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To pursue with hostile intent

  • 1 īnsector

        īnsector ātus, arī, dep. freq.    [insequor], to pursue, follow up: exercitum: herbam rastris, i. e. extirpate, V.—Fig., of speech, to pursue, attack, rail at, inveigh against: ultro Insectere velut melior? lecture, H.: etiam et etiam: nullius calamitatem: carmina Livi, H.
    * * *
    insectari, insectatus sum V DEP
    pursue with hostile intent; pursue with hostile speech, etc

    Latin-English dictionary > īnsector

  • 2 insecto

    insectare, insectavi, insectatus V
    pursue with hostile intent; pursue with hostile speech, etc

    Latin-English dictionary > insecto

  • 3 acta fori

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta fori

  • 4 acta militaria

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta militaria

  • 5 acta publica

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta publica

  • 6 acta triumphorum

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > acta triumphorum

  • 7 agentes

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > agentes

  • 8 ago

    ăgo, egi, actum, 3, v. a. (axim = egerim, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 22; Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axitiosi, p. 3 Mull.;

    axit = egerit,

    Paul. Diac. 3, 3;

    AGIER = agi,

    Cic. Off. 3, 15;

    agentum = agentium,

    Vulc. Gall. Av. Cass. 4, 6) [cf. agô; Sanscr. ag, aghami = to go, to drive; agmas = way, train = ogmos; agis = race, contest = agôn; perh. also Germ. jagen, to drive, to hunt], to put in motion, to move (syn.: agitare, pellere, urgere).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    Of cattle and other animals, to lead, drive.
    a.
    Absol.: agas asellum, Seip. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 258:

    jumenta agebat,

    Liv. 1, 48:

    capellas ago,

    Verg. E. 1, 13:

    Pars quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu etc.,

    Ov. F. 1, 323:

    caballum,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 36.—
    b.
    With acc. of place, prep., sup., or inf.:

    agere bovem Romam,

    Curt. 1, 45:

    equum in hostem,

    id. 7, 4:

    Germani in amnem aguntur,

    Tac. H. 5, 21:

    acto ad vallum equo,

    id. A. 2, 13:

    pecora per calles,

    Curt. 7, 11:

    per devia rura capellas,

    Ov. M. 1, 676:

    pecus pastum,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 41, p. 88 Mull.:

    capellas potum age,

    Verg. E. 9, 23:

    pecus egit altos Visere montes,

    Hor. C. 1, 2, 7.—
    B.
    Of men, to drive, lead, conduct, impel.
    a.
    Absol.:

    agmen agens equitum,

    Verg. A. 7, 804.—
    b.
    With prep., abl., or inf.:

    vinctum ante se Thyum agebat,

    Nep. Dat. 3:

    agitur praeceps exercitus Lydorum in populos,

    Sil. 4, 720:

    (adulteram) maritus per omnem vicum verbere agit,

    Tac. G. 19; Suet. Calig. 27:

    captivos prae se agentes,

    Curt. 7, 6; Liv. 23, 1:

    acti ante suum quisque praedonem catenati,

    Quint. 8, 3, 69:

    captivos sub curribus agere,

    Mart. 8, 26:

    agimur auguriis quaerere exilia,

    Verg. A. 3, 5;

    and simple for comp.: multis milibus armatorum actis ex ea regione = coactis,

    Liv. 44, 31.— In prose: agi, to be led, to march, to go:

    quo multitudo omnis consternata agebatur,

    Liv. 10, 29: si citius agi vellet agmen, that the army would move, or march on quicker, id. 2, 58:

    raptim agmine acto,

    id. 6, 28; so id. 23, 36; 25, 9.— Trop.:

    egit sol hiemem sub terras,

    Verg. G. 4, 51:

    poemata dulcia sunto Et quocumque volent animum auditoris agunto,

    lead the mind, Hor. A. P. 100. —Hence, poet.: se agere, to betake one's self, i. e. to go, to come (in Plaut. very freq.;

    also in Ter., Verg., etc.): quo agis te?

    where are you going? Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 294:

    unde agis te?

    id. Most. 1, 4, 28; so id. ib. 3, 1, 31; id. Mil. 3, 2, 49; id. Poen. 1, 2, 120; id. Pers. 4, 3, 13; id. Trin. 4, 3, 71:

    quo hinc te agis?

    where are you going, Ter. And. 4, 2, 25:

    Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat,

    was moving along, Verg. A. 6, 337:

    Aeneas se matutinus agebat,

    id. ib. 8, 465:

    is enim se primus agebat,

    for he strode on in front, id. ib. 9, 696.—Also without se:

    Et tu, unde agis?

    Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 20:

    Quo agis?

    id. Pers. 2, 2, 34:

    Huc age,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2 (unless age is here to be taken with veni at the end of the line).—
    C.
    To drive or carry off (animals or men), to steal, rob, plunder (usually abigere):

    Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves,

    Ov. F. 3, 64.—So esp. freq. of men or animals taken as booty in war, while ferre is used of portable things; hence, ferre et agere (as in Gr. agein kai pherein, Hom. Il. 5, 484; and reversed, pherein kai agein, in Hdt. and Xen.; cf.:

    rapiunt feruntque,

    Verg. A. 2, 374:

    rapere et auferre,

    Cic. Off. 1, 14), in gen., to rob, to plunder: res sociorum ferri agique vidit, Liv. 22, 3:

    ut ferri agique res suas viderunt,

    id. 38, 15; so id. 3, 37;

    so also: rapere agereque: ut ex alieno agro raperent agerentque,

    Liv. 22, 1, 2; but portari atque agi means to bear and carry, to bring together, in Caes. B. C. 2, 29 (as pherein kai agein in Plat. Phaedr. 279, C):

    ne pulcram praedam agat,

    Plaut. Aul. 4, 2, 3:

    urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere,

    Sall. J. 20, 8; 32, 3:

    pecoris et mancipiorum praedas,

    id. ib. 44, 5;

    so eccl. Lat.: agere praedas de aliquo,

    Vulg. Jud. 9, 16; ib. 1 Reg. 27, 8; cf. Gron. Obs. 3, 22, 633.—
    D.
    To chase, pursue, press animals or men, to drive about or onwards in flight (for the usual agitare).
    a.
    Of animals:

    apros,

    Verg. G. 3, 412:

    cervum,

    id. A. 7, 481; cf. id. ib. 4, 71:

    citos canes,

    Ov. H. 5, 20:

    feros tauros,

    Suet. Claud. 21.—
    b.
    Of men:

    ceteros ruerem, agerem,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 21 (= prosequerer, premerem, Don.):

    ita perterritos egerunt, ut, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 12:

    Demoleos cursu palantis Troas agebat,

    Verg. A. 5, 265; cf. id. ib. 1, 574:

    aliquem in exsilium,

    Liv. 25, 2; so Just. 2, 9, 6; 16, 4, 4; 17, 3, 17;

    22, 1, 16 al.: aliquem in fugam,

    id. 16, 2, 3.—
    E.
    Of inanimate or abstract objects, to move, impel, push forwards, advance, carry to or toward any point:

    quid si pater cuniculos agat ad aerarium?

    lead, make, Cic. Off. 3, 23, 90:

    egisse huc Alpheum vias,

    made its way, Verg. A. 3, 695:

    vix leni et tranquillo mari moles agi possunt,

    carry, build out, Curt. 4, 2, 8:

    cloacam maximam sub terram agendam,

    to be carried under ground, Liv. 1, 56;

    so often in the histt., esp. Caes. and Livy, as t. t., of moving forwards the battering engines: celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis,

    pushed forwards, up, Caes. B. G. 2, 12 Herz.; so id. ib. 3, 21; 7, 17; id. B. C. 2, 1; Liv. 8, 16:

    accelerant acta pariter testudine Volsci,

    Verg. A. 9, 505 al.:

    fugere colles campique videntur, quos agimus praeter navem, i. e. praeter quos agimus navem,

    Lucr. 4, 391:

    in litus passim naves egerunt,

    drove the ships ashore, Liv. 22, 19:

    ratem in amnem,

    Ov. F. 1, 500:

    naves in advorsum amnem,

    Tac. H. 4, 22.— Poet.: agere navem, to steer or direct a ship, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 114; so,

    agere currum,

    to drive a chariot, Ov. M. 2, 62; 2, 388 al.—
    F.
    To stir up, to throw out, excite, cause, bring forth (mostly poet.):

    scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam,

    to throw out sparks and scatter ashes far around, Lucr. 2, 675:

    spumas ore,

    Verg. G. 3, 203; so Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66:

    piceum Flumen agit,

    Verg. A. 9, 814:

    qui vocem cubantes sensim excitant, eandemque cum egerunt, etc.,

    when they have brought it forth, Cic. de Or. 1, 59, 251. —Hence, animam agere, to expel the breath of life, give up the ghost, expire:

    agens animam spumat,

    Lucr. 3, 493:

    anhelans vaga vadit, animam agens,

    Cat. 63, 31:

    nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 19:

    Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat,

    id. Fam. 8, 13, 2; so Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 13:

    eodem tempore et gestum et animam ageres,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 8:

    Est tanti habere animam ut agam?

    Sen. Ep. 101, 12; and with a play upon words: semper agis causas et res agis, Attale, semper. Est, non est, quod agas, Attale, semper agis. Si res et causae desunt, agis, Attale, mulas;

    Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam,

    Mart. 1, 80.—
    G.
    Of plants, to put forth or out, to shoot, extend:

    (salices) gemmas agunt,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 30:

    florem agere coeperit ficus,

    Col. R. R. 5, 10, 10:

    frondem agere,

    Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 45:

    se ad auras palmes agit,

    Verg. G. 2, 364:

    (platanum) radices trium et triginta cubitorum egisse,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 37, 15:

    per glebas sensim radicibus actis,

    Ov. M. 4, 254; so id. ib. 2, 583:

    robora suas radices in profundum agunt,

    Plin. 16, 31, 56, § 127.—Metaph.:

    vera gloria radices agit,

    Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43:

    pluma in cutem radices egerat imas,

    Ov. M. 2, 582.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    Spec., to guide, govern:

    Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur,

    Verg. A. 1, 574; cf. Forbig. ad h. 1., who considers it the only instance of this use, and compares a similar use of agô; v. L. and S. s. v. II. 2.—
    B.
    In gen., to move, impel, excite, urge to a thing, to prompt or induce to:

    si quis ad illa deus te agat,

    Hor. S. 2, 7, 24:

    una plaga ceteros ad certamen egit,

    Liv. 9, 41; 8, 7; 39, 15: quae te, germane, furentem Mens agit in facinus? Ov. M. 5, 14:

    totis mentibus acta,

    Sil. 10, 191:

    in furorem agere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 31:

    si Agricola in ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur,

    Tac. Agr. 41:

    provinciam avaritia in bellum egerat,

    id. A. 14, 32.—
    C.
    To drive, stir up, excite, agitate, rouse vehemently (cf. agito, II.):

    me amor fugat, agit,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 8:

    agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 3:

    perpetua naturalis bonitas, quae nullis casibus neque agitur neque minuitur,

    Nep. Att. 9, 1 Brem.:

    opportunitas, quae etiam mediocres viros spe praedae transvorsos agit,

    i. e. leads astray, Sall. J. 6, 3; 14, 20; so Sen. Ep. 8, 3.— To pursue with hostile intent, to persecute, disturb, vex, to attack, assail (for the usu. agitare; mostly poet.):

    reginam Alecto stimulis agit undique Bacchi,

    Verg. A. 7, 405:

    non res et agentia (i. e. agitantia, vexantia) verba Lycamben,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 25:

    acerba fata Romanos agunt,

    id. Epod 7, 17:

    diris agam vos,

    id. ib. 5, 89:

    quam deus ultor agebat,

    Ov. M. 14, 750:

    futurae mortis agor stimulis,

    Luc. 4, 517; cf. Matth. ad Cic. Mur. § 21.—
    D.
    To drive at something, to pursue a course of action, i. e. to make something an object of action; either in the most general sense, like the Engl. do and the Gr. prattein, for every kind of mental or physical employment; or, in a more restricted sense, to exhibit in external action, to act or perform, to deliver or pronounce, etc., so that after the act is completed nothing remains permanent, e. g. a speech, dance, play, etc. (while facere, to make, poiein, denotes the production of an object which continues to exist after the act is completed; and gerere, the performance of the duties of an office or calling).—On these significations, v. Varr. 6, 6, 62, and 6, 7, 64, and 6, 8, 72.—For the more restricted signif. v. Quint. 2, 18, 1 sq.; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 7, 12; Hab. Syn. 426.
    1.
    In the most gen. signif., to do, act, labor, in opp. to rest or idleness.
    a.
    With the gen. objects, aliquid, nihil, plus, etc.:

    numquam se plus agere quam nihil cum ageret,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 17 (cf. with this, id. Off. 3, 1: numquam se minus otiosum esse quam cum otiosus esset): mihi, qui nihil agit, esse omnino non videtur. id. N. D. 2, 16, 46:

    post satietatem nihil (est) agendum,

    Cels. 1, 2.—Hence,
    b.
    Without object:

    aliud agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 53, 132; Juv. 16, 49:

    agendi tempora,

    Tac. H. 3, 40:

    industria in agendo, celeritas in conficiendo,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 29.—
    c.
    In colloquial lang., to do, to fare, get on: quid agis? what are you doing? M. Tulli, quid agis? Cic. Cat. 1, 11:

    Quid agis?

    What's your business? Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 9; also, How goes it with you? How are you? ti pratteis, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 20; Cic. Fam. 7, 11 al.; Hor. S. 1, 9, 4:

    vereor, quid agat,

    how he is, Cic. Att. 9, 17:

    ut sciatis, quid agam,

    Vulg. Ephes. 6, 21:

    prospere agit anima tua,

    fares well, ib. 3 Joan. 2:

    quid agitur?

    how goes it with you? how do you do? how are you? Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 17; 1, 5, 42; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 40:

    Quid intus agitur?

    is going on, Plaut. Cas. 5, 2, 20; id. Ps. 1, 5, 42 al.—
    d.
    With nihil or non multum, to do, i. e. to effect, accomplish, achieve nothing, or not much (orig. belonging to colloquial lang., but in the class. per. even in oratorical and poet. style): nihil agit;

    collum obstringe homini,

    Plaut. Curc. 5, 3, 29:

    nihil agis,

    you effect nothing, it is of no use, Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 12:

    nihil agis, dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse confitebor malum,

    Cic. Tusc. 2, 25, 61 Kuhn.; Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 10: cupis, inquit, abire; sed nihil agis;

    usque tenebo,

    Hor. S. 1, 9, 15:

    [nihil agis,] nihil assequeris,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15 B. and K.:

    ubi blanditiis agitur nihil,

    Ov. M. 6, 685: egerit non multum, has not done much, Curt. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 29; cf. Ruhnk. ad Rutil. Lup. p. 120.—
    e.
    In certain circumstances, to proceed, do, act, manage (mostly belonging to familiar style): Thr. Quid nunc agimus? Gn. Quin redimus, What shall we do now? Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 41:

    hei mihi! quid faciam? quid agam?

    what shall I do? how shall I act? id. Ad. 5, 3, 3:

    quid agam, habeo,

    id. And. 3, 2, 18 (= quid respondeam habeo, Don.) al.:

    sed ita quidam agebat,

    was so acting, Cic. Lig. 7, 21: a Burro minaciter actum, Burrus [p. 75] proceeded to threats, Tac. A. 13, 21.—
    2.
    To pursue, do, perform, transact (the most usual signif. of this word; in all periods; syn.: facere, efficere, transigere, gerere, tractare, curare): cui quod agat institutumst nullo negotio id agit, Enn. ap. Gell. 19, 10, 12 (Trag. v. 254 Vahl.): ut quae egi, ago, axim, verruncent bene, Pac. ap. Non. 505, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 114 Rib.):

    At nihil est, nisi, dum calet, hoc agitur,

    Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 92:

    Ut id agam, quod missus huc sum,

    id. Ps. 2, 2, 44: homines quae agunt vigilantes, agitantque, ea si cui in somno accidunt, minus mirum est, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45:

    observabo quam rem agat,

    what he is going to do, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 114:

    Id quidem ago,

    That is what I am doing, Verg. E. 9, 37:

    res vera agitur,

    Juv. 4, 35:

    Jam tempus agires,

    Verg. A. 5, 638:

    utilis rebus agendis,

    Juv. 14, 72:

    grassator ferro agit rem,

    does the business with a dagger, id. 3, 305; 6, 659 (cf.:

    gladiis geritur res,

    Liv. 9, 41):

    nihil ego nunc de istac re ago,

    do nothing about that matter, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 8:

    postquam id actumst,

    after this is accomplished, id. Am. 1, 1, 72; so,

    sed quid actumst?

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 20:

    nihil aliud agebam nisi eum defenderem,

    Cic. Sull. 12:

    ne quid temere ac fortuitu, inconsiderate negligenterque agamus,

    id. Off. 1, 29:

    agamus quod instat,

    Verg. E. 9, 66:

    renuntiaverunt ei omnia, quae egerant,

    Vulg. Marc. 6, 30; ib. Act. 5, 35:

    suum negotium agere,

    to mind one's business, attend to one's own affairs, Cic. Off. 1, 9; id. de Or. 3, 55, 211; so,

    ut vestrum negotium agatis,

    Vulg. 1 Thess. 4, 11:

    neque satis Bruto constabat, quid agerent,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 14:

    postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo actae forent, fama divolgavit,

    Sall. J. 30, 1:

    sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis an per litteras agere quae cogitas,

    Nep. Con. 3, 8 al. —With the spec. idea of completing, finishing: jucundi acti labores, a proverb in Cic. Fin. 2, 32, 105.—
    3.
    To pursue in one's mind, to drive at, to revolve, to be occupied with, think upon, have in view, aim at (cf. agito, II. E., volvo and voluto):

    nescio quid mens mea majus agit,

    Ov. H. 12, 212:

    hoc variis mens ipsa modis agit,

    Val. Fl. 3, 392:

    agere fratri proditionem,

    Tac. H. 2, 26:

    de intranda Britannia,

    id. Agr. 13.—
    4.
    With a verbal subst., as a favorite circumlocution for the action indicated by the subst. (cf. in Gr. agô with verbal subst.):

    rimas agere (sometimes ducere),

    to open in cracks, fissures, to crack, Cic. Att. 14, 9; Ov. M. 2, 211; Luc. 6, 728: vos qui regalis corporis custodias agitis, keep watch over, guard, Naev. ap. Non. 323, 1; so Liv. 5, 10:

    vigilias agere,

    Cic. Verr. 4, 43, 93; Nep. Thras. 4; Tac. H. 3, 76:

    excubias alicui,

    Ov. F. 3, 245:

    excubias,

    Tac. H. 4, 58:

    pervigilium,

    Suet. Vit. 10:

    stationem agere,

    to keep guard, Liv. 35, 29; Tac. H. 1, 28:

    triumphum agere,

    to triumph, Cic. Fam. 3, 10; Ov. M. 15, 757; Suet. Dom. 6:

    libera arbitria agere,

    to make free decisions, to decide arbitrarily, Liv. 24, 45; Curt. 6, 1, 19; 8, 1, 4:

    paenitentiam agere,

    to exercise repentance, to repent, Quint. 9, 3, 12; Petr. S. 132; Tac. Or. 15; Curt. 8, 6, 23; Plin. Ep. 7, 10; Vulg. Lev. 5, 5; ib. Matt. 3, 2; ib. Apoc. 2, 5:

    silentia agere,

    to maintain silence, Ov. M. 1, 349:

    pacem agere,

    Juv. 15, 163:

    crimen agere,

    to bring accusation, to accuse, Cic. Verr. 4, 22, 48:

    laborem agere,

    id. Fin. 2, 32:

    cursus agere,

    Ov. Am. 3, 6, 95:

    delectum agere,

    to make choice, to choose, Plin. 7, 29, 30, § 107; Quint. 10, 4, 5:

    experimenta agere,

    Liv. 9, 14; Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    mensuram,

    id. 15, 3, 4, § 14:

    curam agere,

    to care for, Ov. H. 15, 302; Quint. 8, prooem. 18:

    curam ejus egit,

    Vulg. Luc. 10, 34:

    oblivia agere,

    to forget, Ov. M. 12, 540:

    nugas agere,

    to trifle, Plaut. Cist. 2, 3, 29; id. As. 1, 1, 78, and often:

    officinas agere,

    to keep shop, Inscr. Orell. 4266.—So esp.: agere gratias ( poet. grates; never in sing. gratiam), to give thanks, to thank; Gr. charin echein ( habere gratiam is to be or feel grateful; Gr. charin eidenai; and referre gratiam, to return a favor, requite; Gr. charin apodidonai; cf. Bremi ad Nep. Them. 8, 7):

    diis gratias pro meritis agere,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 26:

    Haud male agit gratias,

    id. Aul. 4, 4, 31:

    Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi?

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 1:

    Dis magnas merito gratias habeo atque ago,

    id. Phorm. 5, 6, 80: Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter, Cic. Fam. 1, 10: immortales ago tibi gratias agamque dum vivam;

    nam relaturum me adfirmare non possum,

    id. ib. 10, 11, 1: maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar;

    majores etiam habemus,

    id. Marcell. 11, 33:

    Trebatio magnas ago gratias, quod, etc.,

    id. Fam. 11, 28, 8: renuntiate gratias regi me agere;

    referre gratiam aliam nunc non posse quam ut suadeam, ne, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 37: grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque, reliqui Caelites, * Cic. Rep. 6, 9:

    gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti,

    Ov. M. 2, 152; so id. ib. 6, 435; 484; 10, 291; 681; 14, 596; Vulg. 2 Reg. 8, 10; ib. Matt. 15, 36 al.;

    and in connection with this, laudes agere: Jovis fratri laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo,

    Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 2:

    Dianae laudes gratesque agam,

    id. Mil. 2, 5, 2; so,

    diis immortalibus laudesque et grates egit,

    Liv. 26, 48:

    agi sibi gratias passus est,

    Tac. Agr. 42; so id. H. 2, 71; 4, 51; id. A. 13, 21; but oftener grates or gratis in Tac.:

    Tiberius egit gratis benevolentiae patrum, A. 6, 2: agit grates,

    id. H. 3, 80; 4, 64; id. A. 2, 38; 2, 86; 3, 18; 3, 24; 4, 15 al.—
    5.
    Of time, to pass, spend (very freq. and class.): Romulus in caelo cum dis agit aevom, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 28; so Pac. id. ib. 2, 21, 49, and Hor. S. 1, 5, 101:

    tempus,

    Tac. H. 4, 62; id. A. 3, 16: domi aetatem, Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6:

    aetatem in litteris,

    Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3:

    senectutem,

    id. Sen. 3, 7; cf. id. ib. 17, 60:

    dies festos,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 48; Tac. G. 17:

    otia secura,

    Verg. G. 3, 377; Ov. F. 1, 68; 4, 926:

    ruri agere vitam,

    Liv. 7, 39, and Tac. A. 15, 63:

    vitam in terris,

    Verg. G. 2, 538:

    tranquillam vitam agere,

    Vulg. 1 Tim. 2, 2:

    Hunc (diem) agerem si,

    Verg. A. 5, 51:

    ver magnus agebat Orbis,

    id. G. 2, 338:

    aestiva agere,

    to pass, be in, summer quarters, Liv. 27, 8; 27, 21; Curt. 5, 8, 24.— Pass.:

    menses jam tibi esse actos vides,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 2:

    mensis agitur hic septimus,

    Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 34, and Ov. M. 7, 700:

    melior pars acta (est) diei,

    Verg. A. 9, 156; Juv. 4, 66; Tac. A. 15, 63:

    acta est per lacrimas nox,

    Ov. H. 12, 58 Ruhnk.:

    tunc principium anni agebatur,

    Liv. 3, 6:

    actis quindecim annis in regno,

    Just. 41, 5, 9:

    Nona aetas agitur,

    Juv. 13, 28 al. —With annus and an ordinal, to be of a certain age, to be so old:

    quartum annum ago et octogesimum,

    am eighty-four years old, Cic. Sen. 10, 32:

    Annum agens sextum decimum patrem amisit,

    Suet. Caes. 1.—Metaph.: sescentesimum et quadragesimum annum urbs nostra agebat, was in its 640 th year, Tac. G. 37.— Hence also absol. (rare), to pass or spend time, to live, to be, to be somewhere:

    civitas laeta agere,

    was joyful, Sall. J. 55, 2:

    tum Marius apud primos agebat,

    id. ib. 101, 6:

    in Africa, qua procul a mari incultius agebatur,

    id. ib. 89, 7:

    apud illos homines, qui tum agebant,

    Tac. A. 3, 19:

    Thracia discors agebat,

    id. ib. 3, 38:

    Juxta Hermunduros Naristi agunt,

    Tac. G. 42:

    ultra jugum plurimae gentes agunt,

    id. ib. 43:

    Gallos trans Padum agentes,

    id. H. 3, 34:

    quibus (annis) exul Rhodi agit,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    agere inter homines desinere,

    id. ib. 15, 74:

    Vitellius non in ore volgi agere,

    was not in the sight of the people, id. H. 3, 36:

    ante aciem agere,

    id. G. 7; and:

    in armis agere,

    id. A. 14, 55 = versari.—
    6.
    In the lang. of offerings, t. t., to despatch the victim, to kill, slay. In performing this rite, the sacrificer asked the priest, agone, shall I do it? and the latter answered, age or hoc age, do it:

    qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros semper, Agone? rogat, nec nisi jussus agit,

    Ov. F. 1. 321 (cf. agonia and agonalia):

    a tergo Chaeream cervicem (Caligulae) gladio caesim graviter percussisse, praemissa voce,

    hoc age, Suet. Calig. 58; id. Galb. 20. —This call of the priest in act of solemn sacrifice, Hoc age, warned the assembled multitude to be quiet and give attention; hence hoc or id and sometimes haec or istuc agere was used for, to give attention to, to attend to, to mind, heed; and followed by ut or ne, to pursue a thing, have it in view, aim at, design, etc.; cf. Ruhnk. ad Ter. And. 1, 2, 15, and Suet. Calig. 58: hoc agite, Plaut. As. prol. init.:

    Hoc age,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 152; id. Ep. 1, 6, 31:

    Hoc agite, of poetry,

    Juv. 7, 20:

    hoc agamus,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 12:

    haec agamus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 49:

    agere hoc possumus,

    Lucr. 1, 41; 4, 969; Juv. 7, 48:

    hoccine agis an non? hoc agam,

    id. ib., Ter. And. 1, 2, 15; 2, 5, 4:

    nunc istuc age,

    id. Heaut. 3, 2, 47; id. Phorm. 2, 3, 3 al.:

    Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo,

    Cic. Lig. 4, 11:

    id et agunt et moliuntur,

    id. Mur. 38:

    (oculi, aures, etc.) quasi fenestrae sunt animi, quibus tamen sentire nihil queat mens, nisi id agat et adsit,

    id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46: qui id egerunt, ut gentem... collocarent, aimed at this, that, etc., id. Cat. 4, 6, 12:

    qui cum maxime fallunt, id agunt, ut viri boni esse videantur,

    keep it in view, that, id. Off. 1, 13, 41:

    idne agebas, ut tibi cum sceleratis, an ut cum bonis civibus conveniret?

    id. Lig. 6, 18:

    Hoc agit, ut doleas,

    Juv. 5, 157:

    Hoc age, ne mutata retrorsum te ferat aura,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 88:

    Quid tuus ille destrictus gladius agebat?

    have in view, mean, Cic. Leg. 3, 9:

    Quid aliud egimus nisi ut, quod hic potest, nos possemus?

    id. ib. 4, 10:

    Sin autem id actum est, ut homines postremi pecuniis alienis locupletarentur,

    id. Rosc. Am. 47, 137:

    certiorem eum fecit, id agi, ut pons dissolveretur,

    Nep. Them. 5, 1:

    ego id semper egi, ne bellis interessem,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7.—Also, the opp.: alias res or aliud agere, not to attend to, heed, or observe, to pursue secondary or subordinate objects: Ch. Alias res agis. Pa. Istuc ago equidem, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 57; id. Hec. 5, 3, 28:

    usque eo animadverti eum jocari atque alias res agere,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 22:

    atqui vides, quam alias res agamus,

    id. de Or. 3, 14, 51; id. Brut. 66, 233:

    aliud agens ac nihil ejusmodi cogitans,

    id. Clu. 64.—
    7.
    In relation to public affairs, to conduct, manage, carry on, administer: agere bellum, to carry on or wage war (embracing the whole theory and practice of war, while bellum gerere designates the bodily and mental effort, and the bearing of the necessary burdens; and bellum facere, the actual outbreak of hostile feelings, v. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 28):

    qui longe alia ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt,

    Caes. B. G. 3, 28:

    Antiochus si tam in agendo bello parere voluisset consiliis ejus (Hannibalis) quam in suscipiendo instituerat, etc.,

    Nep. Hann. 8, 3; Curt. 4, 10, 29:

    aliena bella mercedibus agere,

    Mel. 1, 16:

    Bellaque non puero tractat agenda puer,

    Ov. A. A. 1, 182 (also in id. Tr. 2, 230, Gron. Observ. 2, 3, 227, for the usu. obit, with one MS., reads agit; so Merkel).— Poet.:

    Martem for bellum,

    Luc. 4, 2: agere proelium, to give battle (very rare):

    levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis,

    Liv. 22, 9.—Of offices, employments, etc., to conduct, exercise, administer, hold:

    forum agere,

    to hold court, Cic. Fam. 8, 6; and:

    conventus agere,

    to hold the assizes, id. Verr. 5, 11, 28; Caes. B. G. 1, 54; 6, 44;

    used of the governors of provinces: judicium agere,

    Plin. 9, 35, 58, § 120:

    vivorum coetus agere,

    to make assemblies of, to assemble, Tac. A. 16, 34:

    censum agere,

    Liv. 3, 22; Tac. A. 14, 46; Suet. Aug. 27:

    recensum agere,

    id. Caes. 41:

    potestatem agere,

    Flor. 1, 7, 2:

    honorem agere,

    Liv. 8, 26:

    regnum,

    Flor. 1, 6, 2:

    rem publicam,

    Dig. 4, 6, 35, § 8:

    consulatum,

    Quint. 12, 1, 16:

    praefecturam,

    Suet. Tib. 6:

    centurionatum,

    Tac. A. 1, 44:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 88:

    fiscum agere,

    to have charge of the treasury, id. Dom. 12:

    publicum agere,

    to collect the taxes, id. Vesp. 1:

    inquisitionem agere,

    Plin. 29, 1, 8, § 18:

    curam alicujus rei agere,

    to have the management of, to manage, Liv. 6, 15; Suet. Claud. 18:

    rei publicae curationem agens,

    Liv. 4, 13: dilectum agere, to make a levy, to levy (postAug. for dilectum habere, Cic., Caes., Sall.), Quint. 12, 3, 5; Tac. A. 2, 16; id. Agr. 7 and 10; id. H. 2, 16, 12; Suet. Calig. 43. —
    8.
    Of civil and political transactions in the senate, the forum, before tribunals of justice, etc., to manage or transact, to do, to discuss, plead, speak, deliberate; constr. aliquid or de aliqua re:

    velim recordere, quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 2; 1, 9:

    de condicionibus pacis,

    Liv. 8, 37:

    de summa re publica,

    Suet. Caes. 28:

    cum de Catilinae conjuratione ageretur in curia,

    id. Aug. 94:

    de poena alicujus,

    Liv. 5, 36:

    de agro plebis,

    id. 1, 46.—Hence the phrase: agere cum populo, of magistrates, to address the people in a public assembly, for the purpose of obtaining their approval or rejection of a thing (while [p. 76] agere ad populum signifies to propose, to bring before the people):

    cum populo agere est rogare quid populum, quod suffragiis suis aut jubeat aut vetet,

    Gell. 13, 15, 10:

    agere cum populo de re publica,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 12; id. Lael. 25, 96:

    neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat neve cum populo agat,

    Sall. C. 51, 43.—So also absol.:

    hic locus (rostra) ad agendum amplissimus,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1:

    Metellus cum agere coepisset, tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat,

    id. Fam. 5, 2.— Transf. to common life.
    a.
    Agere cum aliquo, de aliquo or re or ut, to treat, deal, negotiate, confer, talk with one about a person or thing; to endeavor to persuade or move one, that, etc.: nihil age tecum (sc. cum odore vini);

    ubi est ipsus (vini lepos)?

    I have nothing to do with you, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 11:

    Quae (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit,

    thus pleads, Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 18:

    algae Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

    Juv. 4, 49:

    haec inter se dubiis de rebus agebant,

    thus treated together, Verg. A. 11, 445:

    de quo et praesens tecum egi diligenter, et scripsi ad te accurate antea,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 75:

    egi cum Claudia et cum vestra sorore Mucia, ut eum ab illa injuria deterrerent,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    misi ad Metellum communes amicos, qui agerent cum eo, ut de illa mente desisteret,

    id. ib. 5, 2:

    Callias quidam egit cum Cimone, ut eam (Elpinicen) sibi uxorem daret,

    Nep. Cim. 1, 3.—Also absol.:

    Alcibiades praesente vulgo agere coepit,

    Nep. Alc. 8, 2:

    si qua Caesares obtinendae Armeniae egerant,

    Tac. A. 15, 14:

    ut Lucretius agere varie, rogando alternis suadendoque coepit,

    Liv. 2, 2.—In Suet. once agere cum senatu, with acc. and inf., to propose or state to the Senate:

    Tiberius egit cum senatu non debere talia praemia tribui,

    Suet. Tib. 54.—
    b.
    With the advv. bene, praeclare, male, etc., to deal well or ill with one, to treat or use well or ill:

    facile est bene agere cum eis, etc.,

    Cic. Phil. 14, 11:

    bene egissent Athenienses cum Miltiade, si, etc.,

    Val. Max. 5, 3, 3 ext.; Vulg. Jud. 9, 16:

    praeclare cum aliquo agere,

    Cic. Sest. 23:

    Male agis mecum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 3, 21:

    qui cum creditoribus suis male agat,

    Cic. Quinct. 84; and:

    tu contra me male agis,

    Vulg. Jud. 11, 27.—Freq. in pass., to be or go well or ill with one, to be well or badly off:

    intelleget secum actum esse pessime,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 50:

    praeclare mecum actum puto,

    id. Fam. 9, 24; so id. ib. 5, 18: exstat cujusdam non inscitus jocus bene agi potuisse cum rebus humanis, si Domitius pater talem habuisset uxorem, it would have gone well with human affairs, been well for mankind, if, etc., Suet. Ner. 28.—Also absol. without cum: agitur praeclare, si nosmet ipsos regere possumus, it is well done if, etc., it is a splendid thing if, etc., Cic. Fam. 4, 14:

    vivitur cum eis, in quibus praeclare agitur si sunt simulacra virtutis,

    id. Off. 1, 15:

    bene agitur pro noxia,

    Plaut. Mil. 5, 23.—
    9.
    Of transactions before a court or tribunal.
    a.
    Aliquid agere ex jure, ex syngrapha, ex sponso, or simply the abl. jure, lege, litibus, obsignatis tabellis, causa, to bring an action or suit, to manage a cause, to plead a case:

    ex jure civili et praetorio agere,

    Cic. Caecin. 12:

    tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo,

    to litigate, id. Mur. 17:

    ex sponso egit,

    id. Quint. 9: Ph. Una injuriast Tecum. Ch. Lege agito ergo, Go to law, then, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8, 90:

    agere lege in hereditatem,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 38, 175; Ov. F. 1, 48; Liv. 9, 46:

    cum illo se lege agere dicebat,

    Nep. Tim. 5: summo jure agere, to assert or claim one's right to the full extent of the law, Cic. Off. 1, 11:

    non enim gladiis mecum, sed litibus agetur,

    id. Q. Fr. 1, 4:

    causa quam vi agere malle,

    Tac. A. 13, 37:

    tabellis obsignatis agis mecum,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 33:

    Jure, ut opinor, agat, jure increpet inciletque,

    with right would bring her charge, Lucr. 3, 963; so,

    Castrensis jurisdictio plura manu agens,

    settles more cases by force, Tac. Agr. 9:

    ubi manu agitur,

    when the case is settled by violent hands, id. G. 36.—
    b.
    Causam or rem agere, to try or plead a case; with apud, ad, or absol.:

    causam apud centumviros egit,

    Cic. Caecin. 24:

    Caesar cum ageret apud censores,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 10; so with adversus:

    egi causam adversus magistratus,

    Vulg. 2 Esdr. 13, 11:

    orator agere dicitur causam,

    Varr. L. L. 6, 42: causam isto modo agere, Cic. Lig. 4, 10; Tac. Or. 5; 11; 14; Juv. 2, 51; 14, 132:

    agit causas liberales,

    Cic. Fam. 8, 9: qui ad rem agendam adsunt, M. Cael. ap. Quint. 11, 1, 51:

    cum (M. Tullius) et ipsam se rem agere diceret,

    Quint. 12, 10, 45: Gripe, accede huc;

    tua res agitur,

    is being tried, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 104; Quint. 8, 3, 13;

    and extra-judicially: rogo ad Caesarem meam causam agas,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 10:

    Una (factio) populi causam agebat, altera optimatum,

    Nep. Phoc. 3; so, agere, absol., to plead' ad judicem sic agi solet, Cic. Lig. 10:

    tam solute agere, tam leniter,

    id. Brut. 80:

    tu istuc nisi fingeres, sic ageres?

    id. ib. 80; Juv. 7, 143 and 144; 14, 32.— Transf. to common life; with de or acc., to discuss, treat, speak of:

    Sed estne hic ipsus, de quo agebam?

    of whom I was speaking, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 53:

    causa non solum exponenda, sed etiam graviter copioseque agenda est,

    to be discussed, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 12; id. Verr. 1, 13, 37:

    Samnitium bella, quae agimus,

    are treating of, Liv. 10, 31.—Hence,
    c.
    Agere aliquem reum, to proceed against one as accused, to accuse one, Liv. 4, 42; 24, 25; Tac. A. 14, 18:

    reus agitur,

    id. ib. 15, 20; 3, 13; and with the gen. of the crime, with which one is charged:

    agere furti,

    to accuse of theft, Cic. Fam. 7, 22:

    adulterii cum aliquo,

    Quint. 4, 4, 8:

    injuriarum,

    id. 3, 6, 19; and often in the Pandects.—
    d.
    Pass. of the thing which is the subject of accusation, to be in suit or in question; it concerns or affects, is about, etc.:

    non nunc pecunia, sed illud agitur, quomodo, etc.,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 67:

    non capitis ei res agitur, sed pecuniae,

    the point in dispute, id. Phorm. 4, 3, 26:

    aguntur injuriae sociorum, agitur vis legum, agitur existimatio, veritasque judiciorum,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 51:

    si magna res, magna hereditas agetur,

    id. Fin. 2, 17: qua de re agitur, what the point of dispute or litigation is, id. Brut. 79.—Hence, trop.,
    (α).
    Res agitur, the case is on trial, i. e. something is at stake or at hazard, in peril, or in danger:

    at nos, quarum res agitur, aliter auctores sumus,

    Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 72:

    quasi istic mea res minor agatur quam tua,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 113:

    agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum, aguntur certissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, aguntur bona multorum civium,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6:

    in quibus eorum aut caput agatur aut fama,

    id. Lael. 17, 61; Nep. Att. 15, 2:

    non libertas solum agebatur,

    Liv. 28, 19; Sen. Clem. 1, 20 al.:

    nam tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 (= in periculo versatur, Lambin.):

    agitur pars tertia mundi,

    is at stake, I am in danger of losing, Ov. M. 5, 372.—
    (β).
    Res acta est, the case is over (and done for): acta haec res est;

    perii,

    this matter is ended, Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 3: hence, actum est de aliquo or aliqua re, it is all over with a person or thing:

    actum hodie est de me,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 63:

    jam de Servio actum,

    Liv. 1, 47:

    actum est de collo meo,

    Plaut. Trin. 3, 4, 194.—So also absol.: actumst;

    ilicet me infelicem,

    Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 17:

    si animus hominem pepulit, actumst,

    id. Trin. 2, 2, 27; Ter. And. 3, 1, 7; Cic. Att. 5, 15:

    actumst, ilicet, peristi,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 9: periimus;

    actumst,

    id. Heaut. 3, 3, 3.—
    (γ).
    Rem actam agere, to plead a case already finished, i. e. to act to no purpose:

    rem actam agis,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 27; id. Cist. 4, 2, 36; Liv. 28, 40; so,

    actum or acta agere: actum, aiunt, ne agas,

    Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72; Cic. Att. 9, 18:

    acta agimus,

    id. Am. 22.—
    10. a.
    Of an orator, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142; cf. id. ib. 2, 19, 79:

    quae sic ab illo acta esse constabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 214:

    agere fortius et audentius volo,

    Tac. Or. 18; 39.—
    b.
    Of an actor, to represent, play, act:

    Ipse hanc acturust Juppiter comoediam,

    Plaut. Am. prol. 88; so,

    fabulam,

    Ter. Ad. prol. 12; id. Hec. prol. 22:

    dum haec agitur fabula,

    Plaut. Men. prol. 72 al.:

    partis,

    to have a part in a play, Ter. Phorm. prol. 27:

    Ballionem illum cum agit, agit Chaeream,

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 7:

    gestum agere in scaena,

    id. de Or. 2, 57:

    dicitur canticum egisse aliquanto magis vigente motu,

    Liv. 7, 2 al. — Transf. to other relations, to represent or personate one, to act the part of, to act as, behave like: has partes lenitatis semper egi, Cic. Mur. 3:

    egi illos omnes adulescentes, quos ille actitat,

    id. Fam. 2, 9:

    amicum imperatoris,

    Tac. H. 1, 30:

    exulem,

    id. A. 1, 4:

    socium magis imperii quam ministrum,

    id. H. 2, 83:

    senatorem,

    Tac. A. 16, 28.—So of things poetically:

    utrinque prora frontem agit,

    serves as a bow, Tac. G. 44.—
    11.
    Se agere = se gerere, to carry one's self, to behave, deport one's self:

    tanta mobilitate sese Numidae agunt,

    Sall. J. 56, 5:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint,

    Tac. H. 3, 2 Halm:

    qui se pro equitibus Romanis agerent,

    Suet. Claud. 25:

    non principem se, sed ministrum egit,

    id. ib. 29:

    neglegenter se et avare agere,

    Eutr. 6, 9:

    prudenter se agebat,

    Vulg. 1 Reg. 18, 5:

    sapienter se agebat,

    ib. 4 Reg. 18, 7. —Also absol.:

    seditiose,

    Tac. Agr. 7:

    facile justeque,

    id. ib. 9:

    superbe,

    id. H. 2, 27:

    ex aequo,

    id. ib. 4, 64:

    anxius et intentus agebat,

    id. Agr. 5.—
    12.
    Imper.: age, agite, Ter., Tib., Lucr., Hor., Ov., never using agite, and Catull. never age, with which compare the Gr. age, agete (also accompanied by the particles dum, eia, en, ergo, igitur, jam, modo, nuncjam, porro, quare, quin, sane, vero, verum, and by sis); as an exclamation.
    a.
    In encouragement, exhortation, come! come on! (old Engl. go to!) up! on! quick! (cf. I. B. fin.).
    (α).
    In the sing.:

    age, adsta, mane, audi, Enn. ap. Delr. Synt. 1, 99: age i tu secundum,

    come, follow me! Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 1:

    age, perge, quaeso,

    id. Cist. 2, 3, 12:

    age, da veniam filio,

    Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 14:

    age, age, nunc experiamur,

    id. ib. 5, 4, 23:

    age sis tu... delude,

    Plaut. As. 3, 3, 89; id. Ep. 3, 4, 39; Cic. Tusc. 2, 18; id. Rosc. Am. 16:

    quanto ferocius ante se egerint, agedum eam solve cistulam,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 151; id. Capt. 3, 4, 39:

    Agedum vicissim dic,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Eun. 4, 4, 27:

    agedum humanis concede,

    Lucr. 3, 962:

    age modo hodie sero,

    Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103:

    age nuncjam,

    id. And. 5, 2, 25:

    En age, quid cessas,

    Tib. 2, 2, 10:

    Quare age,

    Verg. A. 7, 429:

    Verum age,

    id. ib. 12, 832:

    Quin age,

    id. G. 4, 329:

    en, age, Rumpe moras,

    id. ib. 3, 43:

    eia age,

    id. A. 4, 569.—
    (β).
    In the plur.:

    agite, pugni,

    up, fists, and at 'em! Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146:

    agite bibite,

    id. Curc. 1, 1, 88; id. Stich. 1, 3, 68:

    agite in modum dicite,

    Cat. 61, 38:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    id. 64, 372; Verg. A. 1, 627:

    vos agite... volvite,

    Val. Fl. 3, 311:

    agite nunc, divites, plorate,

    Vulg. Jac. 5, 1:

    agitedum,

    Liv. 3, 62.—Also age in the sing., with a verb in the plur. (cf. age tamnete, Hom. Od. 3, 332; age dê trapeiomen, id. Il. 3, 441):

    age igitur, intro abite,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 54:

    En agedum convertite,

    Prop. 1, 1, 21:

    mittite, agedum, legatos,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    Ite age,

    Stat. Th. 10, 33:

    Huc age adeste,

    Sil. 11, 169.—
    b.
    In transitions in discourse, well then! well now! well! (esp. in Cic. Or. very freq.). So in Plaut. for resuming discourse that has been interrupted: age, tu interea huic somnium narra, Curc. 2, 2, 5: nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari, etc., well now, since I have taught, etc., Lucr. 1, 266:

    nunc age, quod superest, cognosce et clarius audi,

    id. 1, 920; so id. 1, 952; 2, 62; 333; 730; 3, 418;

    4, 109 al.: age porro, tu, qui existimari te voluisti interpretem foederum, cur, etc.,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22; so id. Rosc. Am. 16; id. Part. 12; id. Att. 8, 3.—And age (as in a.) with a verb in the plur.:

    age vero, ceteris in rebus qualis sit temperantia considerate,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14; so id. Sull. 26; id. Mil. 21; id. Rosc. Am. 37.—
    c.
    As a sign of assent, well! very well! good! right! Age, age, mansero, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 61: age, age, jam ducat;

    dabo,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 57:

    Age, veniam,

    id. And. 4, 2, 30:

    age, sit ita factum,

    Cic. Mil. 19:

    age sane,

    Plaut. Ps. 5, 2, 27; Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 119.
    Position.
    —Age, used with another verb in the imperative, regularly stands before it, but in poetry, for the sake of the metre, it,
    I.
    Sometimes follows such verb; as,
    a.
    In dactylic metre:

    Cede agedum,

    Prop. 5, 9, 54:

    Dic age,

    Verg. A. 6, 343; Hor. S. 2, 7, 92; Ov. F. 1, 149:

    Esto age,

    Pers. 2, 42:

    Fare age,

    Verg. A. 3, 362:

    Finge age,

    Ov. H. 7, 65:

    Redde age,

    Hor. S. 2, 8, 80:

    Surge age,

    Verg. A. 3, 169; 8, 59; 10, 241; Ov. H. 14, 73:

    Vade age,

    Verg. A. 3, 462; 4, 422; so,

    agite: Ite agite,

    Prop. 4, 3, 7.—
    b.
    In other metres (very rarely):

    appropera age,

    Plaut. Cas. 2, 2, 38:

    dic age,

    Hor. C. 1, [p. 77] 32, 3; 2, 11, 22;

    3, 4, 1.—So also in prose (very rarely): Mittite agedum,

    Liv. 38, 47:

    procedat agedum ad pugnam,

    id. 7, 9.—
    II.
    It is often separated from such verb:

    age me huc adspice,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 118; id. Capt. 5, 2, 1:

    Age... instiga,

    Ter. And. 4, 2, 10; 5, 6, 11:

    Quare agite... conjungite,

    Cat. 64, 372:

    Huc age... veni,

    Tib. 2, 5, 2:

    Ergo age cervici imponere nostrae,

    Verg. A. 2, 707:

    en age segnis Rumpe moras,

    id. G. 3, 42:

    age te procellae Crede,

    Hor. C. 3, 27, 62:

    Age jam... condisce,

    id. ib. 4, 11, 31; id. S. 2, 7, 4.—Hence,
    1.
    ăgens, entis, P. a.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    Efficient, effective, powerful (only in the rhet. lang. of Cic.):

    utendum est imaginibus agentibus, acribus, insignitis,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358:

    acre orator, incensus et agens,

    id. Brut. 92, 317.— Comp. and sup. not used.
    2.
    Agentia verba, in the grammarians, for verba activa, Gell. 18, 12.—
    B.
    Subst.: ăgentes, ium.
    a.
    Under the emperors, a kind of secret police (also called frumentarii and curiosi), Aur. Vict. Caes. 39 fin.; Dig. 1, 12; 1, 20; 21; 22; 23, etc.; Amm. 15, 3; 14, 11 al.—
    b.
    For agrimensores, land-surveyors, Hyg. Lim. p. 179.—
    2.
    actus, a, um, P. a. Lit., that has been transacted in the Senate, in the forum, before the courts of justice, etc.; hence,
    A.
    actum, i, n., a public transaction in the Senate, before the people, or before a single magistrate:

    actum ejus, qui in re publica cum imperio versatus sit,

    Cic. Phil. 1, 7:

    acta Caesaris servanda censeo,

    id. ib. 1, 7:

    acta tui praeclari tribunatus,

    id. Dom. 31.—
    B.
    acta publĭca, or absol.: acta, orum, n., the register of public acts, records, journal. Julius Caesar, in his consulship, ordered that the doings of the Senate (diurna acta) should be made public, Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Ernest. Exc. 1;

    but Augustus again prohibited it,

    Suet. Aug. 36. Still the acts of the Senate were written down, and, under the succeeding emperors. certain senators were appointed to this office (actis vel commentariis Senatus conficiendis), Tac. A. 5, 4. They had also public registers of the transactions of the assemblies of the people, and of the different courts of justice;

    also of births and deaths, marriages, divorces, etc., which were preserved as sources of future history.—Hence, diurna urbis acta,

    the city journal, Tac. A. 13, 31:

    acta populi,

    Suet. Caes. 20:

    acta publica,

    Tac. A. 12, 24; Suet. Tib. 8; Plin. Ep. 7, 33:

    urbana,

    id. ib. 9, 15; which were all comprehended under the gen. name acta.
    1.
    With the time added:

    acta eorum temporum,

    Plin. 7, 13, 11, § 60:

    illius temporis,

    Ascon. Mil. 44, 16:

    ejus anni,

    Plin. 2, 56, 57, § 147.—
    2.
    Absol., Cic. Fam. 12, 8; 22, 1; 28, 3; Sen. Ben. 2, 10; 3, 16; Suet. Calig. 8; Quint. 9, 3; Juv. 2, 136: Quis dabit historico, quantum daret acta legenti, i. e. to the actuarius, q. v., id. 7, 104; cf. Bahr's Rom. Lit. Gesch. 303.—
    C.
    acta triumphōrum, the public record of triumphs, fuller than the Fasti triumphales, Plin. 37, 2, 6, § 12.—
    D.
    acta fŏri (v. Inscr. Grut. 445, 10), the records,
    a.
    Of strictly historical transactions, Amm. 22, 3, 4; Dig. 4, 6, 33, § 1.—
    b.
    Of matters of private right, as wills, gifts, bonds (acta ad jus privatorum pertinentia, Dig. 49, 14, 45, § 4), Fragm. Vat. §§ 249, 266, 268, 317.—
    E.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > ago

  • 9 adorior

    ăd-ŏrĭor, ortus, 4, v. dep. ( part. adorsus, Gell. 9, 2, 10; see the passage at the end of this art.; the second and third pers. of the pres. ind., acc. to the fourth conj.: adorīris, adorītur; forms analogous to orĕris, orĭtur, of the simple verb occur in Lucr. 3, 513; Lucil. ap. Prisc. p. 880 P.), to rise up for the purpose of going to some one or something, or of undertaking something great, difficult, or hazardous (clandestinely, artfully, when a hostile approach is spoken of; while aggredi indicates a direct, open attack from a distance: aggredimur de longinquo; adorimur ex insidiis et ex proximo; nam adoriri est quasi ad aliquem oriri, i. e. exsurgere, Don. ad Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 50; cf. the same ad Heaut. 4, 5, 9).
    I.
    In gen., to approach a person in order to address him, to ask something of him, to accost, etc. (cf. accedo, adeo):

    cesso hunc adoriri? (quasi de improviso alloqui, Don.),

    Ter. Heaut. 4, 5, 9:

    si ab eo nil fiet, tum hunc adorior hospitem,

    id. Phorm. 4, 2, 15.—
    II.
    Esp.
    A.
    To approach one with hostile intent, to assault, assail, Lucil. ap. Prisc. p. 886 P.:

    inermem tribunum gladiis,

    Cic. Sest. 37:

    a tergo Milonem,

    id. Mil. 10:

    navem,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 34 fin.:

    impeditos adoriebantur,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 26:

    hos Conon adortus magno proelio fugat,

    Nep. Con. 4:

    urbem vi,

    Liv. 1, 53:

    oppugnatio eos aliquanto atrocior quam ante adorta est,

    id. 21, 11; cf.

    21, 28: praetorem ex improviso in itinere adortus,

    Tac. A. 4, 45:

    variis criminationibus,

    id. ib. 14, 52:

    minis,

    id. H. 1, 31:

    jurgio,

    Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 50:

    senatum,

    Suet. Caes. 9.—Also absol., Hirt. B. Afr. 69.—
    B.
    To enter upon any course of action, esp. to engage in or undertake any thing difficult or dangerous; with acc. or inf.:

    commutare animum quicumque adoritur,

    Lucr. 3, 515:

    ne convellere adoriamur ea, quae non possint commoveri,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 51, 205; id. Att. 13, 22: Hêrakleidion, si Brundisium salvi, adoriemur (sc. scribere), id. ib. 16, 2; Auct. Her. 2, 4:

    majus adorta nefas,

    Ov. P. 2, 2, 16:

    hi dominam Ditis thalamo deducere adorti,

    Verg. A. 6, 397; cf. id. ib. 7, 386; Cat. 63, 11.—So esp. in the histt., Nep. Dion. 6:

    hanc (Munychiam) bis tyranni oppugnare sunt adorti,

    id. Thras. 2, 5; so also Liv. 2, 51; 28, 3; 37, 5, 32; 40, 22; 43, 21; 44, 12; cf. also 3, 44: hanc virginem Appius pretio ac spe pellicere adortus.— Once in the form of the part. perf. adorsus:

    qui Hippiam tyrannum interficere adorsi erant,

    Gell. 9, 2, 10.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > adorior

  • 10 contra

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra

  • 11 contra dicta

    contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs ea, qua, etc.; cf.: ultra, intra, extra, citra], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.
    I.
    Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    A.
    Local.
    1.
    Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
    a.
    With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
    (α).
    Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.):

    feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor,

    Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26:

    ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit,

    id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929:

    signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit,

    Liv. 1, 18, 8:

    stat contra starique jubet,

    Juv. 3, 290:

    stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures!

    Mart. 1, 55, 12:

    ulmus erat contra,

    in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661:

    templa vides contra,

    in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.—Of position in front of the enemy:

    contra conserta manu,

    Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.—
    (β).
    Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.):

    contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum,

    Manil. 2, 253:

    posita contra Hispania,

    Tac. Agr. 11:

    promuntorium quod contra procedit,

    Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. a), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.—With the governing verb understood:

    arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum,

    face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91:

    jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur),

    side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.—
    b.
    With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
    (α).
    Referring to persons:

    accede ad me atque adi contra,

    come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plaut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu' volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Mull. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.):

    adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me,

    Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.:

    contra adspicere,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45:

    contra intueri,

    Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6:

    cum veniret contra Marcianus,

    Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.—
    (β).
    Of things:

    hic ubi sol radiis... Adversa fulsit nimborum aspergine contra,

    Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1:

    quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseres... perfregere,

    Tac. H. 4, 30.—Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.—
    2.
    Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
    (α).
    In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.:

    aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus'st auro contra,

    at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.—
    (β).
    In post-Aug. prose (very rare):

    at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    3.
    Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71:

    quae me amat, quam ego contra amo,

    id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110:

    qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo,

    make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37:

    si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda),

    Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54:

    audi nunc contra jam,

    listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23:

    at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc.,

    you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21:

    Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur,

    Liv. 1, 28, 1:

    contra ut me diligat illa,

    Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.—Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit:

    cui latrans contra senex,

    Phaedr. 5, 10, 7:

    scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc.,

    Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.—

    Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc.,

    Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.:

    contra talia reddit,

    Claud. B. Gild. 379.—
    (β).
    With dat. pers.:

    consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem,

    Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45:

    facere contra huic aegre,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10:

    hiscine contra insidiabere?

    id. Hec. 1. 1, 13:

    tibi contra gratiam Referre,

    id. ib. 4, 2, 7.—
    (γ).
    With item:

    item a me contra factum est,

    Plaut. Aul. prol. 20:

    puellam senex Amat et item contra filius,

    id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.—
    (δ).
    Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. a, and b. a): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words ( face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt;

    Consonat terra,

    Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86:

    confer gradum Contra pariter,

    id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28:

    video amicam... Ubi contra adspexit me, etc.,

    id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243:

    vesper adest, juvenes consurgite!... Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra!

    Cat. 62, 6.—
    (ε).
    Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20:

    si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet,

    what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavit... ut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5:

    si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1;

    Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo,

    to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6:

    agedum pauca accipe contra,

    Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.—So in battle:

    Numidae... Romanorum ordines conturbare... neque contra feriundi copia erat,

    Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicat... et illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.—Esp. in replies:

    oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213:

    dicit accusator haec: primum, etc.... quid contra reus?

    id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    B.
    Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
    1.
    Of physical exertion.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    concurrunt... aetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu' ventis,

    struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98:

    nec nos obniti contra... Sufficimus,

    bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434:

    at ille contra nititur,

    resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82:

    pars remigum, tamquam imperitia... officia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere,

    rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctu... sinas, contraque erigas ac resistas,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4:

    et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire qua rapiet,

    Quint. 12, 10, 61.— With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.—With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.—
    2.
    Of mental exertion:

    si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra,

    arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280. —With dat.:

    siti contra... pugnandum,

    Cels. 4, 2 fin.
    3.
    Of hostile opposition in gen.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere,

    who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107:

    contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi,

    something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet,

    Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.—
    4.
    Of warfare.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant,

    Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.:

    quid quod exercitum contra duxit?

    Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23:

    ut si qua ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructa depugnarent,

    if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28:

    issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitum... audissent,

    Liv. 7, 39, 17:

    cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint,

    would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.—With dat.:

    et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden,

    Tac. A. 11, 10.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem,

    Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.—
    5.
    Of legal contests.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.—
    (β).
    Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary:

    quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudius... fuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.?

    if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. b.—
    (γ).
    On the part of the adversary:

    inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris,

    Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.—
    (δ).
    Of judgments against the parties or against opinions:

    ne spoliaret fama probatum hominem si contra judicasset,

    given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—
    6.
    Of literary opposition.
    (α).
    Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. g.—
    (β).
    With other verbs:

    astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit,

    Lucr. 5, 728:

    contra nunc illud pone, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6:

    habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur,

    some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.—
    7.
    Of public and political opposition.
    (α).
    With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. d.—
    (β).
    With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another:

    nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent,

    no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91:

    honores contra petere,

    Quint. 6, 1, 17.—With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.:

    pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant,

    Tac. A. 14, 45.—
    8.
    Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153:

    si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset,

    and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.—
    9.
    With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
    a.
    Absol.
    (α).
    Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings:

    cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset,

    would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77:

    hoc... contra dicente Cotta judicatum est,

    id. Caecin. 33, 97:

    dixisse ut contra nemo videretur,

    id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassus... exorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.—Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary:

    contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.—In the same sense: agens contra: si nos... impares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary's counsel, [p. 453] Quint. 4, 1, 8.—
    (β).
    To make charges against (rare):

    si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio,

    Cic. Clu. 48, 134:

    qua ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat,

    id. Quint. 29, 88; so,

    contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit,

    id. Fl. 21, 51.—
    (γ).
    In gen., to speak on the other side of a question:

    fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so,

    contra disputare and contra scribere,

    id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.—Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents:

    nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2:

    ad coarguendos qui contra disputant,

    to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.—
    (δ).
    To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition:

    quam palam principes dixerunt contra!

    protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.—With pugnare:

    cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5:

    filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87:

    contradicente nullo,

    Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.—
    (ε).
    To reply:

    contradixit edicto,

    answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56. —
    (ζ).
    Abl. absol. impers.:

    explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit,

    whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.—
    b.
    With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings:

    ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar,

    Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1:

    ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur,

    id. Fin. 5, 10, 27:

    aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 22, 2.— Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections:

    ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus),

    refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90:

    quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc.,

    id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.—In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, orum, n. plur.:

    seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus,

    or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.—With acc. and inf.:

    dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum,

    the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.—
    c.
    With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    To oppose a person by speaking against his views:

    solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere,

    to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91:

    tibi,

    Suet. Aug. 54:

    Curioni...,

    id. Rhet. 1. —Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.—And of advisory answers opposed to one's legal views:

    volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est,

    my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.—
    (β).
    To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing:

    cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent,

    opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.—
    (γ).
    To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner:

    patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit,

    the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81:

    cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent,

    Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.—
    (δ).
    With dat. of the petition:

    preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset,

    which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.—
    (ε).
    To contest the validity of a law (rare):

    quibus (legibus) contradici potest,

    Quint. 7, 7, 4.—
    (ζ).
    To contradict an assertion (very rare):

    pro certis autem habemus... cuicunque adversarius non contradicit,

    Quint. 5, 10, 13.—
    d.
    With quin, to object:

    praetor Samnitibus respondit... nec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur,

    there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    C.
    To one's disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.;

    but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri,

    Quint. 7, 3, 14:

    cum verba (legis) contra sint,

    id. 7, 1, 49:

    sed experimentum contra fuit,

    unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.:

    ubi fortuna contra fuit,

    id. ib. 3, 18:

    si fortuna contra daret,

    should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    D.
    Of logical opposition, with negative force.
    1.
    Of a direct contrast.
    a.
    Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite:

    quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res,

    but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088:

    in stultitia contra est,

    with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84:

    in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit),

    id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49:

    quod contra est,

    Sall. J. 85, 21:

    quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4:

    contra fore si, etc.,

    ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2:

    immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit),

    ib. 41, 3, 49:

    ego contra puto (i. e. esse),

    Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.—
    b.
    With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.:

    utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta,

    of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51:

    id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse),

    id. Att. 10, 8, 2:

    contra evenit in iis morbis,

    Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163:

    ego contra sentio,

    Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25:

    Proculus contra (sc. sentit),

    ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25:

    licet Celsus contra scribat,

    ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.—Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause:

    cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur,

    interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
    c.
    Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
    (α).
    To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.:

    nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.;

    quod contra, id turpe,

    id. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    sit sapienter usus aut contra,

    Quint. 2, 5, 15:

    lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime),

    Col. 11, 3, 25.—
    (β).
    To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.:

    ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra,

    improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7:

    quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare,

    id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.—
    (γ).
    To a verbal predicate:

    an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon),

    Dig. 34, 5, 19.—
    (δ).
    To a subject infinitive:

    laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum,

    praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.—
    (ε).
    To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative:

    quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria,

    those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse;

    mihi contra,

    id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filia commissum? Et contra, veneficum in noverca, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.—
    (ζ).
    To an attributive genitive:

    Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali),

    Sall. J. 88, 2:

    verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis),

    Quint. 2, 4, 21:

    alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur,

    the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31;

    so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii,

    Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.—
    2.
    Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versa, etc.
    a.
    With its own predicate: saepe... corpus aegret, Cum tamen ex alia laetamur parte latenti;

    Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto,

    Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., ( proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24:

    quae etiam contra valent,

    i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.—
    b.
    Belonging to the same predicate:

    ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra,

    Cic. Or. 36, 123:

    cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit,

    Dig. 35, 2, 48:

    in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra,

    Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71:

    junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato,

    id. 1, 5, 68:

    ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra,

    but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16:

    itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus,

    Cic. Or. 42, 143:

    qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra,

    or vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    E.
    In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versa; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
    1.
    In independent clauses.
    a.
    Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esse... perhibent philosophi... Sunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1:

    ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum... Tu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35:

    ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc.,

    id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62:

    in Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro... Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili est terra,

    Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11:

    contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior?

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214;

    so with versa vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxerunt... Contra Macedones versa vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant,

    Just. 13, 1, 7.—
    b.
    Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum;

    contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum;

    nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane,

    Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.:

    justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora,

    Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse rem... si modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5:

    si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani,

    Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.—
    2.
    In opposition to a dependent clause:

    ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc.,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39:

    cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc.,

    Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4:

    cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc.,

    Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.:

    at contra,

    Lucr. 2, 392.—
    3.
    With co-ordinate conjunctions.
    a.
    Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
    (α).
    With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione uti... omnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque falli [p. 454]... tam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94:

    malus est enim custos... metus, contraque benevolentia fidelis,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 23:

    cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare,

    Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20:

    itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc.,

    Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec:

    nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur,

    Quint. 10, 2, 22.—
    (β).
    With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic:

    audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem ejus... nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis,

    Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109:

    ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere,

    id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.—
    (γ).
    With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.:

    atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari!

    Cic. Balb. 22, 51:

    domo pignori data, et area ejus tenebitur... et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium,

    Dig. 13, 7, 21:

    equo et asina genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent,

    Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.—
    (δ).
    After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary:

    in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui,

    Cic. Sull. 7, 21:

    nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc.,

    id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so,

    et contra,

    Suet. Tit. 7.—
    b.
    With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
    (α).
    At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore;

    At contra taetri absinthi natura... foedo pertorqueat ora sapore,

    Lucr. 2, 400:

    cogunt,

    id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur;

    at contra nobis tu quidem... prae nobis beatus,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5:

    ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudines... At contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.—
    (β).
    Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.):

    non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui,

    Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26:

    arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre,

    Liv. 45, 18, 1:

    tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,

    Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.—PostAug. also without a preceding negation:

    obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocens... negat,

    Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.—
    (γ).
    Contra autem (rare;

    in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli,

    Cic. Pis. 30, 73.—In later writers = contra alone:

    sub septemtrione aedificia... conversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem... sunt facienda,

    Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.—
    (δ).
    Contra vero (very rare;

    not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem,

    Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
    (ε).
    Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.—
    c.
    With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
    (α).
    Aut contra:

    num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur?

    Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescit... aut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18:

    si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere,

    Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.—
    (β).
    Vel contra:

    hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuit... quia magistratus?

    Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.—
    (γ).
    Seu contra:

    seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis,

    Prop. 1, 11, 25.—
    d.
    With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare;

    never contra enim): falso queritur de natura sua genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies,

    Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23. —
    4.
    In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
    (α).
    In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.):

    aliis vero econtra videtur,

    Hier. Ep. 12.—
    (β).
    Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.):

    honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis,

    Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.—For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.—
    5.
    With emphatic particles.
    a.
    Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies);

    not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatum... quam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatos... neminem plebeium,

    Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.—
    b.
    Immo contra (post-Aug.).
    (α).
    = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue:

    existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates?... Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.—
    (β).
    = sed contra, but on the contrary:

    proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum,

    Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.:

    immo contra ea,

    Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.—
    c.
    Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare):

    quoniam... beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc.,

    Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. g supra.
    F.
    With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. g, and II. E. 2. infra.
    1.
    Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
    (α).
    With atque:

    item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6:

    simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69:

    judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset,

    Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.—
    (β).
    With ac:

    itaque contra est ac dicitis,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41:

    vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse,

    id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137:

    cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret,

    id. Phil. 11, 13, 34:

    Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, etc.,

    Sall. C. 60, 5.—
    (γ).
    With ac and atque:

    si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret,

    Cic. Balb. 3, 7.—
    (δ).
    With quam (post-Aug.):

    cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt,

    Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6:

    contra quam licet,

    id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.—
    2.
    Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. g infra); so always with quam:

    mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta,

    contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12:

    ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret,

    contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18:

    contra quam ista causa postulasset,

    id. Caecin. 24, 67:

    contra quam sanctum legibus est,

    Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122:

    contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur,

    Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
    II.
    Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. b, and I. A. 1. b. a supra).
    A.
    Local uses.
    1.
    Opposite, over against, facing.
    a.
    Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water;

    adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20:

    ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam,

    id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23:

    Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc.,

    Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8:

    Carthago Italiam contra,

    Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17:

    insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur,

    Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.—
    b.
    Of the heavenly bodies:

    donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit,

    Lucr. 5, 708:

    contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra,

    Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.—So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite ( facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22. —So of a person standing in the sunlight:

    cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.:

    contra mediam faciem meridies erit,

    id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.—
    c.
    Of opposite ends of a line.
    (α).
    Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos antipodas vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.—
    (β).
    Of a line drawn:

    contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea,

    opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.—
    d.
    Of buildings, etc.:

    contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet,

    Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15:

    (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus,

    Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29:

    contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit,

    Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.—
    e.
    Of places on the human body:

    id quod contra stomachum est,

    Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7;

    4, 20 (13).—Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: ea... contra medium alvum orsa,

    Cels. 4, 1 fin.
    2.
    Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.:

    adversus, ad, e regione,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
    a.
    In gen.:

    quamvis subito... quamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago,

    Lucr. 4, 156: Democritus... clipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4:

    et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis...?

    Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8:

    rex constiterat contra pedites,

    Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1:

    ne contra septentrionem paveris,

    Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69:

    contra solem varie refulgens,

    placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83;

    37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt,

    id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.—
    b.
    Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility):

    (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis,

    towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.—So trop., of actions done for a purpose:

    lege Cornelia de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit,

    Dig. 48, 8, 4.—
    c.
    Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.—Similarly: dum... fidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.—
    d.
    Against an opposing action, etc.:

    contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa,

    Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5:

    cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae,

    Vitr. 1, 6, 8:

    ut contra ventum gregem pascamus,

    Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54:

    contra fluminum impetus aggeribus,

    id. 35, 14, 48, § 169:

    capite in sole contra pilum peruncto,

    id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4. [p. 455] — Trop.:

    contra fortunam tenendus est cursus,

    Sen. Prov. 5, 9.—Prov.:

    contra stimulum calces,

    kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.—
    e.
    Of local actions with hostile intent.
    (α).
    Lit.:

    quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit?

    Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12:

    Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit),

    id. Att. 15, 20, 3:

    pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere,

    to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26:

    a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit,

    id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62:

    Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat,

    Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.—Appositively, with a local verb understood:

    terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes,

    i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.—
    (β).
    Trop.:

    castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata,

    Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5:

    tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur,

    will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86:

    cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 40:

    (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi,

    when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.—
    f.
    In partic.
    (α).
    Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose:

    quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio,

    Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7:

    contra populi studium,

    Cic. Brut. 34, 126:

    contra civium perditorum... dementiam a senatu et a bonorum causa,

    id. ib. 79, 273; so,

    a mendacio contra veritatem,

    id. Inv. 1, 3, 4:

    contra cives in acie,

    id. Att. 16, 11, 2:

    et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci,

    opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414:

    haec enim (ratio) sola... stat contra fortunam,

    Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
    (β).
    Contra aliquem ire:

    aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones,

    Stat. Th. 9, 16.— Trop.:

    uti contra injurias armati eatis,

    Sall. J. 31, 6:

    interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa,

    Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. b infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.—
    3.
    Transf.,
    a.
    To persons placed together for comparison:

    C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur,

    Quint. 10, 1, 114:

    CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS,

    Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.—
    b.
    To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
    (α).
    Lit. (very rare):

    quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statue... Si gravior est, leviorem rem... feret, etc.,

    Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.—
    (β).
    Prop.:

    cujus (i. e. generis humani) causa videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magna saeva mercede contra tanta sua munera,

    Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1:

    qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam,

    Sen. Ep. 9, 9:

    numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejus... condemnare,

    Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3:

    tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri,

    id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3:

    nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi,

    as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.—So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8:

    (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere,

    Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104:

    contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium?

    Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so,

    robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est,

    id. ib. 13, 2;

    so of counterchecks: in Creta decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.—Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.—Hence,
    c.
    Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summa Sacra Via ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter):

    numcubi hic vides citrum... num quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum,

    superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.):

    oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum,

    Petr. 7, 6.—
    d.
    Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra:

    contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 29:

    contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat,

    Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4:

    quae contra breviter fata est vates,

    Verg. A. 6, 398:

    contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc.,

    Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    B.
    Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
    1.
    With verbs of hostile action.
    a.
    Of physical exertion:

    pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos,

    Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22:

    proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus,

    id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142. —
    b.
    Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patria, etc.; cf.

    bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro),

    Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.—With bellum suscipere:

    contra Antonium,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so,

    contra patriam,

    id. Sull. 20, 58:

    pugnare contra patriam,

    id. ib. 25, 70:

    contra conjuges et liberos,

    Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5:

    armatum esse contra populum Romanum,

    Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.—With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.—With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7:

    armis contendere contra,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 13:

    arma alicui dare (trop.),

    Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53:

    aciem instruere (trop.),

    Liv. 25, 4, 4:

    exercitum comparare,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2:

    exercitum instruere,

    id. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    exercitum ducere and adducere,

    id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11:

    exercitum contra Philippum mittere,

    id. Inv. 1, 12, 17:

    naves ducere contra,

    Hor. Epod. 4, 19:

    ducere contra hostes,

    Liv. 1, 27, 4:

    florem Italiae educere contra,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24:

    proficisci contra,

    to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5:

    auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos,

    Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88:

    juvare aliquem contra,

    Caes. B. C. 1, 35:

    consilium inire contra Sequanos,

    to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.—
    c.
    Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
    (α).
    In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney:

    cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis,

    Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.—Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against:

    (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.—Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one's counsel against:

    rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium,

    Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.:

    esse contra,

    id. ib. 1, 18, 3.— Trop.: conquesturus venit;

    at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit,

    Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89:

    causam defendere contra,

    against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178:

    statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam),

    to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34:

    actio competit contra,

    Dig. 49, 14, 41:

    querelam instituere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1:

    bonorum possessionem petere contra,

    ib. 5, 2, 23:

    jus obtinere contra,

    Cic. Quint. 9, 34:

    pugnare contra,

    to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33:

    id quod mihi contra illos datum est,

    i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33:

    judicare contra aliquem,

    id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2:

    pronuntiare contra,

    Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1:

    decernere contra,

    Cic. Fl. 31, 76:

    appellare contra aliquem,

    Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.:

    contra sententiam,

    Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.—Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to:

    cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc.,

    Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.—
    (β).
    Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one's adversary:

    quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter?

    Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.—Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one's interests:

    contra rem suam me venisse questus est,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.—
    (γ).
    With dicere and other verbs of saying. (aa) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer:

    ipse ille Mucius, quid in illa causa cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc.,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244:

    cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret,

    id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so,

    causam dicere,

    id. Or. 2, 23, 98:

    causam perorare,

    id. Quint. 24, 77.—(bb) Of a lawyer's pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.:

    quorum alter pro Aufldia, contra dixit alter,

    id. 10, 1, 22.—(ng) Of a party against a lawyer:

    si Gaditani contra me dicerent,

    if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.—(dd) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them:

    si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.:

    testimonium in aliquem dicere,

    id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36):

    contra juris consultos dicere,

    against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.—So of witnesses in scientific questions:

    contra testes dicendum est,

    Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.—(ee) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against:

    cum interrogamus adversarios... quid contra nos dici possit,

    Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33:

    tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere?

    Cic. Quint. 25, 78. —
    d.
    Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing:

    cum scriberem contra Epicurios,

    Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1:

    contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est,

    id. N. D. 2, 1, 2:

    contra Brutum,

    id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21:

    contra Academiam,

    id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17:

    contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris,

    id. Off. 2, 2, 8.—
    e.
    Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
    (α).
    In gen.:

    sentire contra,

    Cic. Mil. 2, 5:

    pugnare contra bonos,

    id. Sull. 25, 71:

    contra eos summa ope nitebatur nobilitas,

    Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112:

    (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant,

    Liv. 39, 32, 12.—
    (β).
    Of political speaking:

    cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summa contentione dixisset,

    Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.:

    adversus, in): inire consilia contra,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18:

    manum comparare contra aliquem,

    id. Sull. 24, 68:

    conjurationem facere,

    id. ib. 4, 12:

    congredi,

    id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4:

    aliquid contra imperatorem moliri,

    Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3:

    nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem,

    against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.—Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. b infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2:

    eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt,

    operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.—With verbs of saying, etc.:

    homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se?

    Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70:

    epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38:

    disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius,

    to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.—
    2.
    Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one's disadvantage: ut [p. 456] ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6:

    licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est,

    injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75:

    res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit,

    id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.—Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives:

    nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me,

    Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112:

    quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim,

    id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.—
    3.
    Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition:

    Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi?

    or keep it against Caesar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23:

    sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos,

    id. Att. 7, 5, 5:

    judicium illud pecunia esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium,

    id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92:

    cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini,

    id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.—So with the force of a temporal clause:

    fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti,

    in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.—
    4.
    Dependent on adjectives (rare):

    contra se ipse misericors,

    to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3:

    severissimus judex contra fures,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.—
    5.
    With nouns.
    a.
    Acc. to 1. b.:

    ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint,

    Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.—
    b.
    Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
    (α).
    Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor:

    quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret?

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.:

    Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra,

    Gell. 10, 15, 3; so,

    haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221:

    orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat,

    id. ib. 3, 56, 213.—
    (β).
    Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs:

    unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit,

    Cic. Brut. 26, 99:

    (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem... contra Aeschinem falsae legationis,

    id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.—
    c.
    Acc. to 1. f.:

    contra patres concitatio et seditio,

    Cic. Brut. 14, 56.—Of animals:

    contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis,

    Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    C.
    With inanimate and abstract objects.
    1.
    Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
    a.
    Of physical or moral exertion:

    cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis,

    Verg. A. 10, 567:

    pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem,

    Cic. Sen. 11, 35:

    contra verum niti,

    Sall. J. 35, 8:

    contra fortunam luctari,

    Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.—
    b.
    Of warfare (lit. and trop.):

    bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere,

    Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1:

    bellum gerimus... contra arma verbis,

    id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.—So of logical contradictions:

    artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent,

    Quint. 5, 13, 30.—
    c.
    Of legal contention.
    (α).
    Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something:

    contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.),

    Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118:

    contra ratiocinationem,

    id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1:

    contra caput dicere,

    to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.:

    servum in caput domini interrogare,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.—Pregn.:

    contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.—
    (β).
    Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.:

    contra tabulas judicare,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281:

    contra testamentum,

    Dig. 2, 17, § 1:

    contra sententiam dicere,

    ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.—
    (γ).
    Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.:

    inmittere in bona),

    Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.—
    d.
    Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
    (α).
    To contend that something is false:

    dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.:

    in sententiam dicere,

    in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45):

    contra sensus dicere,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101:

    contra rhetoricen dicere,

    Quint. 2, 17, 40.—
    (β).
    Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.:

    contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere,

    Vitr. 7, praef. 8:

    contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat,

    Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.—
    (γ).
    Ethically:

    contra voluptatem dicere,

    that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21:

    contra mortem loqui,

    that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7;

    in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem,

    id. ib. 100, 10:

    contra fortunam gloriari,

    that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.—
    e.
    Of public and political acts and speeches:

    contra potentiam accusatorum dicere,

    Cic. Brut. 44, 164:

    contra legem dicere or verba facere,

    id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1:

    rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de colonia deducenda),

    Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.—
    f.
    Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
    (α).
    In gen.:

    senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret,

    directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2:

    contra rem publicam se commovere,

    id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7:

    incitari,

    id. Sest. 47, 100:

    consilia inire,

    id. Agr. 2, 3, 8:

    conjurationem facere,

    Sall. C. 30, 6:

    contra salutem urbis incitari,

    Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20:

    cogitare aliquid contra salutem,

    id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one's will in a speech:

    esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet,

    id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91:

    ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuria,

    do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.— Trop.:

    quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem),

    Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.—
    (β).
    In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.:

    si quis ad Antonium profectus esset... senatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse,

    Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so,

    contra salutem rei publicae facere,

    Cic. Dom. 38, 102:

    contra majestatem,

    against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5:

    contra leges,

    Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121:

    contra edictum (praetoris),

    Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1:

    contra foedus,

    Cic. Balb. 6, 16:

    contra jusjurandum ac fidem,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).—And ironically:

    tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)?

    Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.—Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.):

    corpus in civitatem inferri non licet... et qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur,

    Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.—
    2.
    Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. g).
    (α).
    With esse expressed as the predicate:

    hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors,

    Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45:

    contra leges or legem est,

    Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67:

    contra officium est,

    id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.—With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.:

    adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit,

    unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.—
    (β).
    With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood:

    scis hunc... nihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset),

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13:

    aliquid contra animum audiendi,

    something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.—So mostly with facere:

    si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint,

    Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2. —
    (γ).
    Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est:

    Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam,

    Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.—
    3.
    Adverbially with the predicate.
    (α).
    In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.):

    eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant,

    that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22:

    imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit,

    to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so,

    advocare contra,

    Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52:

    si contra mortem te praeparaveris,

    to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.—
    (β).
    With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.:

    quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est,

    Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78:

    contra hominis salutem,

    with danger to a man's life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.—
    (γ).
    In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period;

    syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86:

    pecuniam contra leges auferre,

    id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56:

    contra legem,

    id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41:

    contra jus fasque,

    id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28:

    contra jus,

    Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34:

    contra jus gentium,

    Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6;

    6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem,

    Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.:

    contra testimonium aliquid judicare,

    without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117:

    aliquid contra verecundiam disputare,

    contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128:

    aliquid contra fidem constituere,

    Quint. 5, 13, 34:

    quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere,

    contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.—
    4.
    Dependent on substt.
    a.
    Of physical strife:

    scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis),

    Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33. —
    b.
    Of warfare:

    imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem,

    Cic. Mur. 39, 83:

    Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum,

    Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.—
    c.
    Of legal contention:

    causa contra scriptum,

    Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.—
    d.
    Of political speaking:

    divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias,

    Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.—
    e.
    Of literary opposition:

    Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam,

    Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.—
    f.
    Of hostility, etc.:

    cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam,

    Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27:

    ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram,

    Liv. 6, 40, 5.—
    g.
    Of injury:

    vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam,

    Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.—
    h.
    Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. g):

    iter contra senatus auctoritatem,

    Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48:

    contra consuetudinem somnium,

    Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211:

    bonorum possessio contra tabulas,

    Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.—
    5.
    Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf.

    II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam,

    Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    D.
    Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
    1.
    Against persons.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam [p. 457] contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45:

    contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt,

    provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula qua utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46. —And of protection of plants against injurious animals:

    contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc.,

    Pall. 10, 3, 2.—
    b.
    Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial:

    paratus contra,

    Cic. Mil. 21, 56:

    nihil satis firmum contra Metellum,

    Sall. J. 80, 1:

    contra potentes nemo est munitus satis,

    Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.—
    2.
    Against inanimate and abstract things.
    a.
    Dependent on verbs:

    contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum,

    Cic. Sen. 15, 51:

    propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat,

    id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102:

    publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere,

    id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9:

    contra tantas difficultates providere,

    Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so,

    contra ea,

    id. ib. 57, 5:

    patricii vi contra vim resistunt,

    Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.—
    b.
    Dependent on substt.:

    suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis,

    Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35:

    defensio contra vim,

    id. Mil. 5, 14:

    patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili,

    id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40:

    contra labores patientia,

    id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.—
    c.
    Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare;

    in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Cilicia contra Syriam munitius,

    against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4:

    ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76:

    vir contra audaciam firmissimus,

    id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5:

    fortis contra dolorem,

    Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10:

    callosus,

    Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23:

    far contra hiemes firmissimum,

    id. 18, 8, 19, § 83:

    equus tenax contra vincula,

    Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13:

    contraque minantia fata pervigil,

    Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.—
    3.
    Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
    (α).
    Dependent on verbs:

    cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur,

    Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13:

    prodest et contra suspiria et tussim,

    id. 20, 13, 50, § 128:

    valet potum contra venena,

    id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.—
    (β).
    Dependent on substt.:

    remedium contra morsus,

    Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163:

    contra venena esse omnia remedio,

    id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.—
    (γ).
    Dependent on adjectives:

    vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit,

    Pall. 11, 14, 17.—
    (δ).
    Appositively, as a remedy:

    cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebrat... contra serpentes et venena,

    Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83. —So of remedies against affections:

    Tiberium tonante caelo coronari ea (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus,

    Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    E.
    Of logical opposition.
    1.
    With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
    a.
    The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf.

    I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur,

    but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1:

    omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt,

    and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90. —
    b.
    Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. a, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.):

    omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandi... contra ea Caesar... spatiumque interponendum... putabat ( = at contra),

    but Caesar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibus... legati prohibiti commercio sunt;

    contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti,

    Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6;

    44, 43, 5: pater... Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem,

    Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.—And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.):

    an infirmissimi omnium... (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus),

    Liv. 41, 24, 8.—
    c.
    Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.):

    illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta,

    whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81:

    cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari),

    Cic. Sen. 23, 84:

    quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere,

    id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf.

    Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi,

    id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = qua re;

    v. Ritschl,

    Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).—
    2.
    With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30:

    contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt,

    Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.—Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope:

    Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est),

    Sall. J. 88, 1; so,

    cetera contra spem salva invenit,

    Liv. 9, 23, 17:

    contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit,

    id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45;

    but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat),

    Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3:

    postquam... Jugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt,

    Sall. J. 20, 1:

    ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumque... erant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet),

    id. ib. 46, 5:

    contra famam,

    Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180:

    segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae,

    slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.—Of persons:

    frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit,

    contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
    F.
    Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
    1.
    In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.:

    quos contra disputant,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47:

    quem contra dicit,

    id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.):

    quem contra veneris,

    id. Mur. 4, 9:

    quas contra, praeter te, etc.,

    id. Vatin. 7, 18:

    eos ipsos quos contra statuas,

    id. Or. 10, 34:

    quos contra me senatus armavit,

    id. Att. 10, 8, 8:

    quam contra multa locutus est,

    Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.—
    2.
    After other words ( poet. and in post-Aug. prose):

    hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam,

    Lucr. 4, 471:

    dicere eos contra,

    id. 4, 484:

    donique eum contra,

    id. 5, 708:

    agmina contra,

    Verg. A. 12, 279:

    magnum Alciden contra,

    id. ib. 5, 414:

    Paridem contra,

    id. ib. 5, 370:

    Italiam contra,

    id. ib. 1, 13:

    deos contra,

    Ov. P. 1, 1, 26:

    Messania moenia contra,

    id. M. 14, 17:

    litora Calabriae contra,

    Tac. A. 3, 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > contra dicta

  • 12 eo

    1.
    ĕo, īvi or ii (īt, Verg. A. 9, 418 al.; cf.

    Lachm. ad Lucr. vol. 2, p. 206 sq.: isse, issem, etc., for ivisse, etc.,

    Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 25; Cic. Rosc. Am. 23, 64; id. Phil. 14, 1, 1; Ov. M. 7, 350 et saep.: isti, Turp. ap. Non. 4, 242:

    istis,

    Luc. 7, 834, etc., v. Neue Formenl. 2, 515), īre ( inf. pass. irier, Plaut. Rud. 4, 7, 16), ĭtum, v. n. [root i-, Sanscr. ēmi, go; Gr. eimi; causat. hiêmi = jacio, Curt. Gr. Etym. p. 403], to go (of every kind of motion of animate or inanimate things), to walk, ride, sail, fly, move, pass, etc. (very freq. in all periods and sorts of writing).
    I.
    Lit.
    A.
    In gen.:

    eo ad forum,

    Plaut. As. 1, 1, 95:

    i domum,

    id. ib. 5, 2, 71 sq.:

    nos priores ibimus,

    id. Poen. 3, 2, 34:

    i in crucem,

    go and be hanged! id. As. 5, 2, 91; cf.:

    i in malam crucem,

    id. Cas. 3, 5, 17; id. Ps. 3, 2, 57; 4, 7, 86:

    i in malam rem hinc,

    Ter. Ph. 5, 7, 37:

    iens in Pompeianum,

    Cic. Att. 4, 9 fin.:

    subsidio suis ierunt,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 62, 8:

    quom it dormitum,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 4, 23; id Most. 3, 2, 4; 16; Hor. S. 1, 6, 119 et saep, cf.:

    dormitum, lusum,

    id. ib. 1, 5, 48:

    cubitum,

    Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 27; 5, 4, 8; id. Ps. 3, 2, 57; Cic. Rosc. Am. 23; id. Div. 2, 59, 122 et saep.— Poet. with the acc. of the terminus:

    ibis Cecropios portus,

    Ov. H. 10, 125 Loers.:

    Sardoos recessus,

    Sil. 12, 368; cf.:

    hinc Afros,

    Verg. E. 1, 65.—With a cognate acc.:

    ire vias,

    Prop. 1, 1, 17:

    exsequias,

    Ter. Ph. 5, 8, 37:

    pompam funeris,

    Ov. F. 6, 663 et saep.:

    non explorantur eundae vitandaeque viae,

    Claud. in Eutrop. 2, 419:

    animae ad lumen iturae,

    Verg. A. 6, 680:

    ego ire in Piraeum volo,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 63; cf.:

    visere ad aliquam,

    Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 114; id. Phorm. 1, 2, 52:

    videre,

    Prop. 1, 1, 12:

    ire pedibus,

    on foot, Liv. 28, 17:

    equis,

    id. 1, 15:

    curru,

    id. 28, 9; Ov. H. 1, 46; cf.:

    in equis,

    id. A. A. 1, 214:

    in raeda,

    Mart. 3, 47:

    super equos,

    Just. 41, 3;

    and with equis to be supplied,

    Verg. A. 5, 554:

    puppibus,

    Ov. H. 19, 180; cf.:

    cum classe Pisas,

    Liv. 41, 17 et saep.:

    concedere quo poterunt undae, cum pisces ire nequibunt?

    Lucr. 1, 380.—
    b.
    Of things:

    alvus non it,

    Cato R. R. 157, 7; so,

    sanguis naribus,

    Lucr. 6, 1203:

    Euphrates jam mollior undis,

    Verg. A. 8, 726:

    sudor per artus,

    id. ib. 2, 174:

    fucus in artus,

    Lucr. 2, 683:

    telum (with volare),

    id. 1, 971:

    trabes,

    i. e. to give way, sink, id. 6, 564 et saep.:

    in semen ire (asparagum),

    to go to seed, Cato, R. R. 161, 3; so Plin. 18, 17, 45, § 159; cf.:

    in corpus (juvenes),

    Quint. 2, 10, 5:

    sanguis it in sucos,

    turns into, Ov. M. 10, 493.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    To go or proceed against with hostile intent, to march against:

    quos fugere credebant, infestis signis ad se ire viderunt,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 8, 6:

    ad hostem,

    Liv. 42, 49:

    contra hostem,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 67, 2; cf. id. B. C. 3, 31 fin.:

    adversus hostem,

    Liv. 42, 49:

    in hostem,

    id. 2, 6; Verg. A. 9, 424 et saep.; cf.:

    in Capitolium,

    to go against, to attack, Liv. 3, 17.—
    2.
    Pregn., to pass away, disappear (very rare):

    saepe hominem paulatim cernimus ire,

    Lucr. 3, 526; cf. ib. 530; 594.
    II.
    Trop.
    A.
    In gen., to go, pass, proceed, move, advance:

    ire in opus alienum,

    Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 6:

    in dubiam imperii servitiique aleam,

    Liv. 1, 23 fin.:

    in alteram causam praeceps ierat,

    id. 2, 27:

    in rixam,

    Quint. 6, 4, 13:

    in lacrimas,

    Verg. A. 4, 413; Stat. Th. 11, 193:

    in poenas,

    Ov. M. 5, 668 et saep.:

    ire per singula,

    Quint. 6, 1, 12; cf. id. 4, 2, 32; 7, 1, 64; 10, 5, 21:

    ad quem (modum) non per gradus itur,

    id. 8, 4, 7 et saep.:

    dicite qua sit eundum,

    Ov. Tr. 3, 1, 19:

    ire infitias, v. infitiae: Latina debent cito pariter ire,

    Quint. 1, 1, 14:

    aliae contradictiones eunt interim longius,

    id. 5, 13, 54: in eosdem semper pedes ire (compositio), [p. 649] id. 9, 4, 142:

    cum per omnes et personas et affectus eat (comoedia),

    id. 1, 8, 7; cf. id. 1, 2, 13; Juv. 1, 142:

    Phrygiae per oppida facti Rumor it,

    Ov. M. 6, 146:

    it clamor caelo,

    Verg. A. 5, 451:

    factoque in secula ituro, Laetantur tribuisse locum,

    to go down to posterity, Sil. 12, 312; cf.

    with a subject-sentence: ibit in saecula, fuisse principem, cui, etc.,

    Plin. Pan. 55.—
    B.
    In partic.
    1.
    Pub. law t. t.
    a.
    Pedibus ire, or simply ire in aliquam sententiam, in voting, to go over or accede to any opinion (opp. discedere, v. h. v. II. B. 2. b.):

    cum omnes in sententiam ejus pedibus irent,

    Liv. 9, 8, 13:

    pars major eorum qui aderant in eandem sententiam ibat,

    id. 1, 32 fin.; 34, 43; 42, 3 fin.—Pass. impers.:

    in quam sententiam cum pedibus iretur,

    Liv. 5, 9, 2:

    ibatur in eam sententiam,

    Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1 fin.:

    itum in sententiam,

    Tac. A. 3, 23; 12, 48.—And opp. to the above,
    b.
    Ire in alia omnia, to vote against a bill, v. alius, II.—
    2.
    Mercant. t. t. for vēneo, to go for, be sold at a certain price, Plin. 18, 23, 53, § 194:

    tot Pontus eat, tot Lydia nummis,

    Claud. Eutr. 1, 203.—
    3.
    Pregn., of time, to pass by, pass away:

    it dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 12; Hor. C. 2, 14, 5; 4, 5, 7:

    anni,

    id. Ep. 2, 2, 55; cf.:

    anni more fluentis aquae,

    Ov. A. A. 3, 62.—
    4.
    With the accessory notion of result, to go, proceed, turn out, happen:

    incipit res melius ire quam putaram,

    Cic. Att. 14, 15; cf. Tac. A. 12, 68:

    prorsus ibat res,

    Cic. Att. 14, 20 fin.; Curt. 8, 5:

    postquam omnia fatis Caesaris ire videt,

    Luc. 4, 144.—Hence the wish: sic eat, so may he fare:

    sic eat quaecunque Romana lugebit hostem,

    Liv. 1, 26; Luc. 5, 297 Cort.; 2, 304; Claud. in Eutr. 2, 155. —
    5.
    Constr. with a supine, like the Gr. mellein, to go or set about, to prepare, to wish, to be about to do any thing:

    si opulentus it petitum pauperioris gratiam, etc.,

    Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 69; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 36: quod uti prohibitum irem, quod in me esset, meo labori non parsi, Cato ap. Fest. s. v. PARSI, p. 242 Müll.; so,

    perditum gentem universam,

    Liv. 32, 22:

    ultum injurias, scelera,

    id. 2, 6; Quint. 11, 1, 42:

    servitum Grais matribus,

    Verg. A. 2, 786 et saep.:

    bonorum praemia ereptum eunt,

    Sall. J. 85, 42.—Hence the construction of the inf. pass. iri with the supine, in place of an inf. fut. pass.:

    mihi omne argentum redditum iri,

    Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 5:

    mihi istaec videtur praeda praedatum irier,

    id. Rud. 4, 7, 16 et saep.— Poet. also with inf.:

    seu pontum carpere remis Ibis,

    Prop. 1, 6, 34:

    attollere facta regum,

    Stat. S. 5, 3, 11:

    fateri,

    id. Th. 3, 61 al. —
    6.
    Imp. i, eas, eat, etc., since the Aug. period more freq. a mocking or indignant expression, go then, go now:

    i nunc et cupidi nomen amantis habe,

    Ov. H. 3, 26; so,

    i nunc,

    id. ib. 4, 127; 9, 105; 17, 57; id. Am. 1, 7, 35; Prop. 2, 29, 22 (3, 27, 22 M.); Verg. A. 7, 425; Juv. 6, 306 al.:

    i, sequere Italiam ventis,

    Verg. A. 4, 381; so,

    i,

    id. ib. 9, 634:

    fremunt omnibus locis: Irent, crearent consules ex plebe,

    Liv. 7, 6 fin.
    2.
    ĕō, adv. [old dat. and abl. form of pron. stem i; cf. is].
    I.
    In locat. and abl. uses,
    A.
    Of place=in eo loco, there, in that place (rare):

    quid (facturus est) cum tu eo quinque legiones haberes?

    Cic. Ep. ad Brut. 1, 2, 1:

    quo loco... ibi... eoque,

    Cels. 8, 9, 1:

    eo loci,

    Tac. A. 15, 74; Plin. 11, 37, 50, § 136; so trop.: eo loci, in that condition:

    res erat eo jam loci, ut, etc.,

    Cic. Sest. 13, 68; Tac. A. 14, 61; Dig. 5, 1, 52, § 3.—
    B.
    Of cause=eā re.
    1.
    Referring to a cause or reason before given, therefore, on that account, for that reason:

    is nunc dicitur venturus peregre: eo nunc commenta est dolum,

    Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 66; Ter. Hec. 2, 1, 41:

    dederam litteras ad te: eo nunc ero brevior,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 20, 1; Sall. C. 21, 3; Liv. 8, 8, 8; Tac. H. 2, 65; Nep. Pelop. 1, 3; id. Milt. 2, 3 et saep.—So with conjunctions, eoque, et eo, eo quoque, in adding any thing as a consequence of what precedes, and for that reason:

    absolute pares, et eo quoque innumerabiles,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 17, 55:

    impeditius eoque hostibus incautum,

    Tac. A. 1, 50:

    per gentes integras et eo feroces,

    Vell. 2, 115, 2; Quint. 4, 1, 42 al. —
    2.
    Referring to a foll. clause, giving
    (α).
    a cause or reason, with quia, quoniam, quod, etc.; so with quia:

    eo fit, quia mihi plurimum credo,

    Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 124; id. Capt. 1, 1, 2:

    nunc eo videtur foedus, quia, etc.,

    Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 17; 3, 1, 25:

    quia scripseras, eo te censebam, etc.,

    Cic. Att. 10, 17, 4; Sall. C. 20, 3; Tac. Agr. 22.—With quoniam:

    haec eo notavi, quoniam, etc.,

    Gell. 7, 13.—With quod:

    quod... non potueritis, eo vobis potestas erepta sit,

    Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22; Nep. Eum. 11, 5; Liv. 9, 2, 4; Caes. B. G. 1, 23; so,

    neque eo... quod,

    Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 43; Varr. R. R. 1, 5.—
    (β).
    A purpose, motive or reason, with quo, ut, ne; and after negatives, with quo, quin, and subj. —So with quo:

    eo scripsi, quo plus auctoritatis haberem,

    Cic. Att. 8, 9, 1; Sall. C. 22, 2; so,

    non eo... quo,

    Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 16:

    neque eo... quo,

    Cic. Att. 3, 15, 4; id. Rosc. Am. 18, 51.—With ut:

    haec eo scripsi, ut intellegeres,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 69, 2; id. de Or. 3, 49, 187; Lact. 4, 5, 9.—With ne: Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 63; Ter. Ph. 5, 1, 17:

    quod ego non eo vereor, ne mihi noceat,

    Cic. Att. 9, 2; id. Rab. Perd. 3, 9.—With quin:

    non eo haec dico, quin quae tu vis ego velim,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 60; id. As. 5, 1, 16. —
    C.
    Of measure or degree—with words of comparison, so much, by so much —followed by quo (= tanto... quanto):

    quae eo fructuosiores fiunt, quo calidior terra aratur,

    Varr. R. R. 1, 32, 1:

    eo gravior est dolor, quo culpa major,

    Cic. Att. 11, 11, 2; id. Fam. 2, 19, 1; so with quantum:

    quantum juniores patrum plebi se magis insinuabant, eo acrius contra tribuni tendebant, etc.,

    Liv. 3, 15, 2; id. 44, 7, 6:

    quanto longius abscederent, eo, etc.,

    id. 30, 30, 23. —Esp. freq. the formulae, eo magis, eo minus, so much the worse ( the less), followed by quo, quod, quoniam, si, ut, ne:

    eo magis, quo tanta penuria est in omni honoris gradu,

    Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 7:

    eo minus veritus navibus, quod in littore molli, etc.,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 9; Cic. Off. 3, 22, 88; id. Att. 15, 9 fin.:

    eo magis, quoniam, etc., Cels. praef. p. 14, 12 Müll.: nihil admirabilius fieri potest, eoque magis, si ea sunt in adulescente,

    Cic. Off. 2, 14, 48; id. Tusc. 1, 39, 94:

    eo diligentius ut ne parvula quidem titubatione impediremur,

    Auct. Her. 2, 8, 12; Cic. Rab. Perd. 3, 9:

    ego illa extuli et eo quidem magis, ne quid ille superiorum meminisse me putaret,

    id. Att. 9, 13, 3.—

    In this combination eo often expresses also the idea of cause (cf. B. 1. supra): hoc probis pretiumst. Eo mihi magis lubet cum probis potius quam cum improbis vivere,

    Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 37: solliciti tamen et anxii sunt;

    eoque magis, quod se ipsi continent et coercent,

    Cic. Tusc. 4, 33, 70;

    and some passages may be classed under either head: dederam triduo ante litteras ad te. Eo nunc ero brevior,

    Cic. Fam. 6, 21, 1; id. Inv 1, 4, 5; id. Off. 2, 13, 45; id. Fam. 9, 16, 9; Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 8.
    II.
    In dat. uses.
    A.
    With the idea of motion, to that place, thither (=in eum locum):

    eo se recipere coeperunt,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 25, 5:

    uti eo cum introeas, circumspicias, uti inde exire possit,

    Cato, R. R. 1, 2:

    eo tela conicere, Auct. B. Afr. 72: eo respicere,

    Sall. J. 35, 10; so,

    followed by quo, ubi, unde: non potuit melius pervenirier eo, quo nos volumus,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 35:

    venio nunc eo, quo me fides ducit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 30, 83:

    ibit eo quo vis, etc.,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 40:

    (venit) eo, ubi non modo res erat, etc.,

    Cic. Quint. 11; Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 21; Vell. 2, 108, 2:

    eo, unde discedere non oportuit, revertamur,

    Cic. Att. 2, 16, 3; Liv. 6, 35, 2; Sall. C. 60, 2;

    so (late Lat.) with loci: perducendum eo loci, ubi actum sit,

    Dig. 10, 4, 11, § 1; ib. 47, 2, 3, § 2.—
    B.
    Transf.
    1.
    With the idea of addition, thereto, in addition to that, besides:

    accessit eo, ut milites ejus, etc.,

    Cic. Fam. 10, 21, 4:

    accedit eo, quod, etc.,

    id. Att. 1, 13, 1.—
    2.
    With the idea of tendency, to that end, with that purpose, to this result:

    hoc autem eo spectabat, ut eam a Philippo corruptam diceret,

    Cic. Div. 2, 57, 118:

    haec eo pertinet oratio, ut ipsa virtus se sustentare posse videretur,

    id. Fam. 6, 1, 12:

    hoc eo valebat, ut, etc.,

    Nep. Them. 4, 4.—
    3.
    With the idea of degree or extent, to that degree or extent, so far, to such a point:

    eo scientiae progredi,

    Quint. 2, 1, 6:

    postquam res publica eo magnificentiae venerit, gliscere singulos,

    Tac. A. 2, 33; id. H. 1, 16; id. Agr. 28:

    eo magnitudinis procedere,

    Sall. J. 1, 5; 5, 2; 14, 3:

    ubi jam eo consuetudinis adducta res est, ut, etc.,

    Liv. 25, 8, 11; 28, 27, 12; 32, 18, 8 al.; Just. 3, 5:

    eo insolentiae processit,

    Plin. Pan. 16:

    eo rerum ventum erat, ut, etc.,

    Curt. 5, 12, 3; 7, 1, 35.— With gen., Val. Max. 3, 7, 1 al.; Flor. 1, 24, 2; 2, 18, 12; Suet. Caes. 77; Plin. Pan. 16, 5; Sen. Q. N. 4 praef. §

    9: eo rem jam adducam, ut nihil divinationis opus sit,

    Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 96:

    res eo est deducta, ut, etc.,

    id. Att. 2, 18, 2; Hor. C. 2, 1, 226; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 18.—
    C.
    Of time, up to the time, until, so long, usually with usque, and followed by dum, donec:

    usque eo premere capita, dum illae captum amitterent,

    Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 124; Liv. 23, 19, 14; Tac. A. 4, 18:

    eo usque flagitatus est, donec ad exitium dederetur,

    id. ib. 1, 32; Quint. 11, 3, 53:

    eo usque vivere, donec, etc.,

    Liv. 40, 8; cf. Col. 4, 24, 20; 4, 30, 4.—Rarely by quamdiu:

    eo usque, quamdiu ad fines barbaricos veniretur,

    Lampr. Alex. Sev. 45.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > eo

  • 13 adversus

        adversus ī, m    an enemy, opponent: vir populi partium, an opponent of the democrats, S. —    2.
    * * *
    I
    opposite, against, in opposite direction; in opposition; (w/ire go to meet)
    II
    facing, opposite, against, towards; contrary to; face to face, in presence of
    III
    adversa -um, adversior -or -us, adversissimus -a -um ADJ
    opposite, directly facing, ranged against; adverse, evil, hostile; unfavorable
    IV
    person/foe opposite/directly facing (w/hostile intent); political opponent

    Latin-English dictionary > adversus

  • 14 sector

        sector ōris, m    [2 SAC-], one who cuts, a cutter: sectores collorum et bonorum, cutthroats and cutpurses: omnium sectorum audacissimus (in a double sense).— A purchaser of confiscated goods at auction, speculator in forfeited estates: in bello hostis, in pace sector: mulierem emere a sectoribus.
    * * *
    sectari, sectatus sum V DEP
    follow continually; pursue; pursue with punishment; hunt out; run after

    Latin-English dictionary > sector

  • 15 sector

        sector ātus, ārī, dep. freq.    [sequor], to follow eagerly, run after, attend, accompany, press upon, follow after, chase, pursue: sectari iussi, to join my train, L.: at sectabantur multi: si conducti sectarentur: Chrysogonum (servi): neque te stipator sectabitur, H.: qui eiusmodi est, ut eum pueri sectentur: Ne scuticā dignum horribili sectere flagello, H.—Of game, to chase, hunt: sectaris apros, V.: leporem, H.—Fig., to follow after, pursue eagerly, search for, hunt: hanc miseram praedam, Cs.: litīs, T.: Nomina tironum, H.: Mitte sectari, quo, etc., H.: virtutes, emulate, Ta.
    * * *
    sectari, sectatus sum V DEP
    follow continually; pursue; pursue with punishment; hunt out; run after

    Latin-English dictionary > sector

  • 16 sīc

        sīc adv.    [for the old sīce; sī (locat. of pron. stem sa-)+ce].—Referring to something done or pointed out by the speaker, thus, in this way, as I do, as you see (colloq.): Cape hoc flabellum, ventulum huic sic facito, T.—In curses or threats: Sic dabo, thus will I treat (every foe), T.: sic eat quaecunque Romana lugebit hostem, so let every woman fare who, etc., L.—Referring to what precedes, so, thus, in this manner, in such a manner, in the same way or manner, in like manner, likewise: in angulum Aliquo abeam; sic agam, T.: sic ille annus duo firmamenta rei p. evertit, in the way described: sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, Cs.: sic regii constiterant, L.—With a part. or adj.: sic igitur instructus veniet ad causas: cum sic adfectos dimisisset, L.—Parenthet., thus, so: commentabar declamitans—sic enim nunc loquuntur: Crevit in inmensum (sic di statuistis), O.— Instead of a pron dem., thus, this: iis litteris respondebo; sic enim postulas (i. e. hoc postulas): hic adsiste; sic volo (i. e. hoc te facere volo), T.: sic fata iubent (i. e. hoc facere iubent), O.—As subject (representing an inf.): Sic commodius esse arbitror quam Manere hanc (i. e. abire), T.: Sic opus est (i. e. hoc facere), O.—In place of a clause of action, thus: sic provolant duo Fabii (i. e. sic loquentes), L.: sic enim nostrae rationes postulabant (i. e. ut sic agerem): sic enim concedis mihi proximis litteris (i. e. ut sic agam): Sic soleo (i. e. bona consilia reddere), T.: quoniam sic cogitis ipsi (i. e. hoc facere), O.—Of nature or character, such: sic vita hominum est (i. e. talis): familiaris noster—sic est enim: sic, Crito, est hic, T.: Sic est (i. e. sic res se habet), that is so, T.: Laelius sapiens—sic enim est habitus: Sic ad me miserande redis! in this condition, O.—Of consequence, so, thus, under these circumstances, accordingly, hence: sic Numitori ad supplicium Remus deditur, L.—Of condition, so, thus only, on this condition, if this be done: reliquas illius anni pestīs recordamini, sic enim facillime perspicietis, etc.— Of degree, so, to such a degree, in such wise: non latuit scintilla ingeni; sic erat in omni sermone sollers (i. e. tam sollers erat ut non lateret ingenium).—Referring to what follows, thus, as follows, in the following manner: sic enim dixisti; vidi ego tuam lacrimulam: res autem se sic habet; composite et apte dicere, etc., the truth is this: placido sic pectore coepit, V.—Ellipt.: ego sic; diem statuo, etc. (sc. ego), for instance: mala definitio est... cum aliquid non grave dicit, sic; stultitia est inmensa gloriae cupiditas.—As correlative, with a clause of comparison, thus, so, just so, in the same way: ut non omnem arborem in omni agro reperire possis, sic non omne facinus in omni vitā nascitur: de Lentulo sic fero ut debeo: fervidi animi vir, ut in publico periculo, sic in suo, L.: mihi sic placuit ut cetera Antisthenis, in the same way as, i. e. no more than: quem ad modum tibicen... sic orator: tecum simul, sicut ego pro multis, sic ille pro Appio dixit: sicut priore anno... sic tum, L.: velut ipse in re trepidā se sit tutatus, sic consulem loca tutiora castris cepisse, L.: tamquam litteris in cerā, sic se aiebat imaginibus perscribere: huius innocentiae sic in hac famā, quasi in aliquā flammā subvenire: ceu cetera nusquam Bella forent... Sic Martem indomitum Cernimus, V.—With acc. and inf: sic te opinor dixisse, invenisse, etc., T.: sic igitur sentio, naturam ad dicendum vim adferre maximam: ego sic existimo, in summo imperatore quattuor res inesse oportere.—Hence the phrase, sic habeto, be sure of this: sic habeto, in eum statum tuum reditum incidere ut, etc.—With a clause of contrast, ut... sic, while... yet, though... still: ut ad bella suscipienda promptus est animus, sic mollis ad calamitates perferendas mens est, Cs.: Ut cognoscit formam, Sic facit incertam color, O.: ut nondum satis claram victoriam, sic prosperae spei pugnam imber diremit, L.: (forma erat) Ut non cygnorum, sic albis proxima cygnis, O.: ut sunt, sic etiam nominantur senes: utinam ut culpam, sic etiam suspitionem vitare potuisses: ut, quem ad modum est, sic etiam appelletur tyrannus: quo modo ad bene vivendum, sic etiam ad beate.—With a clause of manner, sic... ut, so... that, in such a way that, so that: armorum magnā multitudine iactā... sic ut acervi, etc., Cs.: sic agam vobiscum ut aliquid de vestris vitiis audiatis.—With a clause of degree, to such a degree, so, so far: sic animos timor praeoccupaverat, ut dicerent, etc., Cs.: sic adficior, ut Catonem, non me loqui existimem: cuius responso iudices sic exarserunt ut hominem condemnarent.—With a clause of purpose or result, so, with this intent, with this result: ab Ariobarzane sic contendi ut talenta, quae mihi pollicebatur, illi daret.—With a restrictive clause, but so, yet so, only so: sic conveniet reprehendi, ut demonstretur, etc.—With a conditional clause, with the proviso that, but only, if: decreverunt ut cum populus regem iussisset, id sic ratum esset si patres auctores fierent, should be valid, if the Senate should ratify it, L.—In a wish or prayer corresp. to an imperative (poet.), then, if so: Pone, precor, fastūs... Sic tibi nec vernum nascentia frigus adurat Poma, etc., O.: Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos... Incipe (sc. cantare) si quid habes (i. e. si incipies cantare, opto tibi ut tua examina, etc.), V.: Sic mare compositum, sic sit tibi piscis in undā Credulus... Dic ubi sit, O.—With ut in strong asseveration: Sic me di amabunt, ut me tuarum miseritum'st fortunarum, i. e. by the love of the gods, I pity, etc., T.: sic has deus aequoris artīs Adiuvet, ut nemo iam dudum littore in isto constitit, O.—Of circumstance, so, as the matter stands now, as it now is, as it then was: sic vero, but as things now stand: At sic citius qui te expedias his aerumnis reperias, T.: non sic nudos in flumen deicere (voluerunt), naked, as they are: Mirabar hoc si sic abiret, i. e. without trouble, T.—In a concession, even as it is now, even without doing so, in spite of it: sed sic quoque erat tamen Acis, i. e. in spite of all this, O.: sed sic me et liberalitatis fructu privas et diligentiae.—Ellipt.: Quid si hoc nunc sic incipiam? nihil est. quid, sic? tantumdem egero. At sic opinor. non potest, thus, i. e. as occurs to me, T.: illa quae aliis sic, aliis secus videntur, to some in one way, to others in another: deinde quod illa (quae ego dixi) sive faceta sunt, sive sic, fiunt narrante te venustissima, i. e. or otherwise.—In an answer, yes (colloq.): Ph. Phaniam relictam ais? Ge. Sic, T.: De. Illa maneat? Ch. Sic, T.
    * * *
    thus, so; as follows; in another way; in such a way

    Latin-English dictionary > sīc

  • 17 advorsus

    I
    opposite, against, in opposite direction; in opposition; (w/ire go to meet)
    II
    facing, opposite, against, towards; contrary to; face to face, in presence of
    III
    advorsa -um, advorsior -or -us, advorsissimus -a -um ADJ
    opposite, directly facing, ranged against; adverse, evil, hostile; unfavorable
    IV
    person/foe opposite/directly facing (w/hostile intent); political opponent

    Latin-English dictionary > advorsus

  • 18 capesco

    capescere, capescivi, capescitus V TRANS
    grasp, take; undertake, manage; pursue with zeal; carry out orders; (=capesso)

    Latin-English dictionary > capesco

  • 19 contrectatio

    touching/handling (action); fondling/caressing; handling with felonious intent

    Latin-English dictionary > contrectatio

  • 20 contrectator

    thief; (who touches/handles with felonious intent, theft/embezzlement)

    Latin-English dictionary > contrectator

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