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 31; cf. Veg. Vet. 1, 17, 3. —
    4.
    Transf., to cover, overwhelm:

    Dianam (i. e. simulacrum) coronis et floribus,

    i. e. to deck, adorn, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77:

    vortentibus Telebois telis conplebantur corpora,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 95.—
    5.
    To fill, sate with food or drink:

    multo cibo et potione,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 35, 100:

    se flore Liberi,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 2, 8:

    haec avis scribitur conchis se solere conplere,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 124.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To supply fully, furnish abundantly:

    exercitum omni copiā,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 25 fin.
    B.
    To fill with any notion, story, desire, humor, passion:

    completi sunt animi auresque vestrae, me... obsistere, etc.,

    Cic. Agr. 3, 1, 3:

    reliquos (milites) bonā spe,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 21:

    aliquem gaudio,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 24, 69:

    taedio,

    Quint. 8, 6, 14:

    animos robore,

    Luc. 5, 412:

    omnia luctu,

    Sall. C. 51, 9:

    omnia terrore,

    Liv. 34, 9, 13:

    cuncta pavore,

    Curt. 3, 13, 10 al. —With gen.:

    aliquem erroris et dementiae,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 9:

    aliquem flagitii et formidinis,

    id. Men. 5, 5, 3.—
    C.
    To make complete or perfect, to finish; of a promise, to fulfil it:

    lustrationem (annuam) menstruo spatio (luna),

    Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 87; cf. Verg. A. 5, 46:

    his rebus completis legiones reduci jussit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 46 (Dinter, ex conj., comparatis):

    nocturnum erat sacrum, ita ut ante mediam noctem conpleretur,

    Liv. 23, 35, 15:

    studia,

    Gell. 13, 5:

    conplent ea beatissimam vitam,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 24, 71; cf. id. ib. 3, 13, 43; id. Tusc. 5, 16, 47:

    summam promissi,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 49, § 116:

    rerum humanarum sorte completā,

    Curt. 10, 6, 6 al. —
    2.
    Of time, to finish, complete:

    Gorgias centum et septem conplevit annos,

    Cic. Sen. 5, 13:

    cum VII. et LXX. annos complesset,

    Nep. Att. 21, 1:

    Corvinus centesimum annum complevit,

    Val. Max. 8, 13, 1; Lact. Op. Dei, 4, 3; cf.:

    sua fata,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 77:

    sua tempora,

    id. M. 15, 816:

    quinque saecula vitae suae,

    id. ib. 15, 395:

    materna tempora,

    i. e. the time of pregnancy, id. ib. 3, 312; cf. id. ib. 11, 311:

    semel quadrigis, semel desultore misso, vix unius horae tempus utrumque curriculum conplebat,

    Liv. 44, 9, 4.—Hence, complētus, a, um, P. a.
    * A.
    Prop., filled full, full: alveus Tiberis ruderibus, * Suet. Aug. 30.—
    B.
    Trop., complete, perfect:

    completus et perfectus verborum ambitus,

    Cic. Or. 50, 168.—
    * Comp., Gell. 1, 7, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > compleo

  • 2 conpleo

    com-plĕo ( conp-), ēvi, ētum, 2 (contr. forms: complerunt, complerint, complerat, complesse, etc., for compleverunt, etc., very often), v. a. [pleo, whence suppleo, plenus], to fill up, fill full, fill out (class. in prose and poetry).
    I.
    Lit., of material objects.
    A.
    In gen., with acc. of place, vessel, etc., filled.
    (α).
    Alone:

    hostes fossam complent,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Auct. B. Hisp. 16; Tac. H. 2, 25:

    tune aut inane quicquam putes esse, cum ita conpleta et conferta sint omnia, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 40, 125:

    metu, ne compleantur navigia,

    Liv. 41, 3, 2:

    deducunt socii navis et litora conplent,

    Verg. A. 3, 71:

    conplebant Laidos aedes (amatores),

    Prop. 2, 6, 1:

    corpora quae loca complerent,

    occupy space, Lucr. 1, 522:

    legiones cum loca Camporum complent,

    id. 2, 324:

    milites complent murum,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 27:

    vigiles domum Flavii complevere,

    Tac. H. 3, 69; id. A. 15, 33:

    scrobem ad medium,

    Col. Arb. 4, 5:

    non bene urnam,

    Ov. M. 12, 616:

    vascula,

    Quint. 1, 2, 28:

    paginam,

    to fill out, write full, Cic. Att. 13, 34 fin.:

    speluncas, of the winds,

    Lucr. 6, 197.—
    (β).
    With abl. of material, etc.:

    fossas sarmentis et virgultis,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 18:

    totum prope caelum... humano genere conpletum est,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28:

    mundum animorum multitudine,

    id. Div. 2, 58, 119:

    bestiis omnium gentium circum conplere,

    Liv. 44, 9, 4:

    naufragorum trepidatione passim natantium flumen conpleverunt,

    id. 42, 62, 6:

    Hispanias Gallias Italiam monumentis ingentium rerum,

    id. 30, 28, 4:

    quos (gradus) ubi accusator concitatis hominibus complerat,

    Cic. Clu. 34, 93:

    munus Apolline dignum libris,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 217:

    late loca milite,

    Verg. A. 2, 495:

    naves serpentibus,

    Nep. Hann. 11, 6:

    amphoras plumbo,

    id. ib. 9, 3:

    statuas aëneas pecuniā,

    id. ib. 9, 3:

    horrea messibus,

    Luc. 3, 66:

    complentur moenia et tecta maerentium turbā,

    Tac. A. 3, 1:

    Palatium multitudine et clamoribus complebant,

    id. ib. 14, 61:

    virgultibus et cratibus et corporibus exanimis complere lossas,

    id. ib. 4, 51; cf.

    also: et terrae... stirpium renovatione complentur,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51, 128.—
    (γ).
    With gen.:

    conviviumque vicinorum cottidie conpleo,

    Cic. Sen. 14, 46:

    cum completus jam mercatorum carcer esset,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 57, § 147:

    quae causa... ararum conpleverit urbis,

    Lucr. 5, 1162.—
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    In milit. lang.
    a.
    To make the army, a legion, etc., of a full number, to complete, fill up:

    legiones in itinere,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 25:

    cohortes pro numero militum complet,

    Sall. C. 56, 1; Nep. Milt. 5, 1:

    legione completā per maniplos,

    Sil. 8, 119.—
    b.
    To man, fill with men:

    classem Romanam sociis navalibus,

    Liv. 24, 11, 9:

    naves colonis pastoribusque,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 56; cf.:

    has (naves) sagittariis tormentisque compleverunt,

    id. ib. 2, 4:

    naves bis denas aut plures,

    Verg. A. 11, 327 Serv.—
    2.
    To fill, impregnate:

    alias (mulieres),

    Lucr. 4, 1249; 4, 1275.—
    3.
    Transf., of light, sound, etc. (freq.).
    a.
    To fill with light, maké full:

    ut cuncta suā luce conpleat (sol),

    Cic. Rep. 6, 17, 17:

    mundum suā luce,

    id. N. D. 2, 46, 119:

    terras largā luce,

    id. ib. 2, 19, 43:

    orbem (luna),

    Tib. 2, 4, 18:

    lunae se cornua lumine complent,

    Verg. A. 3, 645:

    quod maria ac terras omnis caelumque rigando Conpleat (sol),

    Lucr. 5, 595.—
    b.
    To fill with sound, cause to resound, etc., to fill, make full:

    omnia clamoribus,

    Lucr. 4, 1014:

    omnia vocibus,

    id. 5, 1065:

    nemus querellis,

    id. 2, 358; cf.:

    nemus timendā voce,

    Hor. Epod. 6, 9:

    aëra tinnitibus et murmure,

    Ov. M. 14, 537:

    atria ululatu,

    id. ib. 5, 153:

    atria fremitu,

    id. ib. 5, 3 et saep.:

    fremitu aequora,

    Prop. 2, 16 (3, 8), 37:

    aures (sonus),

    Cic. Rep. 6, 18, 18; cf. id. Agr. 3, 1, 3:

    caelum clamore,

    Sen. Herc. Oet. 798: aures sermonibus, Claud. Cons. Prob. et Olyb. 31: clamor omnia variis terrentium ac paventium vocibus complet, Liv. 5, 21, 11.—
    c.
    Of odors, etc.:

    omnia primo motu ac spiritu suo, vini, unguenti, corporis odore complesset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 31; cf. Veg. Vet. 1, 17, 3. —
    4.
    Transf., to cover, overwhelm:

    Dianam (i. e. simulacrum) coronis et floribus,

    i. e. to deck, adorn, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77:

    vortentibus Telebois telis conplebantur corpora,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 95.—
    5.
    To fill, sate with food or drink:

    multo cibo et potione,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 35, 100:

    se flore Liberi,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 2, 8:

    haec avis scribitur conchis se solere conplere,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 124.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    To supply fully, furnish abundantly:

    exercitum omni copiā,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 25 fin.
    B.
    To fill with any notion, story, desire, humor, passion:

    completi sunt animi auresque vestrae, me... obsistere, etc.,

    Cic. Agr. 3, 1, 3:

    reliquos (milites) bonā spe,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 21:

    aliquem gaudio,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 24, 69:

    taedio,

    Quint. 8, 6, 14:

    animos robore,

    Luc. 5, 412:

    omnia luctu,

    Sall. C. 51, 9:

    omnia terrore,

    Liv. 34, 9, 13:

    cuncta pavore,

    Curt. 3, 13, 10 al. —With gen.:

    aliquem erroris et dementiae,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 9:

    aliquem flagitii et formidinis,

    id. Men. 5, 5, 3.—
    C.
    To make complete or perfect, to finish; of a promise, to fulfil it:

    lustrationem (annuam) menstruo spatio (luna),

    Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 87; cf. Verg. A. 5, 46:

    his rebus completis legiones reduci jussit,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 46 (Dinter, ex conj., comparatis):

    nocturnum erat sacrum, ita ut ante mediam noctem conpleretur,

    Liv. 23, 35, 15:

    studia,

    Gell. 13, 5:

    conplent ea beatissimam vitam,

    Cic. Fin. 5, 24, 71; cf. id. ib. 3, 13, 43; id. Tusc. 5, 16, 47:

    summam promissi,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 49, § 116:

    rerum humanarum sorte completā,

    Curt. 10, 6, 6 al. —
    2.
    Of time, to finish, complete:

    Gorgias centum et septem conplevit annos,

    Cic. Sen. 5, 13:

    cum VII. et LXX. annos complesset,

    Nep. Att. 21, 1:

    Corvinus centesimum annum complevit,

    Val. Max. 8, 13, 1; Lact. Op. Dei, 4, 3; cf.:

    sua fata,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 77:

    sua tempora,

    id. M. 15, 816:

    quinque saecula vitae suae,

    id. ib. 15, 395:

    materna tempora,

    i. e. the time of pregnancy, id. ib. 3, 312; cf. id. ib. 11, 311:

    semel quadrigis, semel desultore misso, vix unius horae tempus utrumque curriculum conplebat,

    Liv. 44, 9, 4.—Hence, complētus, a, um, P. a.
    * A.
    Prop., filled full, full: alveus Tiberis ruderibus, * Suet. Aug. 30.—
    B.
    Trop., complete, perfect:

    completus et perfectus verborum ambitus,

    Cic. Or. 50, 168.—
    * Comp., Gell. 1, 7, 20.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > conpleo

  • 3 cōpia

        cōpia ae, f    [com-+ops], an abundance, ample supply, plenty: frumenti, Cs.: navium magna, Cs.: bona librorum, H.: nullā ferramentorum copiā, in the scarcity of, Cs.—Resources, wealth, supplies, riches, prosperity: domesticis copiis ornare convivium: (civitas) copiis locupletior: circumfluere omnibus copiis: se eorum copiis alere, Cs.: Fastidiosam desere copiam, H.: inopem me copia fecit, O.: bonam copiam eiurare, i. e. to claim exemption as poor: (milites) mixti copiis et laetitiā, sharing supplies, Ta.: copia narium (i. e. luxus odorum), H.: copia ruris honorum opulenta, H.—Person., the goddess of plenty: beata pleno cornu, H.: dives meo bona Copia cornu est, O.—A multitude, number, plenty, abundance, throng: (principum) in castris, Cs.: virorum fortium: latronum in eā regione, S.: quae sit me circum copia, lustro, V.—A force, army, body of men: eā copiā civitatem oppressurus: ex omni copiā singulos deligere, Cs.— Usu. plur, forces, troops, an army, men: armare quam maximas copias, S.: cum omnibus copiis exire, in a body, Cs.: pedestres, N.: omnibus copiis contendere, with the whole army, Cs.—Fig., fulness, copiousness, multitude, abundance: rerum copia verborum copiam gignit: dicendi copiā valere: ubertas et copia, fulness in expression.—Ability, power, might, opportunity, facilities, means: facere civibus consili sui copiam: qui spectandi faciunt copiam, T.: fandi, V.: societatis coniungendae, S.: Ut sibi eius faciat copiam, give access to, T.: sit tibi copia nostri, power over, O.: facta est copia mundi, the world was open, O.: quibus in otio vivere copia erat, S.: nec te Adfari data copia matri, V.: tecum sine metu ut sit copiast, T.: si copia detur, veniam, O.: dona pro copiā portantes, as each is able, L.: pro rei copiā, S.: ludi additi pro copiā provinciali, L.
    * * *
    plenty, abundance, supply; troops (pl.), supplies; forces; resources; wealth; number/amount/quantity; sum/whole amount; means, opportunity; access, admission copy

    Latin-English dictionary > cōpia

  • 4 Copia

    1.
    cōpĭa, ae, f. [co-ops], abundant power, wealth, riches, abundance (very freq. in all periods and species of composition).
    I.
    Of material objects.
    A.
    Of possessions, resources, wealth, supplies, riches, prosperity (syn.: divitiae, opes;

    opp. inopia): pro re nitorem et gloriam pro copiā,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 6, 5: divitiarum fructus in copiā est;

    copiam autem declarat satietas rerum et abundantia,

    Cic. Par. 6, 2, 47; Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 32:

    copiis rei familiaris locupletes et pecuniosi,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 15, 44:

    utrum copiane sit agri, vectigalium, pecuniae, an penuria,

    id. Inv. 2, 39, 115:

    frugum,

    id. Dom. 7, 17: publicani suas rationes et copias in illam provinciam contulerunt, id. Imp. Pomp. [p. 467] 7, 17:

    circumfluere omnibus copiis atque in omnium rerum abundantiā vivere,

    id. Lael. 15, 52 and 55; id. Deiot. 5, 14; Caes. B. G. 4, 4 fin.; Hor. C. 3, 29, 9:

    Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo,

    id. S. 1, 1, 57:

    Si recte frueris non est ut copia major Ab Jove donari possit tibi,

    id. Ep. 1, 12, 2; Ov. M. 8, 838:

    exercitus omnium rerum abundabat copiā,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 49:

    abundans omni copiā rerum est regio,

    Liv. 29, 25, 12: bonam copiam ejurare, to abjure property, i. e. to declare one's self exempt through poverty, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7.— Poet.:

    omnis copia narium ( = luxus odorum, Schol.),

    Hor. C. 2, 15, 6.—
    B.
    In respect to other objects, fulness, copiousness, multitude, number, abundance:

    meretricum,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 34:

    tanta copia venustatum aderat,

    id. Poen. 5, 4, 5:

    quorum (librorum) habeo Antii festivam copiam,

    Cic. Att. 2, 6, 1:

    tanta copia virorum fortium atque innocentium,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; cf.:

    tanta doctissimorum hominum,

    Sall. H. 1, 1 Dietsch:

    magna latronum in eā regione,

    id. C. 28, 4:

    tubicinum,

    id. J. 93, 8:

    procorum,

    Ov. M. 10, 356:

    nimborum,

    Lucr. 6, 511 et saep.—
    2.
    In milit. lang. copia, and far more freq. in plur. copiae, ārum, men, troops, forces, army.
    (α).
    Sing.:

    omnis armatorum copia,

    Cic. Att. 13, 52, 2:

    eā copiā, quam secum eduxit, se hanc civitatem oppressurum arbitratur,

    id. Mur. 37, 78:

    ex omni copiā eligere aliquos,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 48; id. B. C. 1, 45; Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, 3; Sall. C. 56, 2 Kritz; 61, 5.—
    (β).
    More freq. plur., orig. of a body of troops as made up of smaller bodies; cf. Engi. troops; the forces, troops, etc.:

    armare quam maximas copias,

    Sall. J. 13, 1:

    copias secum adducere,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 17; cf.:

    in angustum oppido nunc meae coguntur copiae,

    id. Heaut. 4, 2, 2: cogere copias Brundusium, Cn. Pomp. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, 3; id. Fam. 3, 3, 2; Caes. B. G. 1, 11; 1, 12; 1, 13; 1, 25; Nep. Them. 2, 4; id. Alcib. 8, 2; Liv. 40, 44, 3 et saep.—
    II.
    Of immaterial objects, fulness, copiousness, multitude, abundance.
    A.
    In gen.:

    Quam tibi de quāvis unā re versibus omnis argumentorum sit copia missa per auris,

    Lucr. 1, 417:

    rerum copia verborum copiam gignit,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 31, 125; cf.

    rerum,

    Sall. C. 2, 10; Quint. 7, prooem. §

    1: inventionis,

    id. 11, 3, 56:

    orationis,

    id. 4, 2, 117:

    sermonis,

    id. 8, 6, 5:

    abundare debet orator exemplorum copiā,

    id. 12, 4, 1:

    tanta facultas dicendi vel copia,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 4, 10:

    verborum,

    Quint. 1, 8, 8:

    in dicendo ubertas et copia,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 12, 50:

    dicendi,

    id. Red. Sen. 1, 1; id. Top. 18, 67; Quint. 10, 6, 6; and so of fulness in expression, absol., copia, Cic. Brut. 11, 44; id. Fam. 5, 12, 3; Quint. 1, 8, 17:

    copias eloquentiae ponere in medio,

    id. 7, 10, 15:

    Platonis,

    id. 10, 1, 108:

    Senecae,

    id. 12, 10, 11.—
    B.
    Esp., in reference to action, ability, power, might, opportunity, facilities, means of doing a thing.
    (α).
    With gen. gerund.:

    ut mi ejus facias conveniundi copiam,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 90; so,

    facere,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 29; cf.

    dare,

    id. ib. 28; Verg. A. 1, 520 al.:

    edundi,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 72:

    cunctandi,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 58:

    illius inspectandi,

    id. Bacch. 3, 3, 84:

    societatis amicitiaeque conjungendae,

    Sall. J. 83, 1 al. —
    (β).
    With inf.:

    quibus in otio vel magnifice vel molliter vivere copia erat,

    Sall. C. 17, 6; so Cat. 64, 366. —
    (γ).
    With ut:

    cum copiam istam mihi et potestatem facis, ut ego, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Mil. 3, 1, 174; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 87 al.—
    (δ).
    Absol.:

    neque edepol facio: neque, si cupiam, copia est,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 76; id. Trin. 1, 2, 98 al.:

    ne quam aliam quaerat copiam ac te deserat,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 54; cf. Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 22.—So pro copiā, according to one's ability, as one is able: volo habere hic aratiunculam pro copiā hic aput vos. Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 46:

    pro copiā supplicare Lari familiari,

    Cato, R. R. 143, 2:

    dona pro copiā portantes,

    Liv. 26, 11, 9:

    in vehiculis pro copiā cujusque adornatīs,

    Curt. 9, 10, 26.—Esp. with the implication that one can do little: pro eā copiā quae Athenis erat, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12, 3:

    pro rei copiā,

    Sall. J. 90, 1:

    ludi funebres additi pro copiā provinciali et castrensi apparatu,

    Liv. 28, 21, 10:

    iudos pro temporis hujus copiā magnifici apparatus fecerunt,

    id. 27, 6, 19. —
    2.
    Access to a person, with gen.: quando ejus copia est. Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 45; cf.:

    obsecrat, ut sibi ejus faciat copiam,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 63.
    2.
    Cōpĭa, ac, f.
    I.
    The goddess of abundance, Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 46:

    bona,

    Ov. M. 9, 88:

    opulenta,

    Hor. C. 1, 17, 16; id. C. S. 60 al.—
    II.
    An appellation of the town Lugdunum (Lyons), in Gaul, Inscr. Orell. 194; 2325.—

    Hence, COPIENSIS,

    Inscr. Murat. 753, 3.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Copia

  • 5 copia

    1.
    cōpĭa, ae, f. [co-ops], abundant power, wealth, riches, abundance (very freq. in all periods and species of composition).
    I.
    Of material objects.
    A.
    Of possessions, resources, wealth, supplies, riches, prosperity (syn.: divitiae, opes;

    opp. inopia): pro re nitorem et gloriam pro copiā,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 6, 5: divitiarum fructus in copiā est;

    copiam autem declarat satietas rerum et abundantia,

    Cic. Par. 6, 2, 47; Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 32:

    copiis rei familiaris locupletes et pecuniosi,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 15, 44:

    utrum copiane sit agri, vectigalium, pecuniae, an penuria,

    id. Inv. 2, 39, 115:

    frugum,

    id. Dom. 7, 17: publicani suas rationes et copias in illam provinciam contulerunt, id. Imp. Pomp. [p. 467] 7, 17:

    circumfluere omnibus copiis atque in omnium rerum abundantiā vivere,

    id. Lael. 15, 52 and 55; id. Deiot. 5, 14; Caes. B. G. 4, 4 fin.; Hor. C. 3, 29, 9:

    Plenior ut si quos delectet copia justo,

    id. S. 1, 1, 57:

    Si recte frueris non est ut copia major Ab Jove donari possit tibi,

    id. Ep. 1, 12, 2; Ov. M. 8, 838:

    exercitus omnium rerum abundabat copiā,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 49:

    abundans omni copiā rerum est regio,

    Liv. 29, 25, 12: bonam copiam ejurare, to abjure property, i. e. to declare one's self exempt through poverty, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7.— Poet.:

    omnis copia narium ( = luxus odorum, Schol.),

    Hor. C. 2, 15, 6.—
    B.
    In respect to other objects, fulness, copiousness, multitude, number, abundance:

    meretricum,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 34:

    tanta copia venustatum aderat,

    id. Poen. 5, 4, 5:

    quorum (librorum) habeo Antii festivam copiam,

    Cic. Att. 2, 6, 1:

    tanta copia virorum fortium atque innocentium,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; cf.:

    tanta doctissimorum hominum,

    Sall. H. 1, 1 Dietsch:

    magna latronum in eā regione,

    id. C. 28, 4:

    tubicinum,

    id. J. 93, 8:

    procorum,

    Ov. M. 10, 356:

    nimborum,

    Lucr. 6, 511 et saep.—
    2.
    In milit. lang. copia, and far more freq. in plur. copiae, ārum, men, troops, forces, army.
    (α).
    Sing.:

    omnis armatorum copia,

    Cic. Att. 13, 52, 2:

    eā copiā, quam secum eduxit, se hanc civitatem oppressurum arbitratur,

    id. Mur. 37, 78:

    ex omni copiā eligere aliquos,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 48; id. B. C. 1, 45; Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, 3; Sall. C. 56, 2 Kritz; 61, 5.—
    (β).
    More freq. plur., orig. of a body of troops as made up of smaller bodies; cf. Engi. troops; the forces, troops, etc.:

    armare quam maximas copias,

    Sall. J. 13, 1:

    copias secum adducere,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 17; cf.:

    in angustum oppido nunc meae coguntur copiae,

    id. Heaut. 4, 2, 2: cogere copias Brundusium, Cn. Pomp. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, 3; id. Fam. 3, 3, 2; Caes. B. G. 1, 11; 1, 12; 1, 13; 1, 25; Nep. Them. 2, 4; id. Alcib. 8, 2; Liv. 40, 44, 3 et saep.—
    II.
    Of immaterial objects, fulness, copiousness, multitude, abundance.
    A.
    In gen.:

    Quam tibi de quāvis unā re versibus omnis argumentorum sit copia missa per auris,

    Lucr. 1, 417:

    rerum copia verborum copiam gignit,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 31, 125; cf.

    rerum,

    Sall. C. 2, 10; Quint. 7, prooem. §

    1: inventionis,

    id. 11, 3, 56:

    orationis,

    id. 4, 2, 117:

    sermonis,

    id. 8, 6, 5:

    abundare debet orator exemplorum copiā,

    id. 12, 4, 1:

    tanta facultas dicendi vel copia,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 4, 10:

    verborum,

    Quint. 1, 8, 8:

    in dicendo ubertas et copia,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 12, 50:

    dicendi,

    id. Red. Sen. 1, 1; id. Top. 18, 67; Quint. 10, 6, 6; and so of fulness in expression, absol., copia, Cic. Brut. 11, 44; id. Fam. 5, 12, 3; Quint. 1, 8, 17:

    copias eloquentiae ponere in medio,

    id. 7, 10, 15:

    Platonis,

    id. 10, 1, 108:

    Senecae,

    id. 12, 10, 11.—
    B.
    Esp., in reference to action, ability, power, might, opportunity, facilities, means of doing a thing.
    (α).
    With gen. gerund.:

    ut mi ejus facias conveniundi copiam,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 90; so,

    facere,

    Ter. Heaut. prol. 29; cf.

    dare,

    id. ib. 28; Verg. A. 1, 520 al.:

    edundi,

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 72:

    cunctandi,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 58:

    illius inspectandi,

    id. Bacch. 3, 3, 84:

    societatis amicitiaeque conjungendae,

    Sall. J. 83, 1 al. —
    (β).
    With inf.:

    quibus in otio vel magnifice vel molliter vivere copia erat,

    Sall. C. 17, 6; so Cat. 64, 366. —
    (γ).
    With ut:

    cum copiam istam mihi et potestatem facis, ut ego, etc.,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Mil. 3, 1, 174; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 87 al.—
    (δ).
    Absol.:

    neque edepol facio: neque, si cupiam, copia est,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 76; id. Trin. 1, 2, 98 al.:

    ne quam aliam quaerat copiam ac te deserat,

    Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 54; cf. Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 22.—So pro copiā, according to one's ability, as one is able: volo habere hic aratiunculam pro copiā hic aput vos. Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 46:

    pro copiā supplicare Lari familiari,

    Cato, R. R. 143, 2:

    dona pro copiā portantes,

    Liv. 26, 11, 9:

    in vehiculis pro copiā cujusque adornatīs,

    Curt. 9, 10, 26.—Esp. with the implication that one can do little: pro eā copiā quae Athenis erat, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12, 3:

    pro rei copiā,

    Sall. J. 90, 1:

    ludi funebres additi pro copiā provinciali et castrensi apparatu,

    Liv. 28, 21, 10:

    iudos pro temporis hujus copiā magnifici apparatus fecerunt,

    id. 27, 6, 19. —
    2.
    Access to a person, with gen.: quando ejus copia est. Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 45; cf.:

    obsecrat, ut sibi ejus faciat copiam,

    Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 63.
    2.
    Cōpĭa, ac, f.
    I.
    The goddess of abundance, Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 46:

    bona,

    Ov. M. 9, 88:

    opulenta,

    Hor. C. 1, 17, 16; id. C. S. 60 al.—
    II.
    An appellation of the town Lugdunum (Lyons), in Gaul, Inscr. Orell. 194; 2325.—

    Hence, COPIENSIS,

    Inscr. Murat. 753, 3.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > copia

  • 6 singuli

    singŭli, ae, a (in sing. only ante- and post-class.; v. infra), num. distr. adj. [cf. simul, v. simplex].
    I.
    One to each, separate, single (opp. universi;

    for syn. cf.: privus, unusquisque): vini in culleos singulos quadragenae et singulae urnae dabuntur,

    Cato, R. R. 148, 1:

    ut ad denas capras singulos parent hircos,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 3 fin.:

    binae singulis quae datae nobis ancillae,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 12:

    describebat censores binos in singulas civitates,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 133:

    duodena describit in singulos homines jugera,

    id. Agr. 2, 31, 85:

    filiae singulos filios parvos habentes,

    each one a boy, Liv. 40, 4, 2:

    croci, myrrhae, singulorum (tantum), etc.,

    of each, Cels. 6, 11:

    singuli singulorum deorum sacerdotes,

    a priest to each god, Cic. Leg. 2, 12, 29:

    quos ex omni copiā singuli singulos delegerant,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 48; 2, 20:

    si singuli singulos aggressuri fueritis,

    Liv. 6, 18, 6 et saep.— Sing.:

    nummo singulo multabatur (for which, shortly before: poena erat nummus unus sestertius),

    Gell. 18, 13, 6.—
    b.
    In dies singulos, adverb., from day to day, every day, daily; cottidie vel potius in dies singulos breviores litteras ad te mitto, Cic. Att. 5, 7, 1:

    crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus,

    id. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Att. 2, 22, 3.—
    II.
    In gen., single, separate, individual:

    populus rationi (obtemperare debet), nos singuli populo,

    Varr. L. L. 9, § 6 Müll.:

    honestius eum (agrum) vos universi quam singuli possideretis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 31, 85:

    antepono singulis (generibus rei publicae) illud, quod conflatum fuerit ex omnibus,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54:

    refert, qui audiant... frequentes an pauci an singuli,

    id. de Or. 3, 55, 211:

    ut conquisitores singuli in subsellia Eant,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 65:

    singulorum dominatus,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 39, 61; 1, 40, 63; 2, 1, 2 et saep.:

    proderit per se ipsum secedere: meliores erimus singuli,

    alone, Sen. Ot. Sap. 1, 1 (id. Vit. Beat. 28, 2):

    quod est miserrimum, numquam sumus singuli,

    id. Q. N. 4, § 2 praef. — Sing. (for the class. unus or singularis):

    attat singulum video vestigium,

    a single trace, Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 34:

    de caelo et tritico non infitias eo, quin singulo semper numero dicenda sint,

    in the singular number, Gell. 19, 8, 5: semel unum singulum est, Varr. ap. Non. p. 171, 20 al.; cf. Mart. Cap. 3, § 325.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > singuli

  • 7 omni modo

    omnĭmŏdo (also written separate, omnī mŏdo), adv. [omnis-modus], by all means, in all ways, entirely, altogether, wholly (not ante-Aug.):

    evitemus omnimodo, ne deliberasse videamur,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 1:

    non omnimodo res ea desperationem habet,

    Cels. 7, 4, 3 fin.; Gell. 18, 15, 2; Dig. 29, 2, 11.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > omni modo

  • 8 Inhumanitas omni aetate molesta est

    Inhumanity is harmful in every age. (Cicero)

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Inhumanitas omni aetate molesta est

  • 9 Nihil est ab omni parte beatum

    Nothing is good in every part. (Horace)

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Nihil est ab omni parte beatum

  • 10 Quando omni flunkus moritatus

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Quando omni flunkus moritatus

  • 11 copia

    abundamce, supply.

    Latin-English dictionary of medieval > copia

  • 12 contra

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra

  • 13 contra dicta

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra dicta

  • 14 Cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum

  • 15 cum

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > cum

  • 16 Cum2

    1.
    cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koinos, sun], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.
    I.
    In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95:

    qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum,

    id. ib. prol. 125:

    cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4:

    semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā,

    id. Mil. 21, 55:

    quibuscum essem libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.:

    cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse,

    id. Sull. 3, 7:

    si cenas hodie mecum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70:

    vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3:

    errare malo cum Platone, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39:

    qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—
    b.
    In an expression of displeasure:

    in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.—
    B.
    In a designation of time with which some action concurs:

    egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo?

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so,

    cum primo luci,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 58:

    cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.:

    cum primā luce,

    id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and:

    cum primo lumine solis,

    Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P:

    pariter cum ortu solis,

    Sall. J. 106, 5:

    pariter cum occasu solis,

    id. ib. 68, 2; cf.:

    cum sole reliquit,

    Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.:

    mane cum luci simul,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = hama toisde), Liv. 1, 32, 10:

    simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines,

    id. 1, 10, 5; cf.:

    et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—
    C.
    In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.:

    cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 13, 33:

    cum magno provinciae periculo,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 10:

    cum summo probro,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6:

    cum summā tuā dignitate,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61:

    cum bonā alite,

    Cat. 61, 19:

    ferendum hoc onus est cum labore,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59:

    multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare,

    amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.:

    hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, § 49:

    orare cum lacrimis coepere,

    Liv. 5, 30, 5:

    si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so,

    cum curā,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.:

    cum summo studio,

    Sall. C. 51, 38:

    cum quanto studio periculoque,

    Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.:

    cum multā venustate et omni sale,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9:

    summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 52:

    maximo cum clamore involant,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89:

    cum clamore,

    Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2:

    cum clamore ac tumultu,

    id. 9, 31, 8; cf.:

    Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt,

    id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1:

    illud cum pace agemus,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83:

    cum bonā pace,

    Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5:

    cum bonā gratiā,

    Cic. Fat. 4, 7:

    cum bonā veniā,

    Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.:

    cum veniā,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72:

    cum virtute vivere,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34:

    cum judicio,

    Quint. 10, 1, 8:

    cum firmā memoriā,

    id. 5, 10, 54:

    legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere,

    Suet. Calig. 16:

    spolia in aede... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit,

    Liv. 4, 20, 3.—
    b.
    Attributively, with subst.:

    et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini,

    Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat,

    id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—
    2.
    Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).
    (α).
    Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so,

    cum eo quidem, quod, etc.,

    id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.:

    sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—
    (β).
    With ut:

    Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent,

    Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is... non sit sustinendus,

    Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.
    (γ).
    With ne:

    obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc.,

    Col. 5, 1, 4:

    cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant,

    Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen:

    cum eo tamen, ne, etc.,

    id. 2, 17.—
    3.
    Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, sun theôi:

    cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38:

    agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite,

    Liv. 21, 43, 7; so,

    cum superis,

    Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—
    4.
    Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our - fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products:

    ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo,

    ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so,

    cum octavo, cum decimo,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, § 112:

    cum centesimo,

    Plin. 18, 10, 21, § 95; cf. with a subst.:

    cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā,

    id. 5, 4, 3, § 24.—
    D.
    With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10:

    cum linguā lingere,

    Cat. 98, 3:

    cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius),

    Verg. A. 9, 816:

    cum vino et oleo ungere,

    Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.:

    terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 21 Müll.
    II.
    In partic.
    A.
    Completing the meaning of verbs.
    1.
    With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37:

    ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione,

    Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11:

    (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus,

    id. 1, 9, 16:

    interfectam esse... convenit mihi cum adversariis,

    id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31:

    quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius?

    id. Clu. 31, 86:

    hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper,

    id. Off. 3, 3, 13:

    foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides,

    id. ib. 3, 31, 111:

    capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant,

    Liv. 1, 52, 4:

    cum aliquo in gratiam redire,

    id. 3, 58, 4:

    stabat cum eo senatūs majestas,

    id. 8, 34, 1:

    conjurasse cum Pausaniā,

    Curt. 7, 1, 6:

    Autronium secum facere,

    Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—
    2.
    Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.:

    cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61:

    quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 15, 46:

    nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum,

    id. ib. 1, 17, 51:

    cum civibus vivere,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 124:

    cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est,

    id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.:

    cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant,

    Liv. 1, 45, 2:

    partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit,

    Cic. Clu. 7, 21:

    cum Baebio communicare,

    id. ib. 16, 47; cf.

    of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait,

    Liv. 1, 58, 4:

    duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit,

    id. 2, 10, 5.—
    3.
    Of intercourse, traffic, etc.:

    cum aliquo agere,

    to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13:

    cum eo Accius injuriarum agit,

    Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24:

    si par est agere cum civibus,

    Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8:

    si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112:

    tecum enim mihi res est,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84:

    uni tibi et cum singulis res est,

    Liv. 2, 12, 11:

    pacem cum Sabinis facere,

    Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—
    4.
    Of deliberation and discussion:

    haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57:

    tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt,

    Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—
    5.
    Of strife, difference, etc.:

    quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 1:

    cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet!

    Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143:

    neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 25, 81:

    cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 11:

    cum stomacheretur cum Metello,

    id. Or. 2, 66, 267:

    manu cum hoste confligere,

    id. Off. 1, 23, 81:

    utilia cum honestis pugnare,

    id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88:

    cum majoribus nostris bella gessit,

    id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4:

    cum Auruncis bellum inire,

    id. 2, 16, 8; cf.:

    cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est,

    id. 2, 40, 14:

    inimicitias cum Africano gerere,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3:

    cum Scipione dissentire,

    Val. Max. 4, 1, 12:

    cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit,

    Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—
    6.
    Of comparison:

    nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14:

    hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 8:

    conferam Sullamne cum Junio,

    id. Clu. 34, 94:

    (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—
    B.
    Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.:

    hominem sine re, sine fide,

    Cic. Cael. 32, 78):

    a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 149:

    cadus cum vino,

    id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15:

    olla cum aquā,

    Cato, R. R. 156:

    arcula cum ornamentis,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91:

    fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22:

    onerariae naves cum commeatu,

    Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.:

    cum servili schemā,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 117;

    so of clothing,

    id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, § 54; 2, 5, 13, § 31; [p. 490] id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.:

    ut ne quis cum telo servus esset,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, § 7;

    so of weapons,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.:

    inmissi cum falcibus, etc.,

    id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65:

    vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade,

    holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115:

    simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 49, §

    109: cum elephanti capite puer natus,

    Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.:

    cum quinque pedibus natus,

    id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf.

    Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra,

    Liv. 9, 44, 14:

    te Romam venisse cum febri,

    Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112:

    ex eis qui cum imperio sint,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.:

    cum imperio aut magistratu,

    Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—
    C.
    With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.;

    v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144:

    quandoque tu... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187:

    Numidae... in eādem mecum Africā geniti,

    Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, § 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.
    a.
    Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.:

    quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum),

    Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, §§ 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.:

    his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3:

    adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—
    b.
    Before et... et, connecting two substt.:

    cum et diurno et nocturno metu,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.
    III.
    In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—
    B.
    It designates,
    1.
    A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—
    2.
    The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.
    2.
    Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].
    I.
    Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.
    A.
    In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.
    1.
    The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt,

    Plaut. Truc. prol. 17:

    facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus,

    Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11:

    cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est,

    Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59:

    cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi,

    id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87:

    quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. (rare):

    ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.):

    haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33:

    qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2:

    (dolor) Cum furit... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest),

    Verg. G. 3, 457:

    nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit,

    Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—
    b.
    With logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we ( once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1:

    gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt... tempestatem significari putant,

    id. Div. 2, 70, 145:

    cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17:

    cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5:

    (hostis) cum intravit... modum a captivis non accipit,

    Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2:

    quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, § 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—
    (γ).
    With two logical perff. (rare):

    cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6:

    quae cum se disposuit... summum bonum tetigit,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper:

    etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse... latratote,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    in talibus... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt,

    Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in pres.:

    quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint,

    Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. indic.:

    cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione... utemur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15:

    cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit?

    Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.:

    qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in fut. imper.:

    cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc.,

    Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—
    (δ).
    With two fut. perff.:

    cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—
    e.
    In partic.
    (α).
    In definitions with pres, indic.:

    humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur,

    Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5:

    purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —
    (β).
    Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5:

    in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse... videntur, tamen non temere creditur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62:

    qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant,

    id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.:

    etiam cum potentes nocere intendent,

    Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.:

    cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—
    (γ).
    Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.:

    sorba in sapa cum vis condere, arida facias,

    Cato, R. R. 7 fin.Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47.—
    2.
    With subj. referring to indefinite time.
    a.
    With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense ( you = one, any one).
    (α).
    With pres. subj.:

    acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas,

    Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53:

    quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.:

    difficile est tacere cum doleas,

    Cic. Sull. 10, 31:

    etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas,

    id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—
    (β).
    With perf. subj.:

    difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64:

    quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio,

    id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—
    b.
    In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—
    c.
    In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra):

    saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—
    d.
    When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—
    e.
    If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood:

    caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras,

    Cato, R. R. 28:

    quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—
    3.
    Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.:

    formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4:

    quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100:

    si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).
    a.
    Cum with pres. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam... nimis simili'st mei,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38:

    potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius... fueris?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, § 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4:

    equidem cum... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum,

    Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3:

    quod cum ita est,

    if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.:

    quodsi ita est,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so,

    often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39:

    nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsa regali re publica quaerimus,

    Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally [p. 491] in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that:

    quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.
    (β).
    With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.):

    Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27:

    sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me?

    id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—
    b.
    Cum with logical perf. indic.
    (α).
    Principal predicate in pres.:

    ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare,

    after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. ( poet.):

    at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta),

    Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—
    c.
    With fut.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    quom videbis tum scies,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33:

    sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in fut. perf.:

    cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in imper. fut.:

    mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—
    (δ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    cum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille eligat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—
    (ε).
    In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—
    d.
    With fut. perf.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in fut.:

    mox dabo quom ab re divina rediero,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8:

    cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, § 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, § 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.):

    quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote,

    Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37:

    cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, § 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—
    (γ).
    With principal predicate in subj. (potential):

    quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged:

    oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—
    4.
    With subj. in definite time.
    a.
    Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—
    b.
    Sometimes by attraction:

    curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3:

    non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear?

    Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —
    c.
    In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.
    B.
    In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.
    1.
    With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lubbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19:

    portisculus signum cum dare coepisset,

    Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.:

    quom testamento patris partisset bona,

    Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading:

    quom venisset,

    Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt):

    audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedonia venissem Athenas,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45:

    haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum,

    id. ib. 1, 35, 160:

    cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum,

    id. Inv. 2, 23, 69:

    Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas,

    id. N. D. 3, 34, 83:

    eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18:

    Tarquinius et Tullia minor... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis,

    Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —
    2.
    With pluperf. indic.
    a.
    Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.:

    idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28:

    Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo,

    Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—
    b.
    If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—
    c.
    If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect:

    nam tum cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impedita, fidem concidisse,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    cum ea consecutus nondum eram... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus,

    id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—
    3.
    If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.
    a.
    With pluperf. indic.
    (α).
    With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever:

    cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, § 27; 2, 1, 46, § 120; 2, 3, 67, § 156; 2, 4, 61, § 137; 2, 5, 10, § 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93:

    (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4:

    cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur,

    Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—
    (β).
    With principal predicate in perf. indic.:

    Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino... sibi parentaverat,

    Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—
    b.
    With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence:

    cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae... effugiebant, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 41:

    cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant,

    Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—
    4.
    In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.
    (α).
    When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.):

    Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset),

    Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—
    (β).
    Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies:

    (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97:

    cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc.,

    id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—
    (γ).
    When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause:

    qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc.,

    Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—
    5.
    For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.
    C.
    In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lubbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.:

    quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220;

    where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc.,

    Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.:

    cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and:

    cum te Puteolis prosequerer,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum [p. 492] ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4;

    also,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).
    1.
    Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).
    a.
    The clause expressing a momentary action:

    posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.:

    non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8:

    in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus,

    Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4:

    per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus,

    id. de Or. 2, 59, 242:

    cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, § 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, § 160; 2, 3, 47, § 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.:

    tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma,

    Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15;

    6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum... anulum in profundum dejecit,

    Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1;

    9, 8, 1: rerum natura... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4:

    accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius,

    Plin. 8, 41, 63, § 153; 2, 24, 22, § 90; 2, 52, 53, § 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as:

    jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4:

    Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit... ostendit, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time:

    ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.:

    effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4:

    tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes,

    Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—
    b.
    If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time):

    in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare... Europen,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5:

    ne cum in Sicilia quidem (bellum) fuit... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6:

    nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44:

    non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc.,

    Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—
    c.
    With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence:

    ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum... urbs tota corruit,

    Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—
    d.
    With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident:

    ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2:

    me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus,

    Cic. Brut. 89, 303:

    itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59:

    haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

    cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium... senatus misit,

    Liv. 42, 5, 8:

    Gracchus cum ex Sardinia rediit, orationem ad populum habuit,

    Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—
    2.
    With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.
    a.
    The action falling within the time of the principal predicate:

    set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit?

    Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc.,

    Cic. Brut. 43, 161:

    eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32; 2, 5, 69, § 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13:

    cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1:

    cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant,

    Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6;

    45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.:

    beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares?

    Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7:

    bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur,

    Dig. 28, 18, § 1:

    pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum,

    Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—
    b.
    The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.):

    cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—
    3.
    The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].
    a.
    Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.
    (α).
    Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc:

    eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras?

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17:

    alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam?

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.):

    qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25:

    qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4:

    res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur,

    id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.:

    Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses,

    id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3):

    Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur,

    id. Phil. 6, 4, 11:

    non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam,

    id. Red. Quir. 1, 3:

    etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, § 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.):

    cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.:

    hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo,

    Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero):

    desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86:

    sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, § 29:

    illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur?

    id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 26; 2, 2, 13, § 33; 2, 2, 35, § 86; 2, 3, 86, § 198; 2, 5, 21, § 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.:

    num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid... cogitabat?

    Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, § 187; so,

    fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant,

    id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55:

    cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so,

    equidem... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas,

    id. Brut. 8, 293:

    cum censebam,

    id. de Or. 1, 62, 264:

    cum dicebam,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 5:

    cum ponebas,

    id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter:

    res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen,

    id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2;

    sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.:

    cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse,

    id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo:

    tum cum insula Delos... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appia via jam carebamus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—
    (β).
    The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation:

    antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 94:

    sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem,

    id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained:

    Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: [p. 493] equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provincia legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8:

    Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition:

    cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54:

    cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius... magistratu abiturus erat,

    Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—
    (γ).
    If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.:

    tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, § 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.:

    cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar,

    Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2:

    Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat,

    Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12:

    ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal),

    Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so,

    according to class. usage,

    Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65;

    contrary to class. usage,

    Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —
    (δ).
    In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.:

    nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.:

    ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.:

    nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est?

    id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum):

    similiter arbitror... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret),

    id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.:

    nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret,

    id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason:

    casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me,

    Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.:

    Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat,

    Liv. 29, 31, 1:

    cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc.,

    id. 36, 5, 1; cf.:

    cum haec in Hispania gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies,

    id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur):

    cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus,

    id. 36, 15, 1; cf.:

    cum haec agerentur jam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat,

    id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34:

    tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times),

    Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra):

    cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc.,

    Plin. 10, 41, 59, § 120.—
    b.
    If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter
    (α).
    In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time:

    res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68:

    quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result:

    o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lubbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, § 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1;

    44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines... patientia paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive),

    Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.):

    cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures... coloniam ipsam ceperunt,

    Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, § 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, § 172:

    cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem... inquit,

    id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.:

    cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset,

    id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—
    (β).
    With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.):

    magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi,

    Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lubbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144:

    armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur... in medium inter duas acies procedunt,

    Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.):

    cum ille Romuli senatus... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal),

    id. Sull. 17, 49:

    tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive),

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, § 8:

    quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative),

    Nep. Cim. 3, 1:

    sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset... tunc injecta trepidatio est,

    Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances:

    quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19:

    consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam,

    Cic. Sest. 28, 61:

    haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, § 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem porta non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4:

    Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phania, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 5, 3:

    itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit,

    Liv. 1, 13, 6:

    Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit,

    id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.):

    cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1;

    so with cum essem (essemus, etc.),

    id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.:

    Eumenes rex ab Roma cum in regnum rediret... mactatus est ( = on the journey),

    Liv. 42, 40, 8:

    Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur... in morbum implicitus decessit,

    Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place:

    Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2:

    proxime cum in patria mea fui, venit ad me, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.):

    ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6:

    cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 8:

    cum lux appropinquaret,

    id. Tull. 9, 21:

    cum dies instaret,

    id. Inv. 2, 31, 96:

    cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret,

    Liv. 28, 10, 1:

    cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret,

    id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used:

    cum ea dies venit,

    Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action:

    cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, § 17:

    L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus,

    id. Brut. 68, 241:

    cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit,

    Liv. 40, 42, 10:

    cum maxime conquereretur apud patres... repente strepitus ante curiam... auditur,

    id. 8, 33, 4:

    haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius,

    id. 1, 50, 7;

    so with cum maxime,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo):

    Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine cura futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando),

    Cic. Sest. 63, 132:

    Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans),

    Nep. Reg. 3, 2:

    impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related:

    cum haec in Achaia atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur... Caesar mittit, etc.,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 57:

    cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio... dicta dies est,

    Liv. 6, 1, 6:

    cum hic status in Boeotia esset, Perseus... misit,

    id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—
    (γ).
    In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence:

    illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit,

    Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when:

    cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius... (ad populum) ita disseruit,

    Liv. 4, 3, 1:

    cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit,

    id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae... succensuit [p. 494] pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.:

    cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc.,

    id. Quint. 16, 53):

    ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8:

    cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini?... Quid hoc tota Sicilia est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, § 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, § 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.:

    sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum,

    Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.:

    cum secum reputavit,

    Tac. A. 15, 54.
    D.
    In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.
    1.
    The predicate in present:

    amice facis Quom me laudas,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.:

    bene facitis cum venitis,

    Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63:

    quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With fut. (rare):

    cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi... inventum proferent,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—
    3.
    With fut. perf. (rare):

    quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—
    4.
    With perf.:

    fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.:

    loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, § 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—
    5.
    With histor. pres.:

    Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—
    6.
    With imperf.:

    cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—
    7.
    Imperf. with perf. ( poet. and post-class.;

    very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas,

    Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—
    8.
    With pluperf. (very rare):

    exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—
    * 9.
    Pluperf. and imperf.:

    quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam,

    Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—
    10.
    Imperf. subj. (post-class.):

    tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur,

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—
    11.
    Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied:

    illa scelera... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc.,

    which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.
    E.
    In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.
    1.
    Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.
    a.
    The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125:

    jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit,

    Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—
    (β).
    With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres,

    Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—
    (γ).
    With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29:

    fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.:

    fuerunt alia genera qui... dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62):

    fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical),

    Liv. 7, 32, 13.—
    (δ).
    With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1:

    quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 1:

    ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer,

    Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—
    b.
    Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.
    (α).
    With pres. or fut. indic.:

    incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur,

    Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31:

    longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc.,

    id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—
    (β).
    With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12:

    atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat,

    Cic. Lig. 7, 20:

    memini noctis illius cum... pollicebar,

    id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time:

    illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in qua),

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 26;

    Marcellino Consule, cum ego... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.),

    Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4:

    patrum nostrorum memoria cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo),

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—
    (γ).
    With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30:

    accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65:

    numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus?

    id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, § 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8:

    haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense),

    Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses:

    eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae,

    while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—
    c.
    Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses:

    Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41:

    omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc.,

    id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam):

    posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—
    2.
    The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.
    a.
    With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.
    (α).
    With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo,

    that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.:

    anni sunt octo cum ista causa in ista meditatione versatur,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—
    (β).
    With ordinals:

    vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—
    (γ).
    With diu:

    jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—
    b.
    Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.:

    quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —
    c.
    With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.:

    permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant,

    Liv. 9, 33, 3.—
    d.
    With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.:

    dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7:

    unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—
    3.
    The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.
    a.
    With cardinals.
    (α).
    Time in acc. (ante-class.):

    annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi,

    Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—
    (β).
    With nom.:

    nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est,

    Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—
    b.
    With diu or dudum:

    nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt,

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—
    c.
    Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which:

    omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —
    4.
    In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.
    a.
    Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur,

    Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.:

    dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium... venerunt,

    Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—
    b.
    Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.
    (α).
    Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.:

    non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, § 72:

    jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente... procucurrerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, § 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—
    (β).
    Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.:

    jam Sora capta erat cum consules prima luce advenere,

    Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.:

    vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum... videres,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86.—
    (γ).
    Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—
    (δ).
    Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—
    (ε).
    Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—
    (ζ).
    Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—
    (η).
    Cum with [p. 495] histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—
    (θ).
    Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—
    (κ).
    With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare):

    quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus,

    Cic. Brut. 36, 138:

    jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur,

    Verg. G. 3, 422.—
    5.
    In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).
    a.
    When, on an occasion, on which, etc.
    (α).
    With perf. indic.:

    Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messala dicentem, cum tu abfuisti,

    Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—
    (β).
    With imperf. indic.:

    num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostra... caede contentum esse dicebas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—
    (γ).
    Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.):

    nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc.,

    Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—
    (δ).
    Imperf. subj.: qui... accensi nulla deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—
    (ε).
    So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.:

    sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum,

    Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—
    b.
    Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).
    (α).
    With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons:

    fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, § 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so,

    cum nihilo magis,

    Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—
    (β).
    With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—
    6.
    Cum interea (interim).
    a.
    Adverbial (rare).
    (α).
    Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, § 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, § 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—
    (β).
    Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.:

    simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.:

    cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam,

    Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—
    b.
    Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,
    (α).
    To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.:

    anni sunt octo... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis,

    Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—
    (β).
    To the inverted clauses (4.):

    tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster... hominem percussit,

    Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—
    (γ).
    To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.:

    post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare,

    Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.
    F.
    In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.
    1.
    After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).
    a.
    Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.
    (α).
    With indic.:

    nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes),

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26:

    conspectum est cum obiit,

    Liv. 5, 25, 3.—
    (β).
    With subj.:

    is... numquam est conspectus cum veniret,

    Cic. Sest. 59, 126:

    vidi... Cum tu terga dares,

    Ov. M. 13, 224.—
    b.
    After verbs of hearing, always with subj.:

    L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc.,

    Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    c.
    After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus):

    memini quom... haud audebat,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53:

    memini cum mihi desipere videbare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.:

    memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—
    2.
    After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).
    a.
    Verbs of thanking:

    habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59:

    tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—
    b.
    Of congratulation:

    quom tu's aucta liberis... gratulor,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—
    c.
    Of rejoicing and grieving:

    quom istaec res tibi ex sententia Pulcre evenit, gaudeo,

    Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48:

    cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—
    d.
    Dependent on optative sentences:

    di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.
    G.
    Elliptical usages (without predicate).
    1.
    Cum maxime.
    a.
    With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40:

    etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus?

    Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,
    b.
    By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then:

    nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40:

    quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit,

    Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere,

    Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—
    2.
    Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.):

    foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis,

    at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, § 121; 18, 7, 10, § 60:

    cum tardissime,

    id. 18, 7, 10, § 51:

    cum longissime,

    Suet. Tib. 38.
    H.
    For co-ordinate clauses with cum... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.
    II.
    Causal, since, because, as.
    A.
    Anteclass., chiefly with indic.
    1.
    With pres. indic.:

    hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt,

    because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8:

    edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides,

    since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—
    2.
    With perf. indic.:

    praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—
    b.
    Independent of such construction:

    jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes,

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz;

    Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur,

    id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego... lacrumo; cf.

    Lubbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in ea re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio,

    Cic. Mur. 6, 13:

    cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare,

    id. Fin. 1, 20, 66:

    quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc.,

    id. Clu. 44, 123:

    quod cum ita sit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.:

    cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta... rei publicae providebo,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.
    a.
    Denoting both cause and coincidence of time:

    vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti,

    Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25:

    cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—
    b.
    Denoting cause without time:

    cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit,

    Cic. Clu. 26, 70:

    quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam,

    id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 22.
    C.
    With adverbs of emphasis.
    1.
    Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because:

    quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus?

    Cic. Arch. 5, 10:

    cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientia liceat uti,

    id. Fam. 1, 10, 1:

    cum praesertim vos alium miseritis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—
    2.
    Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously:

    nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus,

    Cic. Lael. 8, 28:

    numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc.,

    id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eumeneiai, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when:

    omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora,

    Curt. 4, 1, 29.—
    3.
    Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.:

    me incommoda valetudo qua jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii,

    Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.
    III.
    Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., chiefly,
    1.
    With indic.:

    hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—
    2.
    Subj.
    a.
    By construction of principal predicate:

    tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas?

    Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—
    b.
    Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lubbert conjectures quom [p. 496] tu's tam pausillus):

    eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus?

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    With pres. subj.:

    cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22:

    et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpura in veste stragula uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines?

    Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—
    2.
    With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4:

    indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos?

    Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—
    3.
    With imperf. subj.:

    ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas,

    Cic. Deiot. 3, 10:

    hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt,

    id. Clu. 48, 135:

    eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.
    4.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.
    IV.
    Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.
    A.
    Ante-class., mostly with indic.
    1.
    Indic.:

    qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—
    2.
    With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).
    B.
    Class. and post-class., always with subj.
    1.
    Pres. subj.:

    testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in ea... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet,

    Cic. Brut. 7, 26:

    nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est,

    Liv. 21, 31, 11.—
    2.
    Imperf. subj.:

    ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1:

    non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, § 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so,

    quae cum ita essent... tamen,

    although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—
    3.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4:

    patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis,

    id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.
    V.
    In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.
    1.
    With imperf. subj.:

    quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in ea causa, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret?

    Cic. Brut. 55, 194:

    etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis?

    id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, §§ 28 and 29.—
    2.
    With pluperf. subj.:

    quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent?

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, § 30:

    mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis glorianiterentur,

    id. Balb. 6, 16.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Cum2

  • 17 neque

    nĕ-que or nec (used indifferently before vowels and consonants. The notion that nec in class. prose stands only before consonants is wholly unfounded. Ap. Cic. in the Rep. alone we find nec nineteen times before vowels; viz.: nec accipere, 3, 13, 23: nec alios, 2, 37, 62: nec enim, 1, 24, 38; 6, 25, 27: nec esset, 5, 5, 7: nec ex se, 6, 24, 27:

    nec id, 1, 1, 1: nec inportatis, 2, 15, 29: nec in, 6, 23, 25: nec inconstantiam, 3, 11, 18: nec injussu, 6, 15, 15: nec ipsius, 1, 26, 41: nec ipsum, 6, 24, 27: nec ulla, 1, 34, 51: nec ullo, 1, 37, 58: nec una, 2, 1, 2: nec hic, 3, 33, 45: nec hominis, 2, 21, 37: nec hunc, 6, 25, 29. Cf. also such passages as neque reliquarum virtutum, nec ipsius rei publicae,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 41:

    dabo tibi testes nec nimis antiquos nec ullo modo barbaros,

    id. ib. 1, 37, 58:

    nec atrocius... neque apertius,

    id. Tull. 1, 2:

    nec homo occidi nec consulto, etc.,

    id. ib. 14, 34. The true distinction is, that in the form nec the negation is more prominent; in the form neque, the connective force of the particle; cf. Hand, Turs. 4, p. 94 sq.), adv. and conj. [ne-que], not; and not, also not.
    I.
    Adv., like ne, in ante-class. Latinity (v. ne, I.) as a general negative particle, = non, not (usually in the form nec. In class. Lat. this usage seems to be confined to certain formulae, as nec opinans, nec procul abesse, nec mancipi, etc.; v. infra): nec conjunctionem grammatici fere dicunt esse disjunctivam, ut: nec legit, nec scribit: cum si diligentius inspiciatur, ut fecit Sinnius Capito, intellegi possit, eam positam esse ab antiquis pro non, ut et in XII. est: AST EI CVSTOS NEC ESCIT, Paul. ex Fest. p. 162 Müll.:

    SI INTESTATO MORITVR, CVI SVVS HERES NEC SIT, etc., Lex XII. Tab. (v. App. III. tab. 5): SI AGNATVS NEC ESCIT, etc., ib.: magistratus nec obedientem civem coërceto,

    Cic. Leg. 3, 3, 6:

    senatori, qui nec aderit, culpa esto,

    id. ib. 3, 4, 11:

    bruti nec satis sardare queunt,

    Naev. 1, 4; 1, 7:

    tu dis nec recte dicis: non aequum facis,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 11:

    nec recte,

    id. As. 1, 3, 3; 2, 4, 65; id. Most. 1, 3, 83; Cat. 30, 4:

    alter, qui nec procul aberat,

    Liv. 1, 25, 10:

    nec ullus = nullus: cui Parcae tribuere nec ullo vulnere laedi,

    Verg. Cir. 269:

    differentia mancipi rerum et nec mancipi,

    Gai. Inst. 2, 18 sq. —Form neque: si quid tibi in illisce suovitaurilibus lactentibus neque satisfactum est, etc., an old formula of prayer in Cato, R. R. 141, 4: neque opinantes insidiatores, Auct. B. Afr. 66; Auct. B. Alex. 75.
    II.
    Conj., in all periods and kinds of composition.
    A.
    In gen., = et non, and not, also not.
    1.
    Alone.
    (α).
    When the negative applies to the principal verb of the clause: multumque laborat, Nec respirandi fit copia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 3 (Ann. v. 437 Vahl.):

    illa quae aliis sic, aliis secus, nec iisdem semper uno modo videntur, ficta esse dicimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 17, 47:

    delubra esse in urbibus censeo, nec sequor magos Persarum, quibus, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 10, 26; id. N. D. 1, 29, 81; id. Rep. 2, 1, 2:

    quae mei testes dicunt, quia non viderunt nec sciunt,

    id. Tull. 10, 24:

    non eros nec dominos appellabant eos... sed patres et deos. Nec sine causā. Quid enim? etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 41, 64:

    illa, nec invideo, fruitur meliore marito,

    Ov. H. 2, 79.—
    (β).
    Less freq. when the negative applies to some other word:

    nec inventas illas toto orbe pares vires gloriatur,

    Just. 11, 9, 5:

    et vidi et perii, nec notis ignibus arsi,

    Ov. H. 12, 33:

    Anguibus exuitur tenui cum pelle vetustas, Nec faciunt cervos cornua jacta senes ( = et faciunt non senes),

    id. A. A. 3, 77:

    neque eum aequom facere ait,

    Ter. Phorm, 1, 2, 64:

    nec dubie ludibrio esse miserias suas,

    Liv. 2, 23, 14; 2, 14, 2; esp. in the phrases nec idcirco minus, nec eo minus, nec eo secius, neque eo magis;

    thus: nec idcirco minus,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 35, 151:

    neque eo minus,

    Liv. 41, 8, 8; Suet. Oth. 2; id. Vesp. 24:

    neque eo secius,

    Nep. Att. 2, 2:

    neque eo magis,

    id. Eum. 4, 2; id. Paus. 3, 5; id. Att. 8, 5:

    cum consules in Hernicos exercitum duxissent, neque inventis in agro hostibus, Ferentinum urbem cepissent,

    Liv. 7, 9, 1.—
    2.
    So, nec ullus, nec quisquam, for et nullus, et nemo, etc.:

    nec ullo Gallorum ibi viro, etc.,

    Liv. 38, 25, 3; Tac. Agr. 16:

    nec quidquam magis quam ille, etc.,

    Curt. 4, 2, 8.—
    3.
    With vero, enim, autem, tamen:

    neque vero hoc solum dixit, sed ipse et sentit et fecit,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 229:

    nec vero jam meo nomine abstinent,

    id. Rep. 1, 3, 6: nec enim respexit, etc., id. Clod. et Cur. 4, 4; id. Lael. 10, 32:

    neque enim tu is es, qui, qui sis nescias,

    id. Fam. 5, 12, 6:

    nec tamen didici, etc.,

    id. Rep. 2, 38, 64:

    neque autem ego sum ita demens, ut, etc.,

    id. Fam. 5, 12, 6.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Nec [p. 1202] = ne... quidem, not even (in Liv. and later writers;

    in Cic. dub. since B. and K. read ne... quidem,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 2, 7; id. Tusc. 1, 26, 65; id. Cat. 2, 4, 8; cf.

    Hand, Turs. 4, 105 sqq.): ne quid ex antiquo praeter sonum linguae, nec eum incorruptum, retinerent,

    Liv. 5, 33, 11:

    Maharbal nec ipse eruptionem cohortium sustinuit,

    id. 23, 18, 4:

    nec nos,

    id. 3, 52, 9; 34, 32, 9; 37, 20, 8; 38, 23, 3;

    40, 20, 6: non spes modo, sed nec dilatio,

    Just. 11, 8, 4:

    tam pauper, quam nec miserabilis Irus,

    Mart. 6, 77, 1; 5, 70, 6: Juv. 2, 151:

    interrogatus, an facta hominum deos fallerent, nec cogitata, inquit,

    Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 8; Tac. G. 6:

    nec ipse,

    Suet. Claud. 46; Flor. 1, 15, 3; Lact. 5, 13, 12; Amm. 14, 10, 3.—
    2.
    Nec = etiam non (freq. in Quint.):

    ut, si in urbe fines non reguntur, nec aqua in urbe arceatur,

    Cic. Top. 4, 23; id. Fin. 1, 11, 39:

    nec si quid dicere satis non est, ideo nec necesse est,

    Quint. 1, 1, 21:

    quod in foro non expedit, illic nec liceat,

    id. 9, 2, 67; 5, 10, 86; 12, 3, 6;

    2, 13, 7: sed neque haec in principem,

    Tac. A. 4, 34; 3, 29; 2, 82.—
    3.
    Neque (nec)... neque (nec), neither... nor: quae neque Dardaniis campis potuere perire, Nec cum capta capi, nec cum combusta cremari, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 360 Vahl.):

    nam certe neque tum peccavi, cum... neque cum, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 8, 12, 2:

    nec meliores nec beatiores,

    id. Rep. 1, 19, 32:

    mors nec ad vivos pertineat nec ad mortuos,

    id. Tusc. 1, 38, 91:

    virtus nec eripi nec surripi potest umquam: neque naufragio neque incendio amittitur,

    id. Par. 6, 3, 51: neque ego neque Caesar, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 20, 1; cf.:

    haec si neque ego neque tu fecimus,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 23; so,

    non... nec... neque... neque: perspicuum est, non omni caussae, nec auditori neque personae neque tempori congruere orationis unum genus,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 55, 210.—The second nec is rarely placed after a word in the clause ( poet.):

    nec deus hunc mensā, dea nec dignata cubili est,

    Verg. E. 4, 63; id. A. 4, 365; 696:

    sed nec Brutus erit, Bruti nec avunculus usquam,

    Juv. 14, 43.—With a preceding negative, which, however, does not destroy the negation contained in neque... neque:

    non mediusfidius prae lacrimis possum reliqua nec cogitare nec scribere,

    Cic. Att. 9, 12, 1:

    ut omnes intellegant, nihil me nec subterfugere voluisse reticendo nec obscurare dicendo,

    id. Clu. 1, 1:

    nulla vitae pars neque publicis neque privatis, neque forensibus neque domesticis, neque si tecum agas, neque si cum altero contrahas vacare officio potest,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 4:

    nemo umquam neque poëta neque orator fuit, qui, etc.,

    id. Att. 14, 20, 3; 8, 1, 3; Liv. 38, 50, 11.—
    4.
    Neque (nec)... et (que), and et... neque (nec), when one clause is affirmative, on the one hand not... and on the other hand; not only not... but also; or the contrary, on the one hand... and on the other hand not; not only... but also not.
    a.
    Neque (nec)... et (que):

    id neque amoris mediocris et ingenii summi et sapientiae judico,

    Cic. Att. 1, 20, 1:

    animal nullum inveniri potest, quod neque natum umquam sit, et semper sit futurum,

    id. N. D. 3, 13, 32; id. Off. 2, 12, 43; id. Brut. 58, 198; Caes. B. G. 4, 1; Tac. A. 3, 35:

    ex quo intellegitur nec intemperantiam propter se fugiendam esse temperantiamque expetendam,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 14, 48:

    perficiam, ut neque bonus quisquam intereat, paucorumque poenā vos omnes jam salvi esse possitis,

    id. Cat. 2, 13, 28:

    sed nec illa exstincta sunt, alunturque potius et augentur cogitatione et memoriā,

    id. Lael. 27, 104; Ov. M. 2, 42; 811.—
    b.
    Et... neque (nec):

    ego vero et exspectabo ea quae polliceris neque exigam nisi tuo commodo,

    Cic. Brut. 4, 17:

    patebat via et certa neque longa,

    id. Phil. 11, 2, 4:

    intellegitis et animum ei praesto fuisse, nec consilium defuisse,

    id. ib. 13, 6, 13:

    et... nec... et... et,

    id. Tusc. 5, 38, 112.—
    5.
    Neque (nec) non (also in one word, necnon), emphatically affirmative, and also, and besides, and indeed, and:

    nec haec non deminuitur scientia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 4, 4:

    neque meam mentem non domum saepe revocat exanimata uxor,

    Cic. Cat. 4, 2, 3:

    nec vero non eadem ira deorum hanc ejus satellitibus injecit amentiam,

    id. Mil. 32, 86:

    nec vero Aristoteles non laudandus in eo, quod, etc.,

    id. N. D. 2, 16, 44: neque tamen illa non ornant, habiti honores, etc., id. de Or. 2, 85, 347:

    neque tristius dicere quicquam debeo hac de re, neque non me tamen mordet aliquid,

    id. Fam. 3, 12, 2:

    nec non et sterilis, etc.,

    Verg. G. 2, 53; id. A. 8, 461; Suet. Tit. 5.—
    b.
    In Varro and after the Aug. per., nec non (or as one word, necnon) freq. as a simple conjunction = et, and, and likewise, and so too, and also:

    ibi vidi greges magnos anserum, gallinarum, gruum, pavonum, necnon glirium, etc.,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 14; Col. 8, 15, 6:

    nec non et Tyrii per limina laeta frequentes Convenere,

    Verg. A. 1, 707; Plin. 13, 22, 38, § 118:

    nec non etiam poëmata faciebat ex tempore,

    Suet. Gram. 23:

    nec non et ante,

    Vulg. 2 Reg. 23, 13:

    nec non et quasi,

    id. 2 Par. 3, 16. —
    6.
    Neque (nec) dum (also in one word, necdum), and not yet, not yet:

    ille autem quid agat, si scis neque dum Romā es profectus, scribas ad me velim,

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 4; Cels. 5, 26, n. 33; Suet. Aug. 10; Juv. 11, 66:

    necdum tamen ego Quintum conveneram,

    Cic. Att. 6, 3, 2:

    necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses,

    Verg. G. 2, 539; id. A. 11, 70.—Strengthened by tamen:

    philosophi summi, neque dum tamen sapientiam consecuti, nonne intellegunt in summo se malo esse?

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 28, 68; id. Att. 6, 3, 3:

    et necdum (post-Aug.),

    and not yet, Plin. Pan. 14, 1.—
    7.
    Nec... quidem; v. quidem.—
    C.
    Neque = et ne or neve.
    1.
    Expressing negative purpose.
    (α).
    After ut (class.):

    ut ea, quae regie statuit in aratores, praetermittam neque eos appellem, a quibus, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 48, § 115:

    hortemur liberos nostros, ut animo rei magnitudinem complectantur, neque eis praeceptis quibus utuntur omnes, ut consequi posse confidant, etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 5, 19:

    peterent ut dediticiis suis parcerent, neque in eum agrum arma inferrent,

    Liv. 7, 31, 4; 1, 2, 4; 3, 52, 11; 27, 20, 12.—
    (β).
    After ne (not ante-Aug.):

    conspirāsse inde, ne manus ad os cibum ferrent, nec os acciperet datum, nec dentes conficerent,

    Liv. 2, 32, 10; 3, 21, 6; 4, 4, 11; 26, 42, 2.—
    2.
    In a prohibition (rare):

    nec id mirati sitis, priusquam, etc.,

    Liv. 5, 53, 3:

    nec a me nunc quisquam quaesiverit, quid, etc.,

    id. 9, 9, 9:

    nec quicquam raptim aut forte temere egeritis,

    id. 23, 5, 3.—
    D.
    In contrasts, but not, not however (class.):

    ubi aetas tantum modo quaestui neque luxuriae modum fecerat,

    Sall. C. 24, 3:

    gloriosa modo neque belli patrandi,

    id. J. 88, 4:

    consulatus sine ulla patrum injuriā, nec sine offensione fuit,

    Liv. 3, 55, 1:

    oppida oppugnata nec obsessa sunt,

    id. 5, 12, 5; Plin. Ep. 3, 1, 9; Quint. 8, 6, 74; Tac. Agr. 8.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > neque

  • 18 sum

    1.
    sum, fui, esse (2d pers. es, but usu. es in Plaut and Ter; old forms, indic. pres. esum for sum, acc. to Varr. L. L. 9, § 100 Mull.: essis for es, Att. ap. Non. 200, 30, or Trag. Rel. p. 283 Rib.: simus for sumus, used by Augustus, acc. to Suet. Aug. 87; fut. escit for erit, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 20, 1, 25:

    esit, XII. Tab. ap. Fest. s. v. nec, p. 162 Mull.: escunt for erunt,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 24, 60, 3, 3, 9; Lucr. 1, 619; perf. fuvimus for fuimus, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 42, 168:

    FVVEIT, C. I. L. 1, 1051: fuit,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 23; id. Mil. 3, 1, 159:

    fuerim,

    id. ib. 4, 8, 54:

    fuerit,

    id. As. 4, 1, 37; subj. pres. siem, sies, siet, etc., very freq., esp. in Plaut.; e. g. siem, Am. prol. 57; Ter. And. 3, 4, 7:

    sies,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 43; Ter. And. 2, 5, 13:

    siet,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 58; Ter. And. 1, 4, 7; Lucr. 3, 101:

    sient,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 54; Ter. And. 2, 3, 16; cf. Cic. Or. 47, 157; also,

    fuam, fuas, etc., regarded by G. Curtius, de Aorist. Lat. Rel. in Studien zur Gr. u. Lat. Gram. 1, 431 sqq., as an aorist: fuam,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 48; id. Mil. 2, 6, 112: fuas, Liv. Andron. ap. Non 111, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 71; 2, 3, 83; id. Pers. 1, 1, 52; id. Trin. 2, 1, 32: fuat, Pac. ap. Non. 111, 8; Carm. ap. Liv. 25, 12; Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 2; id. Aul. 2, 2, 56; id. Capt. 2, 2, 10 et saep.; Ter. Hec. 4, 3, 4; Lucr. 4, 639; Verg. A. 10, 108:

    fuant,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 110; id. Ep. 5, 1, 13; id. Ps. 4, 3, 12: fuvisset, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4, 4; part. pres. ens, used by Caesar, acc. to Prisc. p. 1140 P.; and by Sergius Flavius, acc. to Quint. 8, 3, 33; fut. inf. fore for futurum esse, very freq., and so always with partt.; cf. Madv. Gram. § 108; whence, subj. imperf. forem fores, etc., for essem; esp. in conditional sentences and in the histt., but very rare in Cic.; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 597 sqq.), v. n. [root es; Sanscr. as-mi, and the Greek es-mi, whence eimi; perf. fui; root in Sanscr. bhu, to become; bhavas, condition; Gr. phuô, to beget; cf.: fetus, futuo, etc.], to be, as a verb substantive or a copula.
    I.
    As a verb substantive, to be.
    A.
    In gen.
    1.
    Asserting existence, to be, exist, live:

    definitionum duo sunt genera prima: unum earum rerum quae sunt: alterum earum quae intelleguntur. Esse ea dico, quae cerni tangive possunt, ut fundum, aedes, parietem, cetera. Non esse rursus ea dico, quae tangi demonstrarive non possunt, cerni tamen animo atque intellegi possunt, ut si usucapionem, si tutelam, etc.... definias,

    Cic. Top. 5, 26 sq.:

    si abest, nullus est,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 16:

    nunc illut est, quom me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim,

    id. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    ita paene nulla sibi fuit Phronesium ( = paene mortuus est),

    id. Truc. 1, 2, 95:

    omne quod eloquimur sic, ut id aut esse dicamus aut non esse,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 157:

    non statim, quod esse manifestum est, etiam quid sit apparet,

    Quint. 3, 6, 81: est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 23 Vahl.):

    flumen est Arar, quod, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 12:

    homo nequissimus omnium qui sunt, qui fuerunt, qui futuri sunt!

    Cic. Fam. 11, 21, 1; cf. id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 15, § 43:

    si quos inter societas aut est aut fuit aut futura est,

    id. Lael. 22, 83:

    nec enim, dum ero, angar ulla re, cum omni vacem culpa: et, si non ero, sensu omnino carebo,

    id. Fam. 6, 3, 4:

    si modo futuri sumus, erit mihi res opportuna,

    id. Att. 11, 4, 1:

    si quando erit civitas, erit profecto nobis locus: sin autem non erit, etc.,

    id. Fam. 2, 16, 6:

    nolite arbitrari, me cum a vobis discessero, nusquam aut nullum fore,

    id. Sen. 22, 79:

    si erit ulla res publica... sin autem nulla erit,

    id. Fam. 2, 16, 5:

    fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium,

    Verg. A. 2, 325:

    sive erimus seu nos fata fuisse volunt,

    Tib. 3, 5, 32: per quinquennia decem fuimus, Prud. Cath. praef. 2.—
    2.
    Of events, to be, happen, occur, befall, take place:

    illa (solis defectio) quae fuit regnante Romulo,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    neque enim est periculum, ne, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 23, 37:

    amabo, quid tibi est?

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 24:

    quid se futurum esset,

    Liv. 33, 27. —
    3.
    Of location, to be present, to be at a place.
    (α).
    With adv., or other expressions of place:

    cum non liceret quemquam Romae esse, qui, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 41, § 100:

    cum Athenis decem ipsos dies fuissem,

    id. Fam. 2, 8, 3; id. de Or. 2, 7, 27:

    cum Africanus constituisset in hortis esse,

    id. Rep. 1, 9, 14:

    cum essemus in castris,

    id. ib. 1, 15:

    nonne mavis sine periculo tuae domi esse quam cum periculo alienae?

    id. Fam. 4, 7, 4:

    vos istic commodissime sperem esse,

    id. ib. 14, 7, 2: te hic tutissime puto fore, Pompon. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 11, A.—
    (β).
    Of passages in a book or writing, with in and abl., to be, stand, be written, etc.:

    deinceps in lege est, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40:

    quid enim in illis (litteris) fuit praeter querelam temporum,

    id. Fam. 2, 16, 1.—
    (γ).
    Of personal relations, with ad or apud and acc., or cum and abl. of person:

    cum esset (Sulpicius Gallus) casu apud M. Marcellum,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 14, 21:

    eram cum Stoico Diodoto: qui cum habitavisset apud me mecumque vixisset, etc.,

    id. Brut. 90, 309:

    erat nemo, quicum essem libentius quam tecum et pauci, quibuscum essem aeque libenter,

    id. Fam. 5, 21, 1:

    qui me admodum diligunt multumque mecum sunt,

    id. ib. 4, 13, 6; cf. with simul:

    Smyrnae cum simul essemus complures dies,

    id. Rep. 1, 8, 13.—Hence, esp.: esse cum aliquo (aliqua), to be with, i. e. live with, associate with, as husband or wife:

    cujus soror est cum P. Quintio,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    ea nocte mecum illa hospitis jussu fuit,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 101; Ov. A. A. 3, 664:

    cum hac (meretrice) si qui adulescens forte fuerit,

    Cic. Cael. 20, 49; Ov. Am. 2, 8, 27: tum ad me fuerunt, qui, etc., Varr. ap. Non. 133, 28:

    Curio fuit ad me sane diu,

    Cic. Att. 10, 4, 8:

    cum ad me bene mane Dionysius fuit,

    id. ib. 10, 16, 1; cf.:

    esse sub uno tecto atque ad eosdem Penates,

    Liv. 28, 18.—
    4.
    Of relations analogous to place, of dress, condition, position, office, etc., to be, live, be found, etc., with in and abl.:

    cum est in sagis civitas,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 32:

    in laxa toga,

    Tib. 2, 3, 78: sive erit in Tyriis, Tyrios laudabis amictus;

    Sive erit in Cois, Coa decere puta,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 297: hominem non modo in aere alieno nullo, sed in suis nummis multis esse et semper fuisse, Cic. Verr [p. 1798] 2, 4, 6, §

    11: in servitute,

    id. Clu. 7, 21:

    in illa opinione populari,

    id. ib. 51, 142:

    in magno nomine et gloria,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 31:

    in spe,

    id. Fam. 14, 3, 2:

    in tanta moestitia,

    id. Phil. 2, 15, 37:

    in odio,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 1:

    in probris, in laudibus,

    id. Off. 1, 18, 61:

    in officio,

    id. ib. 1, 15, 49:

    in injustitia,

    id. ib. 1, 14, 42:

    in vitio,

    id. ib. 1, 19, 62; id. Tusc. 3, 9, 19:

    ne in mora quom opus sit, sies,

    Ter. And. 2, 5, 13:

    ne in mora illi sis,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 9:

    hic in noxia'st,

    id. Phorm. 2, 1, 36:

    quae (civitas) una in amore atque in deliciis fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 3:

    in ingenti periculo,

    Liv. 5, 47:

    in pace,

    id. 31, 29.—So with abl. without in, when qualified by an adj.:

    (statua) est et fuit tota Graecia summo propter ingenium honore et nomine,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 35, § 87:

    si quis asperitate ea est et inmanitate naturae,

    id. Lael. 23, 87:

    ne quo periculo proprio existimares esse,

    id. Fam. 4, 15, 2 (B. and K. ex conj.:

    in periculo): ego sum spe bona,

    id. ib. 12, 28, 3:

    res nunc difficili loco mihi videtur esse,

    id. ib. 12, 28, 3:

    incredibili sum sollicitudine de tua valetudine,

    id. ib. 16, 15, 1; esp. in phrase periculo alicujus esse, to be at the risk of any one:

    rem illam suo periculo esse,

    id. Att. 6, 1, 6:

    ut quae in naves inposuissent, ab hostium tempestatisque vi publico periculo essent,

    Liv. 23, 49, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    dare nummos meo periculo,

    Dig. 46, 1, 24:

    communi periculo,

    ib. 13, 6, 21, § 1 (cf. II. B. 1. b. infra).—
    5.
    To depend upon, rest with, with in and abl.:

    res erat non in opinione dubia,

    Cic. Dom. 5, 11:

    sed totum est in eo, si, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 5:

    omnem reliquam spem in impetu esse equitum,

    Liv. 10, 14, 12:

    quoniam totum in eo sit, ne contrectentur pocula,

    Col. 12, 4, 3. —
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Esse (est, sunt, etc.) often stands without a subject expressed, or with an indef. subj., as antecedent of a rel.-clause, whose verb may be in the indic. or subj.; the former only when the subject is conceived as particular or limited, and actually existing; the latter always when it is conceived as indefinite; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 562 sq.; Roby, Gram. § 1686 sq.; Madv. Gram. § 365; but the distinctions usually drawn by grammarians are not always observed by the best writers; and the subjunctive is always admissible, being the prevailing construction after sunt qui in class. prose, and nearly universal in postAug. writers: sunt, qui (quae), there are those ( people or things) who ( that), or simply some.
    a.
    With indic.
    (α).
    Without subject expressed:

    mulier mane: sunt Qui volunt te conventam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 37:

    sunt hic quos credo inter se dicere,

    id. Cas. prol. 67:

    sunt quae te volumus percontari,

    id. Ps. 1, 5, 47:

    quid est, quod tu gestas tabellas?

    id. ib. 1, 1, 10:

    quid est, quod tu me nunc optuere?

    id. Most. 1, 1, 69; cf.:

    quid hoc est, quod foris concrepuit?

    id. ib. 5, 1, 15:

    tun' is es, Qui in me aerumnam obsevisti?

    id. Ep. 4, 1, 34:

    quid est, quod tuo animo aegre est?

    id. Cas. 2, 2, 9; id. Cist. 4, 1, 3:

    at ego est quod volo loqui,

    id. As. 1, 3, 79:

    est quod te volo secreto,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 30:

    sunt quos scio amicos esse, sunt quos suspicor,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 54:

    ita subitum'st, quod eum conventum volo,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 51:

    sunt quae ego ex te scitari volo,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 13:

    sed est quod suscenset tibi,

    Ter. And. 2, 6, 17:

    est quod me transire oportet,

    id. Hec. 2, 2, 31:

    quid sit quapropter te jussi, etc.,

    id. ib. 5, 1, 7:

    sunt item quae appellantur alces,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 27 init.:

    (nationes) ex quibus sunt qui ovis vivere existimantur,

    id. ib. 4, 10 fin.:

    sunt qui putant posse te non decedere,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 25:

    sunt autem, qui putant non numquam complexione oportere supersederi,

    id. Inv. 1, 40, 72:

    quamquam sunt, qui propter utilitatem modo petendas putant amicitias,

    id. ib. 2, 55, 167:

    sunt autem quae praeterii,

    id. Att. 10, 4, 11:

    sunt, qui abducunt a malis ad bona, ut Epicurus. Sunt, qui satis putant ostendere, nihil inopinati accidisse... Sunt etiam qui haec omnia genera consolandi colligunt,

    id. Tusc. 3, 31, 76 Kuhn. N. cr.:

    sunt, qui, quod sentiunt, non audent dicere,

    id. Off. 1, 24, 84:

    Argiletum sunt qui scripserunt ab Argola, etc.,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 157 Mull.:

    sunt qui ita dicunt,

    Sall. C. 19, 4:

    sunt qui spiritum non recipiunt sed resorbent,

    Quint. 11, 3, 55:

    sunt, quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum Collegisse juvat,

    Hor. C. 1, 1, 3; cf. id. S. 1, 4, 24: sunt quibus unum opus est, etc., id. C. 1, 7, 5:

    sunt quibus in satira videor nimis acer,

    id. S. 2, 1, 1:

    sunt quorum ingenium nova tantum crustula promit,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 47.—
    (β).
    With a subject expressed by an indefinite word or clause:

    sunt alii qui te volturium vocant,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 64:

    est genus hominum qui se primos omnium esse volunt,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 17:

    multae sunt causae, quam ob rem cupio abducere,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 65 Fleck. (Ussing, cupiam):

    erat quidam eunuchus, quem mercatus fuerat,

    id. ib. 3, 5, 21:

    multaeque res sunt in quibus de suis commodis viri boni multa detrahunt,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 57:

    sunt ejus aliquot orationes, ex quibus lenitas ejus perspici potest,

    id. Brut. 48, 177:

    fuerunt alia genera philosophorum, qui se omnes Socraticos esse dicebant,

    id. de Or. 3, 17, 62:

    nonnulli sunt, qui aluerunt, etc.,

    id. Cat. 1, 12, 301:

    sunt quidam, qui molestas amicitias faciunt, cum ipsi se contemni putant,

    id. Lael. 20, 72:

    sunt vestrum, judices, aliquam multi, qui L. Pisonem cognoverunt,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 56:

    multae et pecudes et stirpes sunt, quae sine procuratione hominum salvae esse non possunt,

    id. N. D. 2, 52, 130:

    sunt bestiae quaedam, in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis, etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 14, 38:

    permulta sunt, quae dici possunt, quare intellegatur, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 33, 94; cf. id. Div. in Caecil. 7, 22; id. Off. 1, 14, 43; 1, 20, 69; id. Div. 1, 54, 123:

    fuere complures, qui ad Catilinam initio profecti sunt,

    Sall. C. 39, 5: haec sunt, quae clamores et admirationes in bonis oratoribus efficiunt. Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 152:

    alia fuere, quae illos magnos fecere,

    Sall. C. 52, 21.—
    b.
    With. subj.: sunt, qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem;

    sunt qui nullum censeant fieri discessum,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    sunt qui in rebus contrariis parum sibi constent,

    id. Off. 1, 21, 71:

    de impudentia singulari sunt qui mirentur,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 2, § 6:

    est eisdem de rebus quod dici potest subtilius,

    id. Tusc. 3, 15, 32:

    praesto est qui neget rem ullam percipi esse sensibus,

    id. Ac. 2, 32, 101:

    quicquid est quod deceat, id, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sunt qui nolint tetigisse nisi illas, etc.,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 28:

    sunt qui Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras,

    id. Ep. 1, 1, 78:

    vestes Gaetulo murice tinctas Sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curet habere,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 182 et saep.—
    (β).
    With a more or less indefinite expression of the subject:

    sunt quidam e nostris, qui haec subtilius velint tradere et negent satis esse, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 31:

    rarum est quoddam genus eorum, qui se a corpore avocent,

    id. Div. 1, 49, 111:

    quotus igitur est quisque qui somniis pareat?

    id. ib. 2, 60, 125; id. de Or. 2, 50, 196:

    solus est hic, qui numquam rationes ad aerarium referat,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 38, § 98:

    quae quibusdam admirabilia videntur, permulti sunt, qui pro nihilo putent,

    id. Lael. 23, 86:

    erat nemo in quem ea suspicio conveniret,

    id. Rosc. Am. 23, 65, cf.:

    quis enim miles fuit, qui Brundisii illam non viderit? quis, qui nescierit, etc.,

    id. Phil. 2, 25, 61:

    sit aliquis, qui nihil mali habeat,

    id. Tusc. 1, 35, 85:

    sunt nonnullae disciplinae, quae officium omne pervertant,

    id. Off. 1, 2, 5:

    est quaedam animi sanitas quae in insipientem quoque cadat,

    id. Tusc. 4, 13, 30:

    Syracusis lex est de religione, quae jubeat,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 51, § 126:

    unus est qui curet constantia magis quam consilio,

    id. Att. 1, 18, 7:

    si est una ex omnibus quae sese moveat,

    id. Rep. 6, 26, 28:

    multi sunt, qui non acerbum judicent vivere, sed supervacuum,

    Sen. Ep. 24, 26:

    erant sententiae quae castra Vari oppugnanda censerent,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 30:

    fuere cives qui seque remque publicam obstinatis animis perditum irent,

    Sall. C. 36, 4:

    sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem Possis,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 34:

    sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus,

    id. A. P. 347.—
    * c.
    Poet.: est, quibus (acc. to the Gr. estin hois):

    est quibus Eleae concurrit palma quadrigae: est quibus in celeres gloria nata pedes,

    Prop. 3, 9 (4, 8), 17.—
    2.
    With dat., to belong or pertain to; or, rendering the dative as the subject of the verb, to have ( possess, = the Fr. etre a used of property, and of permanent conditions or characteristics, not of temporary states, feelings, etc.; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 417 sq.): aliquid reperiret, fingeret fallacias, Unde esset adulescenti, amicae quod daret, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 23:

    nomen Mercurio'st mihi, Plaut Am. prol. 19: nisi jam tum esset honos elo quentiae,

    Cic. Brut. 10, 40:

    est igitur homini cum deo similitudo,

    id. Leg. 1, 8, 25:

    familiaritas, quae mihi cum eo est,

    id. Att. 8. 3, 2:

    privatus illis census erat brevis,

    Hor. C. 2, 15, 13; cf.:

    Trojae et huic loco nomen est,

    Liv. 1, 1, 5:

    Hecyra est huic nomen fabulae,

    Ter. Hec. prol. 1:

    cui saltationi Titius nomen esset,

    Cic. Brut. 62, 225:

    cui (fonti) nomen Arethusa est,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 118:

    Scipio, cui post Africano fuit cognomen,

    Liv. 25, 2, 6.—With ellips. of dat. ( poet.):

    nec rubor est emisse palam (sc. ei),

    nor is she ashamed, Ov. A. A. 3, 167:

    neque testimonii dictio est (sc. servo),

    has no right to be a witness, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 63.—
    b.
    Esse alicui cum aliquo, to have to do with, to be connected with a person:

    tecum nihil rei nobis, Demipho, est,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 74:

    sibi cum illa mima posthac nihil futurum,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 31, 77:

    jussit bona proscribi ejus, quicum familiaritas fuerat, societas erat,

    id. Quint. 6, 25:

    si mihi tecum minus esset, quam est cum tuis omnibus,

    id. Fam. 15, 10, 2.—
    3.
    Esse with certain prepp. and their cases (cf. also I. A. 2. 3. 4. supra).
    (α).
    Esse ab aliquo, to be of a person, to be the servant, disciple, adherent, partisan, etc., of:

    es ne tu an non es ab illo milite e Macedonia?

    do you belong to? Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 21:

    ab Andria est ancilla haec,

    Ter. And. 3, 1, 3; 4, 4, 17:

    erat enim ab isto Aristotele,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 38, 160:

    sed vide ne hoc, Scaevola, totum sit a me,

    makes for me, id. de Or 1, 13, 55 (cf. ab, I. B. 3., II. B. 2. o.). —
    (β).
    Esse pro aliquo, to be in favor of, make for:

    (judicia) partim nihil contra Habitum valere, partim etiam pro hoc esse,

    Cic. Clu. 32, 88.—
    (γ).
    Esse ex aliqua re, to consist of, be made up of:

    (creticus) qui est ex longa et brevi et longa,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 183; cf.:

    duo extremi chorei sunt, id est, e singulis longis et brevibus,

    id. Or. 63, 212:

    etsi temeritas ex tribus brevibus et longa est,

    id. ib. 63, 214; 64, 215 (v. also 6. infra). —
    4.
    Euphem., in perf. tempp., of one who has died or a thing that has perished, to be no more, to be gone, departed, dead ( poet.):

    horresco misera, mentio quoties fit partionis: Ita paene tibi fuit Phronesium,

    i. e. had almost died, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 92:

    nunc illud est, cum me fuisse quam esse nimio mavelim,

    id. Capt. 3, 3, 1:

    sive erimus, seu nos fata fuisse velint,

    Tib. 3, 5, 32:

    fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens Gloria Teucrorum,

    Verg. A. 2, 325:

    certus in hospitibus non est amor: errat ut ipsi, Cumque nihil speres firmius esse, fuit,

    Ov. H. 16, (17), 192.—
    5.
    Pregn., to be real or a fact, to be the case; so esp.: est, esto, it is even so, be it so, such is or let such be the case, granted, well, etc.:

    quid tibi vis dicam, nisi quod est?

    Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 17:

    sunt ista, Laeli,

    Cic. Lael. 2, 6:

    ista esse credere,

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 10: est vero, inquit, Africane, id. Fragm. ap. Lact. 1, 18:

    est ut dicis, inquam,

    id. Fin. 3, 5, 19:

    sit quidem ut sex milia seminum intereant,

    Col. 3, 3, 13:

    esto: ipse nihil est, nihil potest,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 15, 47; cf.:

    verum esto,

    id. Fin. 2, 23, 75:

    esto,

    Verg. A. 7, 313; 10, 67; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 81; 1, 17, 37 al.—Hence,
    b.
    The connections est ut, ubi, cum, quod, or with a subject-clause, it happens or chances that, it is the case that, there is cause or reason why, there is a time when, it is allowed or permissible that, one may, etc.
    (α).
    Est ut, it is the case or fact, that, etc.:

    sin est, ut velis Manere illam apud te, dos hic maneat,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 7 (8), 32:

    si est, ut dicat velle se, Redde,

    id. Hec. 4, 1, 43:

    si est, culpam ut Antipho in se admiserit,

    id. Phorm. 2, 1, 40:

    est, ut id maxime deceat,

    Cic. Or. 59, 199:

    quando fuit, ut, quod licet, non liceret?

    id. Cael. 20, 48:

    non est igitur, ut mirandum sit, ea praesentiri, etc.,

    id. Div 1, 56, 128:

    non erat, ut fieri posset, mirarier umquam,

    Lucr. 5, 979:

    futurum esse ut omnes pellerentur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    non est, ut copia major Ab Jove donari possit tibi,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 2:

    est ut viro vir latius ordinet Arbusta sulcis,

    id. C. 3, 1, 9; Dig. 38, 7, 2.—Cf. esse after a neg., with quin:

    numquam est enim, quin aliquid memoriae tradere velimus,

    Auct. Her. 3, 24, 40.—Also, est ut, there is reason, that, etc.:

    magis est ut ipse moleste ferat errasse se, quam ut, etc.,

    Cic. Cael. 6, 14 fin.: ille erat ut odisset primum defensorem salutis meae, he had good reason for hating [p. 1799] id. Mil. 13, 35; cf.:

    quid erat cur Milo optaret,

    id. ib. 13, 34:

    neque est ut putemus ignorari ea ab animalibus,

    Plin. 18, 1, 1, § 3. —
    (β).
    Est ubi, sometime or another, sometimes:

    erit, ubi te ulciscar, si vivo,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 26:

    est, ubi id isto modo valeat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 8, 23.—
    (γ).
    Est cum, sometimes:

    est cum non est satius, si, etc.,

    Auct. Her. 4, 26, 36.—
    (δ).
    Est quod, there is reason to, I have occasion:

    est quod visam domum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 26:

    etsi magis est, quod gratuler tibi quam quod te rogem,

    I have more reason to, Cic. Att. 16, 5, 2:

    est quod referam ad consilium: sin, etc.,

    Liv. 30, 31, 9:

    quod timeas non est,

    Ov. H. 19, 159:

    nil est illic quod moremur diutius,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 6:

    non est quod multa loquamur,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 30.—Cf. with cur:

    non est cur eorum spes infragatur,

    Cic. Or. 2, 6:

    nihil est cur,

    id. Fam. 6, 20, 1.—
    (ε).
    Est, sit, etc., with infin. in Gr. constr., it is possible, is allowed, permitted, one may, etc. (mostly poet. and post-class.):

    est quadam prodire tenus, si non datur ultra,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 32:

    Cato, R. R. prooem. § 1: scire est liberum Ingenium atque animum,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 42:

    nec non et Tityon terrae omniparentis alumnum Cernere erat,

    Verg. A. 6, 596; 8, 676; Sil. 2, 413:

    neque est te fallere quicquam,

    Verg. G. 4, 447:

    unde Plus haurire est,

    Hor. S. 1, 2, 79:

    est Gaudia prodentem vultum celare,

    id. ib. 2, 5, 103:

    quod versu dicere non est,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 87:

    quod tangere non est,

    Ov. M. 3, 478:

    quae verbo objecta, verbo negare sit,

    Liv. 42, 41, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    ut conjectare erat intentione vultus,

    Tac. A. 16, 34:

    est videre argentea vasa,

    id. G. 5; Val. Max. 2, 6, 8; v. Zumpt, Gram. § 227.— With dat.:

    ne tibi sit frigida saxa adire,

    Prop. 1, 20, 13; Tib. 1, 6, 24 (32):

    tu procul a patria (nec sit mihi credere tantum!) Alpinas nives Me sine vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46:

    fuerit mihi eguisse aliquando amicitiae tuae,

    Sall. J. 110, 3; Dig. 46, 3, 72, § 4.—
    (ζ).
    In eo ease ut, etc., to be in a condition to reach the point that, to be possible, etc., to be about to, on the point of, etc. ( impers. or with res, etc., as subj.):

    cum jam in eo esset, ut in muros evaderet miles,

    Liv. 2, 17, 5:

    si viderent in eo jam esse ut urbs caperetur,

    id. 28, 22, 8:

    jamque in eo rem fore, ut Romani aut hostes aut domini habendi sint,

    id. 8, 27, 3:

    cum res non in eo essent ut, etc.,

    id. 33, 41, 9:

    non in eo esse Carthaginiensium res, ut, etc.,

    id. 30, 19, 3; 34, 41. —With person. subj. (late Lat.):

    cum ab Ulixe adducta Iphigenia in eo esset, ut immolaretur,

    Hyg. Fab. 261. —
    6.
    Like the Engl. to be, for to come, fall, reach, to have arrived, etc. (hence also with in and acc.):

    ecquid in mentem est tibi, Patrem tibi esse?

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 54:

    nam numero mi in mentem fuit,

    id. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    ex eo tempore res esse in vadimonium coepit,

    Cic. Quint. 5, 22:

    portus in praedonum fuisse potestatem sciatis,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33:

    ut certior fieret, quo die in Tusculanum essem futurus,

    id. Att. 15, 4, 2:

    qui neque in provinciam cum imperio fuerunt,

    id. Fam. 8, 8, 8:

    quae ne in potestatem quidem populi Romani esset,

    Liv. 2, 14, 4:

    nec prius militibus in conspectum fuisse,

    Suet. Aug. 16:

    esse in amicitiam populi Romani dicionemque,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 20, 66; cf.:

    in eorum potestatem portum futurum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 38, § 98; v. Gell. 1, 7, 16 sq.; Zumpt, Gram. § 316.—
    7.
    Of time, to pass, elapse (rare but class.):

    diem scito nullum esse, quo, etc.,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 3, 1.
    II.
    As a copula, to be any thing or in any manner.
    A.
    In gen.
    1.
    With an adj., subst., or pron.:

    et praeclara res est et sumus otiosi,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 17:

    quod in homine multo est evidentius,

    id. ib. 8, 27:

    sperare videor Scipionis et Laelii amicitiam notam posteritati fore,

    id. ib. 4, 15:

    non sum ita hebes, ut istud dicam,

    id. Tusc. 1, 6, 12:

    cum, ignorante rege, uter esset Orestes, Pylades Orestem se esse diceret, Orestes autem ita ut erat, Orestem se esse perseveraret,

    id. Lael. 7, 24:

    consul autem esse qui potui? etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 6, 10:

    nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati,

    are a mere number, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 27:

    pars non minima triumphi est victimae praecedentes,

    Liv. 45, 49:

    nobile erit Romae pascua vestra forum,

    Prop. 4 (5), 9, 20:

    sanguis erant lacrimae,

    Luc. 9, 811:

    ego tu sum, tu es ego: unanimi sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 49:

    tuos sum,

    id. Bacch. 1, 1, 60: domus non ea est, quam parietes nostri cingunt, Cic. Rep. 1, 13, 19:

    is enim fueram, cui, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 4, 7.—
    2.
    Less freq. with adv. (esp. in colloq. language): Am. Satin' tu sanus es? Sos. Sic sum ut vides, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 57:

    sic, inquit, est,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 60:

    est, inquit, ut dicis,

    id. ib. 1, 40, 63:

    quod ita cum sit,

    id. ib. 1, 45, 69:

    quia sunt haud procul ab hujus aetatis memoria,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 1 B. and K.:

    nec vero habere virtutem satis est,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 2: frustra id inceptum Volscis fuit. Liv. 2, 25:

    dato qui bene sit: ego, ubi bene sit, tibi locum lepidum dabo,

    Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 51:

    apud matrem recte est,

    Cic. Att. 1, 7:

    cum in convivio comiter et jucunde fuisses,

    id. Deiot. 7, 19:

    omnes hanc quaestionem haud remissius sperant futuram,

    id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11:

    dicta impune erant,

    Tac. A. 1, 72.—Esp.: facile alicubi (in aliqua re) esse, with pleasure, glad to be:

    quod in maritimis facillime sum,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 2:

    locum habeo nullum ubi facilius esse possum,

    id. Att. 13, 26, 2 (on esse with an adverb, v. Haase ap. Reisig, Vorles. p. 394; cf. also bene under bonus fin.).—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    With gen. part., to be of, belong to a class, party, etc.:

    in republica ita est versatus, ut semper optimarum partium et esset et existimaretur,

    Nep. Att. 6, 1:

    qui ejusdem civitatis fuit,

    id. Them. 9, 1:

    qui Romanae partis erant, urbe excesserunt,

    Liv. 35, 51, 7: ut aut amicorum aut inimicorum Campani simus;

    si defenditis, vestri, si deseritis, Samnitium erimus,

    id. 7, 30, 9 sq. —
    2.
    With gen. or abl. denoting quality.
    (α).
    With gen.:

    nimium me timidum, nullius animi, nullius consilii fuisse confiteor,

    Cic. Sest. 16, 36:

    disputatio non mediocris contentionis est,

    id. de Or. 1, 60, 257:

    magni judicii, summae etiam facultatis esse debebit,

    id. Or. 21, 70:

    (virtus) nec tantarum virium est, ut se ipsa tueatur,

    id. Tusc. 5, 1, 2; id. Fin. 5, 12, 36:

    Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit,

    Sall. J. 95, 3:

    summi ut sint laboris,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 2:

    civitas magnae auctoritatis,

    id. ib. 5, 54:

    refer, Cujus fortunae (sit),

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 54:

    se nullius momenti apud exercitum futurum,

    Nep. Alcib. 8, 4:

    qui ejusdem aetatis fuit,

    id. ib. 11, 1:

    invicti ad laborem corporis erat,

    Liv. 9, 16:

    nec magni certaminis ea dimicatio fuit,

    id. 21, 60:

    somni brevissimi erat,

    Suet. Claud. 33.—So of extent, number, etc.:

    classis centum navium,

    Nep. Them. 2, 2; 2, 5:

    annus trecentarum sexaginta quinque dierum,

    Suet. Caes. 40.—
    (β).
    With abl.:

    bono animo es,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4:

    jam aetate ea sum, ut, etc.,

    id. Hec. 5, 1, 11:

    bellum varia victoria fuit,

    Sall. J. 5, 1:

    L. Catilina nobili genere natus fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, set ingenio malo,

    id. C. 5, 1:

    Sulla animo ingenti,

    id. J. 95, 3:

    esse magna gratia,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 8:

    tenuissima valetudine esse,

    id. ib. 5, 40:

    si fuerit is injustus, timidus, hebeti ingenio atque nullo,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 15, 45:

    mira sum alacritate ad litigandum,

    id. Att. 2, 7, 2:

    bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares,

    id. Fam. 6, 18, 1:

    ut bono essent animo,

    id. Rep. 1, 17, 29:

    ut uxores eodem jure sint quo viri,

    id. ib. 1, 43, 67:

    qui capite et superciliis semper est rasis,

    id. Rosc. Com. 7, 20:

    abi, quaere, unde domo quis, Cujus fortunae, quo sit patre quove patrono,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 54 (cf. I. A. 4. supra). —
    3.
    With gen. or abl. of price or value.
    (α).
    With gen.:

    pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem,

    Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8:

    videtur esse quantivis pretii,

    Ter. And. 5, 2, 15:

    a me argentum, quanti (servus) est, sumito,

    id. Ad. 5, 9, 20:

    si ullo in loco frumentum tanti fuit, quanti iste aestimavit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 194:

    ager nunc multo pluris est, quam tunc fuit,

    id. Rosc. Com. 12, 33:

    ut quisque, quod plurimi sit, possideat, ita, etc.,

    id. Par. 6, 2, 48:

    magni erunt mihi tuae litterae,

    id. Fam. 15, 15, 4:

    parvi sunt foris arma, nisi, etc.,

    id. Off. 1, 22, 76:

    an emat denario quod sit mille denarium,

    id. ib. 3, 23, 92:

    parvi pretii est quod nihili est,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 4:

    mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo,

    is worth more to me, weighs more with me, id. Att. 12, 28, 2:

    neque pluris pretii cocum quam vilicum habeo,

    Sall. J. 85, 39:

    erat (agellus) centum milium nummum,

    Plin. Ep. 6, 3, 1. —
    (β).
    With abl.: sextante sal et Romae et per totam I i aliam erat, was worth, stood at, Liv. 29, 37.—
    4.
    With gen. of possession, etc., it belongs, pertains to; or it is the part, property, nature, mark, sign, custom, or duty of, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    audiant eos, quorum summa est auctoritas apud, etc.,

    who possess, Cic. Rep. 1, 7, 12:

    ea ut civitatis Rhodiorum essent,

    Liv. 37, 55, 5:

    teneamus eum cursum, qui semper fuit optimi cujusque,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 2, 3:

    quamobrem neque sapientis esse accipere habenas,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 9; id. de Or. 2, 20, 86:

    sapientis est consilium explicare suum, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 333:

    temeritas est florentis aetatis, prudentia senescentis,

    id. Sen. 6, 20:

    est adulescentis majores natu vereri,

    id. Off. 1, 34, 122:

    Aemilius, cujus tum fasces erant,

    Liv. 8, 12, 13:

    tota tribuniciae potestatis erat,

    id. 3, 48:

    alterius morientis prope totus exercitus fuit,

    id. 22, 50:

    jam me Pompeii totum esse scis,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 13, 2:

    hominum, non causarum, toti erant,

    Liv. 3, 36:

    plebs novarum, ut solet, rerum atque Hannibalis tota esse,

    were devoted to, favored, id. 23, 14:

    Dolopes numquam Aetolorum fuerant: Philippi erant,

    id. 38, 3:

    Ptolemaeus propter aetatem alieni arbitrii erat,

    id. 42, 29:

    est miserorum ut malevolentes sint,

    Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 51:

    quod alterum divinitatis mihi cujusdam videtur,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86:

    negavit moris esse Graecorum, ut, etc.,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66:

    non est gravitatis ac sapientiae tuae, ferre immoderatius casum incommodorum tuorum,

    id. Fam. 5, 16, 5:

    est hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 5.—Rarely with pronom. posses.:

    est tuum, Cato, videre quid agatur,

    Cic. Mur. 38, 83:

    fuit meum quidem jam pridem rem publicam lugere,

    id. Att. 12, 28, 2.—
    (β).
    Esp., with gerundive, to denote tendency, effect, etc.:

    quae res evertendae rei publicae solerent esse,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 53, § 132:

    regium inperium, quod initio conservandae libertatis fuerat,

    Sall. C. 6, 7:

    qui utilia ferrent, quaeque aequandae libertatis essent,

    Liv. 3, 31, 7:

    ea prodendi imperii Romani, tradendae Hannibali victoriae esse,

    id. 27, 9, 12:

    nihil tam aequandae libertatis esse quam potentissimum quemque posse dicere causam,

    id. 38, 51, 8:

    frustrationem eam legis tollendae esse,

    id. 3, 24, 1 Weissenb. ad loc.; 3, 39, 8; 5, 3, 5; 40, 29, 11.—
    5.
    With dat. of the end, object, purpose, etc.:

    vitam hanc rusticam tu probro et crimini putas esse oportere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 17, 48:

    etiam quae esui potuique non sunt, contineri legato,

    Dig. 33, 9, 3; Gell. 4, 1, 20:

    ut divites conferrent, qui essent oneri ferendo,

    Liv. 2, 9:

    magis vis morbi curae esset, maxime quod, etc.,

    id. 4, 21, 5:

    cum solvendo aere (i. e. aeri) alieno res publica non esset,

    id. 31, 13:

    iniciuntur ea, quae umori extrahendo sunt,

    Cels. 4, 10 fin. — Esp. in phrase solvendo esse, to be solvent, able to pay:

    tu nec solvendo eras,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 4:

    cum solvendo civitates non essent,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2 (v. solvo).—
    6.
    With predicative dat. sing., denoting that which the subject is, becomes, appears to be, etc.
    (α).
    Without second dat. of pers.:

    auxilio is fuit,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 94:

    magis curae'st,

    id. Bacch. 4, 10, 3; id. Curc. 4, 2, 15; id. As. 1, 3, 23; id. Capt. 5, 2, 13 sq.:

    cui bono fuerit,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 14, 35:

    eo natus sum ut Jugurthae scelerum ostentui essem,

    Sall. J. 24, 10: cupis me esse nequam;

    tamen ero frugi bonae,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 51:

    magnoque esse argumento, homines scire pleraque antequam nati sint, quod, etc.,

    Cic. Sen. 21, 78:

    multi Indicioque sui facti persaepe fuere, Lucr 4, 1019: ejus rei ipsa verba formulae testimonio sunt,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 4, 11:

    haec res ad levandam annonam impedimento fuit,

    Liv. 4, 13:

    cujus rei Demosthenes atque Aeschines possunt esse documento,

    Quint. 7, 1, 2.—
    (β).
    With second dat. of pers.:

    obsecro vos ego mi auxilio sitis,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 9, 5; id. Ep. 5, 2, 11; id. Most. 1, 2, 68:

    ne quid Captioni mihi sit,

    id. ib. 3, 3, 19:

    mihi cordi est,

    id. Cist. 1, 1, 110:

    ubi eris damno molestiae et dedecori saepe fueris,

    id. As. 3, 2, 25:

    metuo illaec mihi res ne malo magno fuat,

    id. Mil. 2, 6, 12:

    nec Salus nobis saluti jam esse potest,

    id. Most. 2, 1, 4:

    bono usui estis nulli,

    id. Curc. 4, 2, 15:

    quae sint nobis morbo mortique,

    Lucr. 6, 1095:

    quo magis quae agis curae sunt mihi,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 46:

    omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: ut mihi magnae curae tuam vitam ac dignitatem esse scires, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A fin.:

    accusant ei, quibus occidi patrem Sex. Roscii bono fuit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 13: haec tam parva [p. 1800] civitas praedae tibi et quaestui fuit, id. Verr. 2, 3, 37, § 85:

    ea dictitare, quae detrimento, maculae, invidiae, infamiae nobis omnibus esse possint,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 62, §

    144: minus ea bella curae patribus erant, quam, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 23, 1:

    sciant patribus aeque curae fuisse, ne, etc.,

    id. 4, 7, 6:

    si hoc perinde curae est tibi quam illud mihi,

    Plin. Ep. 6, 8, 9:

    quantaeque curae tibi fuit, ne quis, etc.,

    id. Pan. 25, 3:

    quantae sit mihi curae,

    id. Ep. 6, 8, 2:

    si judicibus ipsis aut gloriae damnatio rei aut deformitati futura absolutio,

    Quint. 6, 1, 12.—Rarely with dat. gerund:

    nec tamen impedimento id rebus gerundis fuit,

    Liv. 26, 24 (for a full account of this dative, v. Roby, Gram. 2, praef. pp. xxv.-lvi., and § 1158 sq.).—
    7.
    Esse ad aliquid, to be of use for, to serve for:

    vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,

    Cato, R. R. 125:

    completae naves taeda et pice reliquisque rebus quae sunt ad incendia,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101:

    valvae, quae olim ad ornandum templum erant maxime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 56, § 124.—
    8.
    Id est or hoc est, with predic.-clause by way of explanatory addition, that is, that is to say; sometimes also with a climax in the sense, which is as much as to say, or which is the same thing:

    sed domum redeamus, id est ad nostros revertamur,

    Cic. Brut. 46, 172:

    quodsi in scena, id est in contione verum valet, etc.,

    id. Lael. 26, 97:

    meos amicos, in quibus est studium, in Graeciam mitto, id est ad Graecos ire jubeo,

    id. Ac. 1, 2, 8:

    si Epicurum, id est si Democritum probarem,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 6:

    ut (sapiens) aegritudine opprimatur, id est miseria,

    id. Tusc. 3, 13, 27: a parte negotiali, hoc est pragmatikêi, Quint. 3, 7, 1:

    cum in bona tua invasero, hoc est, cum te docuero,

    id. 8, 3, 89.—
    9.
    Poet., with Greek inf. pleonastically:

    esse dederat monumentum,

    Verg. A. 5, 572 (cf.: dôke xeinêion einai, Hom. Il. 10, 269).
    2.
    sum = eum, Enn. ap. Fest., v. is.
    3.
    sum- in composition, for sub before m; v. sub fin.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > sum

  • 19 ut

    ut or ŭtī (old form ŭtei, C. I. L. 1, 196, 4 sq.; 1, 198, 8 et saep.), adv. and conj. [for quoti or cuti, from pronom. stem ka-, Lat. quo-, whence qui, etc., and locat. ending -ti of stem to-, whence tum, etc.].
    I.
    As adv. of manner.
    A.
    Interrog. = quomodo, how, in what way or manner.
    1.
    In independent questions (colloq.; rare in class. prose; not in Cic.): De. Quid? ut videtur mulier? Ch. Non, edepol, mala. De. Ut morata'st? Ch. Nullam vidi melius mea sententia, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 56 sq.:

    salve! ut valuisti? quid parentes mei? Valent?

    id. ib. 5, 2, 107; id. Pers. 2, 5, 8:

    ut vales?

    id. Most. 2, 19, 29; 3, 2, 28; Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 26:

    ut sese in Samnio res habent?

    Liv. 10, 18, 11:

    ut valet? ut meminit nostri?

    Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 12; id. S. 2, 8, 1.—
    2.
    In exclamatory sentences (in all periods of the language): ut omnia in me conglomerat mala! Enn. ap. Non. p. 90, 14 (Trag. Rel. v. 408 Vahl.):

    ut corripuit se repente atque abiit! Hei misero mihi!

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 4, 76:

    ut dissimulat malus!

    id. ib. 5, 4, 13:

    ut volupe est homini si cluet victoria!

    id. Poen. 5, 5, 15: ut multa verba feci;

    ut lenta materies fuit!

    id. Mil. 4, 5, 4:

    ut scelestus nunc iste te ludos facit!

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 47:

    ut saepe summa ingenia in occulto latent,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 61; id. Rud. 1, 2, 75; 2, 3, 33 sq.:

    ut falsus animi est!

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 42:

    heia! ut elegans est!

    id. Heaut. 5, 5, 19:

    fortuna ut numquam perpetua est bona!

    id. Hec. 3, 3, 46; cf. id. Phorm. 5, 8, 52:

    Gnaeus autem noster... ut totus jacet,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21, 1:

    quae ut sustinuit! ut contempsit, ac pro nihilo putavit!

    id. Mil. 24, 64:

    qui tum dicit testimonium ex nostris hominibus, ut se ipse sustentat! ut omnia verba moderatur, ut timet ne quid cupide... dicat!

    id. Fl. 5, 12:

    quod cum facis, ut ego tuum amorem et dolorem desidero!

    id. Att. 3, 11, 2:

    quanta studia decertantium sunt! ut illi efferuntur laetitia cum vicerint! ut pudet victos! ut se accusari nolunt! etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    ut vidi, ut perii! ut me malus abstulit error!

    Verg. E. 8, 41:

    ut melius quidquid erit pati!

    Hor. C. 1, 11, 3:

    ut tu Semper eris derisor!

    id. S. 2, 6, 53:

    o superbia magnae fortunae! ut a te nihil accipere juvat! ut omne beneficium in injuriam convertis! ut te omnia nimia delectant! ut to omnia dedecent!

    Sen. Ben. 2, 13, 1:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. 11.—
    3.
    In dependent questions.
    (α).
    With indic. (ante-class. and poet.): divi hoc audite parumper ut pro Romano populo... animam de corpore mitto, Enn. ap. Non. p. 150, 6 (Ann. v. 215 Vahl.): edoce eum uti res se habet, Plaut. [p. 1940] Trin. 3, 3, 21:

    hoc sis vide ut avariter merum in se ingurgitat,

    id. Curc. 1, 2, 33:

    hoc vide ut dormiunt pessuli,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 66:

    illud vide os ut sibi distorsit carnufex,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 3:

    vide ut otiosus it, si dis placet,

    id. ib. 5, 3, 10:

    illud vide, Ut in ipso articulo oppressit,

    id. Ad. 2, 2, 21; 3, 5, 3:

    viden ut faces Splendidas quatiunt comas?

    Cat. 61, 77:

    viden ut perniciter exiluere?

    id. 62, 8:

    adspicite, innuptae secum ut meditata requirunt,

    id. 62, 12:

    aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo! (= omnia laetantia),

    Verg. E. 4, 52 Forbig. ad loc.:

    nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores, India mittit ebur,

    id. G. 1, 56; id. E. 5, 6; id. A. 6, 779. —
    (β).
    With subj. (class.):

    nescis ut res sit, Phoenicium,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 4, 1:

    oppido Mihi illud videri mirum, ut una illaec capra Uxoris dotem simiae ambadederit,

    id. Merc. 2, 1, 16:

    nam ego vos novisse credo jam ut sit meus pater,

    id. Am. prol. 104:

    narratque ut virgo ab se integra etiam tum siet,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 70:

    tute scis quam intimum Habeam te, et mea consilia ut tibi credam omnia,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 48:

    videtis ut omnes despiciat, ut hominem prae se neminem putet, ut se solum beatum se solum potentem putet?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 46, 135:

    videtisne ut Nestor de virtutibus suis praedicet?

    id. Sen. 10, 31; id. Rosc. Am. 24, 66:

    credo te audisse ut me circumsteterint, ut aperte jugula sua pro meo capite P. Clodio ostentarint,

    id. Att. 1, 16, 4:

    videte ut hoc iste correxerit,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 45, § 115:

    docebat ut omni tempore totius Galliae principatum Aedui tenuissent,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    veniat in mentem, ut trepidos quondam majores vestros... defenderimus,

    Liv. 23, 5, 8:

    aspice quo submittat humus formosa colores,

    Prop. 1, 2, 9:

    infinitum est enumerare ut Cottae detraxerit auctoritatem, ut pro Ligario se opposuerit,

    Quint. 6, 5, 10:

    vides ut alta stet nive candidum Soracte,

    Hor. C. 1, 9, 1:

    nonne vides, ut... latus et malus Antennaeque gemant,

    id. ib. 1, 14, 3 Orell. ad loc.:

    audis... positas ut glaciet nives Puro numine Juppiter,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 7; id. S. 1, 8, 42; 2, 3, 315; Verg. A. 2, 4; Tib. 2, 1, 26; Prop. 2, 34 (3, 32), 57:

    mirum est ut animus agitatione motuque corporis excitetur,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 6, 2.—
    B.
    Relative adverb of manner = eo modo quo, as.
    1.
    Without demonstr. as correlatives: ut aiunt, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 101 Mull. (fr inc. l. 10 Vahl.):

    ego emero matri tuae Ancillam... forma mala, ut matrem addecet familias,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 79:

    apparatus sum ut videtis,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 10:

    verum postremo impetravi ut volui,

    id. Mil. 4, 5, 5:

    ero ut me voles esse,

    id. Capt. 2, 1, 32:

    faciam ut tu voles,

    id. Men. 5, 9, 90: ut vales? Tox. Ut queo, id. Pers. 1, 1, 16:

    ut potero feram,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 27:

    faciam ut mones,

    id. Hec. 4, 4, 97:

    Ciceronem et ut rogas amo, et ut meretur et ut debeo,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 9, 9:

    cupiditates quae possunt esse in eo qui, ut ipse accusator objecit, ruri semper habitarit?

    id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39:

    ut ex propinquis ejus audio, non tu in isto artificio callidior es, quam hic in suo,

    id. ib. 17, 49:

    homo demens, ut isti putant,

    id. Rep. 1, 1, 1:

    cumulate munus hoc, ut opinio mea fert, effecero,

    id. ib. 1, 46, 70:

    non ut clim solebat, sed ut nunc fit, mimum introduxisti,

    id. Fam. 9, 16, 7:

    Labienus, ut erat ei praeceptum, ne proelium committeret nisi, etc., monte occupato nostros exspectabat, proelioque abstinebat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22:

    cuncta ut gesta erant exposuit,

    Liv. 3, 50, 4:

    (Postumius) fugerat in legatione, ut fama ferebat, populi judicium,

    id. 10, 46, 16:

    sed, ut plerumque fit, major pars meliorem vicit,

    id. 21, 4, 1:

    nec temere, et ut libet conlocatur argentum, sed perite servitur,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 17, 2:

    servus, ut placet Chrysippo, perpetuus mercenarius est,

    id. Ben. 3, 22, 1.—Esp. parenthet., to denote that the facts accord with an assumption or supposition made in the principal sentence (= sicut):

    si virtus digna est gloriatione, ut est,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 18, 51:

    quorum etiamsi amplecterer virtutem, ut facio, tamen, etc.,

    id. Phil. 10, 9, 18:

    quamvis fuerit acutus, ut fuit,

    id. Ac. 2, 22, 69; cf.:

    incumbite in causam, Quirites, ut facitis,

    id. Phil. 4, 5, 12:

    tu modo istam imbecillitatem valetudinis sustenta, ut facis,

    id. Fam. 7, 1, 5:

    satis enim erat, probatum illum esse populo Romano, ut est,

    id. Phil. 1, 15, 37.—
    2.
    With the correlative ita or sic: VTI LEGASSIT SVPER PECVNIA TVTELAVE SVAE REI, ITA IVS ESTO, Leg. XII. Tab. 5, fr. 3: alii, ut esse in suam rem ducunt, ita sint;

    ego ita ero ut me esse oportet,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 6, 24 sq.:

    sic sum ut vides,

    id. Am. 2, 1, 57:

    omnes posthabui mihi res, ita uti par fuit,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 15:

    ut viro forti ac sapienti dignum fuit, ita calumniam ejus obtrivit,

    Cic. Caecin. 7, 18.—In partic. with a superlative belonging to the principal sentence, attracted to the relative clause:

    haec ut brevissime dici potuerunt, ita a me dicta sunt (= ita breviter dicta sunt ut dici potuerunt),

    Cic. de Or. 2, 41, 174.—So ut qui, with sup.:

    te enim semper sic colam et tuebor ut quem diligentissime,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 62 fin.; without sic or ita:

    causas ut honorificentissimis verbis consequi potero, complectar,

    id. Phil. 14, 11, 29:

    sed exigenda est ut optime possumus,

    Quint. 12, 10, 38.—And with comp.:

    eruditus autem sic ut nemo Thebanus magis,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 1; cf.:

    ad unguem Factus homo, non ut magis alter, amicus,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 33:

    cocto Chium sic convenit, ut non Hoc magis ullum aliud,

    id. ib. 2, 8, 48.—
    3.
    Doubled ut ut, as indefinite relative, = utcumque, in whatever manner, howsoever (mostly ante-class.; only with indic.):

    gaudeo, ut ut erga me est merita,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 52:

    age jam, utut est, etsi'st dedecori, patiar,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 85:

    utut est, mihi quidem profecto cum istis dictis mortuo'st,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 76:

    utut res sese habet, pergam, etc.,

    id. Most. 3, 1, 14:

    non potis est pietati opsisti huic, ututi res sunt ceterae,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 36; id. Cist. 1, 1, 110:

    sed ut ut haec sunt, tamen hoc faciam,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 46; cf. id. ib. 3, 1, 4; id. Heaut. 1, 2, 26; id. Ad. 2, 2, 40; 4, 4, 22:

    ut ut est res, casus consilium nostri itineris judicabit,

    Cic. Att. 15, 25 B. and K. (dub.;

    v. Orell. ad loc.): sed ut ut est, indulge valetudini tuae,

    id. Fam. 16, 18, 1 dub. (al. ut est).—
    4.
    Causal, as, = prout, pro eo ut.
    a.
    Introducing a general statement, in correspondence with the particular assertion of the principal clause, ut = as, considering... that, in accordance with:

    atque, ut nunc sunt maledicentes homines, uxori meae mihique objectent, lenociniam facere,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 75:

    ut aetas mea est, atque ut huic usus facto est,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 1:

    haud scio hercle ut homo'st, an mutet animum,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 2, 9:

    praesertim, ut nunc sunt mores,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 5:

    atque ille, ut semper fuit apertissimus, non se purgavit, sed, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 25, 51:

    permulta alia colligit Chrysippus, ut est in omni historia curiosus,

    id. Tusc. 1, 45, 108:

    magnifice et ornate, ut erat in primis inter suos copiosus, convivium comparat,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 65:

    Kal. Sextilibus, ut tunc principium anni agebatur, consulatum ineunt,

    Liv. 3, 6, 1:

    tribuni, ut fere semper reguntur a multitudine magis quam regunt, dedere plebi, etc.,

    id. 3, 71, 5:

    transire pontem non potuerunt, ut extrema resoluta erant, etc.,

    id. 21, 47, 3.—Ellipt.:

    mortales multi, ut ad ludos, convenerant (ut fit, si ludi sunt),

    Plaut. Men. prol. 30:

    Epicharmi, acuti nec insulsi hominis, ut Siculi,

    as was natural, he being a Sicilian, Cic. Tusc. 1, 8, 15; so,

    Diogenes, liberius, ut Cynicus... inquit,

    id. ib. 5, 33, 92:

    ceterum haec, ut in secundis rebus, segniter otioseque gesta,

    Liv. 23, 14, 1.—
    b.
    Reflecting the assertion to particular circumstances, etc., ut = for, as, considering:

    hic Geta ut captus est servorum, non malus,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 34:

    ut est captus hominum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 27, 65; Caes. B. G. 4, 3: Themistocles ut apud nos perantiquus, ut apud Athenienses non ita sane vetus, in regard to us, etc., Cic. Brut. 10, 41:

    Caelius Antipater, scriptor, ut temporibus illis, luculentus,

    for those times, id. ib. 26, 102:

    nonnihil, ut in tantis malis est profectum,

    considering the unfortunate state of affairs, id. Fam. 12, 2, 2:

    (orationis genus) ut in oratore exile,

    for an orator, id. Or. 3, 18, 66:

    multae (erant in Fabio) ut in homine Romano, litterae,

    id. Sen. 4, 12:

    consultissimus vir, ut in illa quisquam esse aetate poterat,

    Liv. 1, 18, 1:

    florentem jam ut tum res erant,

    id. 1, 3, 3:

    Apollonides orationem salutarem, ut in tali tempore, habuit,

    id. 24, 28, 1:

    Sp. Maelius, ut illis temporibus praedives,

    id. 4, 13, 1: insigni, ut illorum temporum habitus erat, triumpho, id. 10, 46, 2:

    Ardeam Rutuli habebant, gens ut in ea regione atque in ea aetate divitiis praepollens,

    id. 1, 57, 1:

    vir, ut inter Aetolos, facundus,

    id. 32, 33, 9:

    Meneclidas, satis exercitatus in dicendo, ut Thebanus scilicet,

    Nep. Epam. 5, 2:

    ad magnam deinde, ut in ea regione, urbem pervenit,

    Curt. 9, 1, 14:

    multum, ut inter Germanos, rationis ac sollertiae,

    Tac. G. 30. —
    c.
    Ut before relatives, with subj., as it is natural for persons who, like one who, since he, since they, etc.; seeing that they, etc. (not in Cic.):

    non demutabo ut quod certo sciam,

    seeing that I know it for certain, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 153:

    prima luce sic ab castris proficiscuntur ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicissimo consilium datum,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 31, 6:

    facile persuadent (Lucumoni) ut cupido honorum, et cui Tarquinii materna tantum patria esset,

    Liv. 1, 34, 6:

    inde consul, ut qui jam ad hostes perventum cerneret, explorato, etc., procedebat,

    id. 38, 18, 7:

    Philippus, ut cui de summa rerum adesset certamen, adhortandos milites ratus, etc.,

    id. 33, 4, 11:

    Tarquinius ad jus regni nihil praeter vim habebat, ut qui neque populi jussu, neque auctoribus patribus regnaret,

    id. 1, 49, 3; 25, 23, 3:

    Aequorum exercitus, ut qui permultos annos imbelles egissent, sine ducibus certis, sine imperio,

    id. 9, 45, 10:

    igitur pro se quisque inermes, ut quibus nihil hostile suspectum esset, in agmen Romanum ruebant,

    id. 30, 6, 3; 23, 15, 4; 23, 29, 12:

    omnia nova offendit, ut qui solus didicerit quod inter multos faciendum est,

    as is natural in one who, since he, Quint. 1, 2, 19:

    in omni autem speciali inest generalis, ut quae sit prior,

    id. 3, 5, 9:

    ignara hujusce doctrinae loquacitas erret necesse est, ut quae vel multos vel falsos duces habeat,

    id. 12, 2, 20; 5, 14, 28; 11, 3, 53.—Rarely with participle:

    ne Volsci et Aequi... ad urbem ut ex parte captam venirent,

    Liv. 3, 16, 2:

    gens ferox cum procul visis Romanorum signis, ut extemplo proelium initura, explicuisset aciem, etc.,

    id. 7, 23, 6.—
    d.
    With perinde or pro eo, with reference to several alternatives or degrees to be determined by circumstances, as, according as, to the extent that, in the measure that, etc.:

    perinde ut opinio est de cujusque moribus, ita quid ab eo factum et non factum sit, existimari potest,

    Cic. Clu. 25, 70:

    in exspectatione civitas erat, perinde ut evenisset res, ita communicatos honores habitura,

    Liv. 7, 6, 8: pro eo ut temporis difficultas aratorumque penuria tulit, Metell. ap. Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 126.—
    C.
    Transf. of local relations, like Gr. hina, where (very rare):

    in eopse astas lapide, ut praeco praedicat,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 17:

    flumen uti adque ipso divortio (aquae sunt),

    Lucil. 8, 18 Mull.:

    in extremos Indos, Litus ut longe resonante Eoa Tunditur unda,

    Cat. 11, 2 sqq.; 17, 10; cf. Verg. A. 5, 329; Lucr. 6, 550 Munro ad loc.
    II.
    Conj.
    A.
    Introducing comparative clauses of manner, = eodem modo quo, as, like.
    1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    With sic as correlative:

    haec res sic est ut narro tibi,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 3, 40:

    quae si ut animis sic oculis videre possemus, nemo de divina ratione dubitaret,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 99:

    Pomponium Atticum sic amo ut alterum fratrem,

    id. Fam. 13, 1, 5:

    si sic ageres ut de eis egisti qui jam mortui sunt... ne tu in multos Autronios incurreres,

    id. Brut. 72, 251:

    sic, Scipio, ut avus hic tuus, ut ego, justitiam cole,

    id. Rep. 6, 15, 15:

    ut dicere alia aliis magis concessum est, sic etiam facere,

    id. Quint. 11, 3, 150 (for ut... sic, in similes, v. sic, IV. 1. a.).—
    (β).
    With ita as correlative:

    ut sementem feceris, ita metes,

    Cic. Or. 2, 65, 261:

    quamobrem, ut ille solebat, ita nunc mea repetat oratio populi origines,

    id. Rep. 2, 1. 3:

    non ut injustus in pace rex ita dux belli pravus fuit,

    Liv. 1, 53, 1:

    ut haec in unum congeruntur, ita contra illa dispersa sunt,

    Quint. 9, 3, 39.—
    (γ).
    With other correlatives:

    in balteo tracta ex caseo ad eundem modum facito ut placentum sine melle,

    Cato, R. R. 78:

    encytum ad eundem modum facito uti globos,

    id. ib. 80:

    cum animi inaniter moveantur eodem modo rebus his quae nulla sint ut iis quae sint,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    disputationem exponimus, eisdem fere verbis, ut disputatumque est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 3, 9: scelerum caput, ut tute es item omnis censes esse' [p. 1941] Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 55:

    ut filium bonum patri esse oportet, item ego sum patri,

    id. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    fecisti item ut praedones solent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 9, § 21:

    item ut illo edicto de quo ante dixi... edixit, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 45, § 117;

    so with item,

    id. Or. 60, 202:

    is reliquit filium Pariter moratum ut pater eius fuit,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 21.—With atque:

    nec fallaciam astutiorem ullus fecit Poeta atque ut haec est fabrefacta a nobis,

    Plaut. Cas. 5, 1, 7.—And after aliter = than:

    si aliter ut dixi accidisset,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4, 7.—
    (δ).
    Without correlative:

    rem omnem uti acta erat cognovit,

    Sall. J. 71, 5:

    quare perge ut instituisti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 11, 22:

    apud me, ut apud bonum judicem, argumenta plus quam testes valent,

    id. ib. 1, 38, 59:

    miscent enim illas et interponunt vitae, ut ludum jocumque inter seria,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 12, 2:

    comitetur voluptas, et circa corpus ut umbra versetur,

    id. ib. 13, 5:

    ut in animum ejus oratio, ut sol in oculos, incurrat,

    Quint. 8, 2, 23.—
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    Ut... ita or ut... sic; co-ordinate, introducing contrasted clauses.
    (α).
    = cum... tum, as... so, as on the one hand... so on the other, both and:

    ut errare potuisti, sic decipi te non potuisse, quis non videt?

    Cic. Fam. 10, 20, 2:

    ut Poeni ad moenia urbis Romanae nullo prohibente se pervenisse in gloria ponebant, ita pigebat irriti incepti,

    Liv. 26, 37, 6:

    Dolabellam ut Tarsenses ita Laodiceni ultra arcessierunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 13, 4:

    fert sortem suam quisque ut in ceteris rebus ita in amicitiis,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 28, 3.—
    (β).
    Concessive, = etsi... tamen, although... yet:

    consul, ut fortasse vere, sic parum utiliter in praesens certamen, respondit, etc.,

    Liv. 4, 6, 2:

    Saguntini, ut a proeliis quietem habuerant per aliquot dies, ita non cessaverant ab opere,

    id. 21, 11, 5:

    ut quies certaminum erat, ita ab apparatu operum nihil cessatum,

    id. 21, 8, 1:

    haec omnia ut invitis, ita non adversantibus patriciis transacta,

    id. 3, 55, 15:

    in agrum Nolanum exercitum traducit, ut non hostiliter statim, ita... nihil praetermissurus,

    id. 23, 14, 6; 23, 34, 12:

    uti longe a luxuria, ita famae propior,

    Tac. Agr. 6:

    ut multo infirmior, ita aliquatenus lucidior,

    Quint. 10, 1, 74:

    ut est utilis saepe... ita obstabit melioribus,

    id. 12, 2, 12:

    quod, ut optimum est, ita longe quidem, sed sequitur tamen,

    id. 5, 12, 9; cf. id. 10, 1, 62.—With certe in place of ita:

    ut non demens, crudelis certe videtur,

    Quint. 9, 2, 91.—
    b.
    Ita... ut;

    in oaths or strong asseverations: ita me di amabunt ut ego hunc ausculto lubens,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 22:

    ita me di ament ut ego nunc non tam meapte causa Laetor quam illius,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 8:

    ita me di amabunt, ut nunc Menedemi vicem Miseret me,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    ita vivo ut maximos sumptus facio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 15, 2.—So with sic:

    sic me di amabunt ut me tuarum miseritum'st fortunarum,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 54.—
    c.
    In exemplifications.
    (α).
    In gen., as for example, for instance:

    nam aut ipsa cognitio rei perquiritur, ut: virtus suam ne, etc., aut agendi consilium exquiritur, ut: sitne sapienti, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 29, 112:

    sunt bestiae in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis, ut in leonibus, ut in canibus, in equis, etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 14, 38:

    in libero populo, ut Rhodi, ut Athenis, nemo est civium qui, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 31, 47:

    qui rem publicam constituissent, ut Cretum Minos, Lacedaemoniorum Lycurgus, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 2; id. Ac. 2, 24, 76; id. Inv. 2, 52, 157:

    est aliquid quod dominus praestare servo debeat, ut cibaria, ut vestiarium,

    Sen. Ben. 3, 21, 2:

    est etiam amarum quiddam... et aere, ut illud Crassi Ego te consulem putem? etc.,

    Quint. 8, 3, 89; 4, 3, 12.—Where several instances are adduced, if each of them singly is made prominent, ut is repeated with each;

    if they are taken in a group, ut occurs but once, e. g. quod erant, qui aut in re publica, propter sapientiam florerent, ut Themistocles, ut Pericles, ut Theramenes, aut, qui.. sapientiae doctores essent, ut Gorgias, Thrasymachus, Isocrates, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 59.—
    (β).
    Ut si, if for instance; for example, if, etc.; with subj.:

    ut si accusetur is qui P. Sulpicium se fateatur occidisse,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25:

    ut si quis hoc velit ostendere, eum qui parentem necarit, etc.,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 15, 48:

    ut si qui docilem faciat auditorem, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 26:

    ut si qui in foro cantet,

    id. Off. 1, 40, 145:

    ut si quis ei quem urgeat fames venenum ponat,

    Liv. 6, 40, 12; cf. Auct. Her. 2, 26, 4; 2, 27, 43; 3, 2, 2; Cic. Inv. 1, 49, 92:

    ut si obsessi de facienda ad hostem deditione deliberent,

    Quint. 3, 8, 23:

    ut si des arma timidis et imbellibus,

    id. 12, 5, 2; 5, 10, 34; 2, 4, 18; 9, 2, 79 et saep.—So with cum:

    ut cum marem feminamque filios dicimus,

    Quint. 9, 3, 63; 1, 6, 22; 3, 8, 30; 9, 1, 3.—
    d.
    Before an appositive noun, as, the same as, like:

    qui canem et felem ut deos colunt,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 11, 32:

    ut militiae Africanum ut deum coleret Laelius,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18:

    suam vitam ut legem praefert suis civibus,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 52:

    habuit (ei) honorem ut proditori, non ut amico fidem,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 15, § 38:

    Hannibalem, non ut prudentem tantum virum, sed ut vatem omnium quae tum evenirent admirari,

    Liv. 36, 15, 2: (Dionysium) dimisi a me ut magistrum Ciceronum non lubenter;

    ut hominem ingratum non invitus,

    in his capacity of, Cic. Att. 8, 10:

    qui ante captas Syracusas non desciverant... ut socii fideles accepti, quos metus post captas Syracusas dediderat, ut victi a victore leges acceperunt,

    Liv. 25, 40, 4:

    qui et ipsum, ut ambiguae fidei virum, suspectum jam pridem habebat,

    id. 24, 45, 12:

    Cicero ea quae nunc eveniunt cecinit ut vates,

    Nep. Att. 16:

    et ipsam (virtutem) ut deos, et professores ejus ut antistites colite,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 26, 7:

    hunc ut deum homines intuebuntur,

    Quint. 12, 10, 65:

    id ut crimen ingens expavescendum est,

    id. 9, 3, 35.—
    e.
    Ut si = quasi, velut si, tamquam si, as if, just as if:

    mater coepit studiose... educere ita uti si esset filia,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 37:

    Rufio tuus ita desiderabatur ut si esset unus e nobis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 20, 1:

    ejus negotium sic velim suscipias ut si esset res mea,

    id. ib. 2, 14, 1:

    ita se gerant in istis Asiaticis itineribus ut si iter Appia via faceres,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 6:

    qui aliis nocent ut in alios liberales sint, in eadem sunt injustitia ut si in suam rem aliena convertant,

    id. Off. 1, 14, 42; id. Opt. Gen. 4, 10:

    similes sunt ut si qui gubernatorem in navigando nihil agere dicant,

    like men who should say, Cic. Sen. 6, 17: similiter facere eos... ut si nautae certarent, etc., they act like sailors who, etc., id. Off. 1, 25, 87.—
    f.
    Ut quisque... ita (sic), with superlatives (= eo magis... quo magis, with indefinite subjects): ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime alios improbos suspicatur, the better a man is, the more difficult it is for him to, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    ut quaeque res est turpissima, sic maxime et maturissime vindicanda est,

    id. Caecin. 2, 7:

    ut quisque (morbus) est difficillimus, ita medicus nobilissimus quaeritur,

    id. Clu. 21, 57:

    ut quisque te maxime cognatione... attingebat, ita maxime manus tua putabatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 27; id. Off. 1, 16, 50; 1, 19, 64:

    nam ut quaeque forma perfectissima ita capacissima est,

    Quint. 1, 10, 40.—This construction is variously modified,
    (α).
    With ita understood:

    facillime ad res injustas impellitur ut quisque altissimo animo est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 65. —
    (β).
    With virtual superlatives:

    ut quisque in fuga postremus ita in periculo princeps erat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 90:

    ut quisque optime institutus est, esse omnino nolit in vita, si, etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 20, 57.—
    (γ).
    The superlatives omitted in either clause:

    ut quisque aetate antecedit, ita sententiae principatum tenet,

    Cic. Sen. 18, 64:

    ut quisque aetate et honore antecedebat, ita sententiam dixit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, § 143:

    pro se quisque, ut in quoque erat auctoritatis plurimum, ad populum loquebatur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 27, §

    68: ut quisque gradu proximus erat, ita ignominiae objectus,

    Liv. 9, 6, 1:

    ut quisque maxime laboraret locus, aut ipse occurrebat, aut aliquos mittebat,

    id. 34, 38, 6.—And with tum = ita:

    nec prodesse tantum, sed etiam amari potest, tum... ut quisque erit Ciceroni simillimus,

    in proportion to his resemblance, Quint. 2, 5, 20.—
    (δ).
    With a comparative in one of the terms:

    major autem (societas est) ut quisque proxime accederet,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 19.—
    (ε).
    Without superlative, as, according as:

    de captivis, ut quisque liber aut servus esset, suae fortunae a quoque sumptum supplicium est,

    Liv. 3, 18, 10 (for ut quisque... ita, in temporal clauses, v. B. 3. g infra).—
    B.
    Introducing a temporal clause, the principal predicate being an immediate sequence; orig. = quo tempore.
    1.
    With perf. indic.
    a.
    In gen., as soon as:

    principio ut illo advenimus... continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 49:

    ut hinc te intro ire jussi, opportune hic fit mi obviam,

    Ter. And. 3, 4, 11:

    ut abii abs te fit forte obviam Mihi Phormio,

    id. Phorm. 4, 3, 12:

    ut modo argentum tibi dedimus apud forum, recta domum Sumus profecti,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 19; id. Hec. 3, 3, 5; 5, 1, 26; id. Eun. 4, 7, 12:

    qui ut peroravit, surrexit Clodius,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 2:

    eumque ut salutavit, amicissime apprehendit,

    id. Rep. 1, 11, 7:

    qui ut huc venit... hominesque Romanos bellicis studiis ut vidit incensos, existimavit, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 13, 25; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Brut. 8, 30:

    ut vero aquam ingressi sunt... tum utique egressis rigere omnibus corpora,

    Liv. 21, 54, 9:

    ut haec dicta in senatu sunt, dilectus edicitur,

    id. 3, 10, 9; 23, 34, 6; 24, 44, 10.—
    b.
    In oblique discourse:

    Ariovistum, ut semel Gallorum copias vicerit, superbe et crudeliter imperare,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31.—
    c.
    With primum, when first, as soon as ever:

    atque ego, ut primum fletu represso loqui posse coepi, Quaeso inquam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 15, 15:

    Siculi, ut primum videre volgari morbos, in suas quisque urbes dilapsi sunt,

    Liv. 25, 26, 13: ut primum lingua coepit esse in quaestu, curam morum qui diserti habebantur reliquerunt, Quint. prooem. 13.—
    d.
    Rarely of coincidence in time:

    nam ut dudum adcurrimus ad Alcesimarchum... tum mi puto prae timore hic excidisse Cistellam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 46.—
    e.
    Ut = ex quo tempore. since:

    ut Brundusio profectus es, nullae mihi abs te sunt redditae litterae,

    Cic. Att. 1, 15, 2.—
    2.
    With imperf. indic.
    (α).
    In gen.: Fabii oratio fuit qualis biennio ante;

    deinde, ut vincebatur consensu, versa ad P. Decium collegam poscendum,

    Liv. 10, 22, 2:

    deinde ut nulla vi perculsos sustinere poterat, Quid ultra moror, inquit, etc.,

    id. 10, 28, 20:

    Marcellus, ut tanta vis ingruebat mali, traduxerat in urbem suos,

    id. 25, 26, 15:

    ut vero... exurebatur amoenissimus Italiae ager, villaeque passim incendiis fumabant... tum prope de integro seditione accensi,

    id. 22, 14, 1.— And with perf. and imperf. in co-ordinate clauses:

    consules, ut ventum ad Cannas est, et in conspectu Poenum habebant,

    Liv. 22, 44, 1:

    ut in extrema juga ventum, et hostes sub oculis erant,

    id. 22, 14, 3:

    ut Poenus apparuit in collibus, et pauci... adferebant, etc.,

    id. 24, 1, 6.—
    (β).
    Of repeated past actions, whenever:

    ut quaeque pars castrorum nudata defensoribus premi videbatur, eo occurrere et auxilium ferre,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 4.—
    3.
    With plupf.
    (α).
    = postquam (rare):

    ut hinc forte ea ad obstetricem erat missa,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 4, 10:

    ut ad mare nostrae cohortes excubuerant, accessere subito prima luce Pompejani,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 63.—
    (β).
    In epistolary style = the Engl. perf.:

    litteras scripsi... statim ut tuas legeram (= litteras nunc scribo, ut tuas legi),

    Cic. Att. 2, 12, 4:

    ut Athenas a. d. VII. Kal. Quinct. veneram, exspectabam ibi jam quartum diem Pomptinium (= ut veni, exspecto),

    id. ib. 5, 10, 1.—
    (γ).
    Of repeated past actions, whenever:

    ut cujusque sors exciderat... alacer arma capiebat,

    Liv. 21, 42, 3 dub.:

    ut quisque istius animum offenderat, in lautumias statim coniciebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    ut quidque ego apprehenderam, statim accusator extorquebat e manibus,

    id. Clu. 19, 52:

    ut cuique erat locus attributus, ad munitiones accedunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 81; cf.:

    ut quisque arma ceperat... inordinati in proelium ruunt,

    Liv. 23, 27, 5.—With ita as correl.:

    ut enim quisque contra voluntatem ejus dixerat, ita in eum judicium de professione jugerum postulabatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 15, § 39.—
    4.
    With fut. perf., or, in oblique discourse, plupf. subj.:

    neque, ut quaeque res delata ad nos erit, tum denique scrutari locos debemus,

    Cic. Or. 2, 34, 146:

    traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum... victoriam de Veientibus dari,

    Liv. 5, 15, 11 (for ut after simul, v. simul, VI.).—
    C.
    Introducing substantive clauses, that; always with subj. (cf. ut as interrog. adverb in dependent clauses, I. A. 3. supra).
    1.
    In object clauses.
    a.
    In clauses which, if independent, would take the imperative mood, often rendered by the Engl. infinitive.
    (α).
    After verbs denoting [p. 1942] to wish, request, pray, demand, or invite:

    malim istuc aliis ita videatur quam uti tu, soror, te collaudes,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 18:

    equidem mallem ut ires,

    Cic. Att. 1, 16, 8:

    equidem vellem ut pedes haberent (res tuae),

    id. Fam. 7, 31, 2:

    volo uti mihi respondeas num quis, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 17:

    precor (deos) ut his infinitis nostris malis contenti sint,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 9:

    postulo ut ne quid praejudicati afferatis,

    id. Clu. 2, 5:

    petebant uti equites praemitterent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11:

    tibi instat Hortensius ut eas in consilium,

    Cic. Quint. 10, 34:

    hoc ut aliquando fieret, instabat,

    Sen. Clem. 2, 1, 2:

    illum Dolabellae dixisse (= eum rogasse) ut ad me scriberet (= me rogaret), ut in Italiam quam primum venirem,

    Cic. Att. 11, 7, 2:

    cupio ut quod nunc natura et impetus est, fiat judicium,

    Sen. Clem. 2, 2, 2:

    senectutem ut adipiscantur omnes optant,

    Cic. Lael. 2, 4:

    exigo a me, non ut optimis par sim, sed ut malis melior,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 17, 3.—With ut ne = ne:

    Trebatio mandavi, ut, si quid te eum velles ad me mittere, ne recusaret,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 2; Tac. H. 4, 58 fin. —Also without verb, like utinam, to express a wish;

    esp. in imprecations (ante-class.): ut te cum tua Monstratione magnus perdat Juppiter,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 6, 2:

    ut illum di deaeque perdant,

    id. Eun. 2, 3, 10; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 6.—
    (β).
    After verbs expressing or implying advice, suggestion, or exhortation:

    ego vos hortari tantum possum ut, etc.,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 17:

    quod suades ut ad Quinctium scribam, etc.,

    id. Att. 11, 16, 4:

    tibi auctor sum ut eum tibi ordinem reconcilies,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 26:

    censeo ut iter reliquum conficere pergas,

    I propose, id. Or. 2, 71, 200; Caes. B. C. 1, 2; Liv. 30, 40, 4:

    dixeram a principio ut sileremus,

    I had advised, Cic. Brut. 42, 157:

    Pompejum monebat ut meam domum metueret,

    id. Sest. 64, 133:

    equidem suasi ut Romam pergeret,

    id. Att. 16, 8, 2:

    M. Messalae et ipsi Attico dixit ut sine cura essent,

    exhorted, id. ib. 16, 16, A, 5.—
    (γ).
    After verbs expressing resolution or agreement to do something:

    rus ut irem jam heri constitiveram,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 136:

    decrevistis ut de praemiis militum primo quoque tempore referretur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 2, 4:

    constitueram ut pridie Idus Aquini manerem,

    id. Att. 16, 10, 1:

    statuunt ut decem millia hominum in oppidum submittantur,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 21:

    Hasdrubal paciscitur cum Celtiberorum principibus ut copias inde abducant,

    Liv. 25, 33, 3:

    illos induxisse in animum, ut superbo quondam regi, tum infesto exuli proderent (patriam),

    id. 2, 5, 7; 27, 9, 9; 42, 25, 11:

    ut ne plebi cum patribus essent conubia sanxerunt,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 27, 63:

    servitia urbem ut incenderent conjurarunt,

    Liv. 4, 45, 1.—
    (δ).
    After verbs of command or prohibition:

    imperat Laelio ut per collis circumducat equites,

    Liv. 28, 33, 11:

    illud praecipiendum fuit ut... diligentiam adhiberemus,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 60:

    M. Aemilio senatus negotium dat ut Patavinorum seditionem comprimeret,

    Liv. 41, 27, 3:

    consul edicere est ausus ut senatus ad vestitum rediret,

    Cic. Pis. 8, 18:

    jubet sententiam ut dicant suam,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 50:

    hic tibi in mentem non venit jubere ut haec quoque referret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 28.—With ne:

    iis praedixit, ut ne prius Lacedaemoniorum legatos dimitteret, quam ipse esset remissus,

    Nep. Them. 7, 3.—
    (ε).
    Verbs expressing permission:

    atque ille legem mihi de XII. tabulis recitavit quae permittit ut furem noctu liceat occidere,

    Cic. Tull. 20, 47:

    concedo tibi ut ea praetereas quae, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 19, 54:

    dabis mihi hanc veniam ut eorum... auctoritatem Graecis anteponam,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 23:

    ille tibi potestatem facturus est ut eligas utrum velis,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45:

    illud natura non patitur ut aliorum spoliis nostras facultates augeamus,

    id. Off. 3, 5, 22.—
    b.
    In dependent clauses implying an aim or end.
    (α).
    After verbs denoting direction and inclination of the mind, care, purpose, intention, or striving:

    ut plurimis prosimus enitimur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 2, 6:

    facilior erit ut albam esse nivem probet quam erat Anaxagoras,

    he will be more inclined, disposed, id. ib. 2, 36, 117: ne ille longe aberit ut argumento credat philosophorum, far remote from believing = not inclined, id. ib. 2, 47, 144: qui sibi hoc sumpsit ut conrigat mores aliorum, quis huic ignoscat si, who undertakes to correct, id. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 2:

    navem idoneam ut habeas diligenter videbis,

    care, id. Fam. 16, 1, 2:

    ille intellexit id agi atque id parari ut filiae suae vis afferretur,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 67:

    pater potuit animum inducere ut naturam ipsam vinceret,

    id. Rosc. Am. 19, 53:

    cum senatus temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam,

    id. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    equidem ut honore dignus essem, maxime semper laboravi,

    id. Planc. 20, 50:

    omni contentione pugnatum est ut lis haec capitis existimaretur,

    id. Clu. 41, 116:

    omnis spes ad id versa ut totis viribus terra adgrederentur,

    Liv. 24, 34, 12:

    omnis cura solet in hoc versari, semper ut boni aliquid efficiam dicendo,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 75, 306:

    se miliens morituros potius quam ut tantum dedecoris admitti patiantur,

    Liv. 4, 2, 8; 2, 34, 11.—
    (β).
    Verbs of effecting:

    nec potui tamen Propitiam Venerem facere uti esset mihi,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 6:

    prior pars orationis tuae faciebat ut mori cuperem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 47, 112:

    caritas annonae faciebat ut istuc... tempore magnum videretur,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 92, § 215:

    sol efficit ut omnia floreant,

    id. N. D. 2, 15, 41:

    potest praestare ut ea causa melior esse videatur,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 44:

    non committam ut tibi ipse insanire videar,

    id. Fam. 5, 5, 3:

    di prohibeant, judices, ut hoc praesidium sectorum existimetur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 52, 151:

    effecisti ut viverem et morerer ingratus,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 25, 1:

    quibus nihil aliud actum est quam ut pudor hominibus peccandi demeretur,

    id. Vit. Beat. 26, 6.—
    (γ).
    Verbs of obtaining:

    Dumnorix a Sequanis impetrat ut per fines suos Helvetios ire patiantur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 9:

    quid assequitur, nisi hoc ut arent qui... in agris remanserunt,

    what does he gain, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 55, § 128:

    facile tenuit ut (Chalcidis) portae sibi aperirentur,

    Liv. 35, 51, 6:

    vicerunt tribuni ut legem perferrent,

    id. 4, 25, 13.—
    (δ).
    Verbs of inducing and compelling:

    nec ut omnia quae praescripta sunt defendamus necessitate ulla cogimur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 3, 8:

    civitati persuasit ut de finibus suis exirent,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 2:

    exspectatione promissi tui moveor ut admoneam te,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 8, 1:

    Parhedrum excita ut hortum ipse conducat,

    id. ib. 16, 18, 2:

    ille adduci non potest ut... ne lucem quoque hanc eripere cupiat, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 52, 150:

    impellit alios avaritia, alios iracundia ut levem auditionem pro re comperta habeant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 42:

    ut de clementia scriberem, Nero Caesar, una me vox tua maxime compulit,

    Sen. Clem. 2, 1, 1.—
    (ε).
    After verbs implying duty, right, rule, condition, or possibility:

    cum mihi ne ut dubitem quidem relinquatur,

    not even the possibility of doubt, Cic. Ac. 2, 38, 119:

    obsides inter se dent, Sequani ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant, Helvetii ut sine maleficio transeant,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 9:

    se ita a majoribus didicisse ut magis virtute quam dolo contenderent,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    mea lenitas hoc exspectavit ut id quod latebat erumperet,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    (natura) nobis insculpsit in mentibus, ut eos (deos) aeternos et beatos haberemus,

    id. N. D. 1, 17, 45:

    hoc mihi Metellus non eripuit, hoc etiam addidit ut quererer hoc sociis imperari,

    he gave the additional right, id. Verr. 2, 2, 68, § 164:

    ut vero conloqui cum Orpheo, Musaeo, Homero liceat, quanti tandem aestimatis?

    the privilege of conversing, id. Tusc. 1, 41, 98:

    respondet Socrates sese meruisse ut amplissimis honoribus decoraretur,

    id. Or. 1, 54, 272:

    meruit ut suspendatur,

    Sen. Ep. 7, 5:

    quia enim non sum dignus prae te ut figam palum in parietem,

    Plaut. Mil. 4, 4, 4.—So after dignus, Liv. 24, 16, 19; Quint. 8, 5, 12.—
    c.
    After verbs of fearing, where ut implies a wish contrary to the fear; that not:

    rem frumentariam, ut satis commode supportari posset, timere se dicebant,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 39:

    vereor ut satis diligenter actum sit in senatu de litteris meis,

    Cic. Att. 6, 4, 2:

    verebar ut redderentur,

    id. Fam. 12, 19, 1:

    sin homo amens diripiendam urbem daturus est, vereor ut Dolabella ipse satis nobis prodesse possit,

    id. ib. 14, 14, 1:

    veretur Hiempsal ut foedus satis firmum sit,

    id. Leg. 2, 22, 58:

    timeo ut sustineas,

    id. Fam. 14, 2, 3:

    o puer, ut sis vitalis, metuo, et majorum ne quis amicus Frigore te feriat,

    Hor. S. 2, 1, 60.— So sometimes after video, with weakened force: vide ut sit, nearly = perhaps it is not (cf. Roby, Gr. 2, p. 280): considerabitis, vestri similes feminae sintne Romae;

    si enim non sunt, videndum est, ut honeste vos esse possitis,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 1.—Very rarely ut stands for ne after verbs of fearing:

    quia nihil minus, quam ut egredi obsessi moenibus auderent, timeri poterat,

    Liv. 28, 22, 12 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    ut ferula caedas meritum... non vereor,

    Hor. S. 1, 3, 120 Jan. and Orell. ad loc. —
    d.
    In interrogative clauses represented as untrue, rejecting a supposition or thought with indignation (nearly = fierine potest ut):

    me ut quisquam norit, nisi ille qui praebet cibum?

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 52:

    te ut ulla res frangat, tu ut umquam te corrigas?

    Cic. Cat. 1, 9, 22:

    egone ut te interpellem?

    id. Tusc. 2, 18, 42:

    pater ut in judicio capitis obesse filio debeat?

    id. Planc. 13, 31:

    egone ut prolis meae fundam cruorem?

    Sen. Med. 927.—
    2.
    In subject clauses, with impersonal predicates.
    a.
    With a predicate adjective.
    (α).
    With the idea of rule, duty, etc.:

    id arbitror Adprime in vita utile esse, ut ne quid nimis,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 34:

    reliquum est ut de Catuli sententia dicendum videatur,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 20, 59:

    praeclarum est et verum ut eos qui nobis carissimi esse debeant, aeque ac nosmet ipsos amemus,

    id. Tusc. 3, 29, 73:

    ergo hoc sit primum ut demonstremus quem imitetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 22, 90:

    proximum est ut doceam, etc.,

    id. N. D. 2, 29, 73:

    extremum est ut te orem, etc.,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 7:

    ei (Dionysio) ne integrum quidem erat ut ad justitiam remigraret,

    permission, id. Tusc. 5, 21, 62. —With predicates, aequum est, par (anteclass. and rare):

    aequom videtur tibi ut ego alienum quod est Meum esse dicam?

    Plaut. Rud. 4, 7, 4:

    non par videtur... praesente ibus una paedagogus ut siet,

    id. Bacch. 1, 2, 31.—
    (β).
    In clauses expressing result and consequence:

    magnificum illud etiam et gloriosum ut Graecis de philosophia litteris non egeant, illud,

    that result of my labors, Cic. Div. 2, 2, 5:

    consentaneum est huic naturae ut sapiens velit gerere et administrare rem publicam,

    id. Fin. 3, 20, 68. —
    (γ).
    In clauses represented as real, true, false, certain, or probable (where the acc. and inf. might be used):

    concedetur verum esse ut bonos boni diligant,

    Cic. Lael. 14, 50: sin autem illa veriora ut idem interitus animorum et corporum, etc., id. ib 4, 14; cf.:

    concedant ut hi viri boni fuerin (= concedant vere factum esse ut, etc.),

    id. ib. 5, 18:

    si verum est ut populus Romanus omnis gentes virtute superarit, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 1:

    de ipso Roscio potest illud quidem esse falsum ut circumligatus fuerit, angui,

    Cic. Div. 2, 31, 66:

    non est verisimile ut Chrysogonus horum litteras adamarit aut humanitatem,

    id. Rosc. Am. 41, 121:

    deos verisimile est ut alios indulgentius tractent propter parentis, alios propter futuram posterorum indolem,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 32, 1; so,

    rarum est ut,

    Quint. 3, 19, 3:

    quid tam inusitatum quam ut, etc.,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 21, 62.—And after potius:

    multi ex plebe spe amissa potius quam ut cruciarentur... se in Tiberim praecipitaverunt,

    Liv. 4, 12, 11.—
    b.
    With predicate nouns.
    (α).
    Expressing the idea of a verb which would require an object clause, with ut:

    quoniam ut aliter facias non est copia,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 30:

    Romano in hostico morandi causa erat ut hostem ad certamen eliceret,

    Liv. 6, 31, 7:

    vetus est lex amicitiae ut idem amici semper velint,

    Cic. Planc. 2, 5:

    consensus fuit senatus ut mature proficisceremur (= decretum est a senatu),

    id. Fam. 3, 3, 1:

    fuit hoc sive meum, sive rei publicae fatum ut in me unum omnis illa inclinatio temporum incumberet,

    ordained by fate, id. Balb. 26, 58:

    tempus est ut eamus ad forum,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 72:

    dicasque tempus maximum esse ut eat,

    id. ib. 4, 3, 9:

    primum est officium ut homo se conservet in naturae statu,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 6, 20:

    ejus culturae hoc munus est ut efficiat, etc.,

    id. ib. 4, 14, 38:

    caput illud est ut Lyconem recipias in necessitudinem tuam,

    duty, id. Fam. 13, 19, 3; so,

    caput est ut, etc.,

    id. de Or. 1, 19, 87:

    fuit hoc quoddam inter Scipionem et Laelium jus ut Scipio Laelium observaret parentis loco,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18:

    mea ratio in dicendo haec esse solet ut boni quod habeat id amplectar,

    id. de Or. 2, 72, 292; so,

    ratio est ut,

    id. Verr. 1, 11, 34: est mos hominum ut [p. 1943] nolint eundem pluribus excellere, id. Brut. 21, 84:

    est hoc Gallicae consuetudinis ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 5.—
    (β).
    Expressing result and consequence:

    est hoc commune vitium in magnis liberisque civitatibus ut invidia gloriae comes sit,

    Nep. Chabr. 3, 3.—
    c.
    With impersonal verbs.
    (α).
    Including the idea of a verb requiring an object clause, with ut:

    convenit, victi utri sint eo proelio, urbem, agrum... seque uti dederent,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 71:

    mihi cum Dejotaro convenit ut ille in meis castris esset,

    Cic. Att. 6, 1, 14:

    placitum est ut in aprico loco considerent,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18:

    postea mihi placuit ut, etc.,

    id. Or. 1, 34, 155:

    ad Appii Claudii senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecus esset,

    id. Sen. 6, 16.—So after fit, it happens:

    fit ut natura ipsa ad ornatius dicendi genus incitemur,

    Cic. Or. 2, 83, 338:

    potest fieri ut res verbosior haec fuerit, illa verior,

    it may be that, id. Att. 8, 3, 6; id. Ac. 2, 11, 36; id. Verr. 2, 2, 77, § 190.—

    So with accidit, evenit, contigit: accidit... ut illo itinere veniret Lampsacum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63; so id. Imp. Pomp. 9, 25:

    sed tamen hoc evenit ut in vulgus insipientium opinio valeat,

    id. Tusc. 2, 26, 63:

    utinam Caesari contigisset ut esset optimo cuique carissimus,

    id. Phil. 5, 18, 49.—
    (β).
    Denoting consequence:

    ex quo efficitur ut quidquid honestum sit, idem sit utile,

    Cic. Off. 2, 3, 10:

    sequitur ut dicamus quae beneficia danda sint et quemadmodum,

    Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 1:

    sequitur ut causa ponatur,

    Cic. Or. 2, 81, 331.—
    (γ).
    Est, in the meaning fit, or causa est:

    est ut plerique philosophi nulla tradant praecepta dicendi,

    it is a fact that, Cic. Or. 2, 36, 152:

    non est igitur ut mirandum sit ea praesentiri,

    there is no reason for wondering, id. Div. 1, 56, 128:

    quando fuit ut quod licet non liceret?

    id. Cael. 20, 48; so, in eo est ut, prope est ut, to be on the point of, to be near to:

    jam in eo rem fore ut Romani aut hostes aut domini habendi sint,

    Liv. 8, 27, 3:

    cum jam in eo esset ut comprehenderetur,

    Nep. Paus. 5, 1; id. Milt. 7, 3:

    jam prope erat ut ne consulum quidem majestas coerceret iras hominum,

    Liv. 2, 23, 14:

    prope est ut lamentationem exigat,

    Sen. Clem. 2, 6, 4.— Here belongs the circumlocution of the periphrastic future by futurum esse or fore, with ut; generally in the inf.:

    arbitrabar fore ut lex de pecuniis repetundis tolleretur,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 14, 41.—Very rarely in the indic.:

    futurum est ut sapiam,

    Sen. Ep. 117, 29.—
    3.
    In attributive clauses, dependent on nouns not belonging to the predicate.
    a.
    With the idea of resolve, etc.:

    vicit sententia ut mitterentur coloni,

    Liv. 9, 26, 4:

    sententiam dixit (= censuit) ut judicum comitia haberentur,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1, 2; id. Fam. 4, 4, 5; id. Tusc. 5, 41, 119; id. Leg. 3, 15, 33.—
    b.
    Of agreement:

    fide accepta ut remitterent eum,

    Liv. 24, 48, 8. —
    c.
    Of law, rule, etc.:

    praetores rogationem promulgarunt ut omnes regiae stirpis interficerentur,

    Liv. 24, 25, 10:

    senatus consultum factum est ut M. Fulvius litteras extemplo ad consulem mitteret,

    id. 35, 24, 2:

    haec ei est proposita condicio ut aut juste accusaret aut acerbe moreretur,

    Cic. Clu. 14, 42:

    Suevi in eam se consuetudinem induxerunt ut locis frigidissimis lavarentur in fluminibus,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 1.—
    d.
    Of duty:

    jusjurandum poscit ut quod esse ex usu Galliae intellexissent, communi consilio administrarent,

    Caes. B. G. 8, 6. —
    e.
    Of purpose, inclination, etc.:

    vobis dent di mentem oportet ut prohibeatis, etc.,

    make you inclined, Liv. 6, 18, 9:

    causa mihi fuit huc veniendi ut quosdam hinc libros promerem,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 2, 8:

    confectio tabularum hanc habet vim (= efficit) ut quidquid fingatur aut non constet, appareat,

    id. Font. 2, 3.—
    f.
    Of effect, result, etc.:

    fuit ista quondam virtus ut viri fortes acrioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum quam hostem everterent,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 1, 3:

    habet hoc virtus ut viros fortis species ejus et pulchritudo etiam in hoste posita delectet,

    id. Pis. 32, 81:

    damnatum poenam sequi oportebat ut igni cremaretur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 4.—
    4.
    In clauses of manner, that, so that.
    a.
    With ita, sic, adeo, tantus, talis, or tam as antecedent (v. hh. vv.;

    anteclass. ut qui = ut): Adeon' me fungum fuisse ut qui illi crederem?

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 49.—
    b.
    With is or hic as antecedent: eos deduxi testes et eas litteras deportavi ut de istius facto dubium esse nemini possit, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 42, § 91:

    ejusmodi res publica debet esse ut inimicus neque deesse nocenti possit, neque obesse innocenti (ejusmodi = talis),

    id. ib. 2, 3, 69, §

    162: eo perducam servum ut in multa liber sit,

    Sen. Ben. 3, 19, 2:

    non eo loco res humanae sunt ut vobis tantum otii supersit,

    id. Vit. Beat. 27, 6:

    haec aequitas in tuo imperio fuit, haec praetoris dignitas ut servos Siculorum dominos esse velles,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 38, § 87:

    hoc jure sunt socii ut eis ne deplorare quidem de suis incommodis liceat,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 27, § 65.—
    c.
    Without antecedents, so that:

    cujus aures clausae veritati sunt ut ab amico verum audire nequeat, hujus salus desperanda est,

    Cic. Lael. 24, 90:

    in virtute multi sunt ascensus, ut is maxima gloria excellat qui virtute plurimum praestet,

    id. Planc. 25, 60:

    mons altissimus impendebat ut perpauci prohibere possent,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 6:

    accessit quod Domitius Heraclea iter fecerat, ut ipsa fortuna illum obicere Pompejo videretur,

    id. B. C. 3, 79:

    pecunia a patre exacta crudeliter, ut divenditis omnibus bonis aliquamdiu trans Tiberim veluti relegatus viveret,

    Liv. 3, 13, 10:

    fama Gallici belli pro tumultu valuit ut et dictatorem dici placeret,

    id. 8, 17, 6:

    nihilo minus... magnas percipiendum voluptates, ut fatendum sit, etc.,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 12, 1.—
    d.
    Idiomat. with non.
    (α).
    Ut non, when the principal sentence is negative, without: non possunt una in civitate multi rem ac fortunam amittere ut non plures secum in eandem trahant calamitatem, without dragging, etc., Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19:

    flaminem Quirinalem neque mittere a sacris neque retinere possumus ut non deum aut belli deseramus curam,

    Liv. 24, 8, 10:

    non ita fracti animi civitatis erant ut non sentirent, etc.,

    id. 45, 25, 12:

    nusquam oculi ejus flectentur ut non quod indignentur inveniant,

    Sen. Ira, 2, 7, 2:

    ajunt, nec honeste quemquam vivere ut non jucunde vivat, nec jucunde ut non honeste quoque,

    id. Vit. Beat. 6, 3:

    nemo in eo quod daturus es gratiam suam facere potest ut non tuam minuat,

    id. Ben. 2, 4, 3; cf. also: ut non conferam vitam neque existimationem tuam cum illius;

    neque enim est conferenda (= ut omittam conferre),

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 20, § 45.—
    (β).
    Non ut, followed by sed quod, causal (= non quod, sed quod;

    rare): earum exempla tibi misi non ut deliberarem reddendaene essent, sed quod non dubito, etc.,

    not that... but because, Cic. Att. 14, 17, 4:

    haec ad te scribo non ut queas tu demere solitudinem, sed, etc.,

    id. ib. 11, 15, 3.—Followed by sed ut:

    benigne accipe (beneficium): rettulisti gratiam, non ut solvisse te putes, sed ut securior debeas,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 35, 5; and in reversed order: quorsum haec praeterita? Quia sequitur illud, etc.;

    non ut eas res causam adferrent amoris,

    Cic. Fat. 15, 35.—Rarely nedum ut, in the sense of nedum alone, much less that, not to mention that (mostly post-class.; cf.

    Zumpt, Gram. § 573): ne voce quidem incommoda, nedum ut illa vis fieret, paulatim permulcendo mansuefecerant plebem,

    Liv. 3, 14, 6 Weissenb. ad loc.:

    quando enim... fama in totam urbem penetrat? nedum ut per tot provincias innotescat,

    Tac. Or. 10.—
    e.
    Conditional or concessive.
    (α).
    Granting that ( for argument's sake):

    quod ut ita sit—nihil enim pugno—quid habet ista res aut laetabile aut gloriosum?

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 21, 49:

    sed ut haec concedantur, reliqua qui tandem intellegi possunt?

    id. N. D. 3, 16, 41:

    ut tibi concedam hoc indignum esse, tu mihi concedas necesse est, etc.,

    id. Clu. 53, 146:

    quae, ut essent vera, conjungi debuerunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 15, 40:

    quae natura ut uno consensu juncta sit et continens... quid habere mundus potest cum thesauri inventione conjunctum?

    id. Div. 2, 14, 33:

    nihil est prudentia dulcius, quam, ut cetera auferat, adfert certe senectus,

    id. Tusc. 1, 39, 94.—
    (β).
    Even if, although:

    qui (exercitus) si pacis... nomen audiverit, ut non referat pedem, insistet certe,

    Cic. Phil. 12, 3, 8:

    ut ea pars defensionis relinquatur, quid impediet actionem? etc.,

    id. Ac. 2, 34, 108:

    ut quaeras omnia, quomodo Graeci ineptum appellant non reperies,

    id. de Or. 2, 4, 18:

    ut enim neminem alium nisi T. Patinam rogasset, scire potuit, illo ipso die a Milone prodi flaminem,

    id. Mil. 17, 46: verum ut hoc non sit, tamen praeclarum spectaculum mihi propono, id. Att. 2, 15; id. Leg. 1, 8, 23; id. Fat. 5, 9; id. Verr. 2, 3, 64, § 151; 2, 1, 45, § 117; id. Planc. 25, 62:

    qui, ut non omnis peritissimus sim belli, cum Romanis certe bellare didici,

    Liv. 36, 7, 20:

    neque equites armis equisque salvis tantum vim fluminis superasse verisimile est, ut jam Hispanos omnes inflati travexerint utres,

    id. 21, 47, 5:

    at enim, ut jam ita sint haec, quid ad vos, Romani?

    id. 34, 32, 13:

    ut jam Macedonia deficiat,

    id. 42, 12, 10:

    cum jam ut virtus vestra transire alio possit, fortuna certe loci hujus transferri non possit,

    id. 5, 54, 6; 22, 50, 2; cf.:

    ac jam ut omnia contra opinionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 9:

    ut desint vires tamen est laudanda voluntas,

    Ov. P. 3, 4, 79:

    ut dura videatur appellatio, tamen sola est,

    Quint. 3, 8, 25; 6, prooem. 15.—Ut maxime = si maxime:

    quaere rationem cur ita videatur: quam ut maxime inveneris... non tu verum testem habere, sed eum non sine causa falsum testimonium dicere ostenderis,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 25, 81.—With nihilominus:

    quae (res) nihilominus, ut ego absim, confici poterunt,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 2, 2.—
    (γ).
    Provided that:

    ambulatiuncula, ut tantum faciamus quantum in Tusculano fecimus, prope dimidio minoris constabit isto loco,

    Cic. Att. 13, 39, 2: dabo egenti, sed ut ipse non egeam;

    succurram perituro, sed ut ipse non peream,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 15, 1.—
    5.
    In clauses of purpose (final clauses; distinguished from object clauses with ut; v. C. 1., in which the verb itself contains the idea of purpose, the clause completing the idea of the verb), in order that, so that, so as to.
    a.
    In gen.:

    quin voco, ut me audiat, nomine illam suo?

    Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 17:

    haec acta res est uti nobiles restituerentur in civitatem,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 51, 149:

    intellego, tempus hoc vobis divinitus datum esse ut odio... totum ordinem liberetis,

    id. Verr. 1, 15, 43:

    Caesar singulis legionibus singulos legatos praefecit uti eos testes suae quisque virtutis haberet,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 52.—And with ut ne, instead of ne, lest:

    id ut ne fiat, haec res sola est remedio,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 49; v. 1. ne, I. B. 4. a.—Very rarely, ut non for ne, expressing a negative purpose:

    ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem quantum valeat (= ut praeteream),

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; cf. d. a fin. supra.—
    b.
    Esp., after certain antecedents.
    (α).
    After id, for the purpose (ante-class.):

    id huc reverti uti me purgarem tibi,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 28.—
    (β).
    After idcirco:

    idcirco amicitiae comparantur ut commune commodum mutuis officiis gubernetur,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 111:

    legum idcirco omnes servi sumus ut liberi esse possimus,

    id. Clu. 53, 146; id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137.—
    (γ).
    After ideo and eo:

    non ideo Rhenum insedimus ut Italiam tueremur, sed ne quis, etc.,

    Tac. H. 4, 73:

    Marionem ad te eo misi ut aut tecum ad me quam primum veniret, aut, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 16, 1, 1.—
    (δ).
    After ad eam rem, ad hoc, in hoc:

    ad eam rem vos delecti estis ut eos condemnaretis quos sectores jugulare non potuissent?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 52, 151:

    praebere se facilem ad hoc ut quem obligavit etiam exsolvi velit?

    Sen. Ben. 2, 17, 6:

    homo natus in hoc ut mores liberae civitatis Persica servitute mutaret,

    id. ib. 2, 12, 2.—
    (ε).
    After ea mente, hac mente:

    navis onerarias Dolabella ea mente comparavit ut Italiam peteret,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 14, 1:

    hac mente laborem Sese ferre senes ut in otia tuta recedant Ajunt,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 30.—
    (ζ).
    After potius quam:

    potius ad delendam memoriam dedecoris, quam ut timorem faciat,

    Liv. 6, 28, 8:

    potius quodcumque casus ferat passuros, quam ut sprevisse Tarentinos videantur,

    id. 9, 14, 8.—
    c.
    Idiomat.
    (α).
    With the principal predicate, referring to the conception of the writer, understood; mostly parenthet. = the Engl. inf.: ut in pauca conferam, testamento facto mulier moritur, to be brief, etc., Cic. Caecin. 6, 17:

    ecquid tibi videtur, ut ad fabulas veniamus, senex ille Caecilianus minoris facere filium rusticum?

    to come to the drama, id. Rosc. Am. 16, 46:

    reliquum judicium de judicibus, et, vere ut dicam, de te futurum est,

    to tell the truth, id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, § 177:

    Murena, si nemini, ut levissime dicam, odio fuit,

    to say the least, id. Mur. 40, 87: ut nihil de illo tempore, nihil de calamitate rei publicae [p. 1944] querar, hoc tibi respondeo, etc., not to complain of that time, etc., id. Caecin. 33, 95: quae cum se disposuit, et partibus suis consensit, et, ut ita dicam concinuit, summum bonum tetigit, and, so to speak, chimes in, etc., Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5:

    ecce— ut idem in singulos annos orbis volveretur —Hernici nuntiant Volscos et Aequos reficere, etc.,

    Liv. 3, 10, 8.—
    (β).
    Satis ut, enough to (lit. enough for the purpose of):

    satis esse magna incommoda accepta ut reliquos casus timerent,

    disasters large enough to make them afraid, Caes. B. C. 3, 10.—
    (γ).
    Quam ut after comparatives, too much to:

    quod praeceptum, quia major erat quam ut ab homine videretur, idcirco adsignatum est deo,

    too great to come from man, Cic. Fin. 5, 16, 44:

    quis non intellegit, Canachi signa rigidiora esse quam ut imitentur veritatem?

    id. Brut. 18, 70:

    clarior res erat quam ut tegi ac dissimulari posset,

    too clear to be covered up, Liv. 26, 51, 11:

    potentius jam id malum apparuit quam ut minores per magistratus sedaretur,

    id. 25, 1, 11:

    est tamen aliquis minor quam ut in sinu ejus condenda sit civitas,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 16, 2.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ut

  • 20 utei

    ut or ŭtī (old form ŭtei, C. I. L. 1, 196, 4 sq.; 1, 198, 8 et saep.), adv. and conj. [for quoti or cuti, from pronom. stem ka-, Lat. quo-, whence qui, etc., and locat. ending -ti of stem to-, whence tum, etc.].
    I.
    As adv. of manner.
    A.
    Interrog. = quomodo, how, in what way or manner.
    1.
    In independent questions (colloq.; rare in class. prose; not in Cic.): De. Quid? ut videtur mulier? Ch. Non, edepol, mala. De. Ut morata'st? Ch. Nullam vidi melius mea sententia, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 56 sq.:

    salve! ut valuisti? quid parentes mei? Valent?

    id. ib. 5, 2, 107; id. Pers. 2, 5, 8:

    ut vales?

    id. Most. 2, 19, 29; 3, 2, 28; Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 26:

    ut sese in Samnio res habent?

    Liv. 10, 18, 11:

    ut valet? ut meminit nostri?

    Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 12; id. S. 2, 8, 1.—
    2.
    In exclamatory sentences (in all periods of the language): ut omnia in me conglomerat mala! Enn. ap. Non. p. 90, 14 (Trag. Rel. v. 408 Vahl.):

    ut corripuit se repente atque abiit! Hei misero mihi!

    Plaut. Merc. 3, 4, 76:

    ut dissimulat malus!

    id. ib. 5, 4, 13:

    ut volupe est homini si cluet victoria!

    id. Poen. 5, 5, 15: ut multa verba feci;

    ut lenta materies fuit!

    id. Mil. 4, 5, 4:

    ut scelestus nunc iste te ludos facit!

    id. Capt. 3, 4, 47:

    ut saepe summa ingenia in occulto latent,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 61; id. Rud. 1, 2, 75; 2, 3, 33 sq.:

    ut falsus animi est!

    Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 42:

    heia! ut elegans est!

    id. Heaut. 5, 5, 19:

    fortuna ut numquam perpetua est bona!

    id. Hec. 3, 3, 46; cf. id. Phorm. 5, 8, 52:

    Gnaeus autem noster... ut totus jacet,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21, 1:

    quae ut sustinuit! ut contempsit, ac pro nihilo putavit!

    id. Mil. 24, 64:

    qui tum dicit testimonium ex nostris hominibus, ut se ipse sustentat! ut omnia verba moderatur, ut timet ne quid cupide... dicat!

    id. Fl. 5, 12:

    quod cum facis, ut ego tuum amorem et dolorem desidero!

    id. Att. 3, 11, 2:

    quanta studia decertantium sunt! ut illi efferuntur laetitia cum vicerint! ut pudet victos! ut se accusari nolunt! etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 22, 61:

    ut vidi, ut perii! ut me malus abstulit error!

    Verg. E. 8, 41:

    ut melius quidquid erit pati!

    Hor. C. 1, 11, 3:

    ut tu Semper eris derisor!

    id. S. 2, 6, 53:

    o superbia magnae fortunae! ut a te nihil accipere juvat! ut omne beneficium in injuriam convertis! ut te omnia nimia delectant! ut to omnia dedecent!

    Sen. Ben. 2, 13, 1:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. 11.—
    3.
    In dependent questions.
    (α).
    With indic. (ante-class. and poet.): divi hoc audite parumper ut pro Romano populo... animam de corpore mitto, Enn. ap. Non. p. 150, 6 (Ann. v. 215 Vahl.): edoce eum uti res se habet, Plaut. [p. 1940] Trin. 3, 3, 21:

    hoc sis vide ut avariter merum in se ingurgitat,

    id. Curc. 1, 2, 33:

    hoc vide ut dormiunt pessuli,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 66:

    illud vide os ut sibi distorsit carnufex,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 3:

    vide ut otiosus it, si dis placet,

    id. ib. 5, 3, 10:

    illud vide, Ut in ipso articulo oppressit,

    id. Ad. 2, 2, 21; 3, 5, 3:

    viden ut faces Splendidas quatiunt comas?

    Cat. 61, 77:

    viden ut perniciter exiluere?

    id. 62, 8:

    adspicite, innuptae secum ut meditata requirunt,

    id. 62, 12:

    aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo! (= omnia laetantia),

    Verg. E. 4, 52 Forbig. ad loc.:

    nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores, India mittit ebur,

    id. G. 1, 56; id. E. 5, 6; id. A. 6, 779. —
    (β).
    With subj. (class.):

    nescis ut res sit, Phoenicium,

    Plaut. Ps. 4, 4, 1:

    oppido Mihi illud videri mirum, ut una illaec capra Uxoris dotem simiae ambadederit,

    id. Merc. 2, 1, 16:

    nam ego vos novisse credo jam ut sit meus pater,

    id. Am. prol. 104:

    narratque ut virgo ab se integra etiam tum siet,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 70:

    tute scis quam intimum Habeam te, et mea consilia ut tibi credam omnia,

    id. Eun. 1, 2, 48:

    videtis ut omnes despiciat, ut hominem prae se neminem putet, ut se solum beatum se solum potentem putet?

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 46, 135:

    videtisne ut Nestor de virtutibus suis praedicet?

    id. Sen. 10, 31; id. Rosc. Am. 24, 66:

    credo te audisse ut me circumsteterint, ut aperte jugula sua pro meo capite P. Clodio ostentarint,

    id. Att. 1, 16, 4:

    videte ut hoc iste correxerit,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 45, § 115:

    docebat ut omni tempore totius Galliae principatum Aedui tenuissent,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43:

    veniat in mentem, ut trepidos quondam majores vestros... defenderimus,

    Liv. 23, 5, 8:

    aspice quo submittat humus formosa colores,

    Prop. 1, 2, 9:

    infinitum est enumerare ut Cottae detraxerit auctoritatem, ut pro Ligario se opposuerit,

    Quint. 6, 5, 10:

    vides ut alta stet nive candidum Soracte,

    Hor. C. 1, 9, 1:

    nonne vides, ut... latus et malus Antennaeque gemant,

    id. ib. 1, 14, 3 Orell. ad loc.:

    audis... positas ut glaciet nives Puro numine Juppiter,

    id. ib. 3, 10, 7; id. S. 1, 8, 42; 2, 3, 315; Verg. A. 2, 4; Tib. 2, 1, 26; Prop. 2, 34 (3, 32), 57:

    mirum est ut animus agitatione motuque corporis excitetur,

    Plin. Ep. 1, 6, 2.—
    B.
    Relative adverb of manner = eo modo quo, as.
    1.
    Without demonstr. as correlatives: ut aiunt, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 101 Mull. (fr inc. l. 10 Vahl.):

    ego emero matri tuae Ancillam... forma mala, ut matrem addecet familias,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 79:

    apparatus sum ut videtis,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 10:

    verum postremo impetravi ut volui,

    id. Mil. 4, 5, 5:

    ero ut me voles esse,

    id. Capt. 2, 1, 32:

    faciam ut tu voles,

    id. Men. 5, 9, 90: ut vales? Tox. Ut queo, id. Pers. 1, 1, 16:

    ut potero feram,

    Ter. And. 5, 3, 27:

    faciam ut mones,

    id. Hec. 4, 4, 97:

    Ciceronem et ut rogas amo, et ut meretur et ut debeo,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 9, 9:

    cupiditates quae possunt esse in eo qui, ut ipse accusator objecit, ruri semper habitarit?

    id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39:

    ut ex propinquis ejus audio, non tu in isto artificio callidior es, quam hic in suo,

    id. ib. 17, 49:

    homo demens, ut isti putant,

    id. Rep. 1, 1, 1:

    cumulate munus hoc, ut opinio mea fert, effecero,

    id. ib. 1, 46, 70:

    non ut clim solebat, sed ut nunc fit, mimum introduxisti,

    id. Fam. 9, 16, 7:

    Labienus, ut erat ei praeceptum, ne proelium committeret nisi, etc., monte occupato nostros exspectabat, proelioque abstinebat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22:

    cuncta ut gesta erant exposuit,

    Liv. 3, 50, 4:

    (Postumius) fugerat in legatione, ut fama ferebat, populi judicium,

    id. 10, 46, 16:

    sed, ut plerumque fit, major pars meliorem vicit,

    id. 21, 4, 1:

    nec temere, et ut libet conlocatur argentum, sed perite servitur,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 17, 2:

    servus, ut placet Chrysippo, perpetuus mercenarius est,

    id. Ben. 3, 22, 1.—Esp. parenthet., to denote that the facts accord with an assumption or supposition made in the principal sentence (= sicut):

    si virtus digna est gloriatione, ut est,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 18, 51:

    quorum etiamsi amplecterer virtutem, ut facio, tamen, etc.,

    id. Phil. 10, 9, 18:

    quamvis fuerit acutus, ut fuit,

    id. Ac. 2, 22, 69; cf.:

    incumbite in causam, Quirites, ut facitis,

    id. Phil. 4, 5, 12:

    tu modo istam imbecillitatem valetudinis sustenta, ut facis,

    id. Fam. 7, 1, 5:

    satis enim erat, probatum illum esse populo Romano, ut est,

    id. Phil. 1, 15, 37.—
    2.
    With the correlative ita or sic: VTI LEGASSIT SVPER PECVNIA TVTELAVE SVAE REI, ITA IVS ESTO, Leg. XII. Tab. 5, fr. 3: alii, ut esse in suam rem ducunt, ita sint;

    ego ita ero ut me esse oportet,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 6, 24 sq.:

    sic sum ut vides,

    id. Am. 2, 1, 57:

    omnes posthabui mihi res, ita uti par fuit,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 15:

    ut viro forti ac sapienti dignum fuit, ita calumniam ejus obtrivit,

    Cic. Caecin. 7, 18.—In partic. with a superlative belonging to the principal sentence, attracted to the relative clause:

    haec ut brevissime dici potuerunt, ita a me dicta sunt (= ita breviter dicta sunt ut dici potuerunt),

    Cic. de Or. 2, 41, 174.—So ut qui, with sup.:

    te enim semper sic colam et tuebor ut quem diligentissime,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 62 fin.; without sic or ita:

    causas ut honorificentissimis verbis consequi potero, complectar,

    id. Phil. 14, 11, 29:

    sed exigenda est ut optime possumus,

    Quint. 12, 10, 38.—And with comp.:

    eruditus autem sic ut nemo Thebanus magis,

    Nep. Epam. 2, 1; cf.:

    ad unguem Factus homo, non ut magis alter, amicus,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 33:

    cocto Chium sic convenit, ut non Hoc magis ullum aliud,

    id. ib. 2, 8, 48.—
    3.
    Doubled ut ut, as indefinite relative, = utcumque, in whatever manner, howsoever (mostly ante-class.; only with indic.):

    gaudeo, ut ut erga me est merita,

    Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 52:

    age jam, utut est, etsi'st dedecori, patiar,

    id. Bacch. 5, 2, 85:

    utut est, mihi quidem profecto cum istis dictis mortuo'st,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 76:

    utut res sese habet, pergam, etc.,

    id. Most. 3, 1, 14:

    non potis est pietati opsisti huic, ututi res sunt ceterae,

    id. Ps. 1, 3, 36; id. Cist. 1, 1, 110:

    sed ut ut haec sunt, tamen hoc faciam,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 46; cf. id. ib. 3, 1, 4; id. Heaut. 1, 2, 26; id. Ad. 2, 2, 40; 4, 4, 22:

    ut ut est res, casus consilium nostri itineris judicabit,

    Cic. Att. 15, 25 B. and K. (dub.;

    v. Orell. ad loc.): sed ut ut est, indulge valetudini tuae,

    id. Fam. 16, 18, 1 dub. (al. ut est).—
    4.
    Causal, as, = prout, pro eo ut.
    a.
    Introducing a general statement, in correspondence with the particular assertion of the principal clause, ut = as, considering... that, in accordance with:

    atque, ut nunc sunt maledicentes homines, uxori meae mihique objectent, lenociniam facere,

    Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 75:

    ut aetas mea est, atque ut huic usus facto est,

    id. Men. 5, 2, 1:

    haud scio hercle ut homo'st, an mutet animum,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 2, 9:

    praesertim, ut nunc sunt mores,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 5:

    atque ille, ut semper fuit apertissimus, non se purgavit, sed, etc.,

    Cic. Mur. 25, 51:

    permulta alia colligit Chrysippus, ut est in omni historia curiosus,

    id. Tusc. 1, 45, 108:

    magnifice et ornate, ut erat in primis inter suos copiosus, convivium comparat,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 65:

    Kal. Sextilibus, ut tunc principium anni agebatur, consulatum ineunt,

    Liv. 3, 6, 1:

    tribuni, ut fere semper reguntur a multitudine magis quam regunt, dedere plebi, etc.,

    id. 3, 71, 5:

    transire pontem non potuerunt, ut extrema resoluta erant, etc.,

    id. 21, 47, 3.—Ellipt.:

    mortales multi, ut ad ludos, convenerant (ut fit, si ludi sunt),

    Plaut. Men. prol. 30:

    Epicharmi, acuti nec insulsi hominis, ut Siculi,

    as was natural, he being a Sicilian, Cic. Tusc. 1, 8, 15; so,

    Diogenes, liberius, ut Cynicus... inquit,

    id. ib. 5, 33, 92:

    ceterum haec, ut in secundis rebus, segniter otioseque gesta,

    Liv. 23, 14, 1.—
    b.
    Reflecting the assertion to particular circumstances, etc., ut = for, as, considering:

    hic Geta ut captus est servorum, non malus,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 34:

    ut est captus hominum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 27, 65; Caes. B. G. 4, 3: Themistocles ut apud nos perantiquus, ut apud Athenienses non ita sane vetus, in regard to us, etc., Cic. Brut. 10, 41:

    Caelius Antipater, scriptor, ut temporibus illis, luculentus,

    for those times, id. ib. 26, 102:

    nonnihil, ut in tantis malis est profectum,

    considering the unfortunate state of affairs, id. Fam. 12, 2, 2:

    (orationis genus) ut in oratore exile,

    for an orator, id. Or. 3, 18, 66:

    multae (erant in Fabio) ut in homine Romano, litterae,

    id. Sen. 4, 12:

    consultissimus vir, ut in illa quisquam esse aetate poterat,

    Liv. 1, 18, 1:

    florentem jam ut tum res erant,

    id. 1, 3, 3:

    Apollonides orationem salutarem, ut in tali tempore, habuit,

    id. 24, 28, 1:

    Sp. Maelius, ut illis temporibus praedives,

    id. 4, 13, 1: insigni, ut illorum temporum habitus erat, triumpho, id. 10, 46, 2:

    Ardeam Rutuli habebant, gens ut in ea regione atque in ea aetate divitiis praepollens,

    id. 1, 57, 1:

    vir, ut inter Aetolos, facundus,

    id. 32, 33, 9:

    Meneclidas, satis exercitatus in dicendo, ut Thebanus scilicet,

    Nep. Epam. 5, 2:

    ad magnam deinde, ut in ea regione, urbem pervenit,

    Curt. 9, 1, 14:

    multum, ut inter Germanos, rationis ac sollertiae,

    Tac. G. 30. —
    c.
    Ut before relatives, with subj., as it is natural for persons who, like one who, since he, since they, etc.; seeing that they, etc. (not in Cic.):

    non demutabo ut quod certo sciam,

    seeing that I know it for certain, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 153:

    prima luce sic ab castris proficiscuntur ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicissimo consilium datum,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 31, 6:

    facile persuadent (Lucumoni) ut cupido honorum, et cui Tarquinii materna tantum patria esset,

    Liv. 1, 34, 6:

    inde consul, ut qui jam ad hostes perventum cerneret, explorato, etc., procedebat,

    id. 38, 18, 7:

    Philippus, ut cui de summa rerum adesset certamen, adhortandos milites ratus, etc.,

    id. 33, 4, 11:

    Tarquinius ad jus regni nihil praeter vim habebat, ut qui neque populi jussu, neque auctoribus patribus regnaret,

    id. 1, 49, 3; 25, 23, 3:

    Aequorum exercitus, ut qui permultos annos imbelles egissent, sine ducibus certis, sine imperio,

    id. 9, 45, 10:

    igitur pro se quisque inermes, ut quibus nihil hostile suspectum esset, in agmen Romanum ruebant,

    id. 30, 6, 3; 23, 15, 4; 23, 29, 12:

    omnia nova offendit, ut qui solus didicerit quod inter multos faciendum est,

    as is natural in one who, since he, Quint. 1, 2, 19:

    in omni autem speciali inest generalis, ut quae sit prior,

    id. 3, 5, 9:

    ignara hujusce doctrinae loquacitas erret necesse est, ut quae vel multos vel falsos duces habeat,

    id. 12, 2, 20; 5, 14, 28; 11, 3, 53.—Rarely with participle:

    ne Volsci et Aequi... ad urbem ut ex parte captam venirent,

    Liv. 3, 16, 2:

    gens ferox cum procul visis Romanorum signis, ut extemplo proelium initura, explicuisset aciem, etc.,

    id. 7, 23, 6.—
    d.
    With perinde or pro eo, with reference to several alternatives or degrees to be determined by circumstances, as, according as, to the extent that, in the measure that, etc.:

    perinde ut opinio est de cujusque moribus, ita quid ab eo factum et non factum sit, existimari potest,

    Cic. Clu. 25, 70:

    in exspectatione civitas erat, perinde ut evenisset res, ita communicatos honores habitura,

    Liv. 7, 6, 8: pro eo ut temporis difficultas aratorumque penuria tulit, Metell. ap. Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 54, § 126.—
    C.
    Transf. of local relations, like Gr. hina, where (very rare):

    in eopse astas lapide, ut praeco praedicat,

    Plaut. Bacch. 4, 7, 17:

    flumen uti adque ipso divortio (aquae sunt),

    Lucil. 8, 18 Mull.:

    in extremos Indos, Litus ut longe resonante Eoa Tunditur unda,

    Cat. 11, 2 sqq.; 17, 10; cf. Verg. A. 5, 329; Lucr. 6, 550 Munro ad loc.
    II.
    Conj.
    A.
    Introducing comparative clauses of manner, = eodem modo quo, as, like.
    1.
    In gen.
    (α).
    With sic as correlative:

    haec res sic est ut narro tibi,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 3, 40:

    quae si ut animis sic oculis videre possemus, nemo de divina ratione dubitaret,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 99:

    Pomponium Atticum sic amo ut alterum fratrem,

    id. Fam. 13, 1, 5:

    si sic ageres ut de eis egisti qui jam mortui sunt... ne tu in multos Autronios incurreres,

    id. Brut. 72, 251:

    sic, Scipio, ut avus hic tuus, ut ego, justitiam cole,

    id. Rep. 6, 15, 15:

    ut dicere alia aliis magis concessum est, sic etiam facere,

    id. Quint. 11, 3, 150 (for ut... sic, in similes, v. sic, IV. 1. a.).—
    (β).
    With ita as correlative:

    ut sementem feceris, ita metes,

    Cic. Or. 2, 65, 261:

    quamobrem, ut ille solebat, ita nunc mea repetat oratio populi origines,

    id. Rep. 2, 1. 3:

    non ut injustus in pace rex ita dux belli pravus fuit,

    Liv. 1, 53, 1:

    ut haec in unum congeruntur, ita contra illa dispersa sunt,

    Quint. 9, 3, 39.—
    (γ).
    With other correlatives:

    in balteo tracta ex caseo ad eundem modum facito ut placentum sine melle,

    Cato, R. R. 78:

    encytum ad eundem modum facito uti globos,

    id. ib. 80:

    cum animi inaniter moveantur eodem modo rebus his quae nulla sint ut iis quae sint,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    disputationem exponimus, eisdem fere verbis, ut disputatumque est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 3, 9: scelerum caput, ut tute es item omnis censes esse' [p. 1941] Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 55:

    ut filium bonum patri esse oportet, item ego sum patri,

    id. Am. 3, 4, 9:

    fecisti item ut praedones solent,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 9, § 21:

    item ut illo edicto de quo ante dixi... edixit, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 45, § 117;

    so with item,

    id. Or. 60, 202:

    is reliquit filium Pariter moratum ut pater eius fuit,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 21.—With atque:

    nec fallaciam astutiorem ullus fecit Poeta atque ut haec est fabrefacta a nobis,

    Plaut. Cas. 5, 1, 7.—And after aliter = than:

    si aliter ut dixi accidisset,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 4, 7.—
    (δ).
    Without correlative:

    rem omnem uti acta erat cognovit,

    Sall. J. 71, 5:

    quare perge ut instituisti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 11, 22:

    apud me, ut apud bonum judicem, argumenta plus quam testes valent,

    id. ib. 1, 38, 59:

    miscent enim illas et interponunt vitae, ut ludum jocumque inter seria,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 12, 2:

    comitetur voluptas, et circa corpus ut umbra versetur,

    id. ib. 13, 5:

    ut in animum ejus oratio, ut sol in oculos, incurrat,

    Quint. 8, 2, 23.—
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    Ut... ita or ut... sic; co-ordinate, introducing contrasted clauses.
    (α).
    = cum... tum, as... so, as on the one hand... so on the other, both and:

    ut errare potuisti, sic decipi te non potuisse, quis non videt?

    Cic. Fam. 10, 20, 2:

    ut Poeni ad moenia urbis Romanae nullo prohibente se pervenisse in gloria ponebant, ita pigebat irriti incepti,

    Liv. 26, 37, 6:

    Dolabellam ut Tarsenses ita Laodiceni ultra arcessierunt,

    Cic. Fam. 12, 13, 4:

    fert sortem suam quisque ut in ceteris rebus ita in amicitiis,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 28, 3.—
    (β).
    Concessive, = etsi... tamen, although... yet:

    consul, ut fortasse vere, sic parum utiliter in praesens certamen, respondit, etc.,

    Liv. 4, 6, 2:

    Saguntini, ut a proeliis quietem habuerant per aliquot dies, ita non cessaverant ab opere,

    id. 21, 11, 5:

    ut quies certaminum erat, ita ab apparatu operum nihil cessatum,

    id. 21, 8, 1:

    haec omnia ut invitis, ita non adversantibus patriciis transacta,

    id. 3, 55, 15:

    in agrum Nolanum exercitum traducit, ut non hostiliter statim, ita... nihil praetermissurus,

    id. 23, 14, 6; 23, 34, 12:

    uti longe a luxuria, ita famae propior,

    Tac. Agr. 6:

    ut multo infirmior, ita aliquatenus lucidior,

    Quint. 10, 1, 74:

    ut est utilis saepe... ita obstabit melioribus,

    id. 12, 2, 12:

    quod, ut optimum est, ita longe quidem, sed sequitur tamen,

    id. 5, 12, 9; cf. id. 10, 1, 62.—With certe in place of ita:

    ut non demens, crudelis certe videtur,

    Quint. 9, 2, 91.—
    b.
    Ita... ut;

    in oaths or strong asseverations: ita me di amabunt ut ego hunc ausculto lubens,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 22:

    ita me di ament ut ego nunc non tam meapte causa Laetor quam illius,

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 8:

    ita me di amabunt, ut nunc Menedemi vicem Miseret me,

    id. ib. 4, 5, 1:

    ita vivo ut maximos sumptus facio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 15, 2.—So with sic:

    sic me di amabunt ut me tuarum miseritum'st fortunarum,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 54.—
    c.
    In exemplifications.
    (α).
    In gen., as for example, for instance:

    nam aut ipsa cognitio rei perquiritur, ut: virtus suam ne, etc., aut agendi consilium exquiritur, ut: sitne sapienti, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 29, 112:

    sunt bestiae in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis, ut in leonibus, ut in canibus, in equis, etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 14, 38:

    in libero populo, ut Rhodi, ut Athenis, nemo est civium qui, etc.,

    id. Rep. 1, 31, 47:

    qui rem publicam constituissent, ut Cretum Minos, Lacedaemoniorum Lycurgus, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 2; id. Ac. 2, 24, 76; id. Inv. 2, 52, 157:

    est aliquid quod dominus praestare servo debeat, ut cibaria, ut vestiarium,

    Sen. Ben. 3, 21, 2:

    est etiam amarum quiddam... et aere, ut illud Crassi Ego te consulem putem? etc.,

    Quint. 8, 3, 89; 4, 3, 12.—Where several instances are adduced, if each of them singly is made prominent, ut is repeated with each;

    if they are taken in a group, ut occurs but once, e. g. quod erant, qui aut in re publica, propter sapientiam florerent, ut Themistocles, ut Pericles, ut Theramenes, aut, qui.. sapientiae doctores essent, ut Gorgias, Thrasymachus, Isocrates, etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 59.—
    (β).
    Ut si, if for instance; for example, if, etc.; with subj.:

    ut si accusetur is qui P. Sulpicium se fateatur occidisse,

    Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25:

    ut si quis hoc velit ostendere, eum qui parentem necarit, etc.,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 15, 48:

    ut si qui docilem faciat auditorem, etc.,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 26:

    ut si qui in foro cantet,

    id. Off. 1, 40, 145:

    ut si quis ei quem urgeat fames venenum ponat,

    Liv. 6, 40, 12; cf. Auct. Her. 2, 26, 4; 2, 27, 43; 3, 2, 2; Cic. Inv. 1, 49, 92:

    ut si obsessi de facienda ad hostem deditione deliberent,

    Quint. 3, 8, 23:

    ut si des arma timidis et imbellibus,

    id. 12, 5, 2; 5, 10, 34; 2, 4, 18; 9, 2, 79 et saep.—So with cum:

    ut cum marem feminamque filios dicimus,

    Quint. 9, 3, 63; 1, 6, 22; 3, 8, 30; 9, 1, 3.—
    d.
    Before an appositive noun, as, the same as, like:

    qui canem et felem ut deos colunt,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 11, 32:

    ut militiae Africanum ut deum coleret Laelius,

    id. Rep. 1, 12, 18:

    suam vitam ut legem praefert suis civibus,

    id. ib. 1, 34, 52:

    habuit (ei) honorem ut proditori, non ut amico fidem,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 15, § 38:

    Hannibalem, non ut prudentem tantum virum, sed ut vatem omnium quae tum evenirent admirari,

    Liv. 36, 15, 2: (Dionysium) dimisi a me ut magistrum Ciceronum non lubenter;

    ut hominem ingratum non invitus,

    in his capacity of, Cic. Att. 8, 10:

    qui ante captas Syracusas non desciverant... ut socii fideles accepti, quos metus post captas Syracusas dediderat, ut victi a victore leges acceperunt,

    Liv. 25, 40, 4:

    qui et ipsum, ut ambiguae fidei virum, suspectum jam pridem habebat,

    id. 24, 45, 12:

    Cicero ea quae nunc eveniunt cecinit ut vates,

    Nep. Att. 16:

    et ipsam (virtutem) ut deos, et professores ejus ut antistites colite,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 26, 7:

    hunc ut deum homines intuebuntur,

    Quint. 12, 10, 65:

    id ut crimen ingens expavescendum est,

    id. 9, 3, 35.—
    e.
    Ut si = quasi, velut si, tamquam si, as if, just as if:

    mater coepit studiose... educere ita uti si esset filia,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 37:

    Rufio tuus ita desiderabatur ut si esset unus e nobis,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 20, 1:

    ejus negotium sic velim suscipias ut si esset res mea,

    id. ib. 2, 14, 1:

    ita se gerant in istis Asiaticis itineribus ut si iter Appia via faceres,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 6:

    qui aliis nocent ut in alios liberales sint, in eadem sunt injustitia ut si in suam rem aliena convertant,

    id. Off. 1, 14, 42; id. Opt. Gen. 4, 10:

    similes sunt ut si qui gubernatorem in navigando nihil agere dicant,

    like men who should say, Cic. Sen. 6, 17: similiter facere eos... ut si nautae certarent, etc., they act like sailors who, etc., id. Off. 1, 25, 87.—
    f.
    Ut quisque... ita (sic), with superlatives (= eo magis... quo magis, with indefinite subjects): ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime alios improbos suspicatur, the better a man is, the more difficult it is for him to, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12:

    ut quaeque res est turpissima, sic maxime et maturissime vindicanda est,

    id. Caecin. 2, 7:

    ut quisque (morbus) est difficillimus, ita medicus nobilissimus quaeritur,

    id. Clu. 21, 57:

    ut quisque te maxime cognatione... attingebat, ita maxime manus tua putabatur,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 27; id. Off. 1, 16, 50; 1, 19, 64:

    nam ut quaeque forma perfectissima ita capacissima est,

    Quint. 1, 10, 40.—This construction is variously modified,
    (α).
    With ita understood:

    facillime ad res injustas impellitur ut quisque altissimo animo est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 19, 65. —
    (β).
    With virtual superlatives:

    ut quisque in fuga postremus ita in periculo princeps erat,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 90:

    ut quisque optime institutus est, esse omnino nolit in vita, si, etc.,

    id. Fin. 5, 20, 57.—
    (γ).
    The superlatives omitted in either clause:

    ut quisque aetate antecedit, ita sententiae principatum tenet,

    Cic. Sen. 18, 64:

    ut quisque aetate et honore antecedebat, ita sententiam dixit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 64, § 143:

    pro se quisque, ut in quoque erat auctoritatis plurimum, ad populum loquebatur,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 27, §

    68: ut quisque gradu proximus erat, ita ignominiae objectus,

    Liv. 9, 6, 1:

    ut quisque maxime laboraret locus, aut ipse occurrebat, aut aliquos mittebat,

    id. 34, 38, 6.—And with tum = ita:

    nec prodesse tantum, sed etiam amari potest, tum... ut quisque erit Ciceroni simillimus,

    in proportion to his resemblance, Quint. 2, 5, 20.—
    (δ).
    With a comparative in one of the terms:

    major autem (societas est) ut quisque proxime accederet,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 19.—
    (ε).
    Without superlative, as, according as:

    de captivis, ut quisque liber aut servus esset, suae fortunae a quoque sumptum supplicium est,

    Liv. 3, 18, 10 (for ut quisque... ita, in temporal clauses, v. B. 3. g infra).—
    B.
    Introducing a temporal clause, the principal predicate being an immediate sequence; orig. = quo tempore.
    1.
    With perf. indic.
    a.
    In gen., as soon as:

    principio ut illo advenimus... continuo Amphitruo delegit viros, etc.,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 49:

    ut hinc te intro ire jussi, opportune hic fit mi obviam,

    Ter. And. 3, 4, 11:

    ut abii abs te fit forte obviam Mihi Phormio,

    id. Phorm. 4, 3, 12:

    ut modo argentum tibi dedimus apud forum, recta domum Sumus profecti,

    id. ib. 5, 6, 19; id. Hec. 3, 3, 5; 5, 1, 26; id. Eun. 4, 7, 12:

    qui ut peroravit, surrexit Clodius,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 2:

    eumque ut salutavit, amicissime apprehendit,

    id. Rep. 1, 11, 7:

    qui ut huc venit... hominesque Romanos bellicis studiis ut vidit incensos, existimavit, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 13, 25; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 22, § 48; id. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Brut. 8, 30:

    ut vero aquam ingressi sunt... tum utique egressis rigere omnibus corpora,

    Liv. 21, 54, 9:

    ut haec dicta in senatu sunt, dilectus edicitur,

    id. 3, 10, 9; 23, 34, 6; 24, 44, 10.—
    b.
    In oblique discourse:

    Ariovistum, ut semel Gallorum copias vicerit, superbe et crudeliter imperare,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31.—
    c.
    With primum, when first, as soon as ever:

    atque ego, ut primum fletu represso loqui posse coepi, Quaeso inquam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 6, 15, 15:

    Siculi, ut primum videre volgari morbos, in suas quisque urbes dilapsi sunt,

    Liv. 25, 26, 13: ut primum lingua coepit esse in quaestu, curam morum qui diserti habebantur reliquerunt, Quint. prooem. 13.—
    d.
    Rarely of coincidence in time:

    nam ut dudum adcurrimus ad Alcesimarchum... tum mi puto prae timore hic excidisse Cistellam,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 46.—
    e.
    Ut = ex quo tempore. since:

    ut Brundusio profectus es, nullae mihi abs te sunt redditae litterae,

    Cic. Att. 1, 15, 2.—
    2.
    With imperf. indic.
    (α).
    In gen.: Fabii oratio fuit qualis biennio ante;

    deinde, ut vincebatur consensu, versa ad P. Decium collegam poscendum,

    Liv. 10, 22, 2:

    deinde ut nulla vi perculsos sustinere poterat, Quid ultra moror, inquit, etc.,

    id. 10, 28, 20:

    Marcellus, ut tanta vis ingruebat mali, traduxerat in urbem suos,

    id. 25, 26, 15:

    ut vero... exurebatur amoenissimus Italiae ager, villaeque passim incendiis fumabant... tum prope de integro seditione accensi,

    id. 22, 14, 1.— And with perf. and imperf. in co-ordinate clauses:

    consules, ut ventum ad Cannas est, et in conspectu Poenum habebant,

    Liv. 22, 44, 1:

    ut in extrema juga ventum, et hostes sub oculis erant,

    id. 22, 14, 3:

    ut Poenus apparuit in collibus, et pauci... adferebant, etc.,

    id. 24, 1, 6.—
    (β).
    Of repeated past actions, whenever:

    ut quaeque pars castrorum nudata defensoribus premi videbatur, eo occurrere et auxilium ferre,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 4.—
    3.
    With plupf.
    (α).
    = postquam (rare):

    ut hinc forte ea ad obstetricem erat missa,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 4, 10:

    ut ad mare nostrae cohortes excubuerant, accessere subito prima luce Pompejani,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 63.—
    (β).
    In epistolary style = the Engl. perf.:

    litteras scripsi... statim ut tuas legeram (= litteras nunc scribo, ut tuas legi),

    Cic. Att. 2, 12, 4:

    ut Athenas a. d. VII. Kal. Quinct. veneram, exspectabam ibi jam quartum diem Pomptinium (= ut veni, exspecto),

    id. ib. 5, 10, 1.—
    (γ).
    Of repeated past actions, whenever:

    ut cujusque sors exciderat... alacer arma capiebat,

    Liv. 21, 42, 3 dub.:

    ut quisque istius animum offenderat, in lautumias statim coniciebatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 55, § 143:

    ut quidque ego apprehenderam, statim accusator extorquebat e manibus,

    id. Clu. 19, 52:

    ut cuique erat locus attributus, ad munitiones accedunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 81; cf.:

    ut quisque arma ceperat... inordinati in proelium ruunt,

    Liv. 23, 27, 5.—With ita as correl.:

    ut enim quisque contra voluntatem ejus dixerat, ita in eum judicium de professione jugerum postulabatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 15, § 39.—
    4.
    With fut. perf., or, in oblique discourse, plupf. subj.:

    neque, ut quaeque res delata ad nos erit, tum denique scrutari locos debemus,

    Cic. Or. 2, 34, 146:

    traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum... victoriam de Veientibus dari,

    Liv. 5, 15, 11 (for ut after simul, v. simul, VI.).—
    C.
    Introducing substantive clauses, that; always with subj. (cf. ut as interrog. adverb in dependent clauses, I. A. 3. supra).
    1.
    In object clauses.
    a.
    In clauses which, if independent, would take the imperative mood, often rendered by the Engl. infinitive.
    (α).
    After verbs denoting [p. 1942] to wish, request, pray, demand, or invite:

    malim istuc aliis ita videatur quam uti tu, soror, te collaudes,

    Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 18:

    equidem mallem ut ires,

    Cic. Att. 1, 16, 8:

    equidem vellem ut pedes haberent (res tuae),

    id. Fam. 7, 31, 2:

    volo uti mihi respondeas num quis, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 17:

    precor (deos) ut his infinitis nostris malis contenti sint,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 9:

    postulo ut ne quid praejudicati afferatis,

    id. Clu. 2, 5:

    petebant uti equites praemitterent,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 11:

    tibi instat Hortensius ut eas in consilium,

    Cic. Quint. 10, 34:

    hoc ut aliquando fieret, instabat,

    Sen. Clem. 2, 1, 2:

    illum Dolabellae dixisse (= eum rogasse) ut ad me scriberet (= me rogaret), ut in Italiam quam primum venirem,

    Cic. Att. 11, 7, 2:

    cupio ut quod nunc natura et impetus est, fiat judicium,

    Sen. Clem. 2, 2, 2:

    senectutem ut adipiscantur omnes optant,

    Cic. Lael. 2, 4:

    exigo a me, non ut optimis par sim, sed ut malis melior,

    Sen. Vit. Beat. 17, 3.—With ut ne = ne:

    Trebatio mandavi, ut, si quid te eum velles ad me mittere, ne recusaret,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 2; Tac. H. 4, 58 fin. —Also without verb, like utinam, to express a wish;

    esp. in imprecations (ante-class.): ut te cum tua Monstratione magnus perdat Juppiter,

    Ter. Ad. 4, 6, 2:

    ut illum di deaeque perdant,

    id. Eun. 2, 3, 10; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 6.—
    (β).
    After verbs expressing or implying advice, suggestion, or exhortation:

    ego vos hortari tantum possum ut, etc.,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 17:

    quod suades ut ad Quinctium scribam, etc.,

    id. Att. 11, 16, 4:

    tibi auctor sum ut eum tibi ordinem reconcilies,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 26:

    censeo ut iter reliquum conficere pergas,

    I propose, id. Or. 2, 71, 200; Caes. B. C. 1, 2; Liv. 30, 40, 4:

    dixeram a principio ut sileremus,

    I had advised, Cic. Brut. 42, 157:

    Pompejum monebat ut meam domum metueret,

    id. Sest. 64, 133:

    equidem suasi ut Romam pergeret,

    id. Att. 16, 8, 2:

    M. Messalae et ipsi Attico dixit ut sine cura essent,

    exhorted, id. ib. 16, 16, A, 5.—
    (γ).
    After verbs expressing resolution or agreement to do something:

    rus ut irem jam heri constitiveram,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 136:

    decrevistis ut de praemiis militum primo quoque tempore referretur,

    Cic. Phil. 5, 2, 4:

    constitueram ut pridie Idus Aquini manerem,

    id. Att. 16, 10, 1:

    statuunt ut decem millia hominum in oppidum submittantur,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 21:

    Hasdrubal paciscitur cum Celtiberorum principibus ut copias inde abducant,

    Liv. 25, 33, 3:

    illos induxisse in animum, ut superbo quondam regi, tum infesto exuli proderent (patriam),

    id. 2, 5, 7; 27, 9, 9; 42, 25, 11:

    ut ne plebi cum patribus essent conubia sanxerunt,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 27, 63:

    servitia urbem ut incenderent conjurarunt,

    Liv. 4, 45, 1.—
    (δ).
    After verbs of command or prohibition:

    imperat Laelio ut per collis circumducat equites,

    Liv. 28, 33, 11:

    illud praecipiendum fuit ut... diligentiam adhiberemus,

    Cic. Lael. 16, 60:

    M. Aemilio senatus negotium dat ut Patavinorum seditionem comprimeret,

    Liv. 41, 27, 3:

    consul edicere est ausus ut senatus ad vestitum rediret,

    Cic. Pis. 8, 18:

    jubet sententiam ut dicant suam,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 50:

    hic tibi in mentem non venit jubere ut haec quoque referret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 12, § 28.—With ne:

    iis praedixit, ut ne prius Lacedaemoniorum legatos dimitteret, quam ipse esset remissus,

    Nep. Them. 7, 3.—
    (ε).
    Verbs expressing permission:

    atque ille legem mihi de XII. tabulis recitavit quae permittit ut furem noctu liceat occidere,

    Cic. Tull. 20, 47:

    concedo tibi ut ea praetereas quae, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 19, 54:

    dabis mihi hanc veniam ut eorum... auctoritatem Graecis anteponam,

    id. de Or. 1, 6, 23:

    ille tibi potestatem facturus est ut eligas utrum velis,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45:

    illud natura non patitur ut aliorum spoliis nostras facultates augeamus,

    id. Off. 3, 5, 22.—
    b.
    In dependent clauses implying an aim or end.
    (α).
    After verbs denoting direction and inclination of the mind, care, purpose, intention, or striving:

    ut plurimis prosimus enitimur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 2, 6:

    facilior erit ut albam esse nivem probet quam erat Anaxagoras,

    he will be more inclined, disposed, id. ib. 2, 36, 117: ne ille longe aberit ut argumento credat philosophorum, far remote from believing = not inclined, id. ib. 2, 47, 144: qui sibi hoc sumpsit ut conrigat mores aliorum, quis huic ignoscat si, who undertakes to correct, id. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 2:

    navem idoneam ut habeas diligenter videbis,

    care, id. Fam. 16, 1, 2:

    ille intellexit id agi atque id parari ut filiae suae vis afferretur,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 67:

    pater potuit animum inducere ut naturam ipsam vinceret,

    id. Rosc. Am. 19, 53:

    cum senatus temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam,

    id. Rep. 2, 12, 23:

    equidem ut honore dignus essem, maxime semper laboravi,

    id. Planc. 20, 50:

    omni contentione pugnatum est ut lis haec capitis existimaretur,

    id. Clu. 41, 116:

    omnis spes ad id versa ut totis viribus terra adgrederentur,

    Liv. 24, 34, 12:

    omnis cura solet in hoc versari, semper ut boni aliquid efficiam dicendo,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 75, 306:

    se miliens morituros potius quam ut tantum dedecoris admitti patiantur,

    Liv. 4, 2, 8; 2, 34, 11.—
    (β).
    Verbs of effecting:

    nec potui tamen Propitiam Venerem facere uti esset mihi,

    Plaut. Poen. 2, 6:

    prior pars orationis tuae faciebat ut mori cuperem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 47, 112:

    caritas annonae faciebat ut istuc... tempore magnum videretur,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 92, § 215:

    sol efficit ut omnia floreant,

    id. N. D. 2, 15, 41:

    potest praestare ut ea causa melior esse videatur,

    id. Or. 1, 10, 44:

    non committam ut tibi ipse insanire videar,

    id. Fam. 5, 5, 3:

    di prohibeant, judices, ut hoc praesidium sectorum existimetur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 52, 151:

    effecisti ut viverem et morerer ingratus,

    Sen. Ben. 2, 25, 1:

    quibus nihil aliud actum est quam ut pudor hominibus peccandi demeretur,

    id. Vit. Beat. 26, 6.—
    (γ).
    Verbs of obtaining:

    Dumnorix a Sequanis impetrat ut per fines suos Helvetios ire patiantur,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 9:

    quid assequitur, nisi hoc ut arent qui... in agris remanserunt,

    what does he gain, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 55, § 128:

    facile tenuit ut (Chalcidis) portae sibi aperirentur,

    Liv. 35, 51, 6:

    vicerunt tribuni ut legem perferrent,

    id. 4, 25, 13.—
    (δ).
    Verbs of inducing and compelling:

    nec ut omnia quae praescripta sunt defendamus necessitate ulla cogimur,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 3, 8: