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Robert Adam

  • 1 Adam, Robert

    [br]
    b. 3 July 1728 Kirkcaldy, Scotland
    d. 3 March 1792 London, England
    [br]
    Scottish architect, active mostly in England, who led the neo-classical movement between 1760 and 1790.
    [br]
    Robert Adam was a man of outstanding talent, immense energy dedicated to his profession, and of great originality, who utilized all sources of classical art from ancient Greece and Rome as well as from the Renaissance and Baroque eras in Italy. He was also a very practical exponent of neo-classicism and believed in using the latest techniques to produce fine craftsmanship.
    Of particular interest to him was stucco, the material needed for elegant, finely crafted ceiling and wall designs. Stucco, though the Italian word for plaster, refers architecturally to a specific form of the material. Known as Stucco duro (hard plaster), its use and composition dates from the days of ancient Rome. Giovanni da Udine, a pupil of Raphael, having discovered some fine stucco antico in the ruins of the Palace of Titus in Rome, carried out extensive research during the Italian Renaissance in order to discover its precise composition; it was a mixture of powdered crystalline limestone (travertine), river sand, water and powdered white marble. The marble produced an exceptionally hard stucco when set, thereby differentiating it from plaster-work, and was a material fine enough to make delicate relief and statuary work possible.
    In the 1770s Robert Adam's ceiling and wall designs were characterized by low-relief, delicate, classical forms. He and his brothers, who formed the firm of Adam Brothers, were interested in a stucco which would be especially fine grained and hard setting. A number of new products then appearing on the market were easier to handle than earlier ones. These included a stucco by Mr David Wark, patented in 1765, and another by a Swiss clergyman called Liardet in 1773; the Adam firm purchased both patents and obtained an Act of Parliament authorizing them to be the sole vendors and makers of this stucco, which they called "Adam's new invented patent stucco". More new versions appeared, among which was one by a Mr Johnson, who claimed it to be an improvement. The Adam Brothers, having paid a high price for their rights, took him to court. The case was decided in 1778 by Lord Mansfield, a fellow Scot and a patron (at Kenwood), who,
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Member of the Society of Arts 1758. FRS 1761. Architect to the King's Works 1761.
    Bibliography
    1764, Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro.
    1773, Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam.
    Further Reading
    A.T.Bolton, 1922, The Architecture of Robert and James Adam, 1758–1794, 2 vols, Country Life.
    J.Fleming, 1962, Robert Adam and his Circle, Murray. J.Lees-Milne, 1947, The Age of Adam, Batsford.
    J.Rykwert and A.Rykwert, 1985, The Brothers Adam, Collins. D.Yarwood, 1970, Robert Adam, Dent.
    DY

    Biographical history of technology > Adam, Robert

  • 2 Adam style

    ['ædəm,staɪl]
    стиль А́дама (английский неоклассический архитектурный стиль; отличается изящным декором, особ. в интерьере)
    по имени создателей стиля братьев Адамов, наиболее известным из кот. был Роберт Адам [Robert Adam, 1728-92]

    English-Russian Great Britain dictionary (Великобритания. Лингвострановедческий словарь) > Adam style

  • 3 Adam

    s.
    1 adán, el primer hombre; el género humano.
    2 la naturaleza humana depravada, no regenerada.
    3 Adam, Robert Adam.

    Nuevo Diccionario Inglés-Español > Adam

  • 4 Kenwood

    I ['kenwud]
    Ке́нвуд (дворец-музей на северо-западе Лондона, имеет богатое собрание картин, особ. работ английских портретистов, и мебели; в дворцовом парке летом даются концерты. Построен в 18 в. Р.Адамом [Robert Adam]; см. тж. Iveagh Bequest, Adam style)
    полн. Kenwood House
    II ['kenwud]
    "Ке́нвуд" (фирменное название бытовых электроприборов, особ. кухонных, компании "Торн И-эм-ай" [ Thorn EMI])

    English-Russian Great Britain dictionary (Великобритания. Лингвострановедческий словарь) > Kenwood

  • 5 Syon House

    ['saɪən,haus]
    Са́йон-Ха́ус (богатый загородный особняк на западной окраине Лондона; резиденция герцогов Нортумберлендских [Dukes of Northumberland]. Построен в середине 16 в.; интерьеры работы Р.Адама [Robert Adam, 1728-92]; см. тж. Adam style)

    English-Russian Great Britain dictionary (Великобритания. Лингвострановедческий словарь) > Syon House

  • 6 Chippendale, Thomas

    [br]
    baptized 5 June 1718 Otley, Yorkshire, England
    d. 13 November 1779 London, England
    [br]
    English cabinet-maker who published the first comprehensive book of furniture.
    [br]
    Thomas Chippendale was the son of a carpenter. The business that he set up in London was so well established by 1753 that he was able to move to larger premises—a workshop, timberyard and shop—in the furniture-making centre of London, at 60–62 St Martin's Lane. In 1754 he published his folio work The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, which contained illustrations of every conceivable type of furniture. No previously published book was as comprehensive. The Director, as it came to be called, made Chippendale famous and he became the best known of all such English craftsmen and designers. Further editions of the book followed in 1755 and 1762.
    Stylistically most of the furniture designs in the Director followed the contemporary rococo fashion, but a number followed other popular themes such as the so-called "literary Gothic" and chinoiserie. Indeed, the Chinese versions became so well known that such furniture became known as "Chinese Chippendale". Chippendale's later work was more neo-classical, much of it produced at the request of Robert Adam for the many great houses whose interiors he was re-designing in the 1760s and 1770s.
    From a technical viewpoint, Chippendale's furniture was made from a variety of woods and incorporated diverse decoration. Mahogany was the fashionable wood of the age, particularly during the middle years of the eighteenth century, and lent itself especially to the fine and elaborate carving that characterized Chippendale's intricate chair and settee backs. By the later 1760s other woods were also often in use, sometimes gilded and turned, sometimes inlaid with materials such as ivory or ceramic plaques and fine ormolu mounts. Later still, painted designs were applied to panel surfaces. Alternatively, a delicate form of marquetry had been fashionably revived.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    C.Gilbert, 1972, The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale: Studio Vista.
    1986, Dictionary of English Furniture-Makers, The Furniture History Society and W.F. Maney.
    DY

    Biographical history of technology > Chippendale, Thomas

  • 7 Coade, Eleanor

    [br]
    b. 24 June 1733 Exeter, Devon, England
    d. 18 November 1821 Camberwell, London, England
    [br]
    English proprietor of the Coade Factory, making artificial stone.
    [br]
    Born Elinor Coade, she never married but adopted, as was customary in business in the eighteenth century, the courtesy title of Mrs. Following the bankruptcy and death of her father, George Coade, in Exeter, Eleanor and her mother (also called Eleanor) moved to London and founded the works at Lambeth, South London, in 1769 that later became famous as the Coade factory. The factory was located at King's Arms Stairs, Narrow Wall. During the eighteenth century, several attempts had been made in other businesses to manufacture a durable, malleable artificial stone that would be acceptable to architects for decorative use. These substances were not very successful, but Coade stone was different. Although stories are legion about the secret formula supposedly used in this artificial stone, modern methods have established the exact formula.
    Coade stone was a stoneware ceramic material fired in a kiln. The body was remarkable in that it shrank only 8 per cent in drying and firing: this was achieved by using a combination of china clay, sand, crushed glass and grog (i.e. crushed and ground, previously fired stoneware). The Coade formula thus included a considerable proportion of material that, having been fired once already, was unshrinkable. Mrs Coade's name for the firm, Coade's Lithodipyra Terra-Cotta or Artificial Stone Manufactory (where "Lithodipyra" is a term derived from three Greek words meaning "stone", "twice" and "fire"), made reference to the custom of including such material (such as in Josiah Wedgwood's basalt and jasper ware). The especially low rate of shrinkage rendered the material ideal for making extra-life-size statuary, and large architectural, decorative features to be incorporated into stone buildings.
    Coade stone was widely used for such purposes by leading architects in Britain and Ireland from the 1770s until the 1830s, including Robert Adam, Sir Charles Barry, Sir William Chambers, Sir John Soane, John Nash and James Wyatt. Some architects introduced the material abroad, as far as, for example, Charles Bulfinch's United States Bank in Boston, Massachusetts, and Charles Cameron's redecoration for the Empress Catherine of the great palace Tsarkoe Selo (now Pushkin), near St Petersburg. The material so resembles stone that it is often mistaken for it, but it is so hard and resistant to weather that it retains sharpness of detail much longer than the natural substance. The many famous British buildings where Coade stone was used include the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, Carlton House and the Sir John Soane Museum (all of which are located in London), St George's Chapel at Windsor, Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, and Culzean Castle in Ayrshire, Scotland.
    Apart from the qualities of the material, the Coade firm established a high reputation for the equally fine quality of its classical statuary. Mrs Coade employed excellent craftsmen such as the sculptor John Bacon (1740–99), whose work was mass-produced by the use of moulds. One famous example which was widely reproduced was the female caryatid from the south porch of the Erechtheion on the acropolis of Athens. A drawing of this had appeared in the second edition of Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of Athens in 1789, and many copies were made from the original Coade model; Soane used them more than once, for example on the Bank of England and his own houses in London.
    Eleanor Coade was a remarkable woman, and was important and influential on the neo-classical scene. She had close and amicable relations with leading architects of the day, notably Robert Adam and James Wyatt. The Coade factory was enlarged and altered over the years, but the site was finally cleared during 1949–50 in preparation for the establishment of the 1951 Festival of Britain.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    A.Kelly, 1990, Mrs Coade's Stone, pub. in conjunction with the Georgian Group (an interesting, carefully written history; includes a detailed appendix on architects who used Coade stone and buildings where surviving work may be seen).
    DY

    Biographical history of technology > Coade, Eleanor

  • 8 Adam

    Adam ['ædəm]
    Bible Adam;
    I don't know him from Adam je ne le connais ni d'Ève ni d'Adam
    Architecture dans le style Adam (style architectural créé par les Écossais Robert et James Adam au XVIIIème siècle)
    ►► British familiar humorous Adam's ale flotte f, château-la-pompe m;
    Anatomy Adam's apple pomme f d'Adam;
    Adam Smith Institute = formation libéraliste au sein du parti conservateur britannique
    ✾ Film 'Adam's Rib' Cukor 'Madame porte la culotte'

    Un panorama unique de l'anglais et du français > Adam

  • 9 Adam

    Adam - Адам

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Adam

  • 10 Robert

    Robert - Роберт

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Robert

  • 11 Adam

    Adam noun Адам

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Adam

  • 12 Adam's apple

    Adam's apple [ˏædəmzˊæpl] n
    кады́к, ада́мово я́блоко

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Adam's apple

  • 13 Adam's wine

    Adam's wine joc. вода

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Adam's wine

  • 14 Robert

    Robert noun Роберт

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Robert

  • 15 adam

    [ʹædəm] n
    1. 1) Адам, Эдам ( мужское имя)
    2) библ. Адам
    2. 1) человек, мужчина
    2) грешный человек

    the old Adam - рел. ветхий Адам, нераскаявшийся грешник

    3. = Adam style

    Adam's ale /wine/ - шутл. вода

    one's outward Adam - амер. шутл. бренная плоть, тело

    (as) old as Adam - очень древний, старый как мир

    not to know smb. from Adam - совсем не знать кого-л.; не знать кого-л. в лицо

    НБАРС > adam

  • 16 Adam's arm

    Adam's arm
    nпроф. лопата

    Англо-русский строительный словарь. — М.: Русский Язык. . 1995.

    Англо-русский словарь строительных терминов > Adam's arm

  • 17 Brookings, Robert Somers

    перс.
    эк., пол., амер. Брукингс, Роберт Сомерс (1850-1932; бизнесмен, несколько лет работавший в правительстве; был активным сторонником повышения качества образования государственных служащих и организации независимых научных исследований; был одним из основателей Института исследования государственного управления, Института экономики, и школы государственной службы при Вашингтонском университете (Robert Brookings Graduate School), которые вспоследствие объединились в Брукингский институт)
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Brookings, Robert Somers

  • 18 Darwin, Charles Robert

    перс.
    соц. Дарвин, Чарльз (1809-1882; английский естествоиспытатель, автор теории естественного отбора и эволюции биологических видов; основной труд: "Происхождение видов путем естественного отбора" (1859); по свидетельству самого Дарвина, одним из источников его вдохновения было учение Т. Р. Мальтуса о народонаселении, согласно которому склонность к неограниченному размножению вступала в конфликт с ограниченным количеством ресурсов; в свою очередь, теория Дарвина вдохновила многих представителей социальных наук на эволюционные теории общественного развития)
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Darwin, Charles Robert

  • 19 Malthus, Thomas Robert

    перс.
    эк., демогр. Мальтус, Томас Роберт (1766-1834; английский экономист, представитель классической школы в политической экономии; внес вклад в денежную теорию и теорию перепроизводства; наибольшую известность получил благодаря своей гипотезе о том, что население растет в геометрической прогрессии, а производство продуктов питания растет в арифметической прогрессии, что создает необходимость в ограничении рождаемости; также одним из первых ставил и пытался решить проблему кризисов перепроизводства; в 1815 г. высказал идею об убывающей предельной отдаче отдельного фактора производства)
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Malthus, Thomas Robert

  • 20 ADAM

    5) Юридический термин: Arrestee Drug Abuse And Monitoring
    6) Грубое выражение: A Dumb Ass Mother-fucker
    7) Сокращение: Advanced Dynamic Anthropomorphic Manikin, Area Denial Anti-personnel / Artillery Munition, Area-Denial Artillery Munition, Artillery-Delivered Antipersonnel Mine, airport datum monument [program] (данные базовой программы аэропорта)
    8) Университет: Advanced Design And Modeling
    9) Электроника: Advanced Digital Audio Matrix
    11) Биотехнология: Array-based discovery of adaptive mutations
    12) Образование: Activities Designed Around Multimedia
    13) Автоматика: advanced abrasive machining
    14) НАСДАК: Adam. Com
    15) Общественная организация: American Divorce Association for Men

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > ADAM

См. также в других словарях:

  • Robert Adam — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 de julio de 1728 3 de marzo de 1792) fue un arquitecto, diseñador de interiores y muebles neoclásico escocés …   Wikipedia Español

  • Robert adam —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Robert Adams. Coupe du General Register House construit par Robert Adam …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Adam — Osterley Park, London Robert Adam (* …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Adam — Infobox Architect caption = Portrait attributed to George Willison, c.1770 75 name = Robert Adam nationality = Scottish birth date = 3 July 1728 birth place = Linktown of Abbotshall (now Kirkcaldy), Fife death date = 3 March 1792 (Aged 63) death… …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Adam —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Robert Adams. Coupe du General Register House construit par Robert Adam en 1789. Robert Adam est un architecte …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Adam — noun Scottish architect who designed many public buildings in England and Scotland (1728 1792) • Syn: ↑Adam • Instance Hypernyms: ↑architect, ↑designer * * * Robert Adam [ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Robert Adam — ➡ Adam * * * …   Universalium

  • Robert Adam Christopher — (1804 ndash; 9 June 1887), born Robert Adam Dundas, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Adam Campbell — was an Ontario businessman and political figure. He represented Renfrew South in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1894 to 1899 as a Liberal member.He was the son of Robert Campbell, who represented the same riding in the House of Commons …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Adam Lyon — (baptized 4 October 1829 ndash; June 6 1901) was a Canadian businessman and Liberal member of the Ontario Provincial Parliament from 1878 to 1884 and 1885 to 1890.He was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1829 and came to Halton County in Upper Canada… …   Wikipedia

  • ADAM (R. et J.) — ADAM ROBERT (1728 1792) & JAMES (1730 1794) Les architectes et décorateurs Robert et James Adam sont les fils d’un architecte écossais, William Adam. Ce dernier, déjà mêlé au courant du retour à l’antique qui depuis Inigo Jones triomphait en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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