101 if anythingпожалуй, если на то пошло, если хотите знать, во всяком случае; как бы то ни было
‘I know why you invited me. Because your father likes me.’ ‘How wrong you are. If anything, that would have kept me from inviting you.’ (J. O'Hara, ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. 11) — - Я знаю, почему вы пригласили меня на вечер. Потому, что я нравлюсь вашему отцу. - Как вы ошибаетесь. Если хотите знать, это только помешало бы мне пригласить вас.
Miss Balaifal's voice was, If anything, not impressive. (W. Saroyan, ‘My Name Is Aram’, ‘The Presbyterian Choir Singers’) — Голос мисс Балайфал, надо сказать, не производил сильного впечатления.
‘I'm no help at all,’ Miss Cranshaw said. ‘If anything, I antagonize everybody, who might otherwise be likely to put money in the play.’ (W. Saroyan, ‘Mama, I love You’, ch. 25) — - Я ничуть не помогаю делу, - сказала мисс Крэншо, - а, скорее, наоборот: восстанавливаю всех тех, кто мог бы финансировать постановку.
102 keep smb. in his place(keep smb. in his (proper) place)ставить кого-л. на место, держать кого-л. в повиновении, в подчинении
But the monopolists do want the labor, progressive and liberal forces kept in their place. (G. Green, ‘The Enemy Forgotten’, ch. VII) — Но монополисты очень хотели бы, чтобы профсоюзы, прогрессивные и либеральные силы помнили свое место.
Your mother was trying so hard to put me in my place and keep me there. (J. O'Hara, ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. II) — Твоя мать всячески старалась поставить меня на место, чтобы я и пикнуть не смел.
103 make smb.'s mind easy(make smb.'s mind easy (тж. make smb. easy in his mind, put smb.'s mind at ease, put или set smb.'s mind at rest))успокаивать кого-л., рассеивать чьи-л. опасения
I wish we knew where they have gone, for it would make my son a good deal easier in his mind, and me too. (Ch. Dickens, ‘The Old Curiosity Shop’, ch. XXI) — я бы тоже дорого дала, чтобы узнать, куда они ушли. Тогда и у сына моего, и у меня стало бы легче на сердце.
...the club and its rules were still a mystery, and he looked round for some one who should be able to set his mind at rest. (R. L. Stevenson, ‘New Arabian Nights’, ‘The Suicide Club’, ‘The Story of the Young Man with the Cream Tarts’) —...клуб и его правила все еще оставались загадкой, и полковник оглядывался вокруг, стараясь найти кого-нибудь, кто смог бы рассеять его опасения.
Well, just to put your mind at rest, when we discovered the body of Mrs. Perlin, we made a complete search of the premises. (E. S. Gardner, ‘The Case of the Empty Tin’, ch. 13) — Должен сказать для вашего успокоения, что, когда мы нашли труп миссис Перлин, мы тщательно обыскали весь дом.
You're.not going to be fired... Put your mind at ease on that score. (J. O'Hara, ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. IV) — Тебя не уволят... Можешь не беспокоиться на этот счет.
104 not at all1) нисколько (не), ничуть (не), отнюдь не(т), вовсе не(т)
It was not at all improbable that Butler might want to kill him. (Th. Dreiser, ‘The Financier’, ch. XXXVI) — Не исключено, что Батлер пришел с намерением убить его.
He's a loafer, a gentleman loafer, not at all like his brother. (J. O'Hara, ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. IX) — Партер Дитсон - бездельник. Джентльмен, но бездельник. Совсем не похож на своего брата.
‘I bet you wonder what I'm doing here,’ the Lieutenant said. ‘Oh, no,’ said Michael hastily not wishing to get into that conversational department. ‘Not at all.’ (I. Shaw, ‘The Young Lions’, ch. 32) — - Вас, наверно, интересует, что я здесь делаю, - сказал лейтенант. - Нет, что вы, - поспешно ответил Майкл, не желая касаться этой скользкой темы. - Нисколько.2) пожалуйста, не стоит (в ответ на "спасибо")
Laura: "...thank you very much indeed." Alec: "Not at all." (N. Coward, ‘Still Life’, sc. 2) — Лаура: "...большое вам спасибо." Алек: "Не стоит благодарности."
105 out of place1) неуместный, не к месту, сказанный или сделанный некстати, не вовремя
The sight of a man lying wearied out with hard work, as your husband lay, made me feel that to brag of my own fortune to you would be greatly out of place. (Th. Hardy, ‘The Return of the Native’, book IV, ch. VIII) — Вид вашего мужа, когда он лежал измученный тяжелой работой, заставил меня почувствовать, что хвалиться перед вами моей удачей было бы весьма некстати.
Twenty years ago, of course, she reflected, straw hats with flowers would have been out of place in December, but the dictates of fashion were so much less strict nowadays, it seemed. (A. Wilson, ‘Anglo-Saxon Attitudes’, part I, ch. I) — Она подумала, что, конечно, двадцать лет назад надеть соломенную шляпу с цветами в декабре было бы просто невозможно, но, видимо, теперь требования моды были не столь строгие.
It is surely out of place to write in the grand style of inconsiderable things. (W. S. Maugham, ‘The Summing Up’, ch. 12) — Немыслимо писать высоким слогом о пустяках.2) лишний, ненужный
Waiting for the doctor were two women, as still as though they were paralyzed, and a man in a railroad brakeman's uniform, holding his bandaged right hand with his tanned left. They stared at Carol. She sat modestly in a stiff chair, feeling frivolous and out of place. (S. Lewis, ‘Main Street’, ch. XV) — Доктора ждали две женщины, сидевшие так тихо, словно их парализовало, и человек в форме железнодорожника, который левой загорелой рукой поддерживал забинтованную правую. Все они уставились на Кэрол. Она скромно присела на жесткий стул, чувствуя себя здесь лишней и смущаясь своего легкомысленного вида.
...don't come if you don't want to, or if you're going to feel out of place. (J. O'Hara, ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. II) — Если не хочется или боитесь, что будут все чужие, не приходите на эту вечеринку.
He had always felt out of place in an academic environment. (RHD) — Когда он попадал в академическую среду, то всегда чувствовал себя не в своей тарелке.
106 rub smb.'s nose in itразг.ткнуть кого-л. носом во что-л.
But I'm going to tell him that Tomaselli has no job for him. Really rub his nose in it. (J. O'Hara, ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. IX) — Я скажу Питеру, что у Томаселли нет для него работы. Пусть знает, что натворил.
107 take the heat offоблегчить, ослабить; разрядить ( обстановку)
...I guess that's part of my job to take the heat off the president. (J. O'Hara. ‘Elizabeth Appleton’, ch. VIII) —...я считаю, что в мои обязанности входит также облегчать положение ректора.
I need something to hate... I'm looking for a real hate to take the heat off. (J. Steinbeck, ‘The Winter of Our Discontent’, part II, ch. XIX) — Мне нужно возненавидеть что-то... я хочу возненавидеть, чтобы избавиться от того, что меня жжет.
108 professorprofessor [prə'fesə(r)]University (in UK → head of department) titulaire mf d'une chaire, professeur m; (in US → lecturer) enseignant(e) m,f (de faculté) ou d'université;∎ professor of sociology (in UK) titulaire mf de la chaire de sociologie, professeur m responsable du département de sociologie; (in US) professeur m de sociologie;∎ Professor Colin Appleton le professeur Colin Appleton;
109 BroadcastingSee also: INDEX BY SUBJECT AREA[br]
110 Heaviside, Oliver[br]b. 18 May 1850 London, Englandd. 2 February 1925 Torquay, Devon, England[br]English physicist who correctly predicted the existence of the ionosphere and its ability to reflect radio waves.[br]Brought up in poor, almost Dickensian, circumstances, at the age of 13 years Heaviside, a nephew by marriage of Sir Charles Wheatstone, went to Camden House Grammar School. There he won a medal for science, but he was forced to leave because his parents could not afford the fees. After a year of private study, he began his working life in Newcastle in 1870 as a telegraph operator for an Anglo-Dutch cable company, but he had to give up after only four years because of increasing deafness. He therefore proceeded to spend his time studying theoretical aspects of electrical transmission and communication, and moved to Devon with his parents in 1889. Because the operation of many electrical circuits involves transient phenomena, he found it necessary to develop what he called operational calculus (which was essentially a form of the Laplace transform calculus) in order to determine the response to sudden voltage and current changes. In 1893 he suggested that the distortion that occurred on long-distance telephone lines could be reduced by adding loading coils at regular intervals, thus creating a matched-transmission line. Between 1893 and 1912 he produced a series of writings on electromagnetic theory, in one of which, anticipating a conclusion of Einstein's special theory of relativity, he put forward the idea that the mass of an electric charge increases with its velocity. When it was found that despite the curvature of the earth it was possible to communicate over very great distances using radio signals in the so-called "short" wavebands, Heaviside suggested the presence of a conducting layer in the ionosphere that reflected the waves back to earth. Since a similar suggestion had been made almost at the same time by Arthur Kennelly of Harvard, this layer became known as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer.[br]Principal Honours and DistinctionsFRS 1891. Institution of Electrical Engineers Faraday Medal 1924. Honorary PhD Gottingen. Honorary Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Bibliography1872. "A method for comparing electro-motive forces", English Mechanic (July).1873. Philosophical Magazine (February) (a paper on the use of the Wheatstone Bridge). 1889, Electromagnetic Waves.1892, Electrical Papers.1893–1912, Electromagnetic Theory.Further ReadingI.Catt (ed.), 1987, Oliver Heaviside, The Man, St Albans: CAM Publishing.P.J.Nahin, 1988, Oliver Heaviside, Sage in Solitude: The Life and Works of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York.J.B.Hunt, The Maxwellians, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.KF
111 Jansky, Karl Guthe[br]b. 22 October 1905 Norman, Oklahoma, USAd. 14 February 1950 Red Bank, New Jersey, USA[br]American radio engineer who discovered stellar radio emission.[br]Following graduation from the University of Wisconsin in 1928 and a year of postgraduate study, Jansky joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey with the task of establishing the source of interference to telephone communications by radio. To this end he constructed a linear-directional short-wave antenna and eventually, in 1931, he concluded that the interference actually came from the stars, the major source being the constellation Sagittarius in the direction of the centre of the Milky Way. Although he continued to study the propagation of short radio waves and the nature of observed echoes, it was left to others to develop the science of radioastronomy and to use the creation of echoes for radiolocation. Although he received no scientific award for his discovery, Jansky's name is primarily honoured by its use as the unit of stellar radio-emission strength.[br]Bibliography1935, "Directional studies of atmospherics at high frequencies", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 23:1,158.1935, "A note on the sources of stellar interference", Proceedings of the Institute of RadioEngineers.1937, "Minimum noise levels obtained on short-wave radio receiving systems", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 25:1,517.1941, "Measurements of the delay and direction of arrival of echoes from nearby short-wave transmitters", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 29:322.Further ReadingP.C.Mahon, 1975, BellLabs, Mission Communication. The Story of the Bell Labs.W.I.Sullivan (ed.), 1984, The Early Years of Radio-Astronomy: Reflections 50 Years after Jansky's Discovery, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.KF
112 Kennelly, Arthur Edwin[br]b. 17 December 1871 Colaba, Bombay, Indiad. 18 June 1939 Boston, Massachusetts, USA[br]Anglo-American electrical engineer who predicted the ionosphere and developed mathematical analysis for electronic circuits.[br]As a young man, Kennelly worked as office boy for a London engineering society, as an electrician and on a cable-laying ship. In 1887 he went to work for Thomas Edison at West Orange, New Jersey, USA, becoming his chief assistant. In 1894, with Edwin J.Houston, he formed the Philadelphia company of Houston and Kennelly, but eight years later he took up the Chair of Electrical Engineering at Harvard, a post he held until his retirement in 1930. In 1902 he noticed that the radio signals received by Marconi in Nova Scotia from the transmitter in England were stronger than predicted and postulated a reflecting ionized layer in the upper atmosphere. Almost simultaneously the same prediction was made in England by Heaviside, so the layer became known as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. Throughout most of his working life Kennelly was concerned with the application of mathematical techniques, particularly the use of complex theory, to the analysis of electrical circuits. With others he also contributed to an understanding of the high-frequency skin-effect in conductors.[br]Principal Honours and DistinctionsPresident, American Institute of Electrical Engineers 1898–1900. President, Institution of Electrical Engineers 1916. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Medal of Honour 1932; Edison Medal 1933.Bibliography1915, with F.A.Laws \& P.H.Pierce "Experimental research on the skin effect in conductors", Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 34:1,953.1924, Hyperbolic Functions as Applied to Electrical Engineering.1924, Check Atlas of Complex Hyperbolic \& Circular Functions (both on mathematics for circuit analysis).Further ReadingK.Davies, 1990, Ionospheric Radio, London: Peter Peregrinus. See also Appleton, Sir Edward Victor.KF
113 Murphy, John BenjaminSUBJECT AREA: Medical technology[br]b. 21 December 1857 Appleton, Wisconsin, USAd. 11 August 1916 Mackinac, Michigan, USA[br]American surgeon, pioneer of intestinal anastomosis and proponent of joint replacement.[br]Murphy qualified in 1879 at Rush Medical College. After postgraduate study in Vienna, he returned to Chicago and was appointed Professor of Surgery at Northwestern University. He pioneered surgical techniques in the pneumothoracic, biliary and gastrointestinal systems with the invention of the Murphy "button" for intestinal anastomosis. He also originated a procedure for the replacement of infected joints utilizing a living graft of fascial tissue. He was described by W.J. Mayo as "the surgical genius of our century".[br]Principal Honours and DistinctionsKnight Commander of the Order of St Gregory 1910. Hon. Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons 1913. Laetare Medal, Notre Dame University 1902.Bibliography1897, "Resection of arteries and veins injured in continuity", Medical Record, New York.Further ReadingKelly \& Burrage, 1928, The Surgical Clinics of John B.Murphy MD at Mercy Hospital, Chicago.MG
114 Singer, Isaac Merritt[br]b. 27 October 1811 Pittstown, New York, USAd. 23 July 1875 Torquay, Devonshire, England[br]American inventor of a sewing machine, and pioneer of mass production.[br]The son of a millwright, Singer was employed as an unskilled labourer at the age of 12, but later gained wide experience as a travelling machinist. He also found employment as an actor. On 16 May 1839, while living at Lockport, Illinois, he obtained his first patent for a rock-drilling machine, but he soon squandered the money he made. Then in 1849, while at Pittsburgh, he secured a patent for a wood-and metal-carving machine that he had begun five years previously; however, a boiler explosion in the factory destroyed his machine and left him penniless.Near the end of 1850 Singer was engaged to redesign the Lerow \& Blodgett sewing machine at the Boston shop of Orson C.Phelps, where the machine was being repaired. He built an improved version in eleven days that was sufficiently different for him to patent on 12 August 1851. He formed a partnership with Phelps and G.B. Zieber and they began to market the invention. Singer soon purchased Phelps's interest, although Phelps continued to manufacture the machines. Then Edward Clark acquired a one-third interest and with Singer bought out Zieber. These two, with dark's flair for promotion and marketing, began to create a company which eventually would become the largest manufacturer of sewing machines exported worldwide, with subsidiary factories in England.However, first Singer had to defend his patent, which was challenged by an earlier Boston inventor, Elias Howe. Although after a long lawsuit Singer had to pay royalties, it was the Singer machine which eventually captured the market because it could do continuous stitching. In 1856 the Great Sewing Machine Combination, the first important pooling arrangement in American history, was formed to share the various patents so that machines could be built without infringements and manufacture could be expanded without fear of litigation. Singer contributed his monopoly on the needle-bar cam with his 1851 patent. He secured twenty additional patents, so that his original straight-needle vertical design for lock-stitching eventually included such refinements as a continuous wheel-feed, yielding presser-foot, and improved cam for moving the needle-bar. A new model, introduced in 1856, was the first to be intended solely for use in the home.Initially Phelps made all the machines for Singer. Then a works was established in New York where the parts were assembled by skilled workers through filing and fitting. Each machine was therefore a "one-off" but Singer machines were always advertised as the best on the market and sold at correspondingly high prices. Gradually, more specialized machine tools were acquired, but it was not until long after Singer had retired to Europe in 1863 that Clark made the change to mass production. Sales of machines numbered 810 in 1853 and 21,000 ten years later.[br]Bibliography12 August 1851, US patent no. 8,294 (sewing machine)Further ReadingBiographies and obituaries have appeared in Appleton's Cyclopedia of America, Vol. V; Dictionary of American Biography, Vol XVII; New York Times 25 July 1875; Scientific American (1875) 33; and National Cyclopaedia of American Biography.D.A.Hounshell, 1984, From the American System to Mass Production 1800–1932. TheDevelopment of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore (provides a thorough account of the development of the Singer sewing machine, the competition it faced from other manufacturers and production methods).RLH
115 TelecommunicationsSee also: INDEX BY SUBJECT AREA[br]Reis, PhilippThomson, Sir William
116 Tuve, Merle Antony[br]b. 27 June 1901 Canton, South Dakota, USAd. 20 May 1982 Bethesda, Maryland, USA[br]American physicist and geophysicist who developed radio exploration of the ionosphere and made contributions to seismology and atomic physics.[br]After BS and AM degrees from the University of Minnesota, Tuve gained a PhD in physics from Johns Hopkins University in 1926. He then joined the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institute, Washington, DC, where with Breit he established by experiment the existence and characteristics of the ionosphere. He also studied gamma and beta rays, artificial radioactivity and atomic transmutation, verified the existence of the neutron and measured nuclear binding forces. During the Second World War he performed military research, producing a proximity fuse for use against the VI flying bomb. He returned to Carnegie in 1946 as Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, where he remained until 1966, making many contributions to the study of the earth and space.[br]Principal Honours and DistinctionsAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science Prize for atomic and nuclear research 1931. National Academy of Science 1946. Research Corporation Award 1947. Comstock Prize 1948. National Academy of Science Barnard Medal 1955. Presidential Medal of Merit and Distinguished Service Member of the Carnegie Institute 1966.Bibliography1926, with G.Breit, "A test of the existence of the conducting layer", Physical Review 28:554 (gives an account of the early ionospheric studies).KF
117 Watson-Watt, Sir Robert Alexander[br]b. 13 April 1892 Brechin, Angus, Scotlandd. 6 December 1973 Inverness, Scotland[br]Scottish engineer and scientific adviser known for his work on radar.[br]Following education at Brechin High School, Watson-Watt entered University College, Dundee (then a part of the University of St Andrews), obtaining a BSc in engineering in 1912. From 1912 until 1921 he was Assistant to the Professor of Natural Philosophy at St Andrews, but during the First World War he also held various posts in the Meteorological Office. During. this time, in 1916 he proposed the use of cathode ray oscillographs for radio-direction-finding displays. He joined the newly formed Radio Research Station at Slough when it was opened in 1924, and 3 years later, when it amalgamated with the Radio Section of the National Physical Laboratory, he became Superintendent at Slough. At this time he proposed the name "ionosphere" for the ionized layer in the upper atmosphere. With E.V. Appleton and J.F.Herd he developed the "squegger" hard-valve transformer-coupled timebase and with the latter devised a direction-finding radio-goniometer.In 1933 he was asked to investigate possible aircraft counter-measures. He soon showed that it was impossible to make the wished-for radio "death-ray", but had the idea of using the detection of reflected radio-waves as a means of monitoring the approach of enemy aircraft. With six assistants he developed this idea and constructed an experimental system of radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) in which arrays of aerials were used to detect the reflected signals and deduce the bearing and height. To realize a practical system, in September 1936 he was appointed Director of the Bawdsey Research Station near Felixstowe and carried out operational studies of radar. The result was that within two years the East Coast of the British Isles was equipped with a network of radar transmitters and receivers working in the 7–14 metre band—the so-called "chain-home" system—which did so much to assist the efficient deployment of RAF Fighter Command against German bombing raids on Britain in the early years of the Second World War.In 1938 he moved to the Air Ministry as Director of Communications Development, becoming Scientific Adviser to the Air Ministry and Ministry of Aircraft Production in 1940, then Deputy Chairman of the War Cabinet Radio Board in 1943. After the war he set up Sir Robert Watson-Watt \& Partners, an industrial consultant firm. He then spent some years in relative retirement in Canada, but returned to Scotland before his death.[br]Principal Honours and DistinctionsKnighted 1942. CBE 1941. FRS 1941. US Medal of Merit 1946. Royal Society Hughes Medal 1948. Franklin Institute Elliot Cresson Medal 1957. LLD St Andrews 1943. At various times: President, Royal Meteorological Society, Institute of Navigation and Institute of Professional Civil Servants; Vice-President, American Institute of Radio Engineers.Bibliography1923, with E.V.Appleton \& J.F.Herd, British patent no. 235,254 (for the "squegger"). 1926, with J.F.Herd, "An instantaneous direction reading radio goniometer", Journal ofthe Institution of Electrical Engineers 64:611.1933, The Cathode Ray Oscillograph in Radio Research.1935, Through the Weather Hours (autobiography).1936, "Polarisation errors in direction finders", Wireless Engineer 13:3. 1958, Three Steps to Victory.1959, The Pulse of Radar.1961, Man's Means to his End.Further ReadingS.S.Swords, 1986, Technical History of the Beginnings of Radar, Stevenage: Peter Peregrinus.KF
118 F-layern ELECTRON Appleton-Schicht f
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