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WRIGHT, Frank Lloyd

  • 1 Wright, Frank Lloyd

    [br]
    b. 8 June 1869 Richland Center, Wisconsin, USA
    d. 9 April 1959 Phoenix, Arizona, USA
    [br]
    American architect who, in an unparalleled career spanning almost seventy years, became the most important figure on the modern architectural scene both in his own country and far further afield.
    [br]
    Wright began his career in 1887 working in the Chicago offices of Adler \& Sullivan. He conceived a great admiration for Sullivan, who was then concentrating upon large commercial projects in modern mode, producing functional yet decorative buildings which took all possible advantage of new structural methods. Wright was responsible for many of the domestic commissions.
    In 1893 Wright left the firm in order to set up practice on his own, thus initiating a career which was to develop into three distinct phases. In the first of these, up until the First World War, he was chiefly designing houses in a concept in which he envisaged "the house as a shelter". These buildings displayed his deeply held opinion that detached houses in country areas should be designed as an integral part of the landscape, a view later to be evidenced strongly in the work of modern Finnish architects. Wright's designs were called "prairie houses" because so many of them were built in the MidWest of America, which Wright described as a "prairie". These were low and spreading, with gently sloping rooflines, very plain and clean lined, built of traditional materials in warm rural colours, blending softly into their settings. Typical was W.W.Willit's house of 1902 in Highland Park, Illinois.
    In the second phase of his career Wright began to build more extensively in modern materials, utilizing advanced means of construction. A notable example was his remarkable Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, carefully designed and built in 1916–22 (now demolished), with special foundations and structure to withstand (successfully) strong earthquake tremors. He also became interested in the possibilities of reinforced concrete; in 1906 he built his church at Oak Park, Illinois, entirely of this material. In the 1920s, in California, he abandoned his use of traditional materials for house building in favour of precast concrete blocks, which were intended to provide an "organic" continuity between structure and decorative surfacing. In his continued exploration of the possibilities of concrete as a building material, he created the dramatic concept of'Falling Water', a house built in 1935–7 at Bear Run in Pennsylvania in which he projected massive reinforced-concrete terraces cantilevered from a cliff over a waterfall in the woodlands. In the later 1930s an extraordinary run of original concepts came from Wright, then nearing 70 years of age, ranging from his own winter residence and studio, Taliesin West in Arizona, to the administration block for Johnson Wax (1936–9) in Racine, Wisconsin, where the main interior ceiling was supported by Minoan-style, inversely tapered concrete columns rising to spreading circular capitals which contained lighting tubes of Pyrex glass.
    Frank Lloyd Wright continued to work until four days before his death at the age of 91. One of his most important and certainly controversial commissions was the Solomon R.Guggenheim Museum in New York. This had been proposed in 1943 but was not finally built until 1956–9; in this striking design the museum's exhibition areas are ranged along a gradually mounting spiral ramp lit effectively from above. Controversy stemmed from the unusual and original design of exterior banding and interior descending spiral for wall-display of paintings: some critics strongly approved, while others, equally strongly, did not.
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    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    RIBA Royal Gold Medal 1941.
    Bibliography
    1945, An Autobiography, Faber \& Faber.
    Further Reading
    E.Kaufmann (ed.), 1957, Frank Lloyd Wright: an American Architect, New York: Horizon Press.
    H.Russell Hitchcock, 1973, In the Nature of Materials, New York: Da Capo.
    T.A.Heinz, 1982, Frank Lloyd Wright, New York: St Martin's.
    DY

    Biographical history of technology > Wright, Frank Lloyd

  • 2 Wright, Frank Lloyd

    (1867-1959) Райт, Фрэнк Ллойд
    Архитектор. В 1893 открыл архитектурную мастерскую в г. Оук-Парк, шт. Иллинойс. Выступил с оригинальными проектами т.н. "органической архитектуры", в которых используются природные формы, цвета и текстура: длинные невысокие здания с широкими и высокими окнами и открытыми террасами. Здания как бы "обтекали" деревья. Внутри дома комнаты перетекали одна в другую. Широко использовал современные материалы (отель "Империал" в Токио его постройки - единственное крупное здание, выдержавшее за счет конструкции и примененных материалов землетрясение 1923). К числу его выдающихся творений относятся спиралевидное здание музея Гуггенхайма [ Guggenheim Museum] в г. Нью-Йорке (1959); дом "Падающая вода" [Fallingwater (Kaufmann House)] в г. Милл-Ран, шт. Пенсильвания (1936); административное здание фирмы "Джонсон уэкс" [S.C. Johnson and Son Wax Co.] в г. Расин, шт. Висконсин (1939) и два его собственных дома под названием Талисин в г. Спринг-Грине, шт. Висконсин (1911), и Талисин-Уэст [ Taliesin West] в г. Финиксе, шт. Аризона (1938). Свои идеи изложил в нескольких книгах

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Wright, Frank Lloyd

  • 3 Wright, Frank Lloyd

    Райт, Фрэнк Ллойд (18691959), архитектор. Строил оригинальные здания современного стиля, используя новые материалы и технологии; рассматривал здание как организм с единым свободно развивающимся пространством, связанным с природной средой; спроектировал ряд домов в стиле «прерий» с низкими горизонтальными линиями. Среди его выдающихся проектов: отель «Империал» [‘Imperial’] в Токио, дома-студии «Талисен» [Taliesen] в штате Висконсин и «Талисен-Уэст» вблизи Финикса ( штат Аризона), Музей Гуггенхейма [*Guggenheim Museum] в Нью-Йорке и много частных домов в Чикаго и его окрестностях

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Wright, Frank Lloyd

См. также в других словарях:

  • Wright,Frank Lloyd — Wright, Frank Lloyd. 1869 1959. American architect whose distinctive style, based on natural forms, had a great influence on the modern movement in architecture. His designs include private homes, the Johnson Wax Company Building in Racine,… …   Universalium

  • Wright, Frank Lloyd — born June 8, 1867, Richland Center, Wis., U.S. died April 9, 1959, Phoenix, Ariz. U.S. architect. After studying engineering briefly at the University of Wisconsin, he worked for the firm of Dankmar Adler (1844–1900) and Louis Sullivan in Chicago …   Universalium

  • WRIGHT, Frank Lloyd —     (1867 1959)    Frank Lloyd Wright, the best known American architect of the 20th century, designed both public buildings and private houses to develop a uniquely modern American style of architecture. Born in Wisconsin, Wright first studied… …   Historical Dictionary of Architecture

  • Wright, Frank Lloyd — ► (1869 1959) Arquitecto estadounidense. Su objetivo es la búsqueda de la unidad y continuidad del espacio interior, concebido como elemento fundamental de la arquitectura. Representante destacado de la arquitectura orgánica según la cual las… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Frank Lloyd Wright — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Frank Lloyd Wright Retrato de Frank Lloyd Wright Información personal Nombre Frank Lloyd Wright Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Frank Lloyd Wright — Infobox Architect name=Frank Lloyd Wright mother=Anna Lloyd Jones father=William Russell Cary Wright nationality= American birth date=birth date|1867|6|8 birth place= Richland Center, Wisconsin death date=death date and… …   Wikipedia

  • Frank Lloyd Wright — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Wright. Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio — Infobox nrhp name = Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio nrhp type = nhl caption = location = Oak Park, Cook County, Illinois, USA nearest city = lat degrees = 41 lat minutes = 53 lat seconds = 10 lat direction = N long degrees = 87 long minutes =… …   Wikipedia

  • Frank Lloyd Wright — noun influential United States architect (1869 1959) • Syn: ↑Wright • Instance Hypernyms: ↑architect, ↑designer * * * Frank Lloyd Wright [Frank Lloyd Wright] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Frank Lloyd — For the Australian actor, see Frank Lloyd (actor). For the French horn player, see Frank Lloyd (horn player). For the architect, see Frank Lloyd Wright. Frank Lloyd (2 February 1886, Glasgow, UK 10 August 1960, Santa Monica, California, United… …   Wikipedia

  • Frank Lloyd Wright — Frank Lloyd Wright, 1926 Frank Lloyd Wright (* 8. Juni 1867 in Richland Center, Wisconsin; † 9. April 1959 in Phoenix, Arizona) war ein amerikanischer Architekt, Innenarchitekt, Schriftsteller und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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