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River Severn

  • 1 Bateman, John Frederick La Trobe

    [br]
    b. 30 May 1810 Lower Wyke, near Halifax, Yorkshire, England
    d. 10 June 1889 Moor Park, Farnham, Surrey, England
    [br]
    English civil engineer whose principal works were concerned with reservoirs, water-supply schemes and pipelines.
    [br]
    Bateman's maternal grandfather was a Moravian missionary, and from the age of 7 he was educated at the Moravian schools at Fairfield and Ockbrook. At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a "civil engineer, land surveyor and agent" in Oldham. After this apprenticeship, Bateman commenced his own practice in 1833. One of his early schemes and reports was in regard to the flooding of the river Medlock in the Manchester area. He came to the attention of William Fairbairn, the engine builder and millwright of Canal Street, Ancoats, Manchester. Fairbairn used Bateman as his site surveyor and as such he prepared much of the groundwork for the Bann reservoirs in Northern Ireland. Whilst the reports on the proposals were in the name of Fairbairn, Bateman was, in fact, appointed by the company as their engineer for the execution of the works. One scheme of Bateman's which was carried forward was the Kendal Reservoirs. The Act for these was signed in 1845 and was implemented not for the purpose of water supply but for the conservation of water to supply power to the many mills which stood on the river Kent between Kentmere and Morecambe Bay. The Kentmere Head dam is the only one of the five proposed for the scheme to survive, although not all the others were built as they would have retained only small volumes of water.
    Perhaps the greatest monument to the work of J.F.La Trobe Bateman is Manchester's water supply; he was consulted about this in 1844, and construction began four years later. He first built reservoirs in the Longdendale valley, which has a very complicated geological stratification. Bateman favoured earth embankment dams and gravity feed rather than pumping; the five reservoirs in the valley that impound the river Etherow were complex, cored earth dams. However, when completed they were greatly at risk from landslips and ground movement. Later dams were inserted by Bateman to prevent water loss should the older dams fail. The scheme was not completed until 1877, by which time Manchester's population had exceeded the capacity of the original scheme; Thirlmere in Cumbria was chosen by Manchester Corporation as the site of the first of the Lake District water-supply schemes. Bateman, as Consulting Engineer, designed the great stone-faced dam at the west end of the lake, the "gothic" straining well in the middle of the east shore of the lake, and the 100-mile (160 km) pipeline to Manchester. The Act for the Thirlmere reservoir was signed in 1879 and, whilst Bateman continued as Consulting Engineer, the work was supervised by G.H. Hill and was completed in 1894.
    Bateman was also consulted by the authorities in Glasgow, with the result that he constructed an impressive water-supply scheme derived from Loch Katrine during the years 1856–60. It was claimed that the scheme bore comparison with "the most extensive aqueducts in the world, not excluding those of ancient Rome". Bateman went on to superintend the waterworks of many cities, mainly in the north of England but also in Dublin and Belfast. In 1865 he published a pamphlet, On the Supply of Water to London from the Sources of the River Severn, based on a survey funded from his own pocket; a Royal Commission examined various schemes but favoured Bateman's.
    Bateman was also responsible for harbour and dock works, notably on the rivers Clyde and Shannon, and also for a number of important water-supply works on the Continent of Europe and beyond. Dams and the associated reservoirs were the principal work of J.F.La Trobe Bateman; he completed forty-three such schemes during his professional career. He also prepared many studies of water-supply schemes, and appeared as professional witness before the appropriate Parliamentary Committees.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    FRS 1860. President, Institution of Civil Engineers 1878, 1879.
    Bibliography
    Among his publications History and Description of the Manchester Waterworks, (1884, London), and The Present State of Our Knowledge on the Supply of Water to Towns, (1855, London: British Association for the Advancement of Science) are notable.
    Further Reading
    Obituary, 1889, Proceedings of the Royal Society 46:xlii-xlviii. G.M.Binnie, 1981, Early Victorian Water Engineers, London.
    P.N.Wilson, 1973, "Kendal reservoirs", Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society 73.
    KM / LRD

    Biographical history of technology > Bateman, John Frederick La Trobe

  • 2 Cubitt, William

    [br]
    b. 1785 Dilham, Norfolk, England
    d. 13 October 1861 Clapham Common, Surrey, England
    [br]
    English civil engineer and contractor.
    [br]
    The son of a miller, he received a rudimentary education in the village school. At an early age he was helping his father in the mill, and in 1800 he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker. After four years he returned to work with his father, but, preferring to leave the parental home, he not long afterwards joined a firm of agricultural-machinery makers in Swanton in Norfolk. There he acquired a reputation for making accurate patterns for the iron caster and demonstrated a talent for mechanical invention, patenting a self-regulating windmill sail in 1807. He then set up on his own as a millwright, but he found he could better himself by joining the engineering works of Ransomes of Ipswich in 1812. He was soon appointed their Chief Engineer, and after nine years he became a partner in the firm until he moved to London in 1826. Around 1818 he invented the treadmill, with the aim of putting prisoners to useful work in grinding corn and other applications. It was rapidly adopted by the principal prisons, more as a means of punishment than an instrument of useful work.
    From 1814 Cubitt had been gaining experience in civil engineering, and upon his removal to London his career in this field began to take off. He was engaged on many canal-building projects, including the Oxford and Liverpool Junction canals. He accomplished some notable dock works, such as the Bute docks at Cardiff, the Middlesborough docks and the coal drops on the river Tees. He improved navigation on the river Severn and compiled valuable reports on a number of other leading rivers.
    The railway construction boom of the 1840s provided him with fresh opportunities. He engineered the South Eastern Railway (SER) with its daringly constructed line below the cliffs between Folkestone and Dover; the railway was completed in 1843, using massive charges of explosive to blast a way through the cliffs. Cubitt was Consulting Engineer to the Great Northern Railway and tried, with less than his usual success, to get the atmospheric system to work on the Croydon Railway.
    When the SER began a steamer service between Folkestone and Boulogne, Cubitt was engaged to improve the port facilities there and went on to act as Consulting Engineer to the Boulogne and Amiens Railway. Other commissions on the European continent included surveying the line between Paris and Lyons, advising the Hanoverian government on the harbour and docks at Hamburg and directing the water-supply works for Berlin.
    Cubitt was actively involved in the erection of the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of 1851; in recognition of this work Queen Victoria knighted him at Windsor Castle on 23 December 1851.
    Cubitt's son Joseph (1811–72) was also a notable civil engineer, with many railway and harbour works to his credit.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knighted 1851. FRS 1830. President, Institution of Civil Engineers 1850 and 1851.
    Further Reading
    LRD

    Biographical history of technology > Cubitt, William

  • 3 Darby, Abraham

    SUBJECT AREA: Metallurgy
    [br]
    b. 1678 near Dudley, Worcestershire, England
    d. 5 May 1717 Madely Court, Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England
    [br]
    English ironmaster, inventor of the coke smelting of iron ore.
    [br]
    Darby's father, John, was a farmer who also worked a small forge to produce nails and other ironware needed on the farm. He was brought up in the Society of Friends, or Quakers, and this community remained important throughout his personal and working life. Darby was apprenticed to Jonathan Freeth, a malt-mill maker in Birmingham, and on completion of his apprenticeship in 1699 he took up the trade himself in Bristol. Probably in 1704, he visited Holland to study the casting of brass pots and returned to Bristol with some Dutch workers, setting up a brassworks at Baptist Mills in partnership with others. He tried substituting cast iron for brass in his castings, without success at first, but in 1707 he was granted a patent, "A new way of casting iron pots and other pot-bellied ware in sand without loam or clay". However, his business associates were unwilling to risk further funds in the experiments, so he withdrew his share of the capital and moved to Coalbrookdale in Shropshire. There, iron ore, coal, water-power and transport lay close at hand. He took a lease on an old furnace and began experimenting. The shortage and expense of charcoal, and his knowledge of the use of coke in malting, may well have led him to try using coke to smelt iron ore. The furnace was brought into blast in 1709 and records show that in the same year it was regularly producing iron, using coke instead of charcoal. The process seems to have been operating successfully by 1711 in the production of cast-iron pots and kettles, with some pig-iron destined for Bristol. Darby prospered at Coalbrookdale, employing coke smelting with consistent success, and he sought to extend his activities in the neighbourhood and in other parts of the country. However, ill health prevented him from pursuing these ventures with his previous energy. Coke smelting spread slowly in England and the continent of Europe, but without Darby's technological breakthrough the ever-increasing demand for iron for structures and machines during the Industrial Revolution simply could not have been met; it was thus an essential component of the technological progress that was to come.
    Darby's eldest son, Abraham II (1711–63), entered the Coalbrookdale Company partnership in 1734 and largely assumed control of the technical side of managing the furnaces and foundry. He made a number of improvements, notably the installation of a steam engine in 1742 to pump water to an upper level in order to achieve a steady source of water-power to operate the bellows supplying the blast furnaces. When he built the Ketley and Horsehay furnaces in 1755 and 1756, these too were provided with steam engines. Abraham II's son, Abraham III (1750–89), in turn, took over the management of the Coalbrookdale works in 1768 and devoted himself to improving and extending the business. His most notable achievement was the design and construction of the famous Iron Bridge over the river Severn, the world's first iron bridge. The bridge members were cast at Coalbrookdale and the structure was erected during 1779, with a span of 100 ft (30 m) and height above the river of 40 ft (12 m). The bridge still stands, and remains a tribute to the skill and judgement of Darby and his workers.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    A.Raistrick, 1989, Dynasty of Iron Founders, 2nd edn, Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust (the best source for the lives of the Darbys and the work of the company).
    H.R.Schubert, 1957, History of the British Iron and Steel Industry AD 430 to AD 1775, London: Routledge \& Kegan Paul.
    LRD

    Biographical history of technology > Darby, Abraham

  • 4 Pritchard, Thomas Farnolls

    SUBJECT AREA: Civil engineering
    [br]
    b. probably Shrewsbury, England
    d. 23 December 1777 Shrewsbury, England
    [br]
    English architect and builder renowned for designing the first cast-iron bridge in England.
    [br]
    In 1775 Pritchard designed the Ironbridge bridge, which was built over the River Severn by Abraham Darby of Coalbrookdale in 1777–9. It is constructed of five parallel arch ribs almost 200 ft (61 m) in length. The spandrels are filled by circles and ogee arch heads, while the roadway above is made from cast-iron plates 2½ in. (64 mm) thick. The bridge, which weighs 400 tons, was made in the Coalbrookdale foundry and took only three months to erect.
    DY

    Biographical history of technology > Pritchard, Thomas Farnolls

  • 5 Severn River Naval Command

    English-Russian dictionary of planing, cross-planing and slotting machines > Severn River Naval Command

  • 6 Severn River Naval Command

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Severn River Naval Command

  • 7 SEVERN (RIVER)

    [NPR]
    SABRINA (-AE) (F)

    English-Latin dictionary > SEVERN (RIVER)

  • 8 river

    'rivə
    (a large stream of water flowing across country: The Thames is a river; the river Thames; the Hudson River; (also adjective) a river animal.) río
    - riverside
    river n río
    tr['rɪvəSMALLr/SMALL]
    1 río
    river ['rɪvər] n
    : río m
    adj.
    fluvial adj.
    n.
    rio s.m.
    río s.m.
    'rɪvər, 'rɪvə(r)
    noun río m

    up/down river — río arriba/abajo

    to sell somebody down the river — traicionar a alguien; (before n) <traffic, port> fluvial; <mouth, basin> del río; < fish> de río or de agua dulce

    ['rɪvǝ(r)]
    1.
    N río m

    up/down river — río arriba/abajo

    - sell sb down the river
    2.
    CPD

    river basin Ncuenca f de río

    river fish Npez m de río

    river fishing Npesca f de río

    river mouth Ndesembocadura f del río

    river police Nbrigada f fluvial

    river traffic Ntráfico m fluvial

    * * *
    ['rɪvər, 'rɪvə(r)]
    noun río m

    up/down river — río arriba/abajo

    to sell somebody down the river — traicionar a alguien; (before n) <traffic, port> fluvial; <mouth, basin> del río; < fish> de río or de agua dulce

    English-spanish dictionary > river

  • 9 Severn

    сущ.;
    геогр. р. Северн
    Severn

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > Severn

  • 10 river

    ˈrɪvə сущ. река;
    поток, течение down river ≈ вниз по реке up river ≈ вверх по реке to ford a river ≈ переходить реку вброд to dredge a river ≈ драгировать реку river floods ≈ река поднимается river flows( into the sea) ≈ река впадает (в море) river overflows( its banks) ≈ река выходит из берегов river recedesвода в реке спадает cross the river Syn: stream река - transboundary *s реки, протекающие на территории нескольких государств - * line водный рубеж;
    водная преграда - * barrier( военное) водная преграда, водный рубеж - * crossing( военное) форсирование реки, преодоление водного рубежа - to cross the * переправиться через реку;
    преодолеть препятствие;
    умереть поток - a * of lava поток лавы > to follow /to get on/ the * (американизм) получить работу в речном порту или на речном судне;
    стать речником > to go down the * (американизм) (историческое) быть проданным на юг( о неграх-рабах) > to sell smb. down the * (американизм) (историческое) продать на юг;
    продать в рабство;
    предать кого-л. > to send up the * (американизм) (сленг) упечь /засадить/ в тюрьму to cross the ~ переправиться через реку to cross the ~ перен. преодолеть препятствие to cross the ~ умереть river река;
    поток ~ attr. речной

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > river

  • 11 tide-river

    river приливная рекакоторую с моря проникает прилив)

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > tide-river

  • 12 cross the river

    cross the river а) переправиться через реку; б) fig. преодолеть пре-пятствие; в) умереть

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > cross the river

  • 13 down-river

    down-river adv. вниз по течению

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > down-river

  • 14 Orange River

    Orange River noun река Оранжевая

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Orange River

  • 15 riv. river

    riv. river noun река

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > riv. river

  • 16 river

    river [ˊrɪvə] n
    1) река́; пото́к;
    а) перепра́виться че́рез ре́ку;
    б) преодоле́ть препя́тствие;
    в) умере́ть
    2) attr. речно́й

    to sell down the river преда́ть кого-л.

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > river

  • 17 river bank

    river bank noun речной берег

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > river bank

  • 18 river-bed

    river-bed noun русло реки

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > river-bed

  • 19 river-horse

    river-horse [ˊrɪvəˏhɔ:s] n
    1) бегемо́т, гиппопота́м
    2) миф. водяно́й

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > river-horse

  • 20 row up Salt River

    row up Salt River amer.; sl. 'прокатить' на выборах; нанести поражение

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > row up Salt River

См. также в других словарях:

  • River Severn — Geobox|River name = River Severn native name = other name = Welsh: Afon Hafren other name1 = Latin: Sabrina image size = 288 image caption = The Severn at Shrewsbury from Shrewsbury Castle. etymology = country = Wales country1 = England state =… …   Wikipedia

  • River Severn — noun a river in England and Wales flowing into the Bristol Channel; the longest river in Great Britain • Syn: ↑Severn, ↑Severn River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Wales, ↑Cymru, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • List of crossings of the River Severn — Motorway crossings over the River Severn Second Severn Crossing (M4 motorway) …   Wikipedia

  • Fawn River (Severn River) — Fawn RiverVorlage:Infobox Fluss/GKZ fehlt Lage Kenora District in Ontario (Kanada) Flusssystem Severn River (Hudson Bay) Abfluss über Severn River  …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Severn (Begriffsklärung) — Severn ist der Name folgender Flüsse: Großbritannien: (River) Severn in Wales und England Australien: Severn River (New South Wales), Nebenfluss des Macintyre River in Australien Severn River (Queensland), Nebenfluss des Dumaresq River und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Severn Bridge, Ontario — is a small community in the District of Muskoka in the province of Ontario, in Canada. It is located around 100 kilometres north of Toronto, on the Severn River, roughly halfway between Orillia and Gravenhurst. Its population is around 300 (as… …   Wikipedia

  • Severn River (New South Wales) — Severn River Severn River in DundeeVorlage:Infobox Fluss/KARTE fehlt DatenVorlage:Infobox Fluss/G …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Severn River — heißen folgende Flüsse in Australien: Severn River (New South Wales), Nebenfluss des Macintyre River in Australien Severn River (Queensland), Nebenfluss des Dumaresq River und indirekt des Macintyre River Kanada: Severn River (Hudson Bay) im… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Severn crossing — is a term used to refer to the two motorway crossings over the River Severn estuary between England and Wales. The two crossings are: *The Severn Bridge (Welsh: Pont Hafren ) *The Second Severn Crossing (Welsh: Ail Groesfan Hafren ) The first… …   Wikipedia

  • River surfing — is the sport of surfing either standing waves or tidal bores in rivers. Claims for its origins include a 1955 ride of 1.5 miles along the tidal bore of the River Severn. [http://www.thelongwave.com/] River surfing on standing waves has been… …   Wikipedia

  • Severn Beach — is a village on the mouth of the river Severn in South Gloucestershire, England. A riverside footpath leads beneath the Second Severn Crossing bridge which is part of the Severn Way. The eastern portal of the Severn Tunnel lies on the outskirts… …   Wikipedia


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