1 महाराजමහාරාජ mahaaraaja mahārāja ma great king.
2 Arthur Eldсущ.; собст.; SK, DTОдин из баронов, рыцарь, о котором в мире Роланда слагались легенды. Основоположник рода Эльдов, потомком которого по одной из боковых линий был сам Роланд. Артур Эльд силой объединил разрозненные миры под своим началом, предположительно, тем самым и образовав Альянс феодов. Легенды о нём аналогичны легендам о короле Артуре и рыцарях круглого стола в нашем мире. Например, Артур Эльд, как избранник пророчеств, извлёк свой единяющий меч, Экскалибур, из пирамиды.
Above them, on the wall, was a picture of Arthur, the Great King of Eld astride his white stallion, and a sign which read (in a curious mixture of High and Low Speech): ARGYOU NOT ABOUT THE HAND YOU ARE DELT IN CARDS OR LIFE. — Над ними на стене висела картина, изображающая Артура, великого короля Эльда, верхом на белом жеребце. Подпись (странная смесь низкого наречия и Высокого Слога) гласила: В ИГРЕ КАРТАМИ ЖИЗНИ ОБХОДИСЬ ТЕМИ, ЧТО У ТЕБЯ НА РУКАХ. (ТБ 4)
Steven Deschain of Gilead, a gunslinger (which was to say a knight, squire, peacemaker, and Baron… the last title having almost no meaning in the modern day, despite all John Farson’s ranting) of the twenty-ninth generation descended from Arthur of Eld, on the side line of descent (the long-descended gel of one of Arthur’s many gillies, in other words). — Стивен Дискейн из Гилеада, стрелок (иначе говоря, рыцарь, сквайр, миротворец и барон – последний титул не имел никакого веса в нынешнее время, пусть Джон Фарсон и утверждал обратное), потомок в двадцать восьмом колене Артура из Эльда, по боковой линии (другими словами, ведущий свой род от одной из многочисленных наложниц Артура). (ТБ 4)
… the music had been fuller, the company of older and nobler lines which grew closer and closer together as they stretched back toward Arthur Eld, he of the white horse and unifying sword. — … музыка громче, а гуляли они под недремлющим оком короля Артура из Эльда, изображенного на белом коне с объединяющим мечом. (ТБ 4)
In the hallway just off from the reception room, that had been, by the tapestry showing Arthur Eld carrying his sword out of the pyramid in which it had been entombed. — В коридорчике рядом с залом приемов, под гобеленом, на котором король Артур доставал из пирамиды захороненный в ней меч. (ТБ 4)
Rich men, famous men, and well-blooded men had taken gilly-girls since the beginning of time; Arthur Eld had had better than forty himself, according to the tales. — Богачи, знаменитости, аристократы заводили наложниц с незапамятных времен. У самого Артура из Эльда их было не меньше сорока, если верить легендам. (ТБ 4)
Another link in the chain stretching back into the dimness where Arthur Eld had led his gunslingers into battle with the great sword Excalibur raised above his head and the crown of All-World on his brow. — Еще одно звено в цепи, протянувшейся в далекое прошлое, где Артур из Эльда вел на битву своих стрелков, с великим Эскалибуром в руке и короной Всех Миров на челе. (ТБ 4)
3 Astarte (Great goddess of the ancient Near East, chief deity of Tyre, Sidon, and Elath; King Solomon, married to foreign wives, went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians. 1Kgs:ll:5)Религия: Астарта
Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Astarte (Great goddess of the ancient Near East, chief deity of Tyre, Sidon, and Elath; King Solomon, married to foreign wives, went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians. 1Kgs:ll:5)
4 First Crusade (1096-1099, launched by the papacy, it aided the King of France and the great feudatories in preserving order and extending their authority)Религия: Первый крестовый поход
5 Great Sphinx (Carved out of a knoll of rock, it has the facial features of King Khafre but the body of a recumbent lion)Религия: Великий Сфинкс
6 Herod I the Great (Roman-appointed king of Judaea, 37-4 ВС)Религия: Ирод Великий
7 king-sizeочень большой имя прилагательное:
8 king-sizedбольшого размера имя прилагательное:
9 King Stork"король Аист", тиран, деспот [из басни Эзопа о лягушках, выбиравших себе короля]; см. тж. King Log
‘You promise to be as great a tyrant as Clun in your editorial supervision,’ he said laughing. ‘I suspect we've avoided King Stork to be landed with King Stork.’ (A. Wilson, ‘Anglo-Saxon Attitudes’, part II, ch. I) — - что до передовых статей, вы, кажется, будете в этом отношении таким же тираном, как Клан до вас, - усмехнувшись, сказал Джаспер. - я подозреваю, что редакционные лягушки сменили одного короля Аиста на другого.
10 Carlos I, King(1863-1908)The second to last reigning king of Portugal and second to last of the Braganza dynasty to rule. Born in 1863, the son of King Luis I, Carlos was well-educated and became an accomplished sailor, as well as an artist of maritime scenes in oil paintings. A selection of his paintings remains on display in various museums and halls. His reign began in 1889, when his father died, and was immediately marked by controversy and conflict. In January 1890, the monarchy was weakened and Carlos's authority placed in question in the crisis of the " English Ultimatum" (see also Ultimatum, English) Portugal's oldest ally, Great Britain, threatened an end to the 517-year-old alliance, and hostilities arose over the question of territorial expansion in the "Scramble for Africa." Although Carlos was a talented diplomat who managed to repair the damaged Anglo-Portuguese Alliance and to promote other foreign policy initiatives, his reign was marked by the failure of monarchist politics, the weakening monarchy, and rising republicanism. As monarchist politics became more unstable and corrupt, the republic opposition grew stronger and more violent. Carlos's appointment of the dictatorial João Franco government in 1907 and Franco's measures of January 1908 repressing the opposition were, in effect, the king's death warrant. While returning from a royal trip to the Alentejo on 1 February, 1908, King Carlos and his heir apparent, Prince Luís, were shot in their open carriage in Lisbon by carbonaria (anarchist republicans). Although their two murderers were killed by guards on the spot, the official investigation of their murders was never completed.
11 João I, king(1385-1433)An illegitimate son of King Pedro I (r. 1357-1367), João I was the founder of the Aviz dynasty of Portuguese kings and master of the Order of Aviz. João's reign was essential in furthering the cause of Portugal's independence from a threatening Castile ( Spain), and Joao's armies, with the assistance of England, defeated the Castilian pretenders in 1385 at the great battle of Aljubarrota. To show gratitude to God, João ordered the beginning of the construction of the great abbey at Batalha. João's marriage to the English princess, Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, was another vital element in the strengthening of the monarchy and a prelude to overseas empire. Philippa gave João six children, among them the scholarly prince Dom Pedro and his brother, the Infante Dom Henrique or Henry of Aviz, known to history outside Portugal as "Prince Henry the Navigator."
12 João III, king(1502-1557)Portugal's most talented and accomplished monarch of the late Renaissance period. João III was the 15th king of Portugal, the son of King Manuel I. Well-educated by brilliant tutors, including the humanist Luís Teixeira, João at age 12 was introduced to the study of royal governance by his father. During his reign, Portugal reached the apogee of its world imperial power at least in terms of coastal area and number of different continents over which the scattered territories were spread. Portugal had a tenuous hold on various Moroccan cities, and during João's reign was forced to abandon most of the North African fortresses, due to Muslim military pressures. It was to the colonization and exploitation of giant Brazil, though, that João turned imperial attention. In diplomacy, no other monarch during the Aviz dynasty was as active; negotiations proceeded with Spain, France, and the Holy See. In domestic affairs, João III reinforced absolutist tendencies and built up royal power. It was João, too, who introduced the Inquisition into Portugal in 1536, after lengthy negotiations. The king encouraged a flowering of humanist culture as well, and among favored intellectuals were the great writers Gil Vicente and Damião de Góis.João III's reign was a vital turning point in the history of Portugal's first overseas empire (1415-1580). He found the empire at its zenith, yet when he died it was showing grave signs of weakness not only in Morocco, but in Asia, where rival European powers and the Turks were on the move. Portugal's very independence from Spain and even the royal succession were under a cloud when João III died in 1557 without a son to succeed him. Following tragic deaths of his children, João's only indirect heir was Sebastião, a grandson, who succeeded to rule a menaced Portugal.
13 João V, king(1689-1750)The son of King Pedro II and Maria Sofia Neubourg, João was acclaimed king in 1707. By any measure, his long reign (43 years) had a significant impact on Portuguese government, arts, and culture. The early period was consumed with anxiety over continental European affairs, especially the menacing War of Spanish Succession, which ended in 1714. João then shifted his emphasis to the commercial and political interests of the Atlantic empire, to the Catholic Church and religious affairs, and to reinforcing the Anglo- Portuguese Alliance. Under João, there was intensive development of colonization and exploitation in Portuguese America, namely Brazil.In spite of the state's usual fiscal woes, the monarchy and the nobility garnered considerable wealth from Brazilian diamonds, gold, and other materials. Large amounts of revenue were expended on royal palaces, houses, churches, chapels, and convents, and, despite the Lisbon earthquake's impact in 1755, a considerable portion of this conspicuous consumption survives in historic monuments. Most outstanding is the great Mafra Palace and Convent, a baroque monstrosity, one of the largest buildings in Europe, which was constructed during João's reign. Through his acts of piety and bribery, João was declared "Most Faithful" Majesty by the pope. Under royal largesse, Portuguese arts and culture were cultivated, and Italian opera was introduced in Lisbon.
14 João VI, king(1767-1826)The second son of Queen Maria I and King-Consort Dom Pedro III, João was proclaimed heir to the throne in 1788, following the untimely death of his older brother Dom José.Although unprepared for the role, he was destined to rule Portugal during one of the country's most turbulent and difficult eras. His mother went insane in 1792, so Prince João had to assume greater responsibilities of governance. In 1799, he was officially named regent, but he was proclaimed king only upon his mother's death in 1816. By nature amiable and tolerant, he presided over a regime that was supposedly absolutist in an age of revolution. His reign occurred during the French Revolution and its many international consequences: Napoleon's invasion and conquest of Portugal; the flight of the royal family and court of Portugal by sea to Brazil in 1808, where they remained until 1821; civil strife in Portugal between constitutional monarchists and absolutists; and the independence of Brazil in 1822, a great blow against Portugal's overseas empire. When, in 1821, King João was obliged to return to Portugal after residing in Brazil for 13 years, he was forced to accept a constitution, which limited royal powers. A seesaw conflict between constitutionalists and absolutists, the latter faction led by his son, Prince Miguel and his Spanish wife, Carlota Joaquina, and the intervention of the military on behalf of one faction or another marked this turbulent era. When King João died in 1826, Portugal faced an uncertain political future as the country struggled to adjust to the new era of constitutional monarchy and liberal politics, following the nearly catastrophic loss of the richest overseas colony, Brazil.
15 Luís I, King(1838-89)King Luís I was the second son of Queen Maria II and Dom Fernando. When his older brother, King Pedro V, died suddenly in October 1861, he ascended the throne. Well-educated, with the temperament of a writer and artist, Luís probably preferred the literary life to politics and public affairs. In the history of Portugal's literature, Luís is noted for his translations into Portuguese of several of Shakespeare's plays. During his 28-year reign, Portugal experienced a phase of the Regeneration and, for part of the period after 1870, relatively stable politics and a lack of military intervention in public life. During his reign, too, there was material progress and great literary accomplishment; for example, the famous novels of José Maria Eça de Queirós and the poetry of Antero de Quental. While republicanism became a greater force after 1871, and the first republican deputy was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1878, this party and its ideology were not a threat to the monarchy until after the reign of Dom Luís. When King Luís died in 1889, he was succeeded by his oldest son, Dom Carlos, whose stormy reign witnessed the rise of republicanism and serious degeneration of the monarchy.
16 Manuel I, king(1469-1521)King Manuel I, named "The Fortunate" in Portuguese tradition, ruled from 1495 to 1521, the zenith of Portugal's world power and imperial strength. Manuel was the 14th king of Portugal and the ninth son of Infante Dom Fernando and Dona Brites, as well as the adopted son of King João II (r. 1481-95). Manuel ascended the throne when the royal heir, Dom Afonso, the victim of a riding accident, suddenly died. Manuel's three marriages provide a map of the royal and international history of the era. His first marriage (1497) was to the widow of Dom Afonso, son of King João II, late heir to the throne. The second (1500) was to the Infanta Dona Maria of Castile, and the third marriage (1518) was to Dona Leonor, sister of King Carlos V (Hapsburg emperor and king of Spain).Manuel's reign featured several important developments in government, such as the centralization of state power and royal absolutism; overseas expansion, namely the decision in 1495 to continue on from Africa to Asia and the building of an Asian maritime trade empire; and innovation and creativity in culture, with the emergence of the Manueline architectural style and the writings of Gil Vicente and others. There was also an impact on population and demography with the expulsion or forcible conversion of the Jews. In 1496, King Manuel I approved a decree that forced all Jews who would not become baptized as Christians to leave the country within 10 months. The Jews had been expelled from Spain in 1492. The economic impact on Portugal in coming decades or even centuries is debatable, but it is clear that a significant number of Jews converted and remained in Portugal, becoming part of the Portuguese establishment.King Manuel's decision in 1495, backed by a royal council and by the Cortes called that year, to continue the quest for Asia by means of seeking an all-water route from Portugal around Africa to India was momentous. Sponsorship of Vasco da Gama's first great voyage (1497-99) to India was the beginning of an era of unprecedented imperial wealth, power, and excitement. It became the official goal to create a maritime monopoly of the Asian spice trade and keep it in Portugal's hands. When Pedro Álvares Cabral's voyage from Lisbon to India was dispatched in 1500, its route was deliberately planned to swing southwest into the Atlantic, thus sighting "The Land of the Holy Cross," or Brazil, which soon became a Portuguese colony. Under King Manuel, the foundations were laid for Portugal's Brazilian and Asian empire, from Calicut to the Moluccas. Described by France's King Francis I as the "Grocer King," with his command of the mighty spice trade, King Manuel approved of a fitting monument to the new empire: the building of the magnificent Jerónimos Monastery where, after his death in 1521, both Manuel and Vasco da Gama were laid to rest.
17 Manuel II, king(1890-1932)The last reigning king of Portugal, and the last of the Braganza dynasty to rule. Born in 1890, the son of King Carlos I and Queen Amélia, young Manuel witnessed the murder of his father and his elder brother, the heir apparent, Dom Luís, by anarchists in the streets of Lisbon, on 1 February 1908. In the same carriage as his mortally wounded father and brother, and himself wounded, Manuel survived to ascend the throne. His brief reign was troubled by political instability, factionalism, and rising republicanism. As the republican revolution succeeded, Manuel and his family, including the Queen Mother Amélia, fled from the bombarded Necessidades Palace in Lisbon to the Mafra Palace. Rather than abdicate or remain as a prisoner of the republic, Manuel fled by ship to exile in Great Britain, where he remained for the rest of his life. Occupying himself with his hobby of collecting rare Portuguese books, Manuel died prematurely at age 42, in 1932, at his estate south of London.
18 Miguel I, king(1802-1866)The third son of King João VI and of Dona Carlota Joaquina, Miguel was barely five years of age when he went to Brazil with the fleeing royal family. In 1821, with his mother and father, he returned to Portugal. Whatever the explanation for his actions, Miguel always took Carlota Joaquina's part in the subsequent political struggles and soon became the supreme hope of the reactionary, clerical, absolutist party against the constitutionalists and opposed any compromise with liberal constitutionalism or its adherents. He became not only the symbol but the essence of a kind of reactionary messianism in Portugal during more than two decades, as his personal fortunes of power and privilege rose and fell. With his personality imbued with traits of wildness, adventurism, and violence, Miguel enjoyed a life largely consumed in horseback riding, love affairs, and bull- fighting.After the independence of Brazil (1822), Miguel became the principal candidate for power of the Traditionalist Party, which was determined to restore absolutist royal power, destroy the constitution, and rule without limitation. Miguel was involved in many political conspiracies and armed movements, beginning in 1822 and including the coups known to history as the "Vila Francada" (1823) and the "Abrilada" (1824), which were directed against his father King João VI, in order to restore absolutist royal power. These coup conspiracies failed due to foreign intervention, and the king ordered Miguel dismissed from his posts and sent into exile. He remained in exile for four years. The death of King João VI in 1826 presented new opportunities in the absolutist party, however, and the dashing Dom Miguel remained their great hope for power.His older brother King Pedro IV, then emperor of Brazil, inherited the throne and wrote his own constitution, the Charter of 1826, which was to become the law of the land in Portugal. However, his daughter Maria, only seven, was too young to rule, so Pedro, who abdicated, put together an unusual deal. Until Maria reached her majority age, a regency headed by Princess Isabel Maria would rule Portugal. Dom Miguel would return from his Austrian exile and, when Maria reached her majority, Maria would marry her uncle Miguel and they would reign under the 1826 Charter. Miguel returned to Portugal in 1828, but immediately broke the bargain. He proclaimed himself an absolutist King, acclaimed by the usual (and last) Cortes of 1828; dispensed with Pedro's Charter; and ruled as an absolutist. Pedro's response was to abdicate the emperorship of Brazil, return to Portugal, defeat Miguel, and place his young daughter on the throne. In the civil war called the War of the Brothers (1831-34), after a seesaw campaign on land and at sea, Miguel's forces were defeated and he went into exile, never to return to Portugal.
19 Pedro II, king(1648- 1706)The 23rd king of Portugal who ascended the throne in 1668. This followed the 1667 coup d'etat that deposed Pedro's handicapped brother, King Afonso VI, who was later held under house arrest in the Azores and then in the National Palace of Sintra for the remainder of his life. Pedro then married his sister-in-law. During his reign, Pedro signed the great peace treaty of 1668 with Spain, thus ending the War of Restoration. With increased revenues from mineral exploitation in Brazil, Portugal's national finances under Pedro were strengthened. With his chief minister, the count of Eriçeira, Pedro promoted the establishment of early basic industries.
20 Sebastião I, king(1554-1578)The king of Portugal whose disappearance and death in battle in Morocco in 1578 led to a succession crisis and to Spain's annexation of Portugal in 1580. He is the person after whom the cult and mythology of Sebastianism is named. Sebastião succeeded to the throne of Portugal at the tender age of three, upon the death of his father King João III in 1557. With his great-uncle Cardinal Henrique, he was the only other surviving legitimate male member of the Aviz dynasty. The Spanish menace loomed on Portugal's eastern horizons, as Phillip II of Spain gathered more reasons to make good his own strong claims to the Portuguese throne. A headstrong youth, Sebastião dreamed of glory in battle against the Muslims and was certainly influenced by the example of the feats of Phillip II's half-brother Don Juan of Austria and the naval victory against the Turks at Lepanto in 1571.Sebastião's great project was a victory in Africa, and he ordered a major effort to raise a fleet and army to attack Morocco. His forces landed at Tangier and Arzila and marched to meet the Muslim armies. In early August 1578, at the battle of Alcácer- Quivir, Portugal's army was destroyed by Muslim forces, and the king himself was lost. Although he was undoubtedly killed, his body was never found. The result of this foolhardy enterprise changed the course of Portugal's history and gave rise to the cult and myth that Sebastião survived and would return one foggy morning to make Portugal great once again.
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