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Robert Charles Benchley

  • 1 Benchley, Robert Charles

    [ˊbentʃlɪ] Бенчли, Роберт Чарлз (18891945), писатель-юморист, редактор, театральный критик и актёр. Печатался в журналах «Вэнити фэр» [‘Vanity Fair'] и «Нью-Йоркер» [‘New Yorker']

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Benchley, Robert Charles

  • 2 Darwin, Charles Robert

    перс.
    соц. Дарвин, Чарльз (1809-1882; английский естествоиспытатель, автор теории естественного отбора и эволюции биологических видов; основной труд: "Происхождение видов путем естественного отбора" (1859); по свидетельству самого Дарвина, одним из источников его вдохновения было учение Т. Р. Мальтуса о народонаселении, согласно которому склонность к неограниченному размножению вступала в конфликт с ограниченным количеством ресурсов; в свою очередь, теория Дарвина вдохновила многих представителей социальных наук на эволюционные теории общественного развития)
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Darwin, Charles Robert

  • 3 Malthus, Thomas Robert

    перс.
    эк., демогр. Мальтус, Томас Роберт (1766-1834; английский экономист, представитель классической школы в политической экономии; внес вклад в денежную теорию и теорию перепроизводства; наибольшую известность получил благодаря своей гипотезе о том, что население растет в геометрической прогрессии, а производство продуктов питания растет в арифметической прогрессии, что создает необходимость в ограничении рождаемости; также одним из первых ставил и пытался решить проблему кризисов перепроизводства; в 1815 г. высказал идею об убывающей предельной отдаче отдельного фактора производства)
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Malthus, Thomas Robert

  • 4 Aldrich, Robert

    1918-1983
       Uno de los grandes del cine americano. Nacido en Cranston, Rhode Island, el 9 de agosto de 1918, de familia ilustre, compuesta por politicos y gente de las finanzas, mostro entusiasmo por el beisbol y el jazz en su epoca universitaria. Ese entusiasmo se convirtio en pasion cuando se encontro con el teatro, desviandolo de los estudios que su familia habia planeado para el.
       A los 23 anos se incorpora a la RKO y un ano despues es segundo ayudante de direccion. En 1945 se convierte en primer ayudante de direccion para la pelicula The Southerner, de Jean Renoir. Sucesivamente trabajara con William A. Wellman (Tambien somos seres humanos, The Story of G.I. Joe, 1945), Lewis Milestone (The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, 1946, y Arco de triunfo, Arch of Triumph, 1948), Abraham L. Polonsky (Force of Evil, 1948), Richard Fleischer (So This Is New York, 1948), Robert Rossen (Cuerpo y alma, Body and Soul, 1947), Max Ophuls (Caught, 1949) y Charles Chaplin (Candilejas, Limelight, 1952), entre otros. Este mis mo ano, 1952, y el siguiente, 1953, dirige para las cadenas NBC, ABC y CBS episodios de distintas se ries hasta que poco despues se estrena como director de cine con el filme The Big Leaguer, producido por una filial de MGM. Se trata de una obra de encargo, en contraste con la que dirigira al ano siguiente, World for Ransom, que es un proyecto personal. Inmediata mente llegaran dos formidables westerns, Apache y Veracruz, dos cantos a la aventura, en la que subyace la sumision a unos ideales que el tiempo ha parecido devaluar. Kiss Me Deadly (1955), magnifica aunque coyuntural muestra de cine negro, precede, en tre otras, a la curiosa Autumn Leaves, tal vez la mas atipica obra de Aldrich, y a la vigorosa pelicula belica Attack! (1956).
       Por entonces, ya tiene su propia productora, As sociates and Aldrich, con la que realizara parte de su obra. Lo volvemos a encontrar en los titulos de credito de un western crepuscular don de los haya, El ultimo atardecer, insolitamente maduro en estetica y contenido. A partir de ese momento Aldrich sera un realizador mas espectacular, si se quiere mas efectista, que no renuncia sin embargo a sus principios co mo creador cinematografico, que se pueden resumir, con el consiguiente riesgo de simplificar las cosas, en la siguiente frase: una indagacion profunda en las miserias, pero tambien en las virtudes del ser humano, utilizando como vehiculo transmisor de ideas un peculiar modo de entender la violencia, a la que supone arraigada en el alma humana. La contemplacion atenta de peliculas como.Que fue de Baby Jane? (What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?, 1962), El vuelo del fenix (Flight of the Phoenix, 1966), Doce del patibulo (The Dirty Dozen, 1967), The Killing of Sister George (1968), El emperador del norte (The Emperor of the North, 1973) o La patrulla de los inmorales (The Choirboys, 1977) ahorra comentarios acerca de la precision casi matematica de las realizaciones de Aldrich, y del alcance ideologico de sus temas. En lo relativo a sus restantes westerns, La venganza de Ulzana abunda en las virtudes de los anteriores, quintaesenciandolos. Un caso aparte son Cuatro tios de Texas y El rabino y el pistolero, en las que el humor subterraneo tan brillantemente desarrollado en obras de otros generos se superficializa, convirtiendolas, a mi juicio, en dos peliculas parcialmente frustradas.
        Apache (Apache). 1954. 89 minutos. Technicolor. 1,85:1. Hecht-Lancaster Prod (UA). Burt Lancaster, Jean Peters, John McIntire.
        Vera Cruz (Veracruz). 1954. 94 minutos. Technicolor. Superscope. 2:1. Hecht-Lancaster Prod. (UA). Gary Cooper, Burt Lancaster, Denise Darcel, Sara Montiel, Cesar Romero.
        The Last Sunset (El ultimo atardecer). 1961. 112 minutos. Eastmancolor. 1,85:1. Brynaprod S.A. (Universal). Kirk Douglas, Rock Hudson, Dorothy Malone, Carol Lynley, Joseph Cotten.
        4 for Texas (Cuatro tios de Texas). 1964. 124 minutos. Technicolor. 1,85:1. The S.A.M. Company y Associates and Aldrich Production (WB). Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Anita Ekberg, Ursula Andress, Charles Bronson, Victor Buono.
        Ulzana’s Raid (La venganza de Ulzana). 1972. 103 minutos. Technicolor. 1,85:1. De Haven-Aldrich (Universal). Burt Lancaster, Bruce Davidson, Jorge Luke, Richard Jaecked.
        The Frisco Kid (El rabino y el pistolero). 1979. 122 minutos. Technicolor. 1,85:1. WB. Gene Wilder, Harrison Ford, Val Bisoglio.

    English-Spanish dictionary of western films > Aldrich, Robert

  • 5 Parrish, Robert

    1916-1995
       Nacido en Columbus, Georgia, como actor infantil participa en algunas peliculas gloriosas como Cuatro hijos (Four Sons, John Ford, 1928), Sin novedad en el frente (All Quiet on the Western Front, Lewis Milestone, 1930) y Luces de la ciudad (City Lights, Charles Chaplin, 1931). John Ford lo contrato como ayudante de montador en Maria Estuardo (Mary of Scotland, 1936) y como editor de efectos sonoros en El joven Lincoln (Young Mr. Lincoln, 1939) y Corazones indomables (Drums Along the Mohawk, 1939). Parece decidirse por el trabajo de montador, que realiza tambien para John Ford en alguno de sus documentales belicos, y llega a recibir un Oscar por Cuerpo y alma (Body and Soul, Robert Rossen, 1947), pero en 1951 debuta como director con Cry Danger, punto de partida de una interesante filmografia que solo al final parece descender de nivel. Destacan en ella los tres primeros westerns, de una gran intensidad, y, tal vez, el filme belico Llanura roja (The Purple Plain, 1954), sin desdenar la opresiva Fuego escondido (Fire Down Below, 1957).
        The San Francisco Story (San Francisco Story). 1952. 80 minutos. Blanco y Negro. WB. Joel McCrea, Yvonne De Carlo.
        Saddle the Wind (Mas rapido que el viento). 1958. 84 minutos. Metro color. CinemaScope. MGM. Robert Taylor, John Cassavetes, Julie London, Donald Crisp.
        The Wonderful Country (Mas alla de Rio Grande). 1959. 96 minutos. Technicolor. DRM Productions. Robert Mitchum, Julie London, Pedro Armendariz.
        A Town Called Hell (Una ciudad llamada Bastarda). 1971. 95 minutos. Technicolor. Franscope. Benmar Productions/Zurbano Films. Robert Shaw, Stella Stevens, Telly Savalas, Fernando Rey.

    English-Spanish dictionary of western films > Parrish, Robert

  • 6 Charles, Jacques Alexandre César

    SUBJECT AREA: Aerospace
    [br]
    b. 12 November 1746 Beaugency, France
    d. 7 April 1823 Paris, France
    [br]
    French physicist who developed the first hydrogen balloon, in 1783.
    [br]
    In 1783, following the early experiments with small hot-air balloons by the Montgolfier brothers, there was a growing interest in the prospect of a balloon flight with people on board. The Paris Académie des Sciences encouraged one of their physicists, Charles, to carry out experiments and produce a balloon. Charles enlisted the assistance of two brothers, Anne-Jean and Marie-Noël Robert, who were practical craftsmen with experience of coating silk fabric with rubber to make it impermeable to gases. Charles decided to use the recently discovered lighter-than-air gas, hydrogen, for his experiments rather than hot air. After making several unmanned balloons, he had a manned balloon ready for testing on 1 December 1783. Despite the fact that a Montgolfier balloon had already flown with two passengers, there was enormous public interest in the flight: one estimate suggested that 400,000 people turned out to watch. Charles and Marie-Noël Robert ascended from the gardens of the Tuileries and landed after two hours, having covered 45 km (28 miles). Technically the "Charlière" was far superior to the "Montgolfière" and was therefore used by most subsequent balloonists until the introduction of the modern hot-air balloon by the American Paul E. Yost in the 1960s. Following Meusnier's proposals for a dirigible (steerable) balloon, put forward during 1783–5, Charles and the Robert brothers built an elongated balloon incorporating Meusnier's ballonnet principle. It had a rudder but the method of propulsion, by opening and closing parasols used as paddles, was totally ineffective.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Member of the Académie des Sciences 1795.
    Further Reading
    L.T.C.Rolt, 1966, The Aeronauts, London. C.Dollfus, 1961, Balloons, trans. C.Mason, London. J.B.F.Fourier, 1825, Notice.
    JDS

    Biographical history of technology > Charles, Jacques Alexandre César

  • 7 Fox, Sir Charles

    [br]
    b. 11 March 1810 Derby, England
    d. 14 June 1874 Blackheath, London, England
    [br]
    English railway engineer, builder of Crystal Palace, London.
    [br]
    Fox was a pupil of John Ericsson, helped to build the locomotive Novelty, and drove it at the Rainhill Trials in 1829. He became a driver on the Liverpool \& Manchester Railway and then a pupil of Robert Stephenson, who appointed him an assistant engineer for construction of the southern part of the London \& Birmingham Railway, opened in 1837. He was probably responsible for the design of the early bow-string girder bridge which carried the railway over the Regent's Canal. He also invented turnouts with switch blades, i.e. "points". With Robert Stephenson he designed the light iron train sheds at Euston Station, a type of roof that was subsequently much used elsewhere. He then became a partner in Fox, Henderson \& Co., railway contractors and manufacturers of railway equipment and bridges. The firm built the Crystal Palace in London for the Great Exhibition of 1851: Fox did much of the detail design work personally and was subsequently knighted. It also built many station roofs, including that at Paddington. From 1857 Fox was in practice in London as a consulting engineer in partnership with his sons, Charles Douglas Fox and Francis Fox. Sir Charles Fox became an advocate of light and narrow-gauge railways, although he was opposed to break-of-gauge unless it was unavoidable. He was joint Engineer for the Indian Tramway Company, building the first narrow-gauge (3 ft 6 in. or 107 cm) railway in India, opened in 1865, and his firm was Consulting Engineer for the first railways in Queensland, Australia, built to the same gauge at the same period on recommendation of Government Engineer A.C.Fitzgibbon.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knighted 1851.
    Further Reading
    F.Fox, 1904, River, Road, and Rail, John Murray, Ch. 1 (personal reminiscences by his son).
    L.T.C.Rolt, 1970, Victorian Engineering, London: Allen Lane.
    PJGR

    Biographical history of technology > Fox, Sir Charles

  • 8 Fulton, Robert

    SUBJECT AREA: Ports and shipping
    [br]
    b. 14 November 1765 Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA
    d. 24 February 1815 New York, USA
    [br]
    American pioneer of steamships and of North American steam navigation.
    [br]
    The early life of Fulton is documented sparsely; however, it is clear that he was brought up in poor circumstances along with three sisters and one brother by a widowed mother. The War of Independence was raging around them for some years, but despite this it is believed that he spent some time learning the jeweller's trade in Philadelphia and had by then made a name for himself as a miniaturist. Throughout his life he remained skilled with his hands and well able to record technical detail on paper. He witnessed many of the early trials of American steamboats and saw the work of William Henry and John Fitch, and in 1787 he set off for the first time to Europe. For some years he examined steamships in Paris and without doubt saw the Charlotte Dundas on the Forth and Clyde Canal near Glasgow. In 1803 he built a steamship that ran on the Seine at 4 1/2 mph (7.25 km/h), and when it was lost, another to replace it. All his designs were based on principles that had been tried and proved elsewhere, and in this respect he was more of a developer than an inventor. After some time experimenting with submersibles and torpedoes for the British and French governments, in 1806 he returned to the United States. In 1807 he took delivery of the 100 ton displacement paddle steamer Clermont from the yard of Charles Browne of East River, New York. In August of that year it started the passenger services on the Hudson River and this can be claimed as the commencement of world passenger steam navigation. Again the ship was traditional in shape and the machinery was supplied by Messrs Boulton and Watt. This was followed by other ships, including Car of Neptune, Paragon and the world's first steam warship, Demolgos, launched in New York in October 1814 and designed by Fulton for coastal defence and the breaking of the British blockade. His last and finest boat was named Chancellor Livingston after his friend and patron Robert Livingston (1746–1813); the timber hull was launched in 1816, some months after Fulton's death.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    H.P.Spratt, 1958, The Birth of the Steamboat, London: Griffin. J.T.Flexner, 1978, Steamboats Come True, Boston: Little, Brown.
    "Robert Fulton and the centenary of steam navigation", Engineer (16 August 1907).
    FMW

    Biographical history of technology > Fulton, Robert

  • 9 Goddard, Dr Robert Hutchings

    SUBJECT AREA: Aerospace
    [br]
    b. 5 October 1882 Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    d. 10 August 1945 Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    [br]
    American inventory developer of rocket propulsion.
    [br]
    At the age of seventeen Goddard climbed a tree and, seeing the view from above, he became determined to make some device with which to ascend towards the planets. In an autobiography, published in 1959 in the journal Astronautics, he stated, "I was a different boy when I descended the ladder. Life now had a purpose for me." His first idea was to launch a projectile by centrifugal force, but in 1909 he started to design a rocket that was to be multi-stage and fuelled by liquid oxygen and hydrogen. Not long before the First World War he produced a report, "A method of reaching extreme altitudes", which was for the Smithsonian Institution and was published in book form in 1919. During the war he worked on solid-fuelled rockets as weapons. His book contained notes on the amount of fuel required to raise 1 lb (454 g) of payload to an infinite altitude. He incurred ridicule as "the moon man" when he proposed the use of flash powder to indicate successful arrival on the moon. In 1923 he severed his connections with military work and returned to the University of Massachusetts. On 16 March 1926 he launched the world's first liquid-fuelled rocket from his aunt's farm in Auburn, Massachusetts; powered by gasoline and liquid oxygen, it flew to a height of 12 m (40 ft) and travelled 54 m (177 ft) in 2.4 seconds.
    In November 1929 he met the aviator Charles Lindbergh, who persuaded both the Guggenheim Foundation and the Carnegie Institute to support Goddard's experiments financially. He moved to the more suitable location of the Mescalere Ranch, near Roswell, New Mexico, where he worked until 1941. His liquid-fuelled rockets reached speeds of 1,100 km/h (700 mph) and heights of 2,500 m (8,000ft). He investigated the use of the gyroscope to steady his rockets and the assembly of power units in clusters to increase the total thrust. In 1941 he moved to the naval establishment at Annapolis, Maryland, working on liquid-fuelled rockets to assist the take-off of aircraft from carriers. He worked for the US Government on this and the development of military rockets until his death from throat cancer in 1945. In all, he was granted 214 patents, roughly three per year of his life.
    In 1960 the US Government admitted infringement of Goddard's patents during the rocket programme of the 1950s and awarded his widow a payment of $1,000,000, while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) honoured him by naming the Goddard Spaceflight Center near Washington, DC, after him. The Goddard Memorial Library at Clark University, in his home town of Worcester, Massachusetts, was also named in his honour.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    A.Osman, 1983, Space History, London: Michael Joseph. P.Marsh, 1985, The Space Business, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    K.C.Parley, 1991, Robert H.Goddard, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press. T.Streissguth, 1994, Rocket Man: The Story of Robert Goddard, Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books.
    IMcN

    Biographical history of technology > Goddard, Dr Robert Hutchings

  • 10 Norton, Charles Hotchkiss

    [br]
    b. 23 November 1851 Plainville, Connecticut, USA
    d. 27 October 1942 Plainville, Connecticut, USA
    [br]
    American mechanical engineer and machine-tool designer.
    [br]
    After an elementary education at the public schools of Plainville and Thomaston, Connecticut, Charles H.Norton started work in 1866 at the Seth Thomas Clock Company in Thomaston. He was soon promoted to machinist, and further progress led to his successive appointments as Foreman, Superintendent of Machinery and Manager of the department making tower clocks. He designed many public clocks.
    In 1886 he obtained a position as Assistant Engineer with the Brown \& Sharpe Manufacturing Company at Providence, Rhode Island, and was engaged in redesigning their universal grinding machine to give it more rigidity and make it more suitable for use as a production machine. In 1890 he left to become a partner in a newly established firm, Leland, Faulconer \& Norton Company at Detroit, Michigan, designing and building machine tools. He withdrew from this firm in 1895 and practised as a consulting mechanical engineer for a short time before returning to Brown \& Sharpe in 1896. There he designed a grinding machine incorporating larger and wider grinding wheels so that heavier cuts could be made to meet the needs of the mass-production industries, especially the automobile industry. This required a heavier and more rigid machine and greater power, but these ideas were not welcomed at Brown \& Sharpe and in 1900 Norton left to found the Norton Grinding Company in Worcester, Massachusetts. Here he was able to develop heavy-production grinding machines, including special machines for grinding crank-shafts and camshafts for the automobile industry.
    In setting up the Norton Grinding Company, Charles H.Norton received financial support from members of the Norton Emery Wheel Company (also of Worcester and known after 1906 as the Norton Company), but he was not related to the founder of that company. The two firms were completely independent until 1919 when they were merged. From that time Charles H.Norton served as Chief Engineer of the machinery division of the Norton Company, until 1934 when he became their Consulting Engineer.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    City of Philadelphia, John Scott Medal 1925.
    Bibliography
    Further Reading
    Robert S.Woodbury, 1959, History of the Grinding Machine, Cambridge, Mass, (contains biographical information and details of the machines designed by Norton).
    RTS

    Biographical history of technology > Norton, Charles Hotchkiss

  • 11 Parsons, Sir Charles Algernon

    [br]
    b. 13 June 1854 London, England
    d. 11 February 1931 on board Duchess of Richmond, Kingston, Jamaica
    [br]
    English eingineer, inventor of the steam turbine and developer of the high-speed electric generator.
    [br]
    The youngest son of the Earl of Rosse, he came from a family well known in scientific circles, the six boys growing up in an intellectual atmosphere at Birr Castle, the ancestral home in Ireland, where a forge and large workshop were available to them. Charles, like his brothers, did not go to school but was educated by private tutors of the character of Sir Robert Ball, this type of education being interspersed with overseas holiday trips to France, Holland, Belgium and Spain in the family yacht. In 1871, at the age of 17, he went to Trinity College, Dublin, and after two years he went on to St John's College, Cambridge. This was before the Engineering School had opened, and Parsons studied mechanics and mathematics.
    In 1877 he was apprenticed to W.G.Armstrong \& Co. of Elswick, where he stayed for four years, developing an epicycloidal engine that he had designed while at Cambridge. He then moved to Kitson \& Co. of Leeds, where he went half shares in a small experimental shop working on rocket propulsion for torpedoes.
    In 1887 he married Katherine Bethell, who contracted rheumatic fever from early-morning outdoor vigils with her husband to watch his torpedo experiments while on their honeymoon! He then moved to a partnership in Clarke, Chapman \& Co. at Gateshead. There he joined the electrical department, initially working on the development of a small, steam-driven marine lighting set. This involved the development of either a low-speed dynamo, for direct coupling to a reciprocating engine, or a high-speed engine, and it was this requirement that started Parsons on the track of the steam turbine. This entailed many problems such as the running of shafts at speeds of up to 40,000 rpm and the design of a DC generator for 18,000 rpm. He took out patents for both the turbine and the generator on 23 April 1884. In 1888 he dissolved his partnership with Clarke, Chapman \& Co. to set up his own firm in Newcastle, leaving his patents with the company's owners. This denied him the use of the axial-flow turbine, so Parsons then designed a radial-flow layout; he later bought back his patents from Clarke, Chapman \& Co. His original patent had included the use of the steam turbine as a means of marine propulsion, and Parsons now set about realizing this possibility. He experimented with 2 ft (61 cm) and 6 ft (183 cm) long models, towed with a fishing line or, later, driven by a twisted rubber cord, through a single-reduction set of spiral gearing.
    The first trials of the Turbinia took place in 1894 but were disappointing due to cavitation, a little-understood phenomenon at the time. He used an axial-flow turbine of 2,000 shp running at 2,000 rpm. His work resulted in a far greater understanding of the phenomenon of cavitation than had hitherto existed. Land turbines of up to 350 kW (470 hp) had meanwhile been built. Experiments with the Turbinia culminated in a demonstration which took place at the great Naval Review of 1897 at Spithead, held to celebrate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. Here, the little Turbinia darted in and out of the lines of heavy warships and destroyers, attaining the unheard of speed of 34.5 knots. The following year the Admiralty placed their first order for a turbine-driven ship, and passenger vessels started operation soon after, the first in 1901. By 1906 the Admiralty had moved over to use turbines exclusively. These early turbines had almost all been direct-coupled to the ship's propeller shaft. For optimum performance of both turbine and propeller, Parsons realized that some form of reduction gearing was necessary, which would have to be extremely accurate because of the speeds involved. Parsons's Creep Mechanism of 1912 ensured that any errors in the master wheel would be distributed evenly around the wheel being cut.
    Parsons was also involved in optical work and had a controlling interest in the firm of Ross Ltd of London and, later, in Sir Howard Grubb \& Sons. He he was an enlightened employer, originating share schemes and other benefits for his employees.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knighted. Order of Merit 1927.
    Further Reading
    A.T.Bowden, 1966, "Charles Parsons: Purveyor of power", in E.G.Semler (ed.), The Great Masters. Engineering Heritage, Vol. II, London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers/Heinemann.
    IMcN

    Biographical history of technology > Parsons, Sir Charles Algernon

  • 12 Spooner, Charles Easton

    [br]
    b. 1818 Maentwrog, Merioneth (now Gwynedd), Wales
    d. 18 November 1889 Portmadoc (now Porthmadog), Wales
    [br]
    English engineer, pioneer of narrow-gauge steam railways.
    [br]
    At the age of 16 Charles Spooner helped his father, James, to build the Festiniog Railway, a horse-and-gravity tramroad; they maintained an even gradient and kept costs down by following a sinuous course along Welsh mountainsides and using a very narrow gauge. This was probably originally 2 ft 1 in. (63.5 cm) from rail centre to rail centre; with the introduction of heavier, and therefore wider, rails the gauge between them was reduced and was eventually standardized at 1 ft 11 1/2 in (60 cm). After James Spooner's death in 1856 Charles Spooner became Manager and Engineer of the Festiniog Railway and sought to introduce steam locomotives. Widening the gauge was impracticable, but there was no precedent for operating a public railway of such narrow gauge by steam. Much of the design work for locomotives for the Festiniog Railway was the responsibility of C.M.Holland, and many possible types were considered: eventually, in 1863, two very small 0–4–0 tank locomotives, with tenders for coal, were built by George England.
    These locomotives were successful, after initial problems had been overcome, and a passenger train service was introduced in 1865 with equal success. The potential for economical operation offered by such a railway attracted widespread attention, the more so because it had been effectively illegal to build new passenger railways in Britain to other than standard gauge since the Gauge of Railways Act of 1846.
    Spooner progressively improved the track, alignment, signalling and rolling stock of the Festiniog Railway and developed it from a tramroad to a miniaturized main line. Increasing traffic led to the introduction in 1869 of the 0–4–4–0 double-Fairlie locomotive Little Wonder, built to the patent of Robert Fairlie. This proved more powerful than two 0–4–0s and impressive demonstrations were given to engineers from many parts of the world, leading to the widespread adoption of narrow-gauge railways. Spooner himself favoured a gauge of 2 ft 6 in. (76 cm) or 2 ft 9 in. (84 cm). Comparison of the economy of narrow gauges with the inconvenience of a break of gauge at junctions with wider gauges did, however, become a continuing controversy, which limited the adoption of narrow gauges in Britain.
    Bogie coaches had long been used in North America but were introduced to Britain by Spooner in 1872, when he had two such coaches built for the Festiniog Railway. Both of these and one of its original locomotives, though much rebuilt, remain in service.
    Spooner, despite some serious illnesses, remained Manager of the Festiniog Railway until his death.
    [br]
    Bibliography
    1869, jointly with G.A.Huddart, British patent no. 1,487 (improved fishplates). 1869, British patent no. 2,896 (rail-bending machinery).
    1871, Narrow Gauge Railways, E. \& F.N.Spon (includes his description of the Festiniog Railway, reports of locomotive trials and his proposals for narrow-gauge railways).
    Further Reading
    J.I.C.Boyd, 1975, The Festiniog Railway, Blandford: Oakwood Press; C.E.Lee, 1945, Narrow-Gauge Railways in North Wales, The Railway Publishing Co. (both give good descriptions of Spooner and the Festiniog Railway).
    C.Hamilton Ellis, 1965, Railway Carriages in the British Isles, London: George Allen \& Unwin, pp. 181–3. Pihl, Carl Abraham.
    PJGR

    Biographical history of technology > Spooner, Charles Easton

  • 13 Stephenson, Robert

    [br]
    b. 16 October 1803 Willington Quay, Northumberland, England
    d. 12 October 1859 London, England
    [br]
    English engineer who built the locomotive Rocket and constructed many important early trunk railways.
    [br]
    Robert Stephenson's father was George Stephenson, who ensured that his son was educated to obtain the theoretical knowledge he lacked himself. In 1821 Robert Stephenson assisted his father in his survey of the Stockton \& Darlington Railway and in 1822 he assisted William James in the first survey of the Liverpool \& Manchester Railway. He then went to Edinburgh University for six months, and the following year Robert Stephenson \& Co. was named after him as Managing Partner when it was formed by himself, his father and others. The firm was to build stationary engines, locomotives and railway rolling stock; in its early years it also built paper-making machinery and did general engineering.
    In 1824, however, Robert Stephenson accepted, perhaps in reaction to an excess of parental control, an invitation by a group of London speculators called the Colombian Mining Association to lead an expedition to South America to use steam power to reopen gold and silver mines. He subsequently visited North America before returning to England in 1827 to rejoin his father as an equal and again take charge of Robert Stephenson \& Co. There he set about altering the design of steam locomotives to improve both their riding and their steam-generating capacity. Lancashire Witch, completed in July 1828, was the first locomotive mounted on steel springs and had twin furnace tubes through the boiler to produce a large heating surface. Later that year Robert Stephenson \& Co. supplied the Stockton \& Darlington Railway with a wagon, mounted for the first time on springs and with outside bearings. It was to be the prototype of the standard British railway wagon. Between April and September 1829 Robert Stephenson built, not without difficulty, a multi-tubular boiler, as suggested by Henry Booth to George Stephenson, and incorporated it into the locomotive Rocket which the three men entered in the Liverpool \& Manchester Railway's Rainhill Trials in October. Rocket, was outstandingly successful and demonstrated that the long-distance steam railway was practicable.
    Robert Stephenson continued to develop the locomotive. Northumbrian, built in 1830, had for the first time, a smokebox at the front of the boiler and also the firebox built integrally with the rear of the boiler. Then in Planet, built later the same year, he adopted a layout for the working parts used earlier by steam road-coach pioneer Goldsworthy Gurney, placing the cylinders, for the first time, in a nearly horizontal position beneath the smokebox, with the connecting rods driving a cranked axle. He had evolved the definitive form for the steam locomotive.
    Also in 1830, Robert Stephenson surveyed the London \& Birmingham Railway, which was authorized by Act of Parliament in 1833. Stephenson became Engineer for construction of the 112-mile (180 km) railway, probably at that date the greatest task ever undertaken in of civil engineering. In this he was greatly assisted by G.P.Bidder, who as a child prodigy had been known as "The Calculating Boy", and the two men were to be associated in many subsequent projects. On the London \& Birmingham Railway there were long and deep cuttings to be excavated and difficult tunnels to be bored, notoriously at Kilsby. The line was opened in 1838.
    In 1837 Stephenson provided facilities for W.F. Cooke to make an experimental electrictelegraph installation at London Euston. The directors of the London \& Birmingham Railway company, however, did not accept his recommendation that they should adopt the electric telegraph and it was left to I.K. Brunel to instigate the first permanent installation, alongside the Great Western Railway. After Cooke formed the Electric Telegraph Company, Stephenson became a shareholder and was Chairman during 1857–8.
    Earlier, in the 1830s, Robert Stephenson assisted his father in advising on railways in Belgium and came to be increasingly in demand as a consultant. In 1840, however, he was almost ruined financially as a result of the collapse of the Stanhope \& Tyne Rail Road; in return for acting as Engineer-in-Chief he had unwisely accepted shares, with unlimited liability, instead of a fee.
    During the late 1840s Stephenson's greatest achievements were the design and construction of four great bridges, as part of railways for which he was responsible. The High Level Bridge over the Tyne at Newcastle and the Royal Border Bridge over the Tweed at Berwick were the links needed to complete the East Coast Route from London to Scotland. For the Chester \& Holyhead Railway to cross the Menai Strait, a bridge with spans as long-as 460 ft (140 m) was needed: Stephenson designed them as wrought-iron tubes of rectangular cross-section, through which the trains would pass, and eventually joined the spans together into a tube 1,511 ft (460 m) long from shore to shore. Extensive testing was done beforehand by shipbuilder William Fairbairn to prove the method, and as a preliminary it was first used for a 400 ft (122 m) span bridge at Conway.
    In 1847 Robert Stephenson was elected MP for Whitby, a position he held until his death, and he was one of the exhibition commissioners for the Great Exhibition of 1851. In the early 1850s he was Engineer-in-Chief for the Norwegian Trunk Railway, the first railway in Norway, and he also built the Alexandria \& Cairo Railway, the first railway in Africa. This included two tubular bridges with the railway running on top of the tubes. The railway was extended to Suez in 1858 and for several years provided a link in the route from Britain to India, until superseded by the Suez Canal, which Stephenson had opposed in Parliament. The greatest of all his tubular bridges was the Victoria Bridge across the River St Lawrence at Montreal: after inspecting the site in 1852 he was appointed Engineer-in-Chief for the bridge, which was 1 1/2 miles (2 km) long and was designed in his London offices. Sadly he, like Brunel, died young from self-imposed overwork, before the bridge was completed in 1859.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    FRS 1849. President, Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1849. President, Institution of Civil Engineers 1856. Order of St Olaf (Norway). Order of Leopold (Belgium). Like his father, Robert Stephenson refused a knighthood.
    Further Reading
    L.T.C.Rolt, 1960, George and Robert Stephenson, London: Longman (a good modern biography).
    J.C.Jeaffreson, 1864, The Life of Robert Stephenson, London: Longman (the standard nine-teenth-century biography).
    M.R.Bailey, 1979, "Robert Stephenson \& Co. 1823–1829", Transactions of the Newcomen Society 50 (provides details of the early products of that company).
    J.Kieve, 1973, The Electric Telegraph, Newton Abbot: David \& Charles.
    PJGR

    Biographical history of technology > Stephenson, Robert

  • 14 Stevens, Robert Livingston

    SUBJECT AREA: Ports and shipping
    [br]
    b. 18 October 1787 Hoboken, New Jersey, USA
    d. 20 April 1856 Hoboken, New Jersey, USA
    [br]
    American engineer, pioneer of steamboats and railways.
    [br]
    R.L.Stevens was the son of John Stevens and was given the technical education his father lacked. He assisted his father with the Little Juliana and the Phoenix, managed the commercial operation of the Phoenix on the Delaware River, and subsequently built many other steamboats.
    In 1830 he and his brother Edwin A.Stevens obtained a charter from the New Jersey Legislature for the Camden \& Amboy Railroad \& Transportation Company, and he visited Britain to obtain rails and a locomotive. Railway track in the USA then normally comprised longitudinal timber rails with running surfaces of iron straps, but Stevens designed rails of flat-bottom section, which were to become standard, and had the first batch rolled in Wales. He also designed hookheaded spikes for them, and "iron tongues", which became fishplates. From Robert Stephenson \& Co. (see Robert Stephenson) he obtained the locomotive John Bull, which was similar to the Liverpool \& Manchester Railway's Samson. The Camden \& Amboy Railroad was opened in 1831, but John Bull, a 0–4–0, proved over sensitive to imperfections in the track; Stevens and his mechanic, Isaac Dripps, added a two-wheeled non-swivelling "pilot" at the front to guide it round curves. The locomotive survives at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    H.P.Spratt, 1958, The Birth of the Steamboat, Charles Griffin.
    J.H.White Jr, 1979, A History of the American Locomotive—Its Development: 1830– 1880, New York: Dover Publications Inc.
    J.F.Stover, 1961, American Railroads, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    PJGR

    Biographical history of technology > Stevens, Robert Livingston

  • 15 Charles's

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > Charles's

  • 16 Charles

    Charles - Чарл(ь)з; Карл

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Charles

  • 17 Robert

    Robert - Роберт

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Robert

  • 18 Charles

    Charles noun Чарл(ь)з; Карл

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Charles

  • 19 Charles's Wain

    Charles's Wain [ˏtʃɑ:lzɪzˊweɪn] n
    Больша́я Медве́дица ( созвездие)

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Charles's Wain

  • 20 Robert

    Robert noun Роберт

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Robert

См. также в других словарях:

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