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digitus medicus -- fourth finger of the hand

  • 1 medicus

        medicus adj.,    of healing, healing, medicinal: manūs, V.: ars, O.
    * * *
    I
    medica, medicum ADJ
    healing, curative, medical
    II
    doctor, physician; fourth finger of the hand

    Latin-English dictionary > medicus

  • 2 medicus

        medicus ī, m    [1 medicus], a medical man, physician, surgeon: nemon medicum adduxit? T.: non ignobilis: quod medicorum est Promittunt medici, H.: medico ridente, Iu.
    * * *
    I
    medica, medicum ADJ
    healing, curative, medical
    II
    doctor, physician; fourth finger of the hand

    Latin-English dictionary > medicus

  • 3 dexter

    dexter, tĕra, tĕrum, and more freq. tra, trum ( dat. plur. fem.: dextrabus manibus, Liv. Andron. ap. Non. 493, 20.— Comp. dextĕrĭor; sup. dextĭmus), adj. [dex-ter, root dek-, Gr. dekomai, whence daktulos, digitus; cf. Germ. Finger, from fangen; cf. also Sanscr. dakshinas, on the right hand, and Gr. dex-ios], to the right, on the right side, right (opp. laevus, sinister).
    I.
    Prop.:

    ut ante oculos fuerit qui dexter hic idem nunc sit laevus,

    Lucr. 4, 302:

    manus,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 49; 50; id. Capt. 2, 3, 82; Cic. Div. 1, 23, 46:

    pars membrorum (opp. laeva),

    Lucr. 4, 293:

    umeri,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 50, 2:

    latus,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 6; Ov. M. 13, 730 et saep.:

    cornu,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 5; Caes. B. G. 1, 52, 2; 2, 23, 4 et saep.:

    ala,

    Liv. 31, 21:

    acies,

    id. 27, 48 et saep.: dextrarum tibiarum genus est, quae dextra tenentur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 74, 5 Müll. et saep.:

    dextra ejus (fluminis) accolunt Deximontani,

    Plin. 6, 23, 26, § 99.— Comp. in signification = dexter, but spoken of two only:

    in dexteriore parte, opp. sinisteriore,

    Varr. L. L. 9, § 34 Müll.; so,

    pars, opp. laeva,

    Ov. M. 7, 241:

    rota, opp. sinisterior,

    id. ib. 2, 138:

    armus,

    id. ib. 12, 303:

    umerus,

    Suet. Claud. 7:

    latus,

    id. Galb. 21: cornu, Galba ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 30, 3 et saep.— Sup.: dextimus, a, um, an ancient and rare form, in signif. i. q. dexter: dextima via, Varr. ap. Non. 94, 30:

    apud dextimos,

    Sall. J. 100, 2.—
    II.
    Trop. (perh. not in ante-Aug. prose).
    1.
    Handy, dexterous, skilful; opportune, proper, suitable, fitting:

    rem ita dexter egit, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 8, 36:

    et Marius scriptis dexter in omne genus,

    Ov. Pont. 4, 16, 24:

    quis rebus dexter modus,

    Verg. A. 4, 294:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 2, 1, 18.—
    2.
    (Since the Greeks regarded an omen on the right as favorable) favorable, propitious, fortunate: dextra auspicia prospera, Paul. ex Fest. p. 74, 4 Müll.; cf.

    omen,

    Val. Fl. 1, 245:

    dexter adi,

    Verg. A. 8, 302; cf.:

    dexter ac volens assit (numen),

    Quint. 4 prooem. 5:

    Jove,

    Pers. 5, 114:

    sidere,

    Stat. S. 3, 4, 63 et saep.—Hence,

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > dexter

  • 4 digitulus

        digitulus ī, m dim.    [digitus], a little finger, T.: aniculae collum digitulis oblidere.
    * * *
    little finger; the touch of a finger

    Latin-English dictionary > digitulus

  • 5 demonstratorius

    dēmonstrātōrĭus, a, um, adj. [demonstrator], pointing out, indicating:

    digitus,

    the index-finger, Isid. 11, 1, 70.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > demonstratorius

  • 6 infamis

    in-fāmis, e, adj. [2. in-fama], of ill report, ill spoken of, disreputable, notorious, infamous (class.):

    homines ceteris vitiis atque omni dedecore infames,

    Cic. Clu. 47, 130:

    Metellus, infamis auctor deserendae Italiae,

    Liv. 27, 11, 12:

    captarum pecuniarum suspicione,

    id. 42, 45, 8:

    Valens ob lucra et quaestus infamis,

    Tac. H. 2, 56:

    filius,

    Quint. 9, 2, 79:

    ut inops infamis ne sim,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 63.—

    Of things: domus infamis et pestilens,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 5: digitus, the middle finger, because used in unbecoming and scornful gestures (cf. Juv. 10, 53), Pers. 2, 33 Gildersleeve ad loc.:

    tabella,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 24:

    turpis adulescentia, vita infamis,

    id. Font. 11, 24:

    carmen,

    Ov. R. Am. 254:

    annus,

    Liv. 8, 18, 2:

    Alpes frigoribus,

    id. 8, 21, 31:

    scopuli,

    Hor. C. 1, 3, 20:

    materia,

    Gell. 17, 12, 1:

    quo facto (maledicto) condemnatus infamis efficitur,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 4, 19.— Adv.: infāmĭ-ter, infamously; only sup.:

    alicui infamissime adhaerere,

    Capitol. Pert. 13, 8.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > infamis

  • 7 infamiter

    in-fāmis, e, adj. [2. in-fama], of ill report, ill spoken of, disreputable, notorious, infamous (class.):

    homines ceteris vitiis atque omni dedecore infames,

    Cic. Clu. 47, 130:

    Metellus, infamis auctor deserendae Italiae,

    Liv. 27, 11, 12:

    captarum pecuniarum suspicione,

    id. 42, 45, 8:

    Valens ob lucra et quaestus infamis,

    Tac. H. 2, 56:

    filius,

    Quint. 9, 2, 79:

    ut inops infamis ne sim,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 63.—

    Of things: domus infamis et pestilens,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 5: digitus, the middle finger, because used in unbecoming and scornful gestures (cf. Juv. 10, 53), Pers. 2, 33 Gildersleeve ad loc.:

    tabella,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 24:

    turpis adulescentia, vita infamis,

    id. Font. 11, 24:

    carmen,

    Ov. R. Am. 254:

    annus,

    Liv. 8, 18, 2:

    Alpes frigoribus,

    id. 8, 21, 31:

    scopuli,

    Hor. C. 1, 3, 20:

    materia,

    Gell. 17, 12, 1:

    quo facto (maledicto) condemnatus infamis efficitur,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 4, 19.— Adv.: infāmĭ-ter, infamously; only sup.:

    alicui infamissime adhaerere,

    Capitol. Pert. 13, 8.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > infamiter

  • 8 medicus

    1.
    mĕdĭcus, a, um [medeor], of or pertaining to healing, healing, curative, medical (as adj., poet. and in post-Aug. prose).
    I.
    Adj.:

    medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera,

    Verg. G. 3, 455:

    ars,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 6, 12:

    potus,

    Nemes. Cyn. 222:

    vis,

    Plin. 36, 27, 69, § 202:

    salubritas,

    id. 5, 16, 15, § 72:

    usus,

    id. 22, 25, 81, § 163: digitus, the next to the little finger (cf. medicinalis), id. 30, 12, 34, § 108. —
    * B.
    Transf., magical:

    Marmaridae, medicum vulgus, ad quorum tactum mites jacuere cerastae,

    Sil. 3, 300.—
    II.
    Subst.:
    A.
    mĕdĭcus, i, m.
    1.
    A medical man, physician, surgeon (class.):

    medicus nobilissimus atque optimus quaeritur,

    Cic. Clu. 21, 57:

    medicum arcessere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 122:

    admovere aegro,

    Suet. Ner. 37:

    vulnerum,

    a surgeon, Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 22: caeduntur tumidae medico ridente mariscae, Juv. 2, 13; cf.:

    medicus ait se obligasse crus fractum Aesculapio, Apollini autem bracchium,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 3, 9:

    MEDICVS CLINICVS, CHIRVRGVS, OCVLARIVS,

    Inscr. Orell. 2983:

    AVRICVLARIVS,

    ib. 4227:

    IVMENTARIVS,

    ib. 4229; cf.:

    medici pecorum,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7 fin.:

    LEGIONIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 448; 4996:

    DVPLARIVS TRIREMIS,

    ib. 3640:

    instrumentum medici,

    Paul. Sent. 3, 6, 62.—Prov.:

    medice, cura teipsum,

    Vulg. Luc. 4, 23.—
    2.
    The finger next the little finger, Gr. daktulos iatrikos, Auct. Her. 3, 20, 33.—
    B.
    mĕdĭ-ca, ae, f., a female physician (post-class.), App. M. 5, p. 363 Oud.; Inscr. Orell. 4230 sq.; Inscr. Grut. 635, 9; 636, 1 sq.—Also, a midwife, Interpr. Paul. Sent. 2, 24, 8; Ambros. Ep. 5.—
    C.
    mĕdĭca, ōrum, n., medicinal herbs, Plin. 19, 5, 27, § 89.
    2.
    Mēdĭcus, a, um, v. Medi, II. B.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > medicus

  • 9 digitus

        digitus ī, m    [DIC-], a finger: de digito anulum detraho, T.: digitos impellere, ut Scriberent: Indice monstrare digito, H.: illam digito uno attingere, to touch gently, T.: alqd extremis digitis attingere, to touch lightly: attingere caelum digito, to be exceedingly happy: digiti, per quos numerare solemus, O.: in digitis suis singulas partīs causae constituere: si tuos digitos novi, skill in reckoning: si digitis concrepuerit, by a snap of the finger: digitum ad fontīs intendere, to point: qui digito sit licitus, bid at an auction: digitis nutuque loqui, by signs, O.: digito compesce labellum. hold your tongue, Iu.: monstror digito praetereuntium fidicen, H.: demonstravi digito Gallum.— Prov.: ne digitum quidem porrigere, not to move a finger.—A toe: constitit in digitos adrectus, V. — A finger's breadth, inch (the sixteenth part of a pes), Cs.: clavi digiti pollicis crassitudine, Cs.— Prov.: digitum transversum non discedere, swerve a finger's breadth: ab argento digitum discedere: digitis a morte remotus Quattuor, Iu.
    * * *
    finger; toe; a finger's breath

    Latin-English dictionary > digitus

  • 10 Digitus

    1.
    dĭgĭtus, i, m. [Gr. daktulos; cf. Germ. Zehe, Eng. toe; from root dek(dechomai), to grasp, receive; cf.

    Germ. Finger, from fangen,

    Curt. Gr. Etym. 133. Corssen, however, still refers digitus to root dik-, dico, deiknumi, as the pointer, indicator, Ausspr. 1, 380; cf. dico], a finger.
    I.
    Prop.:

    tot (cyathos bibimus), quot digiti sunt tibi in manu,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 24; id. Most. 5, 1, 69; id. Mil. 2, 2, 47; 4, 2, 57 et saep.—The special designations: pollex, the thumb; index or salutaris, the forefinger; medius, also infamis and impudicus, the middle finger; minimo proximus or medicinalis, the ring-finger; minimus, the little finger, v. under those words.—
    B.
    Special connections:

    attingere aliquem digito (uno),

    to touch one lightly, gently, Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 15; Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 2 Ruhnk.; Licinius ap. Gell. 19, 9, 13; Cic. Tusc. 5, 19, 55; cf.

    with tangere,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 5, 30; id. Poen. 5, 5, 29:

    attingere aliquid extremis digitis (with primoribus labris gustare),

    to touch lightly, to enjoy slightly, Cic. Cael. 12:

    attingere caelum digito,

    to be exceedingly happy, id. Att. 2, 1, 7: colere summis digitis, to adore (to touch the offering or consecrated gift) with the tips of the fingers, Lact. 1, 20; 5, 19 fin.; cf. Ov. F. 2, 573:

    computare digitis,

    to count on the fingers, to reckon up, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 51; Plin. 34, 8, 19, no. 29, § 88; cf.:

    numerare per digitos,

    Ov. F. 3, 123:

    in digitis suis singulas partis causae constituere,

    Cic. Div. in Caec. 14, 45.—Hence, venire ad digitos, to be reckoned, Plin. 2, 23, 21, § 87; and:

    si tuos digitos novi,

    thy skill in reckoning, Cic. Att. 5, 21, 13; cf.

    also: digerere argumenta in digitos,

    to count on the fingers, Quint. 11, 3, 114: concrepare digitos or digitis, to snap the fingers, as a signal of command, Petr. 27, 5; Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 53; Cic. Off. 3, 19; v. concrepo; cf.

    also: digitus crepans,

    Mart. 3, 82, 15:

    digitorum crepitus,

    id. 14, 119:

    digitorum percussio,

    Cic. Off. 3, 19, 78:

    intendere digitum ad aliquid,

    to point the finger at any thing, Cic. de Or. 1, 46 fin.:

    liceri digito,

    to hold up the finger in bidding at an auction, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 11;

    for which also: tollere digitum,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 54. The latter phrase also signifies, to raise the finger in token of submission, said of a combatant, Sid. Ep. 5, 7; cf. Mart. Spect. 29, 5;

    and Schol,

    Pers. 5, 119:

    loqui digitis nutuque,

    to talk by signs, Ov. Tr. 2, 453;

    different is: postquam fuerant digiti cum voce locuti,

    i. e. playing as an accompaniment to singing, Tib. 3, 4, 41; cf.:

    ad digiti sonum,

    id. 1, 2, 31; cf. also Lucr. 4, 587; 5, 1384:

    digito compesce labellum,

    hold your tongue, Juv. 1, 160.—For the various modes of employing the fingers in oratorical delivery, cf. Quint. 1, 10, 35; 11, 3, 92 sq.; 103; 120 al.: monstrari digito, i. e. to be pointed out, to become distinguished, famous, Hor. C. 4, 3, 22; Pers. 1, 28;

    for which: demonstrari digito,

    Tac. Or. 7 fin.; Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266; id. Rep. 6, 24; Nep. Datam. 11, 5; Suet. Aug. 45.—Prov. phrases:

    nescit, quot digitos habeat in manu, of one who knows nothing at all,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 5:

    in digitis hodie percoquam quod ceperit,

    i. e. he has caught nothing, id. Rud. 4, 1, 11: ne digitum quidem porrigere, not to stretch out a finger, like the Gr. daktulon mê proteinai, ekteinai, for not to give one's self the least trouble, Cic. Fin. 3, 17, 57; cf.:

    exserere digitum,

    Pers. 5, 119 Scal.;

    and in like manner: proferre digitum,

    to move a finger, to make any exertion, Cic. Caecin. 25, 71:

    scalpere caput digito, of effeminate men fearful of disarranging their hair,

    Juv. 9, 133; cf. Sen. Ep. 52 fin.; a habit of Pompey's, acc. to Calvus ap. Schol. Luc. 7, 726, and Sen. Contr. 3, 19; Amm. 17, 11. (Cf. Echtermeyer's Ueber Namen und symbolische Bedeutung der Finger bei den Griechen und Römern, Progr. d. Hall. Pädagogiums, v. 1835.)
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    A toe (cf. Heb., Gr. daktulos, Fr. doigt), Lucr. 3, 527; Verg. A. 5, 426; Petr. 132, 14; Sen. Ep. 111; Quint. 2, 3, 8 et saep.; also of the toes of animals, Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 4; Col. 8, 2, 8; Plin. 10, 42, 59, § 119 al.—
    B.
    A small bough, a twig, Plin. 14, 1, 3, § 12; 17, 24, 37, § 224.—
    C.
    As a measure of length, an inch, the sixteenth part of a Roman foot (pes), Front. Aquaed. 24 sq.; Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 6; id. B. C. 2, 10, 4; Juv. 12, 59 al.: digiti primores, finger-ends, as a measure, Cato R. R. 21, 2;

    digitus transversus,

    a fingerbreadth, id. ib. 45 fin.;

    48, 2.—Prov.: digitum transversum non discedere ab aliqua re,

    not to swerve a finger's breadth, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 58; cf.

    without transversum: nusquam ab argento digitum discedere,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15;

    and ellipt.: ab honestissima sententia digitum nusquam,

    id. Att. 7, 3, 11.
    2.
    Dĭgĭtus, i, m., a proper name; in plur.: Digiti Idaei = Daktuloi Idaioi, the priests of Cybele, Cic. N. D. 3, 16, 42; cf. Arn. 3, 41 and 43, and v. Dactylus.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Digitus

  • 11 digitus

    1.
    dĭgĭtus, i, m. [Gr. daktulos; cf. Germ. Zehe, Eng. toe; from root dek(dechomai), to grasp, receive; cf.

    Germ. Finger, from fangen,

    Curt. Gr. Etym. 133. Corssen, however, still refers digitus to root dik-, dico, deiknumi, as the pointer, indicator, Ausspr. 1, 380; cf. dico], a finger.
    I.
    Prop.:

    tot (cyathos bibimus), quot digiti sunt tibi in manu,

    Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 24; id. Most. 5, 1, 69; id. Mil. 2, 2, 47; 4, 2, 57 et saep.—The special designations: pollex, the thumb; index or salutaris, the forefinger; medius, also infamis and impudicus, the middle finger; minimo proximus or medicinalis, the ring-finger; minimus, the little finger, v. under those words.—
    B.
    Special connections:

    attingere aliquem digito (uno),

    to touch one lightly, gently, Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 15; Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 2 Ruhnk.; Licinius ap. Gell. 19, 9, 13; Cic. Tusc. 5, 19, 55; cf.

    with tangere,

    Plaut. Rud. 3, 5, 30; id. Poen. 5, 5, 29:

    attingere aliquid extremis digitis (with primoribus labris gustare),

    to touch lightly, to enjoy slightly, Cic. Cael. 12:

    attingere caelum digito,

    to be exceedingly happy, id. Att. 2, 1, 7: colere summis digitis, to adore (to touch the offering or consecrated gift) with the tips of the fingers, Lact. 1, 20; 5, 19 fin.; cf. Ov. F. 2, 573:

    computare digitis,

    to count on the fingers, to reckon up, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 51; Plin. 34, 8, 19, no. 29, § 88; cf.:

    numerare per digitos,

    Ov. F. 3, 123:

    in digitis suis singulas partis causae constituere,

    Cic. Div. in Caec. 14, 45.—Hence, venire ad digitos, to be reckoned, Plin. 2, 23, 21, § 87; and:

    si tuos digitos novi,

    thy skill in reckoning, Cic. Att. 5, 21, 13; cf.

    also: digerere argumenta in digitos,

    to count on the fingers, Quint. 11, 3, 114: concrepare digitos or digitis, to snap the fingers, as a signal of command, Petr. 27, 5; Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 53; Cic. Off. 3, 19; v. concrepo; cf.

    also: digitus crepans,

    Mart. 3, 82, 15:

    digitorum crepitus,

    id. 14, 119:

    digitorum percussio,

    Cic. Off. 3, 19, 78:

    intendere digitum ad aliquid,

    to point the finger at any thing, Cic. de Or. 1, 46 fin.:

    liceri digito,

    to hold up the finger in bidding at an auction, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 11;

    for which also: tollere digitum,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 54. The latter phrase also signifies, to raise the finger in token of submission, said of a combatant, Sid. Ep. 5, 7; cf. Mart. Spect. 29, 5;

    and Schol,

    Pers. 5, 119:

    loqui digitis nutuque,

    to talk by signs, Ov. Tr. 2, 453;

    different is: postquam fuerant digiti cum voce locuti,

    i. e. playing as an accompaniment to singing, Tib. 3, 4, 41; cf.:

    ad digiti sonum,

    id. 1, 2, 31; cf. also Lucr. 4, 587; 5, 1384:

    digito compesce labellum,

    hold your tongue, Juv. 1, 160.—For the various modes of employing the fingers in oratorical delivery, cf. Quint. 1, 10, 35; 11, 3, 92 sq.; 103; 120 al.: monstrari digito, i. e. to be pointed out, to become distinguished, famous, Hor. C. 4, 3, 22; Pers. 1, 28;

    for which: demonstrari digito,

    Tac. Or. 7 fin.; Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266; id. Rep. 6, 24; Nep. Datam. 11, 5; Suet. Aug. 45.—Prov. phrases:

    nescit, quot digitos habeat in manu, of one who knows nothing at all,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 5:

    in digitis hodie percoquam quod ceperit,

    i. e. he has caught nothing, id. Rud. 4, 1, 11: ne digitum quidem porrigere, not to stretch out a finger, like the Gr. daktulon mê proteinai, ekteinai, for not to give one's self the least trouble, Cic. Fin. 3, 17, 57; cf.:

    exserere digitum,

    Pers. 5, 119 Scal.;

    and in like manner: proferre digitum,

    to move a finger, to make any exertion, Cic. Caecin. 25, 71:

    scalpere caput digito, of effeminate men fearful of disarranging their hair,

    Juv. 9, 133; cf. Sen. Ep. 52 fin.; a habit of Pompey's, acc. to Calvus ap. Schol. Luc. 7, 726, and Sen. Contr. 3, 19; Amm. 17, 11. (Cf. Echtermeyer's Ueber Namen und symbolische Bedeutung der Finger bei den Griechen und Römern, Progr. d. Hall. Pädagogiums, v. 1835.)
    II.
    Transf.
    A.
    A toe (cf. Heb., Gr. daktulos, Fr. doigt), Lucr. 3, 527; Verg. A. 5, 426; Petr. 132, 14; Sen. Ep. 111; Quint. 2, 3, 8 et saep.; also of the toes of animals, Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 4; Col. 8, 2, 8; Plin. 10, 42, 59, § 119 al.—
    B.
    A small bough, a twig, Plin. 14, 1, 3, § 12; 17, 24, 37, § 224.—
    C.
    As a measure of length, an inch, the sixteenth part of a Roman foot (pes), Front. Aquaed. 24 sq.; Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 6; id. B. C. 2, 10, 4; Juv. 12, 59 al.: digiti primores, finger-ends, as a measure, Cato R. R. 21, 2;

    digitus transversus,

    a fingerbreadth, id. ib. 45 fin.;

    48, 2.—Prov.: digitum transversum non discedere ab aliqua re,

    not to swerve a finger's breadth, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 58; cf.

    without transversum: nusquam ab argento digitum discedere,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 15;

    and ellipt.: ab honestissima sententia digitum nusquam,

    id. Att. 7, 3, 11.
    2.
    Dĭgĭtus, i, m., a proper name; in plur.: Digiti Idaei = Daktuloi Idaioi, the priests of Cybele, Cic. N. D. 3, 16, 42; cf. Arn. 3, 41 and 43, and v. Dactylus.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > digitus

  • 12 Medicus curat, natura sanat

    The physician treats, nature cures

    Latin Quotes (Latin to English) > Medicus curat, natura sanat

  • 13 medicus

    doctor, physician.

    Latin-English dictionary of medieval > medicus

  • 14 Medicus

    Maedi ( Mēdi), ōrum, m., = Maidoi, a Thracian people on the borders of Macedonia, Plin. 4, 1, 1, § 3; 4, 11, 18, § 40; Liv. 26, 25, 6; 28, 5; Eutr. 5, 7.—Hence,
    II.
    Mae-dĭcus ( Mēd-), a, um, adj., = Maidikos, of or belonging to the Mædi.—Subst.: Maedĭca, ae, f. (sc. terra or regio), the Mædian territory, Liv. 26, 25, 8; 40, 21; 22.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Medicus

  • 15 medica

    1.
    mĕdĭcus, a, um [medeor], of or pertaining to healing, healing, curative, medical (as adj., poet. and in post-Aug. prose).
    I.
    Adj.:

    medicas adhibere manus ad vulnera,

    Verg. G. 3, 455:

    ars,

    Ov. Tr. 5, 6, 12:

    potus,

    Nemes. Cyn. 222:

    vis,

    Plin. 36, 27, 69, § 202:

    salubritas,

    id. 5, 16, 15, § 72:

    usus,

    id. 22, 25, 81, § 163: digitus, the next to the little finger (cf. medicinalis), id. 30, 12, 34, § 108. —
    * B.
    Transf., magical:

    Marmaridae, medicum vulgus, ad quorum tactum mites jacuere cerastae,

    Sil. 3, 300.—
    II.
    Subst.:
    A.
    mĕdĭcus, i, m.
    1.
    A medical man, physician, surgeon (class.):

    medicus nobilissimus atque optimus quaeritur,

    Cic. Clu. 21, 57:

    medicum arcessere,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 122:

    admovere aegro,

    Suet. Ner. 37:

    vulnerum,

    a surgeon, Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 22: caeduntur tumidae medico ridente mariscae, Juv. 2, 13; cf.:

    medicus ait se obligasse crus fractum Aesculapio, Apollini autem bracchium,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 3, 9:

    MEDICVS CLINICVS, CHIRVRGVS, OCVLARIVS,

    Inscr. Orell. 2983:

    AVRICVLARIVS,

    ib. 4227:

    IVMENTARIVS,

    ib. 4229; cf.:

    medici pecorum,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 7 fin.:

    LEGIONIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 448; 4996:

    DVPLARIVS TRIREMIS,

    ib. 3640:

    instrumentum medici,

    Paul. Sent. 3, 6, 62.—Prov.:

    medice, cura teipsum,

    Vulg. Luc. 4, 23.—
    2.
    The finger next the little finger, Gr. daktulos iatrikos, Auct. Her. 3, 20, 33.—
    B.
    mĕdĭ-ca, ae, f., a female physician (post-class.), App. M. 5, p. 363 Oud.; Inscr. Orell. 4230 sq.; Inscr. Grut. 635, 9; 636, 1 sq.—Also, a midwife, Interpr. Paul. Sent. 2, 24, 8; Ambros. Ep. 5.—
    C.
    mĕdĭca, ōrum, n., medicinal herbs, Plin. 19, 5, 27, § 89.
    2.
    Mēdĭcus, a, um, v. Medi, II. B.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > medica

  • 16 ut or utī

        ut or utī adv.    [for * quoti or * cuti; 2 CA-].    I. Of place, where (poet.): Nisus Labitur, caesis ut forte iuvencis Fusus madefecerat herbas, V.: Utque aër, tellus illic, O.—    II. Of time, when, as soon as, just as: ut hinc te intro ire iussi, opportune hic fit mi obviam, T.: ut peroravit, surrexit Clodius: ut vero aquam ingressi sunt... tum, etc., L.: Ariovistum, ut semel Gallorum copias vicerit, crudeliter imperare, Cs.: atque ego, ut primum fletu represso loqui posse coepi, Quaeso inquam, etc., as soon as ever: Siculi, ut primum videre volgari morbos, in suas quisque urbes dilapsi sunt, L.: deinde ut nulla vi perculsos sustinere poterat, Quid ultra moror, inquit, etc., L.: ut hinc forte ea ad obstetricem erat missa, T.: ut ad mare nostrae cohortes excubuerant, accessere subito Pompeiani, Cs.: litteras scripsi... statim ut tuas legerem (i. e. litteras nunc scribo, ut tuas legi): neque, ut quaeque res delata ad nos, tum denique scrutari locos (debemus): traditum esse ut quando aqua Albana abundasset, tum... victoriam de Veientibus dari, L.— Since, from the time at which: ut Brundisio profectus es, nullae mihi abs te sunt redditae litterae.—Of repeated action, whenever: ut quisque istius animum offenderat, in lautumias statim coniciebatur: ut cuique erat locus attributus, ad munitiones accedunt, Cs.: ut quisque arma ceperat... inordinati in proelium ruunt, L.: ut enim quisque dixerat, ita postulabatur, etc.—    III. Of manner.    A. Interrog., how, in what way, in what manner: Ut vales? T.: ut sese in Samnio res habent? L.: Ut valet? ut meminit nostri? H. —Usu. in dependent questions, with subj: Narratque ut virgo ab se integra etiam tum siet, T.: credo te audisse ut me circumsteterint: docebat ut omni tempore totius Galliae principatum Aedui tenuissent, Cs.: veniat in mentem, ut trepidos quondam maiores vestros... defenderimus, L.: Vides ut altā stet nive candidum Soracte, H.— With indic. (old or poet.): Illud vide, os ut sibi distorsit carnufex, T.: Aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo! (i. e. omnia laetantia), V.—After verbs of fearing, how, in what way, lest... not, that... not: rem frumentariam, ut satis commode supportari posset, timere dicebant, Cs.: verebar ut redderentur: timeo ut sustineas: o puer, ut sis Vitalis, metuo, et maiorum ne quis amicus Frigore te feriat, H.: quia nihil minus, quam ut egredi obsessi moenibus auderent, timeri poterat, L.: ut ferulā caedas meritum... non vereor, H.—In exclamations: ut falsus animi est! T.: Gnaeus autem noster... ut totus iacet: Ut vidi, ut perii! ut me malus abstulit error! V.: ut tu Semper eris derisor! H.—    B. Relative, as: ut potero, feram, T.: Ciceronem et ut rogas amo, et ut meretur et debeo: Labienus, ut erat ei praeceptum... abstinebat, Cs.: ut plerumque fit, L.—Introducing an example, as, for example, for instance: est quiddam, quod suā vi nos inlectos ducit, ut amicitia: ceteri morbi, ut gloriae cupiditas, etc.: qui aliis nocent, in eādem sunt iniustitiā, ut si in suam rem aliena convertant: ut si quis ei quem urgeat fames venenum ponat, L.: causas, ut honorificentissimis verbis consequi potero, complectar: si virtus digna est gloriatione, ut est (i. e. sicut est): nemo, ut opinor, in culpā est, in my judgment: qui, ut credo, duxit, etc., I believe.—With correlative ita, sic, sometimes idem, item, as, just as, in the same manner as: omnīs posthabui mihi res, ita uti par fuit, T.: ut viro forti dignum fuit, ita calumniam eius obtrivit: si ut animis sic oculis videre possemus: disputationem exponimus, eisdem fere verbis, ut disputatumque est: fecisti item ut praedones solent: haec ut brevissime dici potuerunt, ita a me dicta sunt (i. e. ita breviter dicta sunt ut dici potuerunt): te semper sic colam ut quem diligentissime: eruditus autem sic ut nemo Thebanus magis, N.—In comparative clauses with indefinite subjects, ut quisque with a sup. or an expression implying a superlative, usu. followed by ita with a sup, the more... the more: ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime alios improbos suspicatur, the better man one is, the harder it is for him to, etc.: ut quisque (morbus) est difficillimus, ita medicus nobilissimus quaeritur; cf. facillime ad res iniustas impellitur ut quisque altissimo animo est: ut quisque gradu proximus erat, ita ignominiae obiectus, L.: de captivis, ut quisque liber aut servus esset, suae fortunae a quoque sumptum supplicium est, according to each one's station, whether free or bound, L.—Introducing a general statement for comparison or confirmation, as, considering that, in accordance with the fact that, in view of what: haud scio hercle, ut homost, an mutet animum, T.: atque ille, ut semper fuit apertissimus, non se purgavit, sed, etc.: transire pontem non potuit, ut extrema resoluta crant, etc., L.: Epicharmi, acuti nec insulsi hominis, ut Siculi, as was natural for a Sicilian.—Introducing a limiting circumstance, as, considering, for: hic Geta ut captus est servorum, non malus, i. e. as far as this can be said of slaves, T.: civitas florens, ut est captus Germanorum, Cs.: Caelius Antipater, scriptor, ut temporibus illis, luculentus, for those times: (orationis genus) ut in oratore exile, for an orator: gens, ut in eā regione, divitiis praepollens, L.— With perinde or pro eo, as, in proportion as, according as, to the extent that, in the measure that: in exspectatione civitas erat, perinde ut evenisset res, ita communicatos honores habitura, L.: pro eo ut temporis difficultas aratorumque penuria tulit.—With a relat., as it is natural for persons, like one, since, seeing that: proficiscuntur, ut quibus esset persuasum, non ab hoste consilium datum, etc., like men convinced that, etc., Cs.: inde consul, ut qui iam ad hostīs perventum cerneret, procedebat, L.—Introducing a motive or assumption, as if, on the supposition that, in the belief that: narratio est rerum gestarum aut ut gestarum expositio: (Galli) laeti, ut exploratā victoriā, ad castra pergunt, L.—With ita or sic, introducing an oath or attestation, as, as it is true that: ita me di ament ut ego Laetor, etc., T.: ita vivam ut maximos sumptūs facio.—With correlative ita or sic, introducing contrasted clauses, as... so, as on the one hand... so on the other, although... yet, while... still, both... and: ut errare potuisti, sic decipi te non potuisse, quis non videt?: consul, ut fortasse vere, sic parum utiliter in praesens certamen, respondit, etc., L.: uti longe a luxuriā, ita famae propior, Ta.—Repeated as indefinite relative, in whatever manner, howsoever (only with indic.): Sed ut ut haec sunt, tamen hoc faciam, T.: sed ut ut est, indulge valetudini tuae.—Indefinite, in concessive or conditional clauses, however, in whatever manner, in whatever degree, although, granting that: quod ut ita sit—nihil enim pugno —quid habet ista res aut laetabile aut gloriosum?: nihil est prudentiā dulcius, quam, ut cetera auferat, adfert certe senectus: ut enim neminem alium rogasset, scire potuit, etc.: qui, ut non omnis peritissimus sim belli, cum Romanis certe bellare didici, L.: ac iam ut omnia contra opinionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse, Cs.: Ut desint vires tamen est laudanda voluntas, O.

    Latin-English dictionary > ut or utī

  • 17 ab

    ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. upo, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, a, a; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. epi, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.:

    AF VOBEIS,

    Inscr. Orell. 3114;

    AF MVRO,

    ib. 6601;

    AF CAPVA,

    ib. 3308;

    AF SOLO,

    ib. 589;

    AF LYCO,

    ib. 3036 ( afuolunt =avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Mull., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.—The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.—By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into a, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.—By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form a- in the two compounds a-bio and a-perio, q. v.—On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and a, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab):

    abs chorago,

    Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl):

    abs quivis,

    Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1:

    abs terra,

    Cato, R. R. 51;

    and in compounds: aps-cessero,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (=B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12;

    and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus,

    id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).—Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.—The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).
    I.
    In space, and,
    II.
    Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
    I.
    Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.):

    Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    fuga ab urbe turpissima,

    Cic. Att. 7, 21:

    ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim,

    Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab ( from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit....Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.—Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92. —Often joined with usque:

    illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci,

    all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.—And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, from... to, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. ab... in:

    venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt,

    Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
    b.
    Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place:

    oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Troja conditum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33:

    quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.:

    ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and:

    protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat,

    id. ib. 1, 25, 2:

    profecti a domo,

    Liv. 40, 33, 2;

    of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa transmiserint,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.:

    classe qua advecti ab domo fuerant,

    Liv. 8, 22, 6;

    of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est,

    Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.:

    legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt,

    id. 24, 40, 2.
    c.
    Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.):

    Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.:

    libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit,

    Cic. Fl. 20, 47:

    Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse,

    id. Att. 7, 24:

    cum a vobis discessero,

    id. Sen. 22:

    multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque,

    Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6:

    so a fratre,

    id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5:

    a Pontio,

    Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.:

    ab ea,

    Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    B.
    Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
    1.
    Of separation:

    ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2:

    abesse a domo paulisper maluit,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39:

    tum Brutus ab Roma aberat,

    Sall. C. 40, 5:

    absint lacerti ab stabulis,

    Verg. G. 4, 14.—
    2.
    Of distance:

    quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe,

    Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.:

    nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui,

    id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and:

    hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1:

    terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164:

    non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.—With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.):

    cum domus patris a foro longe abesset,

    Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.:

    qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5:

    quae procul erant a conspectu imperii,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.:

    procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and:

    tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides,

    Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.;

    v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.:

    tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas,

    id. Pis. 11, 26; and:

    tam prope ab domo detineri,

    id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.—So in Caesar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance:

    onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur,

    eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which:

    duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra,

    id. 37, 38, 5). —
    3.
    To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations,=a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laeva latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.:

    picus et cornix ab laeva, corvos, parra ab dextera consuadent,

    Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5:

    pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt,

    on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11:

    non eadem diligentia ab decumuna porta castra munita,

    at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.:

    erat a septentrionibus collis,

    on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    In time.
    1.
    From a [p. 3] point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After:

    Exul ab octava Marius bibit,

    Juv. 1,40:

    mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi,

    immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4:

    Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    ab hac contione legati missi sunt,

    immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.:

    ab eo magistratu,

    after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5:

    a summa spe novissima exspectabat,

    after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin. —Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after:

    ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni,

    Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68:

    confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris,

    Liv. 30, 36, 1:

    statim a funere,

    Suet. Caes. 85;

    and followed by statim: ab itinere statim,

    id. ib. 60:

    protinus ab adoptione,

    Vell. 2, 104, 3:

    Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit,

    soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).—

    Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die,

    i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (=postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1:

    secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit,

    i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192. —Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ek toutôn), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
    2.
    With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after:

    ab hora tertia bibebatur,

    from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41:

    infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sulla et Pompeio consulibus,

    since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56:

    vixit ab omni aeternitate,

    from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115:

    cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime,

    Nep. Att. 5, 3:

    in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse,

    after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.:

    centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii,

    since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.:

    cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est,

    id. Sen. 6, 19; and:

    ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum,

    since, Sall. C. 47, 2:

    diebus triginta, a qua die materia caesa est,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 36.—Sometimes joined with usque and inde:

    quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt,

    since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20:

    jam inde ab infelici pugna ceciderant animi,

    from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin. —Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.—Ab... ad, from (a time)... to:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.:

    cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and:

    a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus,

    Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque:

    pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum,

    from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.—Rarely ab... in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, from... till late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
    b.
    Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life:

    qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo,

    from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.:

    mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritia fuit semper famillaritas,

    Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so,

    a pueritia,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4:

    jam inde ab adulescentia,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16:

    ab adulescentia,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 1:

    jam a prima adulescentia,

    id. Fam. 1, 9, 23:

    ab ineunte adulescentia,

    id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf.

    followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentia,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20:

    a primis temporibus aetatis,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3:

    a teneris unguiculis,

    from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2:

    usque a toga pura,

    id. Att. 7, 8, 5:

    jam inde ab incunabulis,

    Liv. 4, 36, 5:

    a prima lanugine,

    Suet. Oth. 12:

    viridi ab aevo,

    Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.;

    rarely of animals: ab infantia,

    Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.—Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ek paioôn, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.:

    qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so,

    a pausillo puero,

    id. Stich. 1, 3, 21:

    a puero,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.:

    a pueris,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.:

    ab adulescente,

    id. Quint. 3, 12:

    ab infante,

    Col. 1, 8, 2:

    a parva virgine,

    Cat. 66, 26 al. —Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.:

    a parvis,

    Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9:

    a parvulo,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.:

    ab parvulis,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3:

    ab tenero,

    Col. 5, 6, 20;

    and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bima aut trima fructum ferre incipit,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    B.
    In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
    1.
    In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.):

    suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42:

    qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18:

    hic ab artificio suo non recessit,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.:

    quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas,

    Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180:

    condicionem quam ab te peto,

    id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.:

    mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34:

    si quid ab illo acceperis,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90:

    quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divina progenie,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26:

    ab defensione desistere,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4:

    ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur,

    id. B. G. 7, 24, 2:

    ut homines adulescentis a dicendi studio deterream,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.—Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling):

    qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit,

    the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46:

    tu nunc eris alter ab illo,

    next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.:

    Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus,

    next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193:

    quid hoc ab illo differt,

    from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.:

    hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum,

    id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and:

    discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam,

    id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.):

    quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7:

    alieno a te animo fuit,

    id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus). —So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one's profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.):

    subdole ab re consulit,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous:

    haut est ab re aucupis,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71:

    non ab re esse Quinctii visum est,

    Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
    2.
    In partic.
    a.
    To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuria abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38:

    a patre deductus ad Scaevolam,

    Cic. Lael. 1, 1:

    ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur,

    id. ib. 1, 3:

    disputata ab eo,

    id. ib. 1, 4 al.:

    illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graecia vetere celebrata,

    id. de Or. 3, 51, 197:

    ita generati a natura sumus,

    id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.:

    pars mundi damnata a rerum natura,

    Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88:

    niagna adhibita cura est a providentia deorum,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al. —With intrans. verbs:

    quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu,

    is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) qua a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105:

    salvebis a meo Cicerone,

    i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.:

    a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus,

    i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3:

    ne vir ab hoste cadat,

    Ov. H. 9, 36 al. —A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.):

    levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.:

    a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus,

    id. Off. 2, 6, 19:

    si calor est a sole,

    id. N. D. 2, 52:

    ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis),

    id. Att. 16, 7, 5:

    metu poenae a Romanis,

    Liv. 32, 23, 9:

    bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis,

    id. 3, 22, 2:

    ad exsolvendam fldem a consule,

    id. 27, 5, 6.—With an adj.:

    lassus ab equo indomito,

    Hor. S. 2, 2, 10:

    Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo,

    Prop. 5, 1, 126:

    tempus a nostris triste malis,

    time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.—Different from per:

    vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus?

    by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so,

    ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore),

    Nep. Alc. 5, 4.—Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active:

    si postulatur a populo,

    if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons:

    deseror conjuge,

    Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2;

    and in prose,

    Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.—Hence the adverbial phrase a se=uph heautou, sua sponte, of one's own uccord, spontaneously:

    ipsum a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78:

    (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit,

    Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eapse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
    b.
    With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of:

    pastores a Pergamide,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1:

    Turnus ab Aricia,

    Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1):

    obsides dant trecentos principum a Cora atque Pometia liberos,

    Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Alba, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (=oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
    c.
    In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. nomon) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab re... interregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6:

    (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus,

    id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
    d.
    With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table:

    da, puere, ab summo,

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so,

    da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21:

    coepere a fame mala,

    Liv. 4, 12, 7:

    cornicem a cauda de ovo exire,

    tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18:

    a capite repetis, quod quaerimus,

    Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
    e.
    With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing:

    a foliis et stercore purgato,

    Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1:

    tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi?

    Ter. Heaut. 1, [p. 4] 1, 23; cf.:

    Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant,

    Liv. 21, 11, 5:

    expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11:

    haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo):

    ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat,

    Sall. C. 32:

    ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent,

    Liv. 21, 35, 12:

    ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret,

    Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
    f.
    With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab =a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him:

    el metul a Chryside,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.:

    ab Hannibale metuens,

    Liv. 23, 36; and:

    metus a praetore,

    id. 23, 15, 7;

    v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui,

    Cic. Sull. 20, 59:

    postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes,

    you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
    g.
    With verbs of fastening and holding:

    funiculus a puppi religatus,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154:

    cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret,

    Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
    h.
    Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one:

    a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur,

    Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
    i.
    Cognoscere ab aliqua re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one):

    id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
    j.
    Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.:

    doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine,

    Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62:

    a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui,

    id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9:

    a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so,

    a frigore laborantibus,

    Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.:

    laborare ab re frumentaria,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
    k.
    Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of:

    ab ingenio improbus,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59:

    a me pudica'st,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 51:

    orba ab optimatibus contio,

    Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus):

    locus copiosus a frumento,

    Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.:

    sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunia,

    id. ib. 7, 15 fin.:

    ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior,

    id. Brut. 16, 63:

    ab una parte haud satis prosperuin,

    Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.;

    so often in poets ab arte=arte,

    artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
    l.
    In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.:

    linguam ab irrisu exserentem,

    thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5:

    ab honore,

    id. 1, 8; so, ab ira, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
    m.
    Especially in the poets instead of the gen.:

    ab illo injuria,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 129:

    fulgor ab auro,

    Lucr. 2, 5:

    dulces a fontibus undae,

    Verg. G. 2, 243.
    n.
    In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of:

    scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1:

    nonnuill ab novissimis,

    id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
    o.
    In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs:

    qui sunt ab ea disciplina,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7:

    ab eo qui sunt,

    id. Fin. 4, 3, 7:

    nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt,

    id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of oi upo tinos).
    p.
    To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period;

    in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus,

    one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so,

    a manu servus,

    a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis ( secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus ( accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apotheca, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliotheca, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
    q.
    The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity:

    a peregre,

    Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8:

    a foris,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27:

    ab intus,

    ib. ib. 7, 15:

    ab invicem,

    App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18:

    a longe,

    Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58:

    a modo,

    ib. ib. 23, 39;

    Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune,

    Vulg. Luc. 1, 48:

    a sursum,

    ib. Marc. 15, 38.
    a.
    Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab:

    Arsinoen, Stratum, Naupactum...fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc.,

    Cic. Pis. 37, 91:

    a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus?

    id. Sen. 6:

    a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove?

    id. Rep. 1, 36, 56:

    res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit,

    id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.—
    b.
    Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.—
    c.
    It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs:

    a vitae periculo,

    Cic. Brut. 91, 313:

    a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo,

    id. Arch. 6, 12:

    a minus bono,

    Sall. C. 2, 6:

    a satis miti principio,

    Liv. 1, 6, 4:

    damnis dives ab ipsa suis,

    Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.—
    d.
    The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.):

    aque Chao,

    Verg. G. 4, 347:

    aque mero,

    Ov. M. 3, 631:

    aque viro,

    id. H. 6, 156:

    aque suis,

    id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But:

    a meque,

    Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1:

    abs teque,

    id. Att. 3, 15, 4:

    a teque,

    id. ib. 8, 11, §

    7: a primaque adulescentia,

    id. Brut. 91, 315 al. —
    e.
    A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est pragmatikê, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
    III.
    In composition ab,
    1.
    Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens=a mente remotus, alienus ( out of one's senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.—
    2.
    It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor ( to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced upopappos; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. Of the word abavus, grandfather's grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild's grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Mull., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ab

  • 18 ad

    ad, prep. with acc. (from the fourth century after Christ written also at; Etrusc. suf. -a; Osc. az; Umbr. and Old Lat. ar, as [p. 27] in Eug. Tab., in S. C. de Bacch., as arveho for adveho; arfuerunt, arfuisse, for adfuerunt, etc.; arbiter for adbiter; so, ar me advenias, Plant. Truc. 2, 2, 17; cf. Prisc. 559 P.; Vel. Long. 2232 P.; Fabretti, Glos. Ital. col. 5) [cf. Sanscr. adhi; Goth. and Eng. at; Celt. pref. ar, as armor, i.e. ad mare; Rom. a].
    I.
    As antith. to ab (as in to ex), in a progressive order of relation, ad denotes, first, the direction toward an object; then the reaching of or attaining to it; and finally, the being at or near it.
    A.
    In space.
    1.
    Direction toward, to, toward, and first,
    a.
    Horizontally:

    fugere ad puppim colles campique videntur,

    the hills and fields appear to fly toward the ship, Lucr. 4, 390: meridie umbrae cadunt ad septentrionem, ortu vero ad occasum, to or toward the north and west, Plin. 2, 13, and so often of the geog. position of a place in reference to the points of compass, with the verbs jacere, vergere, spectare, etc.:

    Asia jacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad septentriones et aquiionem,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Mull.;

    and in Plin. very freq.: Creta ad austrum... ad septentrionem versa, 4, 20: ad Atticam vergente, 4, 21 al.—Also trop.: animus alius ad alia vitia propensior,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 81.—
    b.
    In a direction upwards (esp. in the poets, very freq.): manusque sursum ad caelum sustulit, Naev. ap. Non. 116, 30 (B. Pun. p. 13, ed. Vahl.): manus ad caeli templa tendebam lacrimans, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 50 ed. Vahl.); cf.:

    duplices tendens ad sidera palmas,

    Verg. A. 1, 93: molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum vomit, Att. ap. Prisc. 1325 P.: clamor ad caelum volvendus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 104 Mull. (Ann. v. 520 ed. Vahl.) (cf. with this: tollitur in caelum clamor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, or Ann. v. 422):

    ad caelumque ferat flammai fulgura rursum, of Aetna,

    Lucr. 1, 725; cf. id. 2, 191; 2, 325: sidera sola micant;

    ad quae sua bracchia tendens, etc.,

    Ov. M. 7, 188:

    altitudo pertingit ad caelum,

    Vulg. Dan. 4, 17.—
    c.
    Also in the direction downwards (for the usu. in):

    tardiore semper ad terras omnium quae geruntur in caelo effectu cadente quam visu,

    Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216.
    2.
    The point or goal at which any thing arrives.
    a.
    Without reference to the space traversed in passing, to, toward (the most common use of this prep.): cum stupro redire ad suos popularis, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 317 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 14 ed. Vahl.):

    ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videatur potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12: ad terras decidat aether, Lucan. 2, 58. —Hence,
    (α).
    With verbs which designate going, coming, moving, bearing, bringing near, adapting, taking, receiving, calling, exciting, admonishing, etc., when the verb is compounded with ad the prep. is not always repeated, but the constr. with the dat. or acc. employed; cf. Rudd. II. pp. 154, 175 n. (In the ante-class. per., and even in Cic., ad is generally repeated with most verbs, as, ad eos accedit, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 8:

    ad Sullam adire,

    id. ib. 25:

    ad se adferre,

    id. Verr. 4, 50:

    reticulum ad naris sibi admovebat,

    id. ib. 5, 27:

    ad laborem adhortantur,

    id. de Sen. 14:

    T. Vectium ad se arcessit,

    id. Verr. 5, 114; but the poets of the Aug. per., and the historians, esp. Tac., prefer the dative; also, when the compound verb contains merely the idea of approach, the constr. with ad and the acc. is employed; but when it designates increase, that with the dat. is more usual: accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; but, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province.)—
    (β).
    Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.):

    oratus sum venire ad te huc,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 1, 12: spectatores plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum, id. Stich. fin.:

    eamus ad me,

    Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64:

    ancillas traduce huc ad vos,

    id. Heaut. 4, 4, 22:

    transeundumst tibi ad Menedemum,

    id. 4, 4, 17: intro nos vocat ad sese, tenet intus apud se, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 86 P.:

    te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias,

    Cic. Att. 3, 3; 16, 10 al.—
    (γ).
    Ad, with the name of a deity in the gen., is elliptical for ad templum or aedem (cf.:

    Thespiadas, quae ad aedem Felicitatis sunt,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 4; id. Phil. 2, 35:

    in aedem Veneris,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 120;

    in aedem Concordiae,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 9, 21;

    2, 6, 12): ad Dianae,

    to the temple of, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43:

    ad Opis,

    Cic. Att. 8, 1, 14:

    ad Castoris,

    id. Quint. 17:

    ad Juturnae,

    id. Clu. 101:

    ad Vestae,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 35 al.: cf. Rudd. II. p. 41, n. 4, and p. 334.—
    (δ).
    With verbs which denote a giving, sending, informing, submitting, etc., it is used for the simple dat. (Rudd. II. p. 175): litteras dare ad aliquem, to send or write one a letter; and: litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one; hence Cic. never says, like Caesar and Sall., alicui scribere, which strictly means, to write for one (as a receipt, etc.), but always mittere, scribere, perscribere ad aliquem:

    postea ad pistores dabo,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 119:

    praecipe quae ad patrem vis nuntiari,

    id. Capt. 2, 2, 109:

    in servitutem pauperem ad divitem dare,

    Ter. Ph. 4, 3, 48:

    nam ad me Publ. Valerius scripsit,

    Cic. Fam. 14, 2 med.:

    de meis rebus ad Lollium perscripsi,

    id. ib. 5, 3:

    velim domum ad te scribas, ut mihi tui libri pateant,

    id. Att. 4, 14; cf. id. ib. 4, 16:

    ad primam (sc. epistulam) tibi hoc scribo,

    in answer to your first, id. ib. 3, 15, 2:

    ad Q. Fulvium Cons. Hirpini et Lucani dediderunt sese,

    Liv. 27, 15, 1; cf. id. 28, 22, 5.—Hence the phrase: mittere or scribere librum ad aliquem, to dedicate a book to one (Greek, prosphônein):

    has res ad te scriptas, Luci, misimus, Aeli,

    Lucil. Sat. 1, ap. Auct. Her. 4, 12:

    quae institueram, ad te mittam,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5: ego interea admonitu tuo perfeci sane argutulos libros ad Varronem;

    and soon after: mihi explices velim, maneasne in sententia, ut mittam ad eum quae scripsi,

    Cic. Att. 13, 18; cf. ib. 16; Plin. 1, 19.—So in titles of books: M. Tullii Ciceronis ad Marcum Brutum Orator; M. T. Cic. ad Q. Fratrem Dialogi tres de Oratore, etc.—In the titles of odes and epigrams ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.
    (ε).
    With names of towns after verbs of motion, ad is used in answer to the question Whither? instead of the simple acc.; but commonly with this difference, that ad denotes to the vicinity of, the neighborhood of:

    miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post ad Tarentum,

    Cic. de Sen. 4, 10; id. Fam. 3, 81:

    ad Veios,

    Liv. 5, 19; 14, 18; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 7; id. B. C. 3, 40 al.—Ad is regularly used when the proper name has an appellative in apposition to it:

    ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt,

    Sall. J. 81, 2; so Curt. 3, 1, 22; 4, 9, 9;

    or when it is joined with usque,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 87; id. Deiot, 7, 19.— (When an adjective is added, the simple acc. is used poet., as well as with ad:

    magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas,

    Prop. 3, 21, 1; the simple acc., Ov. H. 2, 83: doctas jam nunc eat, inquit, Athenas).—
    (ζ).
    With verbs which imply a hostile movement toward, or protection in respect to any thing, against = adversus:

    nonne ad senem aliquam fabricam fingit?

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 34:

    Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras,

    Prop. 3, 19, 9: neque quo pacto fallam, nec quem dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, old poet in Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73:

    Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5; 7, 70:

    ipse ad hostem vehitur,

    Nep. Dat. 4, 5; id. Dion. 5, 4: Romulus ad regem impetus facit (a phrase in which in is commonly found), Liv. 1, 5, 7, and 44, 3, 10:

    aliquem ad hostem ducere,

    Tac. A. 2, 52:

    clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt,

    Verg. A. 2, 443:

    munio me ad haec tempora,

    Cic. Fam. 9, 18:

    ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65; 7, 41;

    so with nouns: medicamentum ad aquam intercutem,

    Cic. Off. 3, 24:

    remedium ad tertianam,

    Petr. Sat. 18:

    munimen ad imbris,

    Verg. G. 2, 352:

    farina cum melle ad tussim siccam efficasissima est,

    Plin. 20, 22, 89, § 243:

    ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces,

    Liv. 1, 9; 1, 19 (in these two passages ad may have the force of apud, Hand).—
    (η).
    The repetition of ad to denote the direction to a place and to a person present in it is rare:

    nunc tu abi ad forum ad herum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 100; cf.:

    vocatis classico ad concilium militibus ad tribunos,

    Liv. 5 47.—(The distinction between ad and in is given by Diom. 409 P., thus: in forum ire est in ipsum forum intrare; ad forum autem ire, in locum foro proximum; ut in tribunal et ad tribunal venire non unum est; quia ad tribunal venit litigator, in tribunal vero praetor aut judex; cf. also Sen. Ep. 73, 14, deus ad homines venit, immo, quod propius est, in homines venit.)—
    b.
    The terminus, with ref. to the space traversed, to, even to, with or without usque, Quint. 10, 7, 16: ingurgitavit usque ad imum gutturem, Naev. ap. Non. 207, 20 (Rib. Com. Rel. p. 30): dictator pervehitur usque ad oppidum, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Mull. (B. Pun. p. 16 ed. Vahl.):

    via pejor ad usque Baii moenia,

    Hor. S. 1, 5, 96; 1, 1, 97:

    rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa,

    Lucr. 1, 355; 1, 969:

    cum sudor ad imos Manaret talos,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 10:

    ut quantum posset, agmen ad mare extenderet,

    Curt. 3, 9, 10:

    laeva pars ad pectus est nuda,

    id. 6, 5, 27 al. —Hence the Plinian expression, petere aliquid (usque) ad aliquem, to seek something everywhere, even with one:

    ut ad Aethiopas usque peteretur,

    Plin. 36, 6, 9, § 51 (where Jan now reads ab Aethiopia); so,

    vestis ad Seras peti,

    id. 12, 1, 1.— Trop.:

    si quid poscam, usque ad ravim poscam,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 5, 10:

    deverberasse usque ad necem,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 13;

    without usque: hic ad incitas redactus,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 136; 4, 2, 52; id. Poen. 4, 2, 85; illud ad incitas cum redit atque internecionem, Lucil. ap. Non. 123, 20:

    virgis ad necem caedi,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; so Hor. S. 1, 2, 42; Liv. 24, 38, 9; Tac. A. 11, 37; Suet. Ner. 26; id. Dom. 8 al.
    3.
    Nearness or proximity in gen. = apud, near to, by, at, close by (in anteclass. per. very freq.; not rare later, esp. in the historians): pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pedum, trains are suspended at each foot, Enn. ap. Non. 149, 33 (Ann. v. 363 ed. Vahl.):

    ut in servitute hic ad suum maneat patrem,

    Plaut. Capt. prol. 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 98;

    3, 5, 41: sol quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium,

    stands like a creditor continually at the door, id. Most. 3, 2, 81 (cf. with same force, Att. ap. Non. 522, 25;

    apud ipsum astas): ad foris adsistere,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 66; id. Arch. 24:

    astiterunt ad januam,

    Vulg. Act. 10, 17:

    non adest ad exercitum,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 6; cf. ib. prol. 133:

    aderant ad spectaculum istud,

    Vulg. Luc. 23, 48: has (testas) e fenestris in caput Deiciunt, qui prope ad ostium adspiraverunt, Lucil. ap. Non. 288, 31:

    et nec opinanti Mors ad caput adstitit,

    Lucr. 3, 959:

    quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset,

    at hand, Liv. 9, 19, 6:

    haec arma habere ad manum,

    Quint. 12, 5, 1:

    dominum esse ad villam,

    Cic. Sull. 20; so id. Verr. 2, 21:

    errantem ad flumina,

    Verg. E. 6, 64; Tib. 1, 10, 38; Plin. 7, 2, § 12; Vitr. 7, 14; 7, 12; and ellipt. (cf. supra, 2. g):

    pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret!

    Cic. Phil. 1, 17.—Even of persons:

    qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat (for apud),

    Caes. B. G. 6, 38; so id. ib. 1, 31; 3, 9; 5, 53; 7, 5; id. B. C. 3, 60:

    ad inferos poenas parricidii luent,

    among, Cic. Phil. 14, 13:

    neque segnius ad hostes bellum apparatur,

    Liv. 7, 7, 4: pugna ad Trebiam, ad Trasimenum, ad Cannas, etc., for which Liv. also uses the gen.:

    si Trasimeni quam Trebiae, si Cannarum quam Trasimeni pugna nobilior esset, 23, 43, 4.—Sometimes used to form the name of a place, although written separately, e. g. ad Murcim,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 154:

    villa ad Gallinas, a villa on the Flaminian Way,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 37: ad urbem esse (of generals), to remain outside the city (Rome) until permission was given for a triumph:

    “Esse ad urbem dicebantur, qui cum potestate provinciali aut nuper e provincia revertissent, aut nondum in provinciam profecti essent... solebant autem, qui ob res in provincia gestas triumphum peterent, extra urbem exspectare, donec, lege lata, triumphantes urbem introire possent,”

    Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 8.—So sometimes with names of towns and verbs of rest:

    pons, qui erat ad Genavam,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 7:

    ad Tibur mortem patri minatus est,

    Cic. Phil. 6, 4, 10:

    conchas ad Caietam legunt,

    id. Or. 2, 6:

    ad forum esse,

    to be at the market, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 136; id. Most. 3, 2, 158; cf. Ter. Ph. 4, 2, 8; id. And. 1, 5, 19.—Hence, adverb., ad dextram (sc. manum, partem), ad laevam, ad sinistram, to the right, to the left, or on the right, on the left:

    ad dextram,

    Att. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 225; Plaut. Poen. 3, 4, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44; Cic. Univ. 13; Caes. B. C. 1, 69:

    ad laevam,

    Enn. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 51; Att. ib. p. 217: ad sinistram, Ter. [p. 28] Ad. 4, 2, 43 al.:

    ad dextram... ad laevam,

    Liv. 40, 6;

    and with an ordinal number: cum plebes ad tertium milliarium consedisset,

    at the third milestone, Cic. Brut. 14, 54, esp. freq. with lapis:

    sepultus ad quintum lapidem,

    Nep. Att. 22, 4; so Liv. 3, 69 al.; Tac. H. 3, 18; 4, 60 (with apud, Ann. 1, 45; 3, 45; 15, 60) al.; cf. Rudd. II. p. 287.
    B.
    In time, analogous to the relations given in A.
    1.
    Direction toward, i. e. approach to a definite point of time, about, toward:

    domum reductus ad vesperum,

    toward evening, Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    cum ad hiemem me ex Cilicia recepissem,

    toward winter, id. Fam. 3, 7.—
    2.
    The limit or boundary to which a space of time extends, with and without usque, till, until, to, even to, up to:

    ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 53:

    philosophia jacuit usque ad hanc aetatem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. de Sen. 14:

    quid si hic manebo potius ad meridiem,

    Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 55; so id. Men. 5, 7, 33; id. Ps. 1, 5, 116; id. As. 2, 1, 5:

    ad multam noctem,

    Cic. de Sen. 14:

    Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fecit,

    id. ib. 2; cf. id. Rep. 1, 1:

    Alexandream se proficisci velle dixit (Aratus) remque integram ad reditum suum jussit esse,

    id. Off. 2, 23, 82:

    bestiae ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus,

    id. Lael. 8; so id. de Sen. 6; id. Somn. Sc. 1 al. —And with ab or ab-usque, to desig. the whole period of time passed away:

    ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus,

    Cic. Att. 7, 8:

    usque ab aurora ad hoc diei,

    Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 8.—
    3.
    Coincidence with a point of time, at, on, in, by:

    praesto fuit ad horam destinatam,

    at the appointed hour, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22:

    admonuit ut pecuniam ad diem solverent,

    on the day of payment, id. Att. 16, 16 A:

    nostra ad diem dictam fient,

    id. Fam. 16, 10, 4; cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 5: ad lucem denique arte et graviter dormitare coepisse, at (not toward) daybreak, id. Div. 1, 28, 59; so id. Att. 1, 3, 2; 1, 4, 3; id. Fin. 2, 31, 103; id. Brut. 97, 313:

    ad id tempus,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 24; Sall. J. 70, 5; Tac. A. 15, 60; Suet. Aug. 87; Domit. 17, 21 al.
    C.
    The relations of number.
    1.
    An approximation to a sum designated, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. Gr. epi, pros with acc. and the Fr. pres de, a peu pres, presque) = circiter (Hand, Turs. I. p. 102):

    ad quadraginta eam posse emi minas,

    Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 111:

    nummorum Philippum ad tria milia,

    id. Trin. 1, 2, 115; sometimes with quasi added:

    quasi ad quadraginta minas,

    as it were about, id. Most. 3, 1, 95; so Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 93:

    sane frequentes fuimus omnino ad ducentos,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1:

    cum annos ad quadraginta natus esset,

    id. Clu. 40, 110:

    ad hominum milia decem,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 4:

    oppida numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos,

    id. ib. 1, 5.—In the histt. and post-Aug. authors ad is added adverbially in this sense (contrary to Gr. usage, by which amphi, peri, and eis with numerals retain their power as prepositions): ad binum milium numero utrinque sauciis factis, Sisenn. ap. Non. 80, 4:

    occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 33:

    ad duorum milium numero ceciderunt,

    id. B. C. 3, 53:

    ad duo milia et trecenti occisi,

    Liv. 10, 17, 8; so id. 27, 12, 16; Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Rudd. II. p. 334.—
    2.
    The terminus, the limit, to, unto, even to, a designated number (rare):

    ranam luridam conicere in aquam usque quo ad tertiam partem decoxeris,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26; cf. App. Herb. 41:

    aedem Junonis ad partem dimidiam detegit,

    even to the half, Liv. 42, 3, 2:

    miles (viaticum) ad assem perdiderat,

    to a farthing, to the last farthing, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 27; Plin. Ep. 1, 15:

    quid ad denarium solveretur,

    Cic. Quint. 4.—The phrase omnes ad unum or ad unum omnes, or simply ad unum, means lit. all to one, i. e. all together, all without exception; Gr. hoi kath hena pantes (therefore the gender of unum is changed according to that of omnes): praetor omnes extra castra, ut stercus, foras ejecit ad unum, Lucil. ap. Non. 394, 22:

    de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt,

    Cic. Lael. 23:

    ad unum omnes cum ipso duce occisi sunt,

    Curt. 4, 1, 22 al.:

    naves Rhodias afflixit ita, ut ad unam omnes constratae eliderentur,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 27; onerariae omnes ad unam a nobis sunt exceptae, Cic. Fam. 12, 14 (cf. in Gr. hoi kath hena; in Hebr., Exod. 14, 28).— Ad unum without omnes:

    ego eam sententiam dixi, cui sunt assensi ad unum,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 16:

    Juppiter omnipotens si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos,

    Verg. A. 5, 687.
    D.
    In the manifold relations of one object to another.
    1.
    That in respect of or in regard to which a thing avails, happens, or is true or important, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in.
    a.
    With verbs:

    ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius,

    in respect to all other things we grow wiser by age, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 45:

    numquam ita quisquam bene ad vitam fuat,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 1:

    nil ibi libatum de toto corpore (mortui) cernas ad speciem, nil ad pondus,

    that nothing is lost in form or weight, Lucr. 3, 214; cf. id. 5, 570; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 58; id. Mur. 13, 29: illi regi Cyro subest, ad immutandi animi licentiam, crudelissimus ille Phalaris, in that Cyrus, in regard to the liberty of changing his disposition (i. e. not in reality, but inasmuch as he is at liberty to lay aside his good character, and assume that of a tyrant), there is concealed another cruel Phalaris, Cic. Rep. 1, 28:

    nil est ad nos,

    is nothing to us, concerns us not, Lucr. 3, 830; 3, 845:

    nil ad me attinet,

    Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 54:

    nihil ad rem pertinet,

    Cic. Caecin. 58;

    and in the same sense elliptically: nihil ad Epicurum,

    id. Fin. 1, 2, 5; id. Pis. 68:

    Quid ad praetorem?

    id. Verr. 1, 116 (this usage is not to be confounded with that under 4.).—
    b.
    With adjectives:

    ad has res perspicax,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    virum ad cetera egregium,

    Liv. 37, 7, 15:

    auxiliaribus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 25:

    ejus frater aliquantum ad rem est avidior,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51; cf. id. And. 1, 2, 21; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 129:

    ut sit potior, qui prior ad dandum est,

    id. Phorm. 3, 2, 48:

    difficilis (res) ad credendum,

    Lucr. 2, 1027:

    ad rationem sollertiamque praestantior,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 62; so id. Leg. 2, 13, 33; id. Fin. 2, 20, 63; id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; id. Font. 15; id. Cat. 1, 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 25, 113; 1, 32, 146; 2, 49, 200; id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; Liv. 9, 16, 13; Tac. A. 12, 54 al.—
    c.
    With nouns:

    prius quam tuum, ut sese habeat, animum ad nuptias perspexerit,

    before he knew your feeling in regard to the marriage, Ter. And. 2, 3, 4 (cf. Gr. hopôs echei tis pros ti):

    mentis ad omnia caecitas,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11:

    magna vis est fortunae in utramque partem vel ad secundas res vel ad adversas,

    id. Off. 2, 6; so id. Par. 1:

    ad cetera paene gemelli,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 3.—So with acc. of gerund instead of the gen. from the same vb.:

    facultas ad scribendum, instead of scribendi,

    Cic. Font. 6;

    facultas ad agendum,

    id. de Imp. Pomp. 1, 2: cf. Rudd. II. p. 245.—
    d.
    In gramm.: nomina ad aliquid dicta, nouns used in relation to something, i. e. which derive their significance from their relation to another object: quae non possunt intellegi sola, ut pater, mater;

    jungunt enim sibi et illa propter quae intelleguntur,

    Charis. 129 P.; cf. Prisc. 580 ib.—
    2.
    With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., both prop. and fig., according to, agreeably to, after (Gr. kata, pros):

    columnas ad perpendiculum exigere,

    Cic. Mur. 77:

    taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 12: facta sunt ad certam formam. Lucr. 2, 379:

    ad amussim non est numerus,

    Varr. 2, 1, 26:

    ad imaginem facere,

    Vulg. Gen. 1, 26:

    ad cursus lunae describit annum,

    Liv. 1, 19:

    omnia ad diem facta sunt,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 5:

    Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant,

    id. B. C. 3, 48; Vulg. Gen. 1, 26; id. Jac. 3, 9:

    ad aequos flexus,

    at equal angles, Lucr. 4, 323: quasi ad tornum levantur, to or by the lathe, id. 4, 361:

    turres ad altitudiem valli,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 42; Liv. 39, 6:

    ad eandem crassitudinem structi,

    id. 44, 11:

    ad speciem cancellorum scenicorum,

    with the appearance of, like, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 8:

    stagnum maris instar, circumseptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem,

    Suet. Ner. 31:

    lascivum pecus ludens ad cantum,

    Liv. Andron. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 1:

    canere ad tibiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 2: canere ad tibicinem, id. ib. 1, 2 (cf.:

    in numerum ludere,

    Verg. E. 6, 28; id. G. 4, 175):

    quod ad Aristophanis lucernam lucubravi,

    Varr. L. L. 5, § 9 Mull.: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (v. unguis), Hor. A. P. 294:

    ad unguem factus homo,

    a perfect gentleman, id. S. 1, 5, 32 (cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 86):

    ad istorum normam sapientes,

    Cic. Lael. 5, 18; id. Mur. 3:

    Cyrus non ad historiae fidem scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    exercemur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: so,

    ad simulacrum,

    Liv. 40, 6:

    ad Punica ingenia,

    id. 21, 22:

    ad L. Crassi eloquentiam,

    Cic. Var. Fragm. 8:

    omnia fient ad verum,

    Juv. 6, 324:

    quid aut ad naturam aut contra sit,

    Cic. Fin. 1, 9, 30:

    ad hunc modum institutus est,

    id. Tusc. 2, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 31; 3, 13:

    ad eundem istunc modum,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 70:

    quem ad modum, q. v.: ad istam faciem est morbus, qui me macerat,

    of that kind, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 73; id. Merc. 2, 3, 90; cf.

    91: cujus ad arbitrium copia materiai cogitur,

    Lucr. 2, 281:

    ad eorum arbitrium et nutum totos se fingunt,

    to their will and pleasure, Cic. Or. 8, 24; id. Quint. 71:

    ad P. Lentuli auctoritatem Roma contendit,

    id. Rab. Post. 21:

    aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 51:

    rebus ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26:

    rem ad illorum libidinem judicarunt,

    id. Font. 36:

    ad vulgi opinionem,

    id. Off. 3, 21.—So in later Lat. with instar:

    ad instar castrorum,

    Just. 36, 3, 2:

    scoparum,

    App. M. 9, p. 232:

    speculi,

    id. ib. 2, p. 118: ad hoc instar mundi, id. de Mundo, p. 72.—Sometimes, but very rarely, ad is used absol. in this sense (so also very rarely kata with acc., Xen. Hell. 2, 3; Luc. Dial. Deor. 8): convertier ad nos, as we (are turned), Lucr. 4, 317:

    ad navis feratur,

    like ships, id. 4, 897 Munro. —With noun:

    ad specus angustiac vallium,

    like caves, Caes. B. C. 3, 49.—Hence,
    3.
    With an object which is the cause or reason, in conformity to which, from which, or for which, any thing is or is done.
    a.
    The moving cause, according to, at, on, in consequence of:

    cetera pars animae paret et ad numen mentis momenque movetur,

    Lucr. 3, 144:

    ad horum preces in Boeotiam duxit,

    on their entreaty, Liv. 42, 67, 12: ad ea Caesar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit, in consequence of or upon this, he, etc., Tac. Ann. 12, 37.—
    b.
    The final cause, or the object, end, or aim, for the attainment of which any thing,
    (α).
    is done,
    (β).
    is designed, or,
    (γ).
    is fitted or adapted (very freq.), to, for, in order to.
    (α).
    Seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. p. 175 P. (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 80):

    venimus coctum ad nuptias,

    in order to cook for the wedding, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 15:

    omnis ad perniciem instructa domus,

    id. Bacch. 3, 1, 6; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 41; Liv. 1, 54:

    cum fingis falsas causas ad discordiam,

    in order to produce dissension, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71:

    quantam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 72:

    utrum ille, qui postulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos socios diripiendasque provincias, quos voluerunt, legatos eduxerint,

    Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 57:

    ego vitam quoad putabo tua interesse, aut ad spem servandam esse, retinebo,

    for hope, id. Q. Fr. 1, 4; id. Fam. 5, 17:

    haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant,

    Sall. C. 13, 4:

    ad speciem atque ad usurpationem vetustatis,

    Cic. Agr. 2, 12, 31; Suet. Caes. 67:

    paucis ad speciem tabernaculis relictis,

    for appearance, Caes. B. C. 2, 35; so id. ib. 2, 41; id. B. G. 1, 51.—
    (β).
    Aut equos alere aut canes ad venandum. Ter. And. 1, 1, 30:

    ingenio egregie ad miseriam natus sum,

    id. Heaut. 3, 1, 11;

    (in the same sense: in rem,

    Hor. C. 1, 27, 1, and the dat., Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 6):

    ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 40:

    ad frena leones,

    Verg. A. 10, 253:

    delecto ad naves milite,

    marines, Liv. 22, 19 Weissenb.:

    servos ad remum,

    rowers, id. 34, 6; and:

    servos ad militiam emendos,

    id. 22, 61, 2:

    comparasti ad lecticam homines,

    Cat. 10, 16:

    Lygdamus ad cyathos,

    Prop. 4, 8, 37; cf.:

    puer ad cyathum statuetur,

    Hor. C. 1, 29, 8.—
    (γ).
    Quae oportet Signa esse [p. 29] ad salutem, omnia huic osse video, everything indicative of prosperity I see in him, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2:

    haec sunt ad virtutem omnia,

    id. Heaut. 1, 2, 33:

    causa ad objurgandum,

    id. And. 1, 1, 123:

    argumentum ad scribendum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 7 (in both examples instead of the gen. of gerund., cf. Rudd. II. p. 245):

    vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam,

    Cato R. R. 125:

    nulla res tantum ad dicendum proficit, quantum scriptio,

    Cic. Brut. 24:

    reliquis rebus, quae sunt ad incendia,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 101 al. —So with the adjectives idoneus, utilis, aptus, instead of the dat.:

    homines ad hanc rem idoneos,

    Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 6:

    calcei habiles et apti ad pedem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231:

    orator aptus tamen ad dicendum,

    id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5:

    sus est ad vescendum hominibus apta,

    id. N. D. 2, 64, 160:

    homo ad nullam rem utilis,

    id. Off. 3, 6:

    ad segetes ingeniosus ager,

    Ov. F. 4, 684.—(Upon the connection of ad with the gerund. v. Zumpt, § 666; Rudd. II. p. 261.)—
    4.
    Comparison (since that with which a thing is compared is considered as an object to which the thing compared is brought near for the sake of comparison), to, compared to or with, in comparison with:

    ad sapientiam hujus ille (Thales) nimius nugator fuit,

    Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 25; id. Trin. 3, 2, 100:

    ne comparandus hic quidem ad illum'st,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14; 2, 3, 69:

    terra ad universi caeli complexum,

    compared with the whole extent of the heavens, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40:

    homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido,

    Liv. 22, 22, 15:

    at nihil ad nostram hanc,

    nothing in comparison with, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 70; so Cic. Deiot. 8, 24; and id. de Or. 2, 6, 25.
    E.
    Adverbial phrases with ad.
    1.
    Ad omnia, withal, to crown all:

    ingentem vim peditum equitumque venire: ex India elephantos: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc.,

    Liv. 35, 32, 4.—
    2.
    Ad hoc and ad haec (in the historians, esp. from the time of Livy, and in authors after the Aug. per.), = praeterea, insuper, moreover, besides, in addition, epi toutois:

    nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, etc.: praeterea omnes undique parricidae, etc.: ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat: postremo omnes, quos, etc.,

    Sall. C. 14, 2 and 3:

    his opinionibus inflato animo, ad hoc vitio quoque ingenii vehemens,

    Liv. 6, 11, 6; 42, 1, 1; Tac. H. 1, 6; Suet. Aug. 22 al.—
    3.
    Ad id quod, beside that (very rare):

    ad id quod sua sponte satis conlectum animorum erat, indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur,

    Liv. 3, 62, 1; so 44, 37, 12.—
    4.
    Ad tempus.
    a.
    At a definite, fixed time, Cic. Att. 13, 45; Liv. 38, 25, 3.—
    b.
    At a fit, appropriate time, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 141; Liv. 1, 7, 13.—
    c.
    For some time, for a short time, Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; id. Lael. 15, 53; Liv. 21, 25, 14.—
    d.
    According to circumstances, Cic. Planc. 30, 74; id. Cael. 6, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9.—
    5.
    Ad praesens (for the most part only in post-Aug. writers).
    a.
    For the moment, for a short time, Cic. Fam. 12, 8; Plin. 8, 22, 34; Tac. A. 4, 21.—
    b.
    At present, now, Tac. A. 16, 5; id. H. 1, 44.—So, ad praesentiam, Tac. A. 11, 8.—
    6.
    Ad locum, on the spot:

    ut ad locum miles esset paratus,

    Liv. 27, 27, 2.—
    7.
    Ad verbum, word for word, literally, Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; id. de Or. 1, 34, 157; id. Ac. 2, 44, 135 al.—
    8.
    Ad summam.
    a.
    On the whole, generally, in general, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3; id. Att. 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71.—
    b.
    In a word, in short, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106. —
    9.
    Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum.
    a.
    At the end, finally, at last.
    (α).
    Of place, at the extremity, extreme point, top, etc.:

    missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, unde ferrum exstabat,

    Liv. 21, 8, 10.—
    (β).
    Of time = telos de, at last, finally:

    ibi ad postremum cedit miles,

    Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 52; so id. Poen. 4, 2, 22; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 7, 53; Liv. 30, 15, 4 al.— Hence,
    (γ).
    of order, finally, lastly, = denique: inventa componere; tum ornare oratione; post memoria sepire;

    ad extremum agere cum dignitate,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142.—
    b.
    In Liv., to the last degree, quite: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, 23, 2, 3; cf.:

    consilii scelerati, sed non ad ultimum dementis,

    id. 28, 28, 8.—
    10.
    Quem ad finem? To what limit? How far? Cic. Cat. 1, 1; id. Verr. 5, 75.—
    11.
    Quem ad modum, v. sub h. v.
    a.
    Ad (v. ab, ex, in, etc.) is not repeated like some other prepositions with interrog. and relative pronouns, after nouns or demonstrative pronouns:

    traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. Quas? corporis credo,

    Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37 (ubi v. Kuhner).—
    b.
    Ad is sometimes placed after its substantive:

    quam ad,

    Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 39:

    senatus, quos ad soleret, referendum censuit,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 4:

    ripam ad Araxis,

    Tac. Ann. 12, 51;

    or between subst. and adj.: augendam ad invidiam,

    id. ib. 12, 8.—
    c.
    The compound adque for et ad (like exque, eque, and, poet., aque) is denied by Moser, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, p. 248, and he reads instead of ad humanitatem adque mansuetudinem of the MSS., hum. atque mans. But adque, in acc. with later usage, is restored by Hand in App. M. 10, p. 247, adque haec omnia oboediebam for atque; and in Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 9, utroque vorsum rectum'st ingenium meum, ad se adque illum, is now read, ad te atque ad illum (Fleck., Brix).
    II.
    In composition.
    A.
    Form. According to the usual orthography, the d of the ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before b, d, h, m, v: adbibo, adduco, adhibeo, admoveo, advenio; it is assimilated to c, f, g, l, n, p, r, s, t: accipio, affigo, aggero, allabor, annumero, appello, arripio, assumo, attineo; before g and s it sometimes disappears: agnosco, aspicio, asto: and before qu it passes into c: acquiro, acquiesco.—But later philologists, supported by old inscriptions and good MSS., have mostly adopted the following forms: ad before j, h, b, d, f, m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes, but less well, before q; ag and also ad before g; a before gn, sp, sc, st; ad and also al before l; ad rather than an before n; ap and sometimes ad before p; ad and also ar before r; ad and also as before s; at and sometimes ad before t. In this work the old orthography has commonly been retained for the sake of convenient reference, but the better form in any case is indicated.—
    B.
    Signif. In English up often denotes approach, and in many instances will give the force of ad as a prefix both in its local and in its figurative sense.
    1.
    Local.
    a.
    To, toward: affero, accurro, accipio ( to one's self).—
    b.
    At, by: astare, adesse.—
    c.
    On, upon, against: accumbo, attero.—
    d.
    Up (cf. de- = down, as in deicio, decido): attollo, ascendo, adsurgo.—
    2.
    Fig.
    a.
    To: adjudico, adsentior.—
    b.
    At or on: admiror, adludo.—
    c.
    Denoting conformity to, or comparison with: affiguro, adaequo.—
    d.
    Denoting addition, increase (cf. ab, de, and ex as prefixes to denote privation): addoceo, adposco.—
    e.
    Hence, denoting intensity: adamo, adimpleo, aduro, and perhaps agnosco.—
    f.
    Denoting the coming to an act or state, and hence commencement: addubito, addormio, adquiesco, adlubesco, advesperascit. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 74-134.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ad

  • 19 adtingo

    at-tingo (not adt-), tĭgi, tactum, 3, v. a. [tango] (ante-class. form attĭgo, ĕre, v. infra; attinge = attingam, acc. to Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Müll.; v. Müll. ad h. l.; concerning attigo, āre, v. fin.), to touch, come in contact with; constr. with the acc.; poet. with ad.
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.: mento summam aquam, vet. poët. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10: vestem, Att. ap. Non. p. 75, 32:

    Egone Argivum imperium attingam,

    id. Trag. Rel. p. 166 Rib.:

    suaviter (omnia) attingunt,

    Lucr. 4, 623:

    nec enim ullum hoc frigidius flumen attigi,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 3, 6:

    prius quam aries murum attigisset,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 32:

    pedibus terram,

    Nep. Eum. 5, 5:

    quisquis (vas) attigerit,

    Vulg. Lev. 15, 23:

    nos nihil tuorum attigimus,

    id. Gen. 26, 29:

    (medicus) pulsum venarum attigit,

    Tac. A. 6, 50:

    se esse possessorem soli, quod primum Divus Augustus nascens attigisset,

    Suet. Aug. 5 (cf. Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 46: Tactaque nascenti corpus haberet humus, acc. to the practice of laying new-born children upon the ground; v. tollo).— Poet.: (Callisto) miles erat Phoebes, nec Maenalon attigit ( nor did there touch, set foot on) ulla Gratior hac Triviae, Ov. M. 2, 415:

    usque ad caelum attingebat stans in terrā,

    Vulg. Sap. 18, 16.—
    B.
    With partic. access. ideas.
    1.
    To touch by striking, to strike; rarely in a hostile manner, to attack, assault:

    ne me attingas,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 106;

    ne attigas me,

    id. Truc. 2, 2, 21:

    ne attigas puerum istac caussā,

    id. Bacch. 3, 3, 41 (quoted by Non. p. 75, 33):

    Si tu illam attigeris secus quam dignumst liberam,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 91.—Of lightning: ICTV. FVLMINIS. ARBORES. ATTACTAE. ARDVERINT., Fragm. Fratr. Arval. Inscr. Orell. 961; cf.

    Fest. s. v. scribonianum, p. 333 Müll., and s. v. obstitum, p. 193: si Vestinus attingeretur, i. e. ei bellum indiceretur,

    Liv. 8, 29; so Suet. Ner. 38.—
    2.
    In mal. part., aliquam, to touch:

    virginem,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 61; Cat. 67, 20.—
    3.
    To touch in eating, to taste, crop:

    nulla neque amnem Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis attigit herbam,

    Verg. E. 5, 26.—
    4.
    Of local relations, to come to a place, to approach, reach, arrive at (class.;

    esp. freq. in the histt.): aedīs ne attigatis,

    Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 37:

    ut primum Asiam attigisti,

    Cic. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8:

    cum primis navibus Britanniam attigit,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 23:

    Siciliam,

    Nep. Dion, 5, 3:

    Syriam ac legiones,

    Tac. A. 2, 55:

    saltuosos locos,

    id. ib. 4, 45:

    Urbem,

    id. Or. 7 fin.:

    In paucis diebus quam Capreus attigit etc.,

    Suet. Tib. 60; id. Calig. 44; id. Vesp. 4 al.—
    5.
    Transf., to touch, lie near, border upon, be contiguous to:

    Theseus... Attigit injusti regis Gortynia tecta,

    Cat. 64, 75:

    Cappadociae regio, quae Ciliciam attingeret,

    Cic. Fam. 15, 4, 4; id. Pis. 16 fin.:

    (stomachus) utrāque ex parte tonsillas attingens, etc.,

    id. N. D. 2, 54, 135:

    eorum fines Nervii attingebant,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 15:

    ITEM. COLLEGIA. QVAE. ATTINGVNT. EIDEM. FORO,

    Inscr. Orell. 3314:

    attingere parietem,

    Vulg. Ezech. 41, 6.—
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    In gen., to touch, affect, reach:

    nec desiderium nos attigit,

    Lucr. 3, 922 ( adficit, Lachm.):

    ante quam voluptas aut dolor attigerit,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 5, 16:

    nimirum me alia quoque causa delectat, quae te non attingit,

    id. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    quo studio providit, ne qua me illius temporis invidia attingeret,

    id. Fam. 3, 10, 10:

    si qua de Pompeio nostro tuendo... cura te attingit,

    id. Att. 9, 11, A:

    erant perpauci, quos ea infamia attingeret, Liv 27, 11, 6: cupidus attingere gaudia,

    to feel, Prop. 1, 19, 9:

    vox, sonus, attigit aures,

    Val. Fl. 2, 452; Claud. B. Get: 412; Manil. 1, 326.—
    B.
    Esp.
    1.
    To touch upon in speaking, etc., to mention slightly:

    paucis rem,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 11:

    summatim attingere,

    Lucr. 3, 261:

    ut meos quoque attingam,

    Cat. 39, 13:

    quod perquam breviter perstrinxi atque attigi,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 49, 201; id. Fam. 2, 4 fin.:

    si tantummodo summas attigero,

    Nep. Pelop. 1, 1:

    invitus ea, tamquam vulnera, attingo, sed nisi tacta tractataque sanari non possunt,

    Liv. 28, 27:

    ut seditionem attigit,

    Tac. A. 1, 35:

    familiae (Galbae) breviter attingam,

    Suet. Galb. 3 al. —
    2.
    To touch, i. e. to undertake, enter upon some course of action (esp. mental), to apply one's self to, be occupied with, engage in, to take in hand, manage:

    quae isti rhetores ne primoribus quidem labris attigissent,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 19, 87; cf. id. Cael. 12; id. Arch. 8:

    egomet, qui sero ac leviter Graecas litteras attigissem,

    id. de Or. 1, 18, 82:

    orationes,

    id. Or. 13, 41:

    poëticen,

    Nep. Att. 18, 5; so Suet. Aug. 85:

    liberales disciplinas omnes,

    id. Ner. 52:

    studia,

    id. Gram. 9:

    ut primum forum attigi, i. e. accessi, adii,

    applied myself to public affairs, Cic. Fam. 5, 8, 3:

    arma,

    Liv. 3, 19:

    militiam resque bellicas,

    Suet. Calig. 43:

    curam rei publicae,

    id. Tib. 13:

    ad Venerem seram,

    Ov. A. A. 2, 701.—
    3.
    (Acc. to I. B. 4.) To arrive somewhere:

    quod ab illo attigisset nuntius,

    Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 19 (cf. id. ib. 3, 5, 3: si a me tetigit nuntius).—
    4.
    (Acc. to I. B. 5.) To come near to in quality, to be similar; or to belong to, appertain to, to concern, relate to:

    quae nihil attingunt ad rem nec sunt usui,

    Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 32:

    haec quemque attigit,

    id. ib. 1, 1, 20:

    attingit animi naturam corporis similitudo,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 13, 30; id. Fam. 13, 7, 4; id. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1:

    quae non magis legis nomen attingunt, quam si latrones aliqua sanxerint,

    id. Leg. 2, 5:

    Segestana, Centuripina civitas, quae cum officiis, fide, vetustate, tum etiam cognatione populi Romani nomen attingunt,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 32:

    (labor) non attingit deum,

    id. N. D. 1, 9, 22:

    primus ille (locus), qui in veri cognitione consistit, maxime naturam attingit humanam,

    id. Off. 1, 6, 18; id. Tusc. 5, 33, 93; id. Fin. 5, 9.—
    * 5.
    Si quid eam humanitus attigisset (for the usu. euphemism, accidisset), if any misfortune had happened to her, App. Mag. p. 337.
    Ne me attiga atque aufer manum, Turp.
    ap. Non. p. 75, 30 dub. (Rib. here reads attigas, Com. Rel. p. 98): custodite istunc, ne attigat, Pac., Trag. Rel. p. 105 Rib.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adtingo

  • 20 adversa

    ad-verto (archaic advor-), ti, sum, 3, v. a., to turn a thing to or toward a place (in this signif., without animus; mostly poet.; syn.: observare, animadvertere, videre, cognoscere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen., with in or dat.:

    illa sese huc advorterat in hanc nostram plateam,

    Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51:

    in quamcunque domus lumina partem,

    Ov. M. 6, 180; cf. id. ib. 8, 482:

    malis numen,

    Verg. A. 4, 611:

    huc aures, huc, quaeso, advertite sensus,

    Sil. 16, 213; cf. id. 6, 105.—
    B.
    Esp., a naut. t. t., to turn, direct, steer a ship to a place:

    classem in portum,

    Liv. 37, 9 Drak.:

    terrae proras,

    Verg. A. 7, 35; id. G. 4, 117 al.:

    Colchos puppim,

    Ov. H. 12, 23.— Absol.:

    profugi advertere coloni,

    landed, Sil. 1, 288;

    hence also transf. to other things: aequore cursum,

    Verg. A. 7, 196:

    pedem ripae,

    id. ib. 6, 386:

    urbi agmen,

    id. ib. 12, 555: adverti with acc. poet. for verti ad:

    Scythicas advertitur oras,

    Ov. M. 5, 649 (cf. adducor litora remis, id. ib. 3, 598, and Rudd. II. p. 327).
    II.
    Fig.
    A.
    Animum (in the poets and Livy also animos, rarely mentem) advertere; absol., or with adv. or ad aliquid, or alicui rei, to direct the mind, thoughts, or attention to a thing, to advert to, give attention to, attend to, to heed, observe, remark:

    si voles advortere animum, Enn. ap. Var. L. L. 7, § 89 Müll. (Trag. v. 386 Vahl.): facete advortis animum tuum ad animum meum,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 39:

    nunc huc animum advortite ambo,

    id. ib. 3, 1, 169:

    advertunt animos ad religionem,

    Lucr. 3, 54:

    monitis animos advertite nostris,

    Ov. M. 15, 140:

    animum etiam levissimis rebus adverterent,

    Tac. A. 13, 49.—With ne, when the object of attention is expressed:

    ut animum advertant, ne quos offendant,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68:

    adverterent animos, ne quid novi tumultūs oriretur,

    Liv. 4, 45.—
    B.
    Animum advertere, to observe a thing by directing the mind to it, to observe, to notice, to remark, to perceive (in the class. period contracted to animadvertere, q. v.).—Constr. with two accusatives, animum advertere aliquid (where aliquid may be regarded as depending on the prep. in comp., Roby, § 1118, or on animum advertere, considered as one idea, to observe), with acc. and inf., or rel. clause (the first mode of construction, most frequent with the pronouns id, hoc, illud, etc., is for the most part ante-class., and appears in Caes., Cic., and Sall. as an archaism):

    et hoc animum advorte,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 43:

    hanc edictionem,

    id. ib. 1, 2, 10:

    haec animum te advertere par est,

    Lucr. 2, 125:

    animum adverti columellam e dumis eminentem,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 65; id. Inv. 2, 51, 153:

    Postquam id animum advertit,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 24; 4, 12:

    quidam Ligus animum advortit inter saxa repentīs cocleas,

    Sall. J. 93, 2. In Vitruv. once with hinc:

    ut etiam possumus hinc animum advertere,

    as we can hence perceive, Vitr. 10, 22, 262.—With the acc. and inf.:

    postquam tantopere id vos velle animum advorteram,

    Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 16:

    animum advertit magnas esse copiashostium instructas,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 18: cum animum adverteret locum relictum esse, Auct. B. Alex. 31; ib. 46.—With the rel. clause: nunc quam rem vitio dent, quaeso, animum advortite, Ter. And. prol. 8: quid ille sperare possit, animum adverte, Dolab. ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 9:

    quam multarum rerum ipse ignarus esset... animum advertit,

    Liv. 24, 48. Sometimes advertere alone = animum advertere; so once in Cicero's letters: nam advertebatur Pompeii familiares assentiri Volcatio, Fam. 1, 1 (although here, as well as almost everywhere, the readings fluctuate between advertere and animadvertere; cf. Orell. ad h. l.; animadvertebatur, B. and K.). So Verg. in the imp.:

    qua ratione quod instat, Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo,

    attend! Verg. A. 4, 115.—In the histt., esp. Tac. and Pliny, more frequently:

    donec advertit Tiberius,

    Tac. A. 4, 54:

    Zenobiam advertere pastores,

    id. ib. 12, 51:

    advertere quosdam cultu externo in sedibus senatorum,

    id. ib. 13, 54:

    quotiens novum aliquid adverterat,

    id. ib. 15, 30 al.:

    hirudo quam sanguisugam appellari adverto,

    Plin. 8, 10, 10, § 29:

    ut multos adverto credidisse,

    id. 2, 67, 67, § 168. Still more rarely, advertere animo:

    animis advertite vestris,

    Verg. A. 2, 712:

    hanc scientiam ad nostros pervenisse animo adverto,

    Plin. 25, 2, 3, § 5; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 4, 27, 8.—
    C.
    To draw or turn something, esp. the attention of another, to or upon one's self (in the histt.):

    gemitus ac planctus militum aures oraque advertere,

    Tac. A. 1, 41:

    octo aquilae imperatorem advertere,

    id. ib. 2, 17: recentia veteraque odia advertit, drew them on himself, id. ib. 4, 21 al.—
    D.
    To call the attention of one to a definite act, i. e. to admonish of it, to urge to it (cf. II. A.):

    non docet admonitio, sed advertit,

    i. e. directs attention, Sen. Ep. 94:

    advertit ea res Vespasiani animum, ut, etc.,

    Tac. H. 3, 48.—
    E.
    Advertere in aliquem, for the more usual animadvertere in aliquem, to attend to one, i. e. to punish one (only in Tac.):

    in P. Marcium consules more prisco advertere,

    Tac. A. 2, 32:

    ut in reliquos Sejani liberos adverteretur,

    id. ib. 5, 9 (cf. id. Germ. 7, 3: animadvertere).—Hence,
    1.
    adversus (archaic advor-), a, um, P. a., turned to or toward a thing, with the face or front toward, standing over against, opposite, before, in front of (opp. aversus).
    A.
    In gen.:

    solem adversum intueri,

    Cic. Somn. Scip. 5:

    Iris... Mille trahens varios adverso sole colores,

    Verg. A. 4, 701; id. G. 1, 218:

    antipodes adversis vestigiis stant contra nostra vestigia,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39: dentes adversi acuti ( the sharp front teeth) morsu dividunt escas, Cic. N. D. 2, 54:

    quod is collis, tantum adversus in latitudinem patebat, quantum etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 8 Herz. So, hostes adversi, who make front against one advancing or retreating, id. ib. 2, 24:

    L. Cotta legatus in adversum os fundā vulneratur,

    in front, Caes. B. G. 5, 35; cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 1; Liv. 21, 7 fin. al.; hence, vulnus adversum, a wound in front (on the contr., vulnus aversum, a wound in the back), Cic. Har. Resp. 19:

    adversis vulneribus,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 35, 4:

    judicibus cicatrices adversas ostendere,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 28:

    cicatrices populus Romanus aspiceret adverso corpore exceptas,

    id. Verr. 5, 3:

    impetus hostium adversos, Auct. B. Alex. 8: Romani advorso colle evadunt,

    ascend the hill in front, Sall. J. 52:

    adversa signa,

    Liv. 30, 8:

    legiones quas Visellius et C. Silius adversis itineribus objecerant,

    i. e. marches in which they went to meet the enemy, Tac. A. 3, 42: sed adverso fulgure ( by a flash of lightning falling directly before him) pavefactus est Nero, Suet. Ner. 48:

    armenta egit Hannibal in adversos montes,

    Quint. 2, 17, 19; cf. Lucr. 3, 1013; so Hor. S. 1, 1, 103; 2, 3, 205:

    qui timet his adversa,

    the opposite of this, id. Ep. 1, 6, 9 al. —Hence, of rivers: flumine adverso, up the stream, against the stream:

    in adversum flumen contendere,

    Lucr. 4, 423:

    adverso feruntur flumine,

    id. 6, 720; so Verg. G. 1, 201:

    adverso amne,

    Plin. 18, 6, 7, § 33;

    adverso Tiberi subvehi,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 22, 3 (opp. to secundā aquā, down stream, with the stream:

    rate in secundam aquam labente,

    Liv. 21, 47, 3); and of winds, opposed to a vessel's course, head winds, contrary winds, consequently unfavorable, adverse:

    navigationes adversis ventis praecluduntur, Auct. B. Alex. 8: adversissimi navigantibus venti,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 107.— Subst.: adversum, i, the opposite: hic ventus a septentrionibus oriens adversum tenet Athenis proficiscentibus, [p. 50] holds the opposite to those sailing from Athens, i. e. blows against them, Nep. Milt. 1 (so Nipperdey; but v. Hand, Turs. I. p. 183). — Adv.: ex adverso, also written exadverso and exadversum, opposite to, over against, ek tou enantiou:

    portus ex adverso urbi positus,

    Liv. 45, 10.—With gen.:

    Patrae ex adverso Aetoliae et fluminis Eveni,

    Plin. 4, 4, 5, § 11.—Without case:

    cum ex adverso starent classes,

    Just. 2, 14; so Suet. Caes. 39; Tib. 33.—In adversum, to the opposite side, against:

    et duo in adversum immissi per moenia currus,

    against each other, Prop. 3, 9, 23; so Gell. 2, 30; cf. Verg. A. 8, 237;

    in adversum Romani subiere,

    Liv. 1, 12; 7, 23.—
    B.
    In hostile opposition to, adverse to, unfavorable, unpropitious (opp. secundus; frequent and class.): conqueri fortunam adversam, Pac. ap. Cic. Tusc. 2, 21, 50:

    hic dies pervorsus atque advorsus mihi obtigit,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 1:

    advorsus nemini,

    Ter. And. 1, 1, 37:

    mentes improborum mihi infensae et adversae,

    Cic. Sull. 10:

    acclamatio,

    id. de Or. 2, 83: adversā avi aliquid facere, vet. poët. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 16:

    adversis auspiciis,

    Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 64, 6:

    adversum omen,

    Suet. Vit. 8:

    adversissima auspicia,

    id. Oth. 8: adversae res, misfortune, calamity, adverse fortune:

    ut adversas res, sic secundas immoderate ferre levitatis est,

    Cic. Off. 1, 26; cf.:

    adversi casus,

    Nep. Dat. 5:

    adversae rerum undae,

    a sea of troubles, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 22: omnia secundissima nobis, adversissima illis accidisse, Caes. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 9 (the sup. is found also in Cæs. B. C. 3, 107):

    quae magistratus ille dicet, secundis auribus, quae ab nostrum quo dicentur, adversis accipietis?

    Liv. 6, 40:

    adversus annus frugibus,

    id. 4, 12:

    valetudo adversa,

    i. e. sickness, id. 10, 32:

    adversum proelium,

    an unsuccessful engagement, id. 7, 29; cf.

    8, 31: adverso rumore esse,

    to be in bad repute, to have a bad reputation, Tac. Ann. 14, 11:

    adversa subsellia,

    on which the opposition sit, Quint. 6, 1, 39.—Sometimes met. of feeling, contrary to, hated, hateful, odious:

    quīs omnia regna advorsa sint,

    Sall. J. 83; cf. Luc. 2, 229 Bentl.— Comp.:

    neque est aliud adversius,

    Plin. 32, 4, 14, § 35.—
    * Adv.: adver-sē, self-contradictorily, Gell. 3, 16.— ad-versum, i, subst., esp. in the plur. adversa, misfortune, calamity, disaster, adversity, evil, mischief:

    advorsa ejus per te tecta sient,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 28:

    nihil adversi,

    Cic. Brut. 1, 4:

    si quid adversi accidisset,

    Nep. Alc. 8; cf. Liv. 22, 40; 35, 13:

    secunda felices, adversa magnos probant,

    Plin. Pan. 31;

    esp. freq. in Tac.: prospera et adversa pop. Rom., Ann. 1, 1: adversa tempestatum et fluctuum,

    id. Agr. 25; so id. A. 3, 24; 45; 2, 69; 4, 13 al.— Subst.: adversus, i, m., an opponent, adversary (rare):

    multosque mortalīs ea causa advorsos habeo,

    Sall. C. 52, 7.—In Quint. also once ad-versa, ae, f., subst., a female opponent or adversary: natura noverca fuerit, si facultatem dicendi sociam scelerum, adversam innocentiae, invenit, 12, 1, 2.—
    C.
    In rhet., opposed to another of the same genus, e. g. sapientia and stultitia: “Haec quae ex eodem genere contraria sunt, appellantur adversa,” Cic. Top. 11.
    3.
    adversus or adversum (archaic advor-) (like rursus and rursum, prorsus and prorsum, quorsus and quorsum), adv. and prep., denoting direction to or toward an object (syn.: contra, in with acc., ad, erga).
    A.
    Adv.: opposite to, against, to, or toward a thing, in a friendly or hostile sense:

    ibo advorsum,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 29:

    facito, ut venias advorsum mihi,

    id. Men. 2, 3, 82:

    obsecro te, matri ne quid tuae advorsus fuas, Liv. And. ap. Non. s. v. fuam, 111, 12 (Trag. Rel. p. 3 Rib.): quis hic est, qui advorsus it mihi?

    Plaut. Men. 3, 2, 22:

    adversus resistere,

    Nep. Pelop. 1, 3:

    nemo adversus ibat,

    Liv. 37, 13, 8 al. In Plaut. and Ter. advorsum ire, or venire, to go to meet; also of a slave, to go to meet his master and bring him from a place (hence adversitor, q. v.):

    solus nunc eo advorsum hero ex plurimis servis,

    Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 23:

    ei advorsum venimus,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 32; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 2 Ruhnk.—
    B.
    Prep. with acc., toward or against, in a friendly or a hostile sense.
    1.
    In a friendly sense.
    (α).
    Of place, turned to or toward, opposite to, before, facing, over against: qui cotidie unguentatus adversum speculum ornetur, before the mirror, Scipio ap. Gell. 7, 12:

    adversus advocatos,

    Liv. 45, 7, 5:

    medicus debet residere illustri loco adversus aegrum,

    opposite to the patient, Cels. 3, 6:

    adversus Scyllam vergens in Italiam,

    Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 87:

    Lerina, adversum Antipolim,

    id. 3, 5, 11, § 79.—
    (β).
    In the presence of any one, before:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar, mater mea?

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9: idque gratum fuisse advorsum te habeo gratiam, I am thankful that this is acceptable before ( to) thee, Ter. And. 1, 1, 15: paululum adversus praesentem fortitudinem mollitus, somewhat softened at such firmness (of his wife), Tac. A. 15, 63.—Hence very often with verbs of speaking, answering, complaining, etc., to declare or express one's self to any one, to excuse one's self or apologize, and the like: te oportet hoc proloqui advorsum illam mihi, Enn. ap. Non. 232, 24 (Trag. v. 385 Vahl.):

    immo si audias, quae dicta dixit me advorsum tibi,

    what he told me of you, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 47: de vita ac morte domini fabulavere advorsum fratrem illius, Afran. ap. Non. 232, 25:

    mulier, credo, advorsum illum res suas conqueritur,

    Titin. ib. 232, 21:

    utendum est excusatione etiam adversus eos, quos invitus offendas,

    Cic. Off. 2, 19, 68; Tac. A. 3, 71.— With that to which a reply is made, to (= ad):

    adversus ea consul... respondit,

    Liv. 4, 10, 12; 22, 40, 1; cf. Drak. ad 3, 57, 1.—
    (γ).
    In comparison, as if one thing were held toward, set against, or before another (v. ad, I. D. 4.); against, in comparison with, compared to:

    repente lectus adversus veterem imperatorem comparabitur,

    will be compared with, Liv. 24, 8, 8:

    quid autem esse duo prospera bella Samnitium adversus tot decora populi Rom.,

    id. 7, 32, 8.—
    (δ).
    Of demeanor toward one, to, toward:

    quonam modo me gererem adversus Caesarem,

    Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 11:

    te adversus me omnia audere gratum est,

    i. e. on my account, on my behalf, for my advantage, id. ib. 9, 22, 15:

    lentae adversum imperia aures,

    Tac. A. 1, 65.—Esp. often of friendly feeling, love, esteem, respect toward or for one (cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 4, 1, 15; Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 9, 22; Heusing. ad Cic. Off. 1, 11, 1;

    Hab. Syn. 49): est enim pietas justitia adversus deos,

    Cic. N. D. 1, 41, 116; id. Off. 3, 6, 28:

    adhibenda est igitur quaedam reverentia adversus homines,

    id. ib. 1, 28, 99 Beier:

    sunt quaedam officia adversus eos servanda, a quibus injuriam acceperis,

    id. ib. 1, 11, 33:

    adversus merita ingratissimus,

    Vell. 2, 69, 5:

    summa adversus alios aequitas erat,

    Liv. 3, 33, 8:

    ob egregiam fidem adversus Romanos,

    id. 29, 8, 2; so id. 45, 8, 4 al.:

    beneficentiā adversus supplices utendum,

    Tac. A. 11, 17.— More rarely
    (ε).
    of the general relation of an object or act to a person or thing (v. ad, I. D. 1.), in relation, in respect, or in regard to a thing:

    epistula, ut adversus magistrum morum, modestior,

    as addressed to a censor of manners, Cic. Fam. 3, 13, 8:

    quasi adversus eos acquieverit sententiae,

    in regard to the same, Dig. 49, 1; 3, 1.—
    2.
    In a hostile sense, against (the most usual class. signif. of this word): “Contra et adversus ita differunt, quod contra, ad locum, ut: contra basilicam; adversus, ad animi motum, ut: adversus illum facio; interdum autem promiscue accipitur,” Charis. p. 207 P.; cf. Cort. ad Sall. J. 101, 8:

    advorsum legem accepisti a plurimis pecuniam,

    Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 48:

    advorsum te fabulare illud,

    against thy interest, to thy disadvantage, id. Stich. 4, 2, 11:

    stultus est advorsus aetatem et capitis canitudinem, id. ap. Fest. s. v. canitudinem, p. 47: advorsum animi tui libidinem,

    Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 19:

    adversum leges, adversum rem publicam,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 195:

    respondebat, SI PARET, ADVERSUM EDICTUM FECISSE,

    id. ib. 2, 3, 28, §

    69: me adversus populum Romanum possem defendere,

    id. Phil. 1, 13 al. —In the histt., of a hostile attack, approach, etc.:

    gladiis districtis impetum adversus montem in cohortes faciunt,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 46:

    adversus se non esse missos exercitus,

    Liv. 3, 66:

    bellum adversum Xerxem moret,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 24, 3:

    copiis quibus usi adversus Romanum bellum,

    Liv. 8, 2, 5:

    adversus vim atque injuriam pugnantes,

    id. 26, 25, 10 al.:

    T. Quintius adversus Gallos missus est,

    Eutr. 2, 2: Athenienses adversus tantam tempestatem belli duos duces deligunt, Just. 3, 6, 12 al.—Among physicians, of preventives against sickness, against (v. ad, I. A. 2.):

    adversus profusionem in his auxilium est,

    Cels. 5, 26; 6, 27 al.:

    frigidus jam artus et cluso corpore adversum vim veneni,

    Tac. A. 15, 64.— Trop.:

    egregium adversus tempestates receptaculum,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 4; so id. ib. 2, 15, 36.—Hence: firmus, invictus, fortis adversus aliquid (like contra), protected against a thing, firm, fixed, secure:

    advorsum divitias animum invictum gerebat,

    Sall. J. 43, 5:

    invictus adversum gratiam animus,

    Tac. A. 15, 21:

    adversus convicia malosque rumores firmus ac patiens,

    Suet. Tib. 28:

    Adversus omnes fortis feras canis,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 1; and in opp. sense: infirmus, inferior adversus aliquid, powerless against, unequal to:

    fama, infirmissimum adversus vivos fortes telum,

    Curt. 4, 14:

    infirmus adversum pecuniam,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 9, 6:

    inferior adversus laborem,

    id. Epit. 40, 20.
    a.
    Adversus is rarely put after the word which it governs:

    egone ut te advorsum mentiar,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 7, 9:

    hunc adversus,

    Nep. Con. 2, 2; id. Tim. 4, 3:

    quos advorsum ierat,

    Sall. J. 101, 8.—
    b.
    It sometimes suffers tmesis:

    Labienum ad Oceanum versus proficisci jubet,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 33:

    animadvortit fugam ad se vorsum fieri,

    Sall. J. 58:

    animum advortere ad se vorsum exercitum pergere,

    id. ib. 69: ad Cordubam versus iter facere coepit, Auct. B. Hisp. 10 and 11; cf. in-versus:

    in Galliam vorsus castra movere,

    Sall. C. 56; Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12; Traj. ap. Plin. Ep. 10, 78; the Eng. to-ward: to us ward, Psa. 40, 5; and the Gr. eis-de: eis halade, Hom. Od. 10, 351.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adversa


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