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William Frederick Cody

  • 1 Cody, William Frederick

    • Cody, William Frederick (‘Buffalo Bill’) Коди, Уильям Фредерик ( Буффало Билл) (18461917), охотник на бизонов, первопроходец, предприниматель в мире шоу- бизнеса в конце XIX — начале XX в. Создал шоу-труппу «Дикий Запад» [Wild West Show] в 1880-х гг. Программа шоу включала такие номера, как меткость стрельбы Анны Оукли [*Annie, Oakley] ‘Little Sure Shot', инсценировки сражений с индейцами и захватывающие дух состязания ковбоев. Труппа гастролировала по Соединённым Штатам и в Европе, сыграв решающую роль в создании популярного образа романтического Старого Запада. Прозвище Буффало Билл получил за поставки бизоньего мяса Канзасской железной дороге после Гражданской войны

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Cody, William Frederick

  • 2 Cody, William Frederick

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Cody, William Frederick

  • 3 Halsey, William Frederick (Bull), Jr.

    (1882-1959) Холси, Уильям Фредерик, мл. ("Бык")
    Адмирал. С 1940 командовал эскандрой авианосцев Тихоокеанского флота [ Pacific Fleet], с 1942 - командующий флотом в южной части Тихого океана. Командующий Третьим флотом в 1944-45, участвовал в боях против Японии, в том числе на Филиппинах, в заливе Лейте [ Leyte, Leyte Gulf, Battle of] (1944) и в сражении за Гуадалканал [Guadacanal, Battle of]. Адмирал флота (1945). На борту флагмана Тихоокеанского флота "Миссури" [ Missouri, U.S.S.], которым он тогда командовал, был подписан акт о капитуляции Японии. Вышел в отставку в 1947

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Halsey, William Frederick (Bull), Jr.

  • 4 Lemke, William (Frederick)

    (1878-1950) Лемке, Уильям (Фредерик)
    Политический деятель, юрист. В 1921-22 - генеральный прокурор штата Северная Дакота. В 1917-21 - один из радикальных лидеров Беспартийной лиги [ Nonpartisan League], в 1916-20 - председатель комитета Республиканской партии в штате [Republican State committee]. В 1933-41, 1943-50 - член Палаты представителей [ House of Representatives] от штата Северная Дакота. Поддерживал реформы "Нового курса" [ New Deal]. В 1936, оставшись недовольным отношением Ф. Рузвельта [ Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR)] к своему законопроекту о моратории на банкротства фермерских хозяйств [ Frazier-Lemke Act], вошел в антирузвельтовскую Партию союза [ Union Party] и был ее кандидатом на пост президента. Был известен под прозвищем "Билл-Мораторий" [Moratorium Bill].

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Lemke, William (Frederick)

  • 5 Halsey, William Frederick

    [hɔ:lzɪ] Холси, Уильям Фредерик (18821959), адмирал. Командовал Тихоокеанским флотом во время II мировой войны, провёл успешные операции у японского побережья. За упорство в достижении победы получил прозвище «Бык» [‘Bull']

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Halsey, William Frederick

  • 6 Buffalo Bill

    Настоящее имя Уильям Коуди [Cody, William Frederick]. Знаменитый следопыт и охотник на бизонов (за один сезон убил 4 280 бизонов [ buffalo]). Еще при жизни стал героем дешевых приключенческих романов [ dime novel] и вскоре сам занялся шоу-бизнесом, участвуя в показательных выступлениях стрелков и наездников в шоу "Дикий Запад" ["Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show" (Wild West Show)], гастролировавшего по всей стране. В этом же шоу участвовала и известная наездница и стрелок Энни Оукли [ Oakley, Annie]. Опубликовал несколько книг рассказов о жизни и приключениях на Диком Западе [ Wild West]

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Buffalo Bill

  • 7 Iowa

    [ˊaɪǝuǝ] Айова, штат на Среднем Западе США <инд. красивая земля>. Сокращение: IA. Прозвища: «штат Соколиного Глаза» [*Hawkeye State], «страна холмистой прерии» [*Land of the Rolling Prairie]. Житель штата: айовец [Iowan]. Столица: г. Де- Мойн [*Des Moines]. Девиз: «Наши свободы мы ценим и наши права будем беречь» [*‘Our liberties we prize and our rights we will maintain']. Цветок: роза каролинская [wild rose]. Птица: восточный щегол [eastern goldfinch]. Дерево: дуб [oak]. Камень: друзажеода [geode]. Песня: «Песня Айовы» [‘Song of Iowa']. Площадь: 144887 кв. км (55,875 sq. mi.) (25- е место). Население (1992): ок. 3 млн. Крупнейшие города: Де- Мойн [*Des Moines], Сидар- Рапидс [Cedar Rapids], Давенпорт [Davenport]. Экономика. Основные отрасли: сельское хозяйство, связь, строительство, банковское дело, страхование, торговля, услуги, обрабатывающая промышленность. Основная продукция: шины, сельскохозяйственные машины, электроника, приборы, мебель для офисов, продукция химической промышленности, удобрения, автооборудование. Сельское хозяйство. Основные культуры: кукуруза на зерно и на силос, соя, овёс, фуражные травы. Животноводство (1992): скота — 4,45 млн., свиней15 млн., овец345 тыс.; индеек — 8,6 млн. Лесное хозяйство: красный кедр [red cedar]. Полезные ископаемые: строительный песок, гравий, уголь. История. На плодородных земля Айовы тысячу лет назад жили племена курганной культуры [*Mound Builders]. Экспедиции Маркетта [*Marquette] и Жолье [*Jolliet] дали возможность Франции претендовать на эту территорию в 1673. В результате покупки Луизианы в 1803 Айова вошла в состав США. Индейские племена были оттеснены сначала к востоку, а в середине XIX в. в Канзас. Во время Гражданской войны айовцы были убеждёнными сторонниками Авраама Линкольна и сейчас по традиции голосуют за Респ. партию. Достопримечательности: дом, в котором родился Г. Гувер [*Herbert Hoover birthplace], вблизи от Уэст- Бранч [West Branch]; индейские захоронения доколумбовой эпохи [Effigy Mounds National Monument] в Маркетте [Marquette]; колонии Амана [Amana Colonies]; Исторический музей в Форт- Додже [Fort Dodge]; коллекция картин Гранта Вуда [*Wood, Grant] в Муниципальной галерее искусств в Давенпорте [Davenport]; парк «Страна приключений» [Adventureland] в Алтуне [Altoona], парки Грейхаунд [Greyhound Parks] в Дюбюке [Dubuque]. Знаменитые айовцы: Ваналлен, Джеймс [*Van Allen, James A.], физик; Чайлдс, Маркиз [*Childs, Marquis], журналист; Коди, Буффало Билл [*Cody, William Frederick (‘Buffalo Bill’)], шоу-бизнесмен; Гэллап, Джордж [*Gallup, George], социолог; Гувер, Герберт [*Hoover, Herbert], 31-й президент США; Миллер, Глен [*Miller, Glen], композитор; Санди, Билли [*Sunday, William Ashley (‘Billy’)], проповедник-евангелист; Уоллес, Генри [*Wallace, Henry], политический деятель; Уэйн, Джон [*Wayne, John], киноактёр; Вуд, Грант [*Wood, Grant], художник. Ассоциации: глубинка «кукурузного пояса»; за пределами штата известна газета «Де-Мойн реджистр» [‘Des Moines Register']

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Iowa

  • 8 Wyoming

    I [waɪˊǝumɪŋ] Вайоминг, штат на Западе США <инд. горы, перемежающиеся с долинами>. Сокращение: *WY. Прозвища: «штат равноправия» [*Equality State], «полынный штат» [*Sagebrush State], «чудо Америки» [‘Wonderland of America’]. Житель штата: вайомингец [Wyomingite]. Столица: г. Шайенн [Cheyenne]. Девиз: «Равноправие» [*‘Equal rights’]. Цветок: индейская кисточка [*Indian paintbrush]. Дерево: тополь [*cottonwood]. Птица: жаворонок луговой [*meadow lark]. Камень: нефрит [*jade]. Эмблема: брыкающаяся лошадь [bucking horse]. Песня: «Вайоминг» [*‘Wyoming’ II]. Площадь: 251756 кв. км. (97 809 sq. mi.) — 9- е место. Население (1992): 466185 (50- е место). Экономика. Основные отрасли: горнодобывающая промышленность, добыча нефти и газа, урановой руды, туризм и отдых, сельское хозяйство. Основная продукция: нефтепродукты, урановые концентраты, природный газ, продовольствие, изделия из древесины, камня, керамика и стекло. Сельское хозяйство. Основные культуры: пшеница, бобовые, ячмень, овёс, сахарная свёкла, кормовые травы. Животноводство (1992): скота — 1,3 млн.; свиней24 тыс.; овец850 тыс. Лесное хозяйство: ясень, жёлтая сосна и др. хвойные породы. Полезные ископаемые: крупнейшие в мире запасы натрона ( карбоната натрия), нефть, газ, урановая руда, уголь, строительный камень. История. Первыми европейцами, побывавшими на территории Вайоминга в 1743, были Франсе Франсуа [Fransois, Frances] и Луи Верендри [Verendrye, Louis]. В 1807—08 гг. американец Джон Колтер прошёл через Йеллоустонский заповедник. В 1820 здесь появились охотники и торговцы пушниной. Форты Ларами [Laramie] и Бриджер [Bridger] стали важными пунктами на пути переселенцев, двигавшихся к Западному побережью. Войны с индейцами последовали после уничтожения ими армейских подразделений в 1854 и 1866 гг. Население стало расти после того, как в 1869 железная дорога «Юнион Пасифик» пересекла территорию штата. Впервые в истории США в 1869 решением территориальной легислатуры женщинам здесь было предоставлено избирательное право. Достопримечательности: Йеллоустонский национальный парк [*Yellowstone National Park] в северо-западной части штата и прилегающих районах Монтаны и Айдахо, старейший национальный парк США ( получил этот статус в 1872). В нём около 10 тыс. гейзеров, горячих источников, грязевых вулканов, древние леса, гора из вулканического стекла ( обсидиана), каньон глубиной 1000 футов, водопад высотой 308 футов на р. Йеллоустон и большое разнообразие диких животных, живущих в своей природной среде. В Вайоминге находится также Большой Тетонский национальный парк [*Grand Teton National Park] с горами высотой в 13 тыс. футов. Среди других достопримечательностей: Шайенн с ежегодным праздником «Дни фронтира» [‘Frontier Days’ celebration], Пламенеющее ущелье [Flaming Gorge, The], Форт-Ларами [Fort Laramie National Historic Site], заповедник Бьютт [Fossil Butte National Monument], Национальный олений заповедник [National Elk Refuge], скала «Башня дьявола» [Devils Tower] высотой в 1280 футов, Музей Буффало Билла [Buffalo Bill Museum] в г. Коди [Cody] и др. Среди знаменитых вайомингцев: Бриджер, Джеймс [Bridger, James], первопроходец, основатель форта, названного его именем; Коди, «Буффало Билл» [*Cody, William Frederick (‘Buffalo Bill’)], первопроходец, прославившийся представлениями из жизни Дикого Запада [*‘Wild West Show’]. Ассоциации: ковбойский штат с многочисленными родео; город Коди [Cody] связан с именем Билла Коди [*Cody, William Frederick (‘Buffalo Bill’)], славится ковбойскими сапогами; Йеллоустонский национальный парк с его гейзерами и реликтовыми лесами II • ‘Wyoming’ «Вайоминг» (песня штата Вайоминг, 1955)

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Wyoming

  • 9 WFH

    1) Военный термин: Fleet Admiral William Frederick Halsey
    2) Шутливое выражение: Wages for Housework Campaign
    3) Экономика: телеработа (полностью: Work From Home)
    4) Деловая лексика: Work From Home
    5) Образование: Words From Here
    6) Сетевые технологии: Working From Home
    7) Общественная организация: Wheels For Humanity, World Federation of Healing

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > WFH

  • 10 Frazier-Lemke Act

    Закон о моратории на закрытие заложенных ферм [Farm Mortgage Moratorium Act]. Предусматривал пятилетний мораторий на рассмотрение судебных дел в случае фермерских банкротств, а также льготные кредиты фермерам. Принят 28 июня 1934, с поправками в 1935. Назван по именам авторов законопроекта - сенаторов У. Лемке [ Lemke, William (Frederick)] и Л. Фрейзира [Frazier, Lynn Joseph]. Первоначально, в 1935 был признан Верховным судом США [ Supreme Court, U.S.] противоречащим Конституции, но после принятия поправок был поддержан в судах. Закон спас многие фермерские хозяйства от разорения

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Frazier-Lemke Act

  • 11 Share-the-Wealth movement

    ист
    движение "За раздел богатства"
    Общественное движение, инициатором и теоретиком которого был сенатор Х. Лонг [ Long, Huey Pierce]. Сформировалось после Великой депрессии [ Great Depression], и провозгласило своей целью перераспределение общественного богатства "по справедливости", введение гарантированного заработка всем гражданам при сохранении капиталистической экономики и борьбу с "технократией" ["Technocracy"]. Программа движения, основанная на лозунге борьбы с обогащением корпораций, включала обещание раздачи всем американским семьям по 6 тыс. долларов на приобретение земельного участка, по автомобилю и стиральной машине и обеспечение ежегодного минимального дохода в размере 2,5 тыс. долларов. Программа "Разделим богатство" [Share-the-Wealth program] была изложена в книге "Каждый человек - король" [ Every man a king] (1933); в марте 1933 была внесена в Сенат как "План Лонга по перераспределению богатства" [Long Plan for the Redistribution of Wealth] и популяризирована в выступлениях Х. Лонга по радио. Была создана сеть клубов "Разделим наше богатство" ["Share Our Wealth" club], объединивших сторонников программы, главным образом жителей южных и западных штатов. Сенатор Х. Лонг мог стать реальным соперником Ф. Д. Рузвельта [ Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR)] на предстоявших президентских выборах, но был убит в 1935. После убийства Лонга движение возглавил его соратник священник Дж. Смит [ Smith, Gerald Lyman Kenneth], а в следующем году оно слилось с "Национальным союзом (клубом) борьбы за социальную справедливость" [National Union (Club) for Social Justice] священника Кофлина [ Coughlin, Charles Edward (Father Coughlin)], получавшим мощную поддержку крайне правой прессы. К нему примкнула пенсионная "Программа Таунсенда" [ Townsend Plan]. Накануне президентских выборов 1936 эти движения создали Партию союза [ Union Party], которая выдвинула кандидатом в президенты конгрессмена из Южной Дакоты У. Лемке [ Lemke, William (Frederick)], избирательной кампанией которого руководил все тот же Кофлин. В целом появление этого движения отразило неудовлетворенность нижних слоев среднего класса [lower middle class (middle class)] своим экономическим положением и неспособность двухпартийной системы выразить политические взгляды всех избирателей. Популярность Х. Лонга среди малоимущих слоев, составлявших большинство населения после Великой депрессии, оказала влияние на некоторые мероприятия "Нового курса" [ New Deal] (в частности, повышение налогов на крупный капитал), а "Программа Таунсенда" способствовала принятию Закона о социальном страховании 1935 [ Social Security Act]. Движение пошло на спад уже в 1935 и исчерпало себя после выборов 1936, в ходе которых Лемке собрал меньше 1 млн. голосов, а президентом на второй срок был избран Ф. Д. Рузвельт.

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Share-the-Wealth movement

  • 12 Union Party

    ист
    1) Политическая партия правого направления, создана в 1936 политическими оппонентами президента Ф. Д. Рузвельта [ Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR)]. У ее истоков стояли такие деятели, как популярный радиопроповедник антисемит Ч. Кофлин [ Coughlin, Charles Edward (Father Coughlin)]; симпатизировавший немецким фашистам Дж. Смит [ Smith, Gerald Lyman Kenneth] - один из лидеров Движения за раздел богатства [ Share-the-Wealth movement]; инициатор пенсионной программы [ Townsend Plan] Ф. Таунсенд [ Townsend, Francis Everett] и др. Председателем партии стал конгрессмен-республиканец У. Лемке [ Lemke, William (Frederick)]. Партия переоценила свои возможности: пресса и общественность отнеслись к ней с безразличием. Проиграв на выборах 1937, партия вскоре распалась
    2) Так называла себя Республиканская партия [ Republican Party] в 1864, когда одобрила на общенациональном съезде кандидатуру А. Линкольна [ Lincoln, Abraham] на пост президента, а Э. Джонсона [ Johnson, Andrew] - на пост вице-президента

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Union Party

  • 13 Buffalo Bill

    • William F. Cody

    English-Czech dictionary > Buffalo Bill

  • 14 Herschel, John Frederick William

    [br]
    b. 7 March 1792 Slough, England
    d. 11 May 1871 Collingwood, England
    [br]
    English scientist who introduced "hypo" (thiosulphate) as a photographic fixative and discovered the blueprint process.
    [br]
    The only son of Sir William Herschel, the famous astronomer, John graduated from Cambridge in 1813 and went on to become a distinguished astronomer, mathematician and chemist. He left England in November 1833 to set up an observatory near Cape Town, South Africa, where he embarked on a study of the heavens in the southern hemisphere. He returned to England in the spring of 1838, and between 1850 and 1855 Herschel served as Master of the Royal Mint. He made several notable contributions to photography, perhaps the most important being his discovery in 1819 that hyposulphites (thiosulphates) would dissolve silver salts. He brought this property to the attention of W.H.F. Talbot, who in 1839 was using a common salt solution as a fixing agent for his early photographs. After trials, Talbot adopted "hypo", which was a far more effective fixative. It was soon adopted by other photographers and eventually became the standard photographic fixative, as it still is in the 1990s. After hearing of the first photographic process in January 1839, Herschel devised his own process within a week. In September 1839 he made the first photograph on glass. He is credited with introducing the words "positive", "negative" and "snapshot" to photography, and in 1842 he invented the cyanotype or "blueprint" process. This process was later to be widely adopted by engineers and architects for the reproduction of plans and technical drawings, a practice abandoned only in the late twentieth century.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order 1831. Baronet 1838. FRS 1813. Copley Medal 1821.
    Further Reading
    Dictionary of National Biography, 1968, Vol. IX, pp. 714–19.
    H.J.P.Arnold, 1977, William Henry Fox Talbot, London; Larry J.Schaaf, 1992, Out of the Shadows: Herschel, Talbot and the Invention of Photography, Newhaven and London (for details of his contributions to photography and his relationship with Talbot).
    JW

    Biographical history of technology > Herschel, John Frederick William

  • 15 Frederick, William C.

    упр., фил. Фредерик, Уильям (профессор делового администрирования школы бизнеса им. Й. Каца при Университете Питтсбурга; получил образование по экономической теории и антропологии; один из активных исследователей в области корпоративной социальной ответственности, автор концепций CSR-1, CSR-2, CSR-3, CSR-4; автор популярного учебника по деловой этике "Business and Society", монографий "Values, Nature, and Culture in the American Corporation" и "Corporation, Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility")
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Frederick, William C.

  • 16 Frederick William

    s.
    Federico Guillermo, el Elector de Brandeburgo, el Gran Elector.

    Nuevo Diccionario Inglés-Español > Frederick William

  • 17 Lanchester, Frederick William

    [br]
    b. 28 October 1868 Lewisham, London, England
    d. 8 March 1946 Birmingham, England
    [br]
    English designer and builder of the first all-British motor car.
    [br]
    The fourth of eight children of an architect, he spent his childhood in Hove and attended a private preparatory school, from where, aged 14, he went to the Hartley Institution (the forerunner of Southampton University). He was then granted a scholarship to the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, and also studied practical engineering at Finsbury Technical College, London. He worked first for a draughtsman and pseudo-patent agent, and was then appointed Assistant Works Manager of the Forward Gas Engine Company of Birmingham, with sixty men and a salary of £1 per week. He was then aged 21. His younger brother, George, was apprenticed to the same company. In 1889 and 1890 he invented a pendulum governor and an engine starter which earned him royalties. He built a flat-bottomed river craft with a stern paddle-wheel and a vertical single-cylinder engine with a wick carburettor of his own design. From 1892 he performed a number of garden experiments on model gliders relating to problems of lift and drag, which led him to postulate vortices from the wingtips trailing behind, much of his work lying behind the theory of modern aerodynamics. The need to develop a light engine for aircraft led him to car design.
    In February 1896 his first experimental car took the road. It had a torsionally rigid chassis, a perfectly balanced and almost noiseless engine, dynamically stable steering, epicyclic gear for low speed and reverse with direct drive for high speed. It turned out to be underpowered and was therefore redesigned. Two years later an 8 hp, two-cylinder flat twin appeared which retained the principle of balancing by reverse rotation, had new Lanchester valve-gear and a new method of ignition based on a magneto generator. For the first time a worm and wheel replaced chain-drive or bevel-gear transmission. Lanchester also designed the machinery to make it. The car was capable of about 18 mph (29 km/h): future cars of his travelled at twice that speed. From 1899 to 1904 cars were produced for sale by the Lanchester Engine Company, which was formed in 1898. The company had to make every component except the tyres. Lanchester gave up the managership but remained as Chief Designer, and he remained in this post until 1914.
    In 1907–8 his two-volume treatise Aerial Flight was published; it included consideration of skin friction, boundary-layer theory and the theory of stability. In 1909 he was appointed to the Government's Committee for Aeronautics and also became a consultant to the Daimler Company. At the age of 51 he married Dorothea Cooper. He remained a consultant to Daimler and worked also for Wolseley and Beardmore until 1929 when he started Lanchester Laboratories, working on sound reproduction. He also wrote books on relativity and on the theory of dimensions.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    FRS.
    Bibliography
    bht=1907–8, Aerial Flight, 2 vols.
    Further Reading
    P.W.Kingsford, 1966, F.W.Lanchester, Automobile Engineer.
    E.G.Semler (ed.), 1966, The Great Masters. Engineering Heritage, Vol. II, London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers/Heinemann.
    IMcN

    Biographical history of technology > Lanchester, Frederick William

  • 18 Morris, William Richard, Viscount Nuffield

    [br]
    b. 10 October 1877 Worcester, England
    d. 22 August 1963 Nuffield Place, England
    [br]
    English industrialist, car manufacturer and philanthropist.
    [br]
    Morris was the son of Frederick Morris, then a draper. He was the eldest of a family of seven, all of whom, except for one sister, died in childhood. When he was 3 years old, his father moved to Cowley, near Oxford, where he attended the village school. After a short time with a local bicycle firm he set up on his own at the age of 16 with a capital of £4. He manufactured pedal cycles and by 1902 he had designed a motor cycle and was doing car-repair work. By 1912, at the Motor Show, he was able to announce his first car, the 8.9 hp, two-seater Morris Oxford with its characteristic "bull-nose". It could perform at up to 50 mph (80 km/h) and 50 mpg (5.65 1/100 km). It cost £165.
    Though untrained, Morris was a born engineer as well as a natural judge of character. This enabled him to build up a reliable team of assistants in his growing business, with an order for four hundred cars at the Motor Show in 1912. Much of his business was built up in the assembly of components manufactured by outside suppliers. In he moved out of his initial premises by New College in Longwall and bought land at Cowley, where he brought out his second model, the 11.9hp Morris Oxford. This was after the First World War, during which car production was reduced to allow the manufacture of tanks and munitions. He was awarded the OBE in 1917 for his war work. Morris Motors Ltd was incorporated in 1919, and within fifteen months sales of cars had reached over 3,000 a year. By 1923 he was producing 20,000 cars a year, and in 1926 50,000, equivalent to about one-third of Britain's output. With the slump, a substantial overdraft, and a large stock of unsold cars, Morris took the bold decision to cut the prices of cars in stock, which then sold out within three weeks. Other makers followed suit, but Morris was ahead of them.
    Morris was part-founder of the Pressed Steel Company, set up to produce car bodies at Cowley. A clever operation with the shareholding of the Morris Motors Company allowed Morris a substantial overall profit to provide expansion capital. By 1931 his "empire" comprised, in addition to Morris Motors, the MG Car Company, the Wolseley Company, the SU Carburettor Company and Morris Commercial Cars. In 1936, the value of Morris's financial interest in the business was put at some £16 million.
    William Morris was a frugal man and uncomplicated, having little use for all the money he made except to channel it to charitable purposes. It is said that in all he gave away some £30 million during his lifetime, much of it invested by the recipients to provide long-term benefits. He married Elizabeth Anstey in 1904 and lived for thirty years at Nuffield Place. He lived modestly, and even after retirement, when Honorary President of the British Motor Corporation, the result of a merger between Morris Motors and the Austin Motor Company, he drove himself to work in a modest 10 hp Wolseley. His generosity benefited many hospitals in London, Oxford, Birmingham and elsewhere. Oxford Colleges were another class of beneficiary from his largesse.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Viscount 1938; Baron (Lord Nuffield) 1934; Baronet 1929; OBE 1917; GBE 1941; CH 1958. FRS 1939. He was a doctor of seven universities and an honorary freeman of seven towns.
    Further Reading
    R.Jackson, 1964, The Nuffield Story.
    P.W.S.Andrews and E.Brunner, The Life of Lord Nuffield.
    IMcN

    Biographical history of technology > Morris, William Richard, Viscount Nuffield

  • 19 Sellers, William

    [br]
    b. 19 September 1824 Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, USA
    d. 24 January 1905 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    [br]
    American mechanical engineer and inventor.
    [br]
    William Sellers was educated at a private school that had been established by his father and other relatives for their children, and at the age of 14 he was apprenticed for seven years to the machinist's trade with his uncle. At the end of his apprenticeship in 1845 he took charge of the machine shop of Fairbanks, Bancroft \& Co. in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1848 he established his own factory manufacturing machine tools and mill gearing in Philadelphia, where he was soon joined by Edward Bancroft, the firm becoming Bancroft \& Sellers. After Bancroft's death the name was changed in 1856 to William Sellers \& Co. and Sellers served as President until the end of his life. His machine tools were characterized by their robust construction and absence of decorative embellishments. In 1868 he formed the Edgemoor Iron Company, of which he was President. This company supplied the structural ironwork for the Centennial Exhibition buildings and much of the material for the Brooklyn Bridge. In 1873 he reorganized the William Butcher Steel Works, renaming it the Midvale Steel Company, and under his presidency it became a leader in the production of heavy ordnance. It was at the Midvale Steel Company that Frederick W. Taylor began, with the encouragement of Sellers, his experiments on cutting tools.
    In 1860 Sellers obtained the American rights of the patent for the Giffard injector for feeding steam boilers. He later invented his own improvements to the injector, which numbered among his many other patents, most of which related to machine tools. Probably Sellers's most important contribution to the engineering industry was his proposal for a system of screw threads made in 1864 and later adopted as the American national standard.
    Sellers was a founder member in 1880 of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and was also a member of many other learned societies in America and other countries, including, in Britain, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Iron and Steel Institute.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur 1889. President, Franklin Institute 1864–7.
    Further Reading
    J.W.Roe, 1916, English and American Tool Builders, New Haven; reprinted 1926, New York, and 1987, Bradley, Ill. (describes Sellers's work on machine tools).
    Bruce Sinclair, 1969, "At the turn of a screw: William Sellers, the Franklin Institute, and a standard American thread", Technology and Culture 10:20–34 (describes his work on screw threads).
    RTS

    Biographical history of technology > Sellers, William

  • 20 Siemens, Sir Charles William

    [br]
    b. 4 April 1823 Lenthe, Germany
    d. 19 November 1883 London, England
    [br]
    German/British metallurgist and inventory pioneer of the regenerative principle and open-hearth steelmaking.
    [br]
    Born Carl Wilhelm, he attended craft schools in Lübeck and Magdeburg, followed by an intensive course in natural science at Göttingen as a pupil of Weber. At the age of 19 Siemens travelled to England and sold an electroplating process developed by his brother Werner Siemens to Richard Elkington, who was already established in the plating business. From 1843 to 1844 he obtained practical experience in the Magdeburg works of Count Stolburg. He settled in England in 1844 and later assumed British nationality, but maintained close contact with his brother Werner, who in 1847 had co-founded the firm Siemens \& Halske in Berlin to manufacture telegraphic equipment. William began to develop his regenerative principle of waste-heat recovery and in 1856 his brother Frederick (1826–1904) took out a British patent for heat regeneration, by which hot waste gases were passed through a honeycomb of fire-bricks. When they became hot, the gases were switched to a second mass of fire-bricks and incoming air and fuel gas were led through the hot bricks. By alternating the two gas flows, high temperatures could be reached and considerable fuel economies achieved. By 1861 the two brothers had incorporated producer gas fuel, made by gasifying low-grade coal.
    Heat regeneration was first applied in ironmaking by Cowper in 1857 for heating the air blast in blast furnaces. The first regenerative furnace was set up in Birmingham in 1860 for glassmaking. The first such furnace for making steel was developed in France by Pierre Martin and his father, Emile, in 1863. Siemens found British steelmakers reluctant to adopt the principle so in 1866 he rented a small works in Birmingham to develop his open-hearth steelmaking furnace, which he patented the following year. The process gradually made headway; as well as achieving high temperatures and saving fuel, it was slower than Bessemer's process, permitting greater control over the content of the steel. By 1900 the tonnage of open-hearth steel exceeded that produced by the Bessemer process.
    In 1872 Siemens played a major part in founding the Society of Telegraph Engineers (from which the Institution of Electrical Engineers evolved), serving as its first President. He became President for the second time in 1878. He built a cable works at Charlton, London, where the cable could be loaded directly into the holds of ships moored on the Thames. In 1873, together with William Froude, a British shipbuilder, he designed the Faraday, the first specialized vessel for Atlantic cable laying. The successful laying of a cable from Europe to the United States was completed in 1875, and a further five transatlantic cables were laid by the Faraday over the following decade.
    The Siemens factory in Charlton also supplied equipment for some of the earliest electric-lighting installations in London, including the British Museum in 1879 and the Savoy Theatre in 1882, the first theatre in Britain to be fully illuminated by electricity. The pioneer electric-tramway system of 1883 at Portrush, Northern Ireland, was an opportunity for the Siemens company to demonstrate its equipment.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knighted 1883. FRS 1862. Institution of Civil Engineers Telford Medal 1853. President, Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1872. President, Society of Telegraph Engineers 1872 and 1878. President, British Association 1882.
    Bibliography
    27 May 1879, British patent no. 2,110 (electricarc furnace).
    1889, The Scientific Works of C.William Siemens, ed. E.F.Bamber, 3 vols, London.
    Further Reading
    W.Poles, 1888, Life of Sir William Siemens, London; repub. 1986 (compiled from material supplied by the family).
    S.von Weiher, 1972–3, "The Siemens brothers. Pioneers of the electrical age in Europe", Transactions of the Newcomen Society 45:1–11 (a short, authoritative biography). S.von Weihr and H.Goetler, 1983, The Siemens Company. Its Historical Role in the
    Progress of Electrical Engineering 1847–1980, English edn, Berlin (a scholarly account with emphasis on technology).
    GW

    Biographical history of technology > Siemens, Sir Charles William

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