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arithmetic formulas

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  • Arithmetic function — In number theory, an arithmetic (or arithmetical) function is a real or complex valued function ƒ(n) defined on the set of natural numbers (i.e. positive integers) that expresses some arithmetical property of n. [1] An example of an arithmetic… …   Wikipedia

  • Second-order arithmetic — In mathematical logic, second order arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and sets thereof. It is an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation for much, but not all, of mathematics. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Presburger arithmetic — is the first order theory of the natural numbers with addition, named in honor of Mojżesz Presburger, who published it in 1929. It is not as powerful as Peano arithmetic because it omits multiplication.OverviewThe language of Presburger… …   Wikipedia

  • Affine arithmetic — (AA) is a model for self validated numerical analysis. In AA, the quantities of interest are represented as affine combinations (affine forms) of certain primitive variables, which stand for sources of uncertainty in the data or approximations… …   Wikipedia

  • List of price index formulas — A number of different formulas, at least hundreds, have been proposed as means of calculating price indexes. While price index formulas all use price and quantity data, they amalgamate this data in different ways. A price index generally… …   Wikipedia

  • Bounded quantifier — In the study of formal theories in mathematical logic, bounded quantifiers are often added to a language. These are two quantifiers in addition to forall and exists. They are motivated by the fact that determining whether a sentence with only… …   Wikipedia

  • Prime-counting function — In mathematics, the prime counting function is the function counting the number of prime numbers less than or equal to some real number x cite book |first=Eric |last=Bach |coauthors=Shallit, Jeffrey |year=1996 |title=Algorithmic Number Theory… …   Wikipedia

  • First-order logic — is a formal logical system used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. It goes by many names, including: first order predicate calculus, the lower predicate calculus, quantification theory, and predicate logic (a less… …   Wikipedia

  • Arithmetical hierarchy — In mathematical logic, the arithmetical hierarchy, arithmetic hierarchy or Kleene hierarchy classifies certain sets based on the complexity of formulas that define them. Any set that receives a classification is called arithmetical. The… …   Wikipedia

  • mathematics — /math euh mat iks/, n. 1. (used with a sing. v.) the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. 2. (used with a sing. or pl. v.) mathematical procedures,… …   Universalium

  • Consistency — For other uses, see Consistency (disambiguation). In logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.[1] The lack of contradiction can be defined in either semantic or syntactic terms. The semantic definition states that a …   Wikipedia