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  • 1 condensation polymerisation

    English-Ukrainian analytical chemistry dictionary > condensation polymerisation

  • 2 condensation polymerization

    deutsch: Kondensationspolymerisation f
    español: polimerización por condensación
    français: polymérisation par condensation
    italiano: polimerizzazione per condensazione
    中文: 缩合聚合,缩聚
    русский: полиприсоединение n

    Multilingual plastics terminology dictionary > condensation polymerization

  • 3 Plastics

    A generic name for synthetic condensation of polymerisation substances, also for certain natural substances which, under heat and pressure, become plastic and can be shaped into a mould.

    Dictionary of the English textile terms > Plastics

  • 4 Carothers, Wallace Hume

    b. 27 April 1896 Burlington, Iowa, USA
    d. 29 April 1937 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    American chemist, inventor of nylon.
    After graduating in chemistry, Carothers embarked on academic research at several universities, finally at Harvard University. His earliest published papers, from 1923, heralded the brilliance and originality of his later work. In 1928, Du Pont de Nemours persuaded him to forsake the academic world to lead their new organic-chemistry group in a programme of fundamental research at their central laboratories at Wilmington, Delaware. The next nine years were extraordinarily productive, yielding important contributions to theoretical organic chemistry and the foundation of two branches of chemical industry, namely the production of synthetic rubber and of wholly synthetic fibres.
    Carothers began work on high molecular weight substances yielding fibres and introduced polymerization by condensation: polymerization by addition was already known. He developed a clear understanding of the relation between the repeating structural units in a large molecule and its physical chemical properties. In 1931, Carothers found that chloroprene could be polymerized much faster than isoprene, the monomer in natural rubber. This process yielded polychloroprene or neoprene, a synthetic rubber with improved properties. Manufacture began the following year, and the material has continued to be used for speciality rubbers.
    There followed many publications announcing new condensations polymers. On 2 January 1935, he obtained a patent for the formation of new polyamides, including one from adipic acid and hexamethylenediamene. After four years of development work, which cost Du Pont some $27 million, this new polyamide, or nylon, reached the stage of commercial production, beginning on 23 October 1938. Nylon stockings appeared the following year and 64 million were sold during the first twelve months. However, Carothers saw none of this spectacular success: he had died by his own hand in 1937, after a long history of gradually intensifying depression.
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Elected to the National Academy of Science 1936 (he was the first industrial organic chemist to be so honoured).
    H.M.Whitby and G.S.Whitby, 1940, Collected Papers of Wallace H.Carothers on Polymerisation, New York.
    Further Reading
    R.Adams, 1939, memoir, Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 20:293–309 (includes a complete list of Carothers's sixty-two scientific papers and most of his sixty-nine US patents).

    Biographical history of technology > Carothers, Wallace Hume

См. также в других словарях:

  • condensation — [ kɔ̃dɑ̃sasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1361; lat. imp. condensatio 1 ♦ Passage d un corps de la phase gazeuse à une des phases condensées, liquide ou solide; action de condenser. Point de condensation (cf. Point de rosée). ⇒ saturation. Condensation de la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • polymérisation — [ pɔlimerizasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1869; de polymériser ♦ Chim. Union de plusieurs molécules d un composé pour former une grosse molécule. Résines de polymérisation. ⇒ macromolécule, plastique. ● polymérisation nom féminin Réaction de formation des… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Polymerisation — Polymérisation On appelle polymérisation la réaction chimique, ou le procédé, permettant la synthèse d un polymère à partir de monomères. C est une réaction qui à partir de molécules de faible masse moléculaires (monomères), forme par les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Polymérisation par étapes — La polymérisation par étapes est un mécanisme de polymérisation qui procède par des étapes indépendantes. Les monomères avec deux ou plusieurs groupements fonctionnels réagissent pour former d abord des dimères, ensuite des trimères et oligomères …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Polymérisation — La polymérisation désigne la réaction chimique, ou le procédé, permettant la synthèse de polymères à partir de molécules réactives qui peuvent être des monomères ou des pré polymères linéaires. En général, en présence de réactifs (catalyseurs...) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Acyloin condensation — is a reductive coupling of two carboxylic esters using metallic sodium to yield an α hydroxyketone, also known as an acyloin. [cite journal title = Action du sodium sur les éthers des acides monobasiques à fonction simple de la série grasse… …   Wikipedia

  • Chain growth polymerisation — Chain growth polymerization is a polymerization technique where unsaturated monomer molecules add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time [1]. It can be represented with the chemical equation: where n is the …   Wikipedia

  • Addition polymerization — nM (monomer) ightarrow ( M ) n (polymer)where n is the degree of polymerization.CharacteristicsThe main characteristics are:* polymerisation process takes place in three distinct steps: # chain initiation, usually by means of an initiator which… …   Wikipedia

  • Plastic — is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight, and may contain other substances to… …   Wikipedia

  • MOLYBDÈNE — Élément chimique métallique de symbole Mo et de numéro atomique 42, le molybdène appartient au groupe VI A de la classification périodique. C’est un élément de transition compris entre le chrome et le tungstène. Il est le trente sixième élément… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Polymérisé — Polymérisation On appelle polymérisation la réaction chimique, ou le procédé, permettant la synthèse d un polymère à partir de monomères. C est une réaction qui à partir de molécules de faible masse moléculaires (monomères), forme par les… …   Wikipédia en Français

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