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Rei��last

  • 1 Last

    Last, I) hoher Grad der Schwere: gravitas (z.B. armorum). – pondus (Gewicht, z.B. saxa magni ponderis); verb. gravitas et pondus. – Bildl., von der Last eines Geschäfts erdrückt werden, obrui tamquam fluctu magnitudine negotii. – II) schwere Bürde: a) übh.:onus. – sarcĭna (die Tracht; das, was ein Mensch trägt od. tragen kann). – munus (Leistung, Aufgabe). – molestia (bildl., Beschwerde). – jmdm. zur L. fallen (bildl.), α) = beschwerlich fallen, s. beschwerlich. – β) es fällt miretwas zur Last, impensae, quae in alqd factae sunt, a me praestandae sunt (ich muß die Kosten tragen); culpa mihi attribuitur od. in me confertur od. transfertur (die Schuld wird auf mich geschoben). – γ) es fällt mir jmd. zur L., alqs mihi molestus est (er ist mir lästig): er fällt sich selbst zur L., sibi molestus est; sibi fastidio est. – jmdm. etwas zur L. legen, accusare, incusare alqm alcis rei (jmd. einer Sache beschuldigen); [1547] alcis rei culpam conferre in alqm (die Schuld von etwas jmdm. zurechnen); alci alqd vitio oder crimini dare (jmdm. etwas als Fehler, als Schuld anrechnen); exprobrare alci alqd (ihm etwas vorwerfen). – b) Plur. Lasten = Abgaben, ōnera. – munera (als Leistungen). – öffentliche Lasten, imperii munera.

    deutsch-lateinisches > Last

  • 2 Last-Minute-Reise

    Last-Mi|nute-Rei|se
    f
    late availability holiday (esp Brit) or vacation (US)

    Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch > Last-Minute-Reise

  • 3 last hurrah

    [͵lɑ:sthʋʹreı]
    1. последний парад
    2. последняя попытка, последнее усилие (сделать что-л.)

    НБАРС > last hurrah

  • 4 brúðguma-reið

    f. a ‘bridegroom’s ride;’ at weddings the bridegroom, as the host, had to meet his guests (boðsmenn) a quarter of a mile from his house; here he entertained them in tents, where they remained and enjoyed themselves till evening; when darkness began to set in, the party rode home in a procession drawn up two and two; this was called brúðguma-reið. The last bridegroom’s ride on record in Icel. was that of Eggert Olafsson, just a hundred years ago, at his wedding at Reykholt in the autumn of 1767 A. D. A minute description of this last Icel. b. exists in a MS. (in the possession of Maurer, in Munich). An interesting treatise upon the wedding feasts in Icel. in the Middle Ages, down to the 18th century, is among the Icel. MSS. in the Bodleian Library, no. 130.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > brúðguma-reið

  • 5 reichen

    rei·chen [ʼraiçn̩]
    vi
    1) ( ausreichen) to be enough [or sufficient];
    die Vorräte \reichen noch Monate the stores will last for months still;
    es reicht [jdm] that's enough [for sb];
    noch etwas Püree? - danke, es reicht vollauf fancy any more mash? - no thanks, this plenty
    es reicht it's enough;
    es müsste eigentlich \reichen it really ought to be enough;
    damit es reicht... for it to be enough...;
    es reicht [jdm], dass/wenn... it's enough [for sb] that/if...;
    muss es jetzt sein, reicht es nicht, wenn ich es morgen mache? does it have to be now, won't tomorrow do?
    etw reicht jdm sth is enough for sb;
    mir reicht's! that's enough for me!, I've had enough!;
    es hat ihm einfach gereicht he had simply had enough;
    solche ständigen Frechheiten hätten mir schon lange gereicht if that was me, I wouldn't have put up with such cheek for all that time;
    es reicht [jdm], dass/wie... it's enough [for sb] that/how...;
    langsam reicht es mir, wie du dich immer benimmst! I'm beginning to get fed up with the way you always behave!;
    jetzt reicht's [mir] [aber]! [o endlich], mir reicht's jetzt [aber]! [right, [or (Am) all right,] ] that's enough!, that's the last straw!
    bis zu etw dat über etw akk \reichen to reach to sth/over sth;
    das Kabel reicht nicht ganz bis zur Steckdose the lead doesn't quite reach to the plug;
    das Seil reicht nicht ganz bis nach unten the rope doesn't quite reach the bottom;
    die Ärmel \reichen mir nur bis knapp über die Ellenbogen the sleeves only just reach over my elbows;
    meine Ländereien \reichen von hier bis zum Horizont my estates stretch from here to the horizon; s. a. Auge
    5) ( gelangen)
    [mit etw] bis irgendwohin \reichen to reach somewhere [with sth];
    wenn ich mich strecke, reiche ich mit der Hand gerade bis oben hin if I stretch I can just reach the top;
    ich reiche nicht ganz bis an die Wand I can't quite reach the wall
    vt geh
    1) ( geben)
    jdm etw \reichen to give [or hand] [or pass] sb sth;
    würdest du mir bitte mal das Brot \reichen? would you be so kind as to pass me the bread please?
    2) sich dat [gegenseitig [ o geh einander]] etw \reichen to [each] reach out sth;
    sich dat die Hand zur Begrüßung \reichen to shake hands;
    sich dat die Hand zur Versöhnung \reichen to join hands in reconciliation
    3) ( anbieten)
    [jdm] etw \reichen to serve [sb] sth

    Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch für Studenten > reichen

  • 6 reinigen

    rei·ni·gen [ʼrainɪgn̩]
    vt
    etw \reinigen to clean sth;
    wann ist dein Anzug zum letzten Mal gereinigt worden? when was your suit last [dry-]cleaned?

    Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch für Studenten > reinigen

  • 7 summum

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > summum

  • 8 Superi

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > Superi

  • 9 superus

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > superus

  • 10 suprema

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > suprema

  • 11 supremum

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > supremum

  • 12 supremus

    sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages:

    super inferque vicinus,

    Cato, R. R. 149, 1:

    totus super ignis,

    Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superum, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. [super].
    I.
    Posit.
    A.
    Adj.
    1.
    In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.:

    at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi,

    Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36:

    omnes di deaeque superi, inferi,

    Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6:

    ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse,

    Cic. Lael. 3, 12:

    limen superum inferumque salve,

    Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1:

    portae Phrygiae limen,

    id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.):

    carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138:

    di,

    id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64:

    spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium,

    id. N. D. 2, 56, 140:

    omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes,

    Verg. A. 6, 788:

    supera ad convexa,

    to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.):

    lumen,

    Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48:

    domus deorum,

    Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44;

    so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum,

    Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.:

    de supero, quom huc accesserit,

    from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so,

    ex supero,

    Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248. —
    2.
    In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions):

    supera de parte,

    i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855:

    superas evadere ad auras,

    Verg. A. 6, 128:

    superum ad lumen ire,

    id. ib. 6, 680:

    aurae,

    Ov. M. 5, 641:

    orae,

    Verg. A. 2, 91:

    limen,

    id. ib. 6, 680.—
    B.
    Substt.
    1.
    Sŭpĕri, orum, m.
    (α).
    They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6:

    multum fleti ad superos,

    i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481:

    (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos,

    the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.:

    ut oblitos superum paterere dolores,

    Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poet. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252:

    epistula ad superos scripta,

    i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.—
    (β).
    (Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities:

    quae Superi Manesque dabant,

    Verg. A. 10, 34:

    aspiciunt Superi mortalia,

    Ov. M. 13, 70:

    o Superi!

    id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729;

    pro Superi,

    id. Tr. 1, 2, 59:

    terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum,

    Verg. A. 1, 4:

    illa propago Contemptrix Superum,

    Ov. M. 1, 161:

    exemplo Superorum,

    id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so,

    Superorum,

    id. P. 1, 1, 43:

    postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis,

    Verg. A. 3, 2:

    scilicet is Superis labor est,

    id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16:

    superis deorum Gratus et imis,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 19:

    flectere Superos,

    Verg. A. 7, 312:

    te per Superos... oro,

    id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.—
    2.
    sŭpĕra, orum, n.
    (α).
    The heavenly bodies:

    Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet,

    Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.:

    cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus,

    id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motus superum atque inferum, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).—
    (β).
    Higher places (sc. loca):

    supera semper petunt,

    tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42:

    (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens,

    the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562.
    II.
    Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ius.
    A.
    Lit., of place, higher, upper:

    inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 46:

    dejectus qui potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus?

    Cic. Caecin. 18, 50:

    in superiore qui habito cenaculo,

    Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3:

    tota domus superior vacat,

    the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10:

    superior accumbere,

    Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42:

    de loco superiore dicere,

    i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102:

    agere,

    i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14;

    and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos,

    id. Fam. 3, 8, 2:

    sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur,

    id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so,

    ex loco superiore,

    id. ib. 3, 4:

    loca,

    id. ib. 1, 10, 4;

    3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere,

    id. B. C. 3, 98:

    qui in superiore acie constiterant,

    id. B. G. 1, 24:

    ex superiore et ex inferiore scriptura docendum,

    i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.:

    posteriori superius non jungitur,

    id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.—
    B.
    Trop.
    1.
    Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding:

    superiores solis defectiones,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25:

    quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,

    id. Cat. 1, 1, 1:

    refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 58:

    superioribus aestivis,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 46:

    superioribus temporibus,

    Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1:

    tempus (opp. posterius),

    id. Dom. 37, 99:

    tempora (opp. inferiora),

    Suet. Claud. 41:

    annus,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47:

    anno superiore,

    id. Har. Resp. 8, 15:

    superioris anni acta,

    Suet. Caes. 23:

    in superiore vita,

    Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, [p. 1811] Caes. B. G. 2, 20:

    testimonium conveniens superiori facto,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 53:

    superius facinus novo scelere vincere,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116:

    superioris more crudelitatis uti,

    Nep. Thras. 3, 1:

    superius genus,

    mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146:

    nuptiae,

    former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15:

    vir,

    first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.—
    b.
    Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former:

    omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis,

    Caes. B. C. 2, 5:

    aetate superiores,

    Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1:

    superior Africanus,

    the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121:

    Dionysius,

    id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.:

    quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur,

    Cic. Or. 34, 120.—
    2.
    Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior:

    Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat,

    Caes. B. G. 7, 65:

    numero superiores,

    Hirt. B. G. 8, 12:

    hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum,

    id. ib. 8, 19:

    se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum,

    Cic. Caecin. 1, 2:

    semper discessit superior,

    Nep. Hann. 1, 2:

    si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset,

    Sall. C. 39, 4:

    ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint,

    Caes. B. G. 5, 15:

    multo superiores bello esse,

    Nep. Alcib. 4, 7:

    superiorem Appium in causa fecit,

    Liv. 5, 7, 1.—
    3.
    Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior.
    (α).
    With abl. respect.:

    pecuniis superiores,

    Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59:

    loco, fortuna, fama superiores,

    id. Lael. 25, 94:

    habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    ordine,

    id. ib. 13, 5, 2:

    facilitate et humanitate superior,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    si superior ceteris rebus esses,

    id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.—
    (β).
    Absol.:

    ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitia, sic quodam modo inferiores extollere,

    Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 20, 71:

    ut quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius,

    id. Off. 1, 26, 90:

    invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus... sed etiam superioribus invidetur,

    id. de Or. 2, 52, 209:

    premendoque superiorem sese extollebat,

    Liv. 22, 12, 12:

    cui omnem honorem, ut superiori habuit,

    Vell. 2, 101, 1.
    III.
    Sup., in three forms, ‡ superrimus, supremus, and summus.
    A.
    sŭperrĭmus, assumed as orig. form of supremus by Varr. L. L. 7, § 51 Mull.; Charis. p. 130 P.—
    B.
    sū̆prēmus, a, um, highest, loftiest, topmost.
    1.
    Lit. (only poet.; cf.

    summus, C. 1.): montesque supremos Silvifragis vexat flabris,

    the highest points, the tops, summits, Lucr. 1, 274; so,

    montes,

    Verg. G. 4, 460; Hor. Epod. 17, 68:

    rupes,

    Sen. Oedip. 95:

    arx,

    Claud. III. Cons. Hon. 167; cf.:

    supremae Tethyos unda,

    Mart. Spect. 3, 6.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, extreme, final, = ultimus (class.).
    (α).
    In gen.: SOL OCCASVS SVPREMA TEMPESTAS ESTO, XII. Tab. ap. Gell. 17, 2, 10.—Hence, as subst.: suprēma, ae, f. (sc. tempestas), the last part of the day, the hour of sunset: suprema summum diei; hoc tempus duodecim Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis;

    sed postea lex praetoria id quoque tempus jubet esse supremum, quo praeco in comitio supremam pronuntiavit populo,

    Varr. L. L. 6, § 5 Mull.; cf. Censor. de Die Nat. 24; Plin. 7, 60, 60, § 212:

    quae (urbs), quia postrema coaedificata est, Neapolis nominatur,

    Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    supremo te sole domi manebo,

    at sunset, Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 3:

    jubare exorto jam nocte suprema, Col. poet. 10, 294: in te suprema salus,

    last hope, Verg. A. 12, 653: supremam bellis imposuisse manum, the last or finishing hand, Ov. R. Am. 114. — suprēmum, adverb., for the last time:

    quae mihi tunc primum, tunc est conspecta supremum,

    Ov. M. 12, 526.—
    (β).
    In partic., with regard to the close of life, last, closing, dying:

    supremo vitae die,

    Cic. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; id. Sen. 21, 78; id. Mur. 36, 75:

    dies,

    id. Phil. 1, 14, 34; Hor. C. 1, 13, 20; id. Ep. 1, 4, 13:

    hora,

    Tib. 1, 1, 59:

    tempus,

    Hor. S. 1, 1, 98; Cat. 64, 151:

    incestum pontifices supremo supplicio sanciunto,

    i. e. the penalty of death, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22:

    mors,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 173:

    finis,

    id. ib. 2, 1, 12:

    iter,

    id. C. 2, 17, 11:

    lumen,

    Verg. A. 6, 735: sociamque tori vocat ore supremo, with his dying mouth, dying breath, Ov. M. 8, 521; so,

    ore,

    id. Tr. 3, 3, 87:

    haec digressu dicta supremo Fundebat,

    Verg. A. 8, 583:

    Nero in suprema ira duos calices crystallinos fregit,

    in his last agony, Plin. 37, 2, 10, § 29;

    supremis suis annis,

    in his last years, id. 23, 1, 27, § 58:

    suprema ejus cura,

    id. 7, 45, 46, § 150:

    spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate,

    Cic. Mil. 32, 86: honor, the last honors, i. e. funeral rites or ceremonies, Verg. A. 11, 61:

    funera,

    Ov. M. 3, 137:

    oscula,

    id. ib. 6, 278:

    tori,

    i. e. biers, id. F. 6, 668:

    ignis,

    id. Am. 1, 15, 41:

    ignes,

    id. M. 2, 620; 13, 583:

    officia,

    Tac. A. 5, 2; Petr. 112, 1: judicia hominum, a last will or testament, Quint. 6, 3, 92; Plin. Ep. 7, 20, 7; 7, 31, 5; so,

    tabulae,

    Mart. 5, 33, 1; 5, 41, 1:

    tituli,

    i. e. an epitaph, id. ib. 9, 19, 3.—So of cities, etc.:

    Troiae sorte suprema,

    Verg. A. 5, 190:

    dies regnis,

    Ov. F. 2, 852. — suprēmum and suprēmō, adverb.:

    animam sepulcro Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus,

    for the last time, for a last farewell, Verg. A. 3, 68; Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 150; Tac. H. 4, 14; Ov. M. 12, 526:

    anima exitura supremo,

    Plin. 11, 53, 115, § 277.— Substt.
    1.
    sŭprēmum, i, n., the last moment, end (very rare):

    ventum ad supremum est,

    Verg. A. 12, 803.—
    2.
    suprēma, orum, n.
    (α).
    The last moments, the close of life, death:

    ut me in supremis consolatus est!

    Quint. 6, prooem. § 11; Tac. A. 6, 50; 12, 66; cf.:

    statua Herculis sentiens suprema tunicae,

    the last agonies caused by it, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 93:

    circa suprema Neronis,

    the time of his death, id. 16, 44, 86, § 236; 7, 3, 3, § 33.—
    (β).
    The last honors paid to the dead, funeral rites or ceremonies, a funeral:

    supremis divi Augusti,

    Plin. 7, 3, 3, § 33; 16, 44, 86, § 236; Tac. A. 1, 61; 3, 49; 4, 44; id. H. 4, 59; 4, 45:

    suprema ferre (sc. munera),

    Verg. A. 6, 213; cf. id. ib. 11, 25 al.—
    (γ).
    A last will, testament:

    nihil primo senatus die agi passus, nisi de supremis Augusti,

    Tac. A. 1, 8:

    miles in supremis ordinandis ignarus uxorem esse praegnantem, etc.,

    Dig. 29, 1, 36, § 2.—
    (δ).
    The relics, remains of a burned corpse, the ashes, = reliquiae, Amm. 25, 9, 12; Sol. 1 med.
    b.
    Of degree or rank, the highest, greatest, most exalted, supreme:

    multa, quae appellatur suprema, instituta in singulos duarum ovium, triginta boum... ultra quam (numerum) multam dicere in singulos jus non est, et propterea suprema appellatur, id est, summa et maxima,

    Gell. 11, 1, 2 sq.:

    macies,

    Verg. A. 3, 590:

    Juppiter supreme,

    Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 55; id. Capt. 2, 3, 66; 5, 2, 23; id. Ps. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 42: Junonis supremus conjunx, Poet. ap. Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 115:

    med antidhac Supremum habuisti com item consiliis tuis,

    most intimate, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 15.—
    C.
    summus, a, um [from sup-imus, sup-mus], uppermost, highest, topmost; the top of, highest part of (cf. Roby, Gram. 2, § 1295).
    1.
    Lit. (class., while supremus is mostly poet.):

    summum oportet olfactare vestimentum muliebre,

    the top, outside of, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 56: Galli summa arcis adorti Moenia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 1, 4 (Ann. v. 169 Vahl.): Thyestes summis saxis fixus, id. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 107 (Trag. v. 413 ib.): montibus summis, id. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 71 Mull. (Epigr. v. 43 ib.):

    summum jugum montis,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 21:

    summus mons,

    the top of, id. ib. 1, 22:

    feriunt summos fulmina montes,

    the mountain tops, Hor. C. 2, 10, 11; cf.: in summo montis vertice, Poet. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 48:

    locus castrorum,

    Caes. B. G. 2, 23:

    in summa sacra via,

    on the highest part of, Cic. Planc. 7, 17; cf. id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    in summa columna conlocare,

    id. Div. 1, 24, 48:

    quam (urbem) ad summum theatrum,

    id. Verr. 2, 4, 53, § 119:

    Janus summus ab imo,

    Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54:

    ad aquam summam appropinquare,

    Cic. Fin. 4, 23, 64: mento summam aquam attingens enectus siti, Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10:

    in aqua summa natare,

    the top, surface of, Plaut. Cas. 2, 6, 33:

    apud summum puteum,

    id. Mil. 4, 4, 16:

    per summa volare aequora,

    Verg. A. 5, 819:

    summa cacumina linquunt,

    id. ib. 6, 678:

    mari summo,

    id. ib. 1, 110:

    prospexi Italiam summa ab unda,

    id. ib. 6, 357:

    summaque per galeam delibans oscula,

    id. ib. 12, 434:

    amphoras complures complet plumbo, summas operit auro,

    Nep. Hann. 9, 3: summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Verg. E. 1, 83:

    summam cutem novacula decerpito,

    Col. 12, 56, 1.—Of position, place, at table:

    summus ego (in triclinio) et prope me Viscus Thurinus et infra Varius, etc.,

    I was highest, I reclined at the top, Hor. S. 2, 8, 20.—Hence, subst.: summus, i, m., he who sits in the highest place, at the head of the table:

    standum est in lecto, si quid de summo petas,

    Plaut. Men. 1, 1, 27: is sermo, qui more majorum a summo adhibetur in poculis, by the head of the table, i. e. by the president of the feast, Cic. Sen. 14, 46; so,

    a summo dare (bibere),

    Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; Pers. 5, 1, 19.—
    b.
    summum, i, n., the top, surface; the highest place, the head of the table, etc.:

    ab ejus (frontis) summo, sicut palmae, rami quam late diffunduntur,

    Caes. B. G. 6, 26:

    qui demersi sunt in aqua... si non longe absunt a summo,

    Cic. Fin. 3, 14, 48:

    leviter a summo inflexum bacillum,

    id. Div. 1, 17, 30:

    igitur discubuere... in summo Antonius,

    Sall. H. 3, 4 Dietsch:

    puteos ac potius fontes habet: sunt enim in summo,

    Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 25:

    nuces mersit in vinum et sive in summum redierant, sive subsederant, etc.,

    Petr. 137 fin.: oratori summa riguerunt, the extremities of his body, Sen. Ira, 2, 3, 3.—In mal. part.:

    summa petere,

    Mart. 11, 46, 6; Auct. Priap. 76.—
    2.
    Transf., of the voice:

    jubeo te salvere voce summa,

    Plaut. As. 2, 2, 30; cf.:

    citaret Io Bacche! modo summa Voce, modo, etc.,

    at the top of his voice, Hor. S. 1, 3, 7:

    vox (opp. ima),

    Quint. 11, 3, 15:

    summa voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare,

    Cic. de Or. 1, 61, 261; cf.:

    summo haec clamore,

    Plaut. Merc. prol. 59. —Adverb.: summum, at the utmost or farthest:

    exspectabam hodie, aut summum cras,

    Cic. Att. 13, 21, 2:

    bis, terve summum,

    id. Fam. 2, 1, 1:

    triduo aut summum quatriduo,

    id. Mil. 9, 26; cf. Liv. 21, 35, and 31, 42 Drak.—
    2.
    Trop.
    a.
    Of time or order of succession, last, latest, final (rare but class.):

    haec est praestituta summa argento dies,

    Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 140; so,

    venit summa dies,

    Verg. A. 2, 324:

    ad summam senectutem jactari, quam, etc.,

    Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1: vixit ad summam senectutem, to extreme old age, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 401, 31:

    cum esset summa senectute,

    id. Phil. 8, 10, 31:

    in fluvium primi cecidere, in corpora summi,

    Luc. 2, 211:

    summo carmine,

    at the end, Hor. C. 3, 28, 13:

    eadem in argumentis ratio est, ut potentissima prima et summa ponantur,

    the first and the last, at the beginning and the end, Quint. 6, 4, 22; cf. neutr. absol.: Celsus putat, primo firmum aliquod (argumentum) esse ponendum, summo firmissimum, imbecilliora medio;

    quia et initio movendus sit judex et summo impellendus,

    at the last, at the close, id. 7, 1, 10.— Adverb.: summum, for the last time:

    nunc ego te infelix summum teneoque tuorque,

    Albin. 1, 137. —
    b.
    Of rank, etc., highest, greatest, first, supreme, best, utmost, extreme; most distinguished, excellent, or noble; most important, weighty, or critical, etc. (so most freq. in prose and poetry): summa nituntur vi, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 168 Vahl.): bellum gerentes summum summa industria, id. ap. Non. p. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 104 ib.):

    summi puerorum amores,

    Cic. Lael. 10, 33:

    spes civium,

    id. ib. 3, 11:

    fides, constantia justitiaque,

    id. ib. 7, 25: in amore summo summaque inopia, Caec. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 72:

    qui in virtute summum bonum ponunt,

    id. ib. 6, 20:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4:

    tres fratres summo loco nati,

    id. Fam. 2, 18, 2:

    qui summo magistratui praeerat,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 16:

    concedunt in uno Cn. Pompeio summa esse omnia,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 51:

    quae (vitia) summo opere vitare oportebit,

    id. Inv. 1, 18, 26:

    turpitudo,

    id. Lael. 17, 61:

    summum in cruciatum se venire,

    Caes. B. G. 1, 31:

    scelus,

    Sall. C. 12, 5:

    hiems,

    the depth of winter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, § 86; id. Fam. 13, 60, 2:

    cum aestas summa esse coeperat,

    id. Verr. 2, 5, 12, § 29; 2, 5, 31, § 80:

    ut summi virtute et animo praeessent imbecillioribus,

    id. Rep. 1, 34, 51:

    summi ex Graecia sapientissimique homines,

    id. ib. 1, 22, 36; cf.:

    summi homines ac summis ingeniis praediti,

    id. de Or. 1, 2, 6:

    optimi et summi viri diligentia,

    id. Rep. 1, 35, 54: cum par habetur honos summis et infimis [p. 1812] id. ib. 1, 34, 53: He. Quo honore'st illic? Ph. Summo atque ab summis viris, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 29:

    summus Juppiter,

    id. Cist. 2, 1, 40:

    ubi summus imperator non adest ad exercitum,

    id. Am. 1, 2, 6:

    miles summi inperatoris,

    Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: deum qui non summum putet (amorem), Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68:

    amicus summus,

    the best friend, Ter. Phorm. 5, 8 (9), 60; 1, 1, 1; id. And. 5, 6, 6; cf. absol.:

    nam is nostro Simulo fuit summus,

    id. Ad. 3, 2, 54; so id. Eun. 2, 2, 40.— Poet. in neutr. plur.:

    summa ducum Atrides,

    the chief, Ov. Am. 1, 9, 37; cf. Lucr. 1, 86:

    summo rei publicae tempore,

    at a most important period, most critical juncture, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46:

    in summo et periculosissimo rei publicae tempore,

    id. Fl. 3, 6; cf.:

    summa salus rei publicae,

    id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: quod summa res publica in hujus periculo tentatur, the highest welfare of the State, the common welfare, the good of the State, the whole State or commonwealth, id. Rosc. Am. 51, 148; so,

    res publica,

    id. Planc. 27, 66; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, § 28; id. Cat. 1, 6, 14; 3, 6, 13; id. Inv. 1, 16, 23; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2:

    ad summam rem publicam,

    Liv. 33, 45, 4 al.:

    quo res summa loco, Panthu?

    the general cause, Verg. A. 2, 322: mene igitur socium summis adjungere rebus, Nise, fugis? in these enterprises of highest moment, etc., id. ib. 9, 199; esp.: summum jus, a right pushed to an extreme:

    non agam summo jure tecum,

    deal exactingly, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 4; cf.: exsistunt etiam saepe injuriae calumnia quadam et nimis callida juris interpretatione;

    ex quo illud summum jus summa injuria factum est, jam tritum sermone proverbium,

    id. Off. 1, 10, 33. — Hence, summē, adv., in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely:

    quod me sollicitare summe solet,

    Cic. de Or. 2, 72, 295:

    cupere aliquid,

    id. Quint. 21, 69; Caes. B. C. 3, 15:

    contendere,

    Cic. Quint. 24, 77: studere, Mat. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 2:

    diffidere,

    Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2:

    admirari,

    Quint. 10, 1, 70:

    summe jucundum,

    Cic. Fam. 13, 18, 2:

    officiosi,

    id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 63:

    summe disertus vir,

    Quint. 12, 1, 23:

    summe munitus locus,

    Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 31:

    summe haec omnia mihi videntur esse laudanda,

    Cic. Div. in Caecil. 17, 57:

    mei summe observantissimus,

    Plin. Ep. 10, 26 (11), 1.

    Lewis & Short latin dictionary > supremus

  • 13 AT

    I) prep.
    A. with dative.
    I. Of motion;
    1) towards, against;
    Otkell laut at Skamkatli, bowed down to S.;
    hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge against A.;
    Brynjólfr gengr alit at honum, quite up to him;
    þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters with him;
    3) to, at;
    koma at landi, to come to land;
    ganga at dómi, to go into court;
    4) along (= eptir);
    ganga at stræti, to walk along the street;
    dreki er niðr fór at ánni (went down the river) fyrir strauminum;
    refr dró hörpu at ísi, on the ice;
    5) denoting hostility;
    renna (sœkja) at e-m, to rush at, assault;
    gerði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog;
    6) around;
    vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a veil round one’s head;
    bera grjót at e-m, to heap stones upon the body;
    7) denoting business, engagement;
    ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after horses, watching sheep;
    fara at landskuldum, to go collecting rents.
    II. Of position, &c.;
    1) denoting presence at, near, by, upon;
    at kirkju, at church;
    at dómi, in court;
    at lögbergi, at the hill of laws;
    2) denoting participation in;
    vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, wedding;
    3) ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at;
    kvalararnir, er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him;
    var þar at kona nökkur at binda (was there busy dressing) sár manna;
    4) with proper names of places (farms);
    konungr at Danmörku ok Noregi, king of;
    biskup at Hólum, bishop of Holar;
    at Helgafelli, at Bergþórshváli;
    5) used ellipt. with a genitive, at (a person’s) house;
    at hans (at his house) gisti fjölmenni mikit;
    at Marðar, at Mara’s home;
    at hins beilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church;
    at Ránar, at Ran’s (abode).
    III. Of time;
    1) at, in;
    at upphafi, at first, in the beginning;
    at skilnaði, at parting, when they parted;
    at páskum, at Easter;
    at kveldi, at eventide;
    at fjöru, at the ebb;
    at flœðum, at the floodtide;
    2) adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr’;
    at ári komanda, next year;
    at vári, er kemr, next spring;
    generally with ‘komanda’ understood;
    at sumri, hausti, vetri, vári, next summer, &c.;
    3) used with an absolute dative and present or past part.;
    at sér lifanda, duing his lifetime;
    at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all;
    at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the hearing of the chief;
    at upprennandi sólu, at sunrise;
    at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks are past;
    at honum önduðum, after his death;
    4) denoting uninterrupted succession, after;
    hverr at öðrum, annarr at öðrum, one after another;
    skildu menn at þessu, thereupon, after this;
    at því (thereafter) kómu aðrar meyjar.
    IV. fig. and in various uses;
    1) to, into, with the notion of destruction or change;
    brenna (borgina) at ösku, to burn to ashes;
    verða at ormi, to become a snake;
    2) for, as;
    gefa e-t at gjöf, as a present;
    eiga e-n at vin, to have one as friend;
    3) by;
    taka sverð at hjöltum, by the hilt;
    draga út björninn at hlustunum, by the ears;
    kjósa at afli, álitum, by strength, appearrance;
    auðigr at fé, wealthy in goods;
    vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face;
    5) as a law term, on the grounds of, by reason of;
    ryðja ( to challenge) dóm at mægðum, kvið at frændsemi;
    6) as a paraphrase of a genitive;
    faðir, móðir at barni (= barns, of a child);
    aðili at sök = aðili sakar;
    7) with adjectives denoting colour, size, age, of;
    hvítr, svartr, rauðr at lit, while, black, red of colour;
    mikill, lítill at stœrð, vexti, tall, small of stature;
    tvítugr at aldri, twenty years of age;
    kýr at fyrsta, öðrum kálfi, a cow that has calved once, twice;
    8) determining the source from which anything comes, of, from;
    Ari nam ok marga frœði at Þuríði (from her);
    þiggja, kaupa, geta, leigja e-t at e-m, to receive, buy, obtain, borrow a thing from one;
    hafa veg (virðing) styrk at e-m, to derive honour, power, from one;
    9) according, to, after (heygðr at fornum sið);
    at ráði allra vitrustu manna, by the advice of;
    at landslögum, by the law of the land;
    at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave;
    10) in adverbial phrases;
    gróa (vera grœddr) at heilu, to be quite healed;
    bíta af allt gras at snøggu, quite bare;
    at fullu, fully;
    at vísu, surely;
    at frjálsu, freely;
    at eilífu, for ever and ever;
    at röngu, at réttu, wrongly, rightly;
    at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same;
    at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent.
    B. with acc., after, upon (= eptir);
    sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, to take the inheritance after his father;
    at þat (= eptir þat), after that, thereafter;
    connected with a past part. or a., at Gamla fallinn, after the fall of Gamli;
    at Hrungni dauðan, upon the death of Hrungnir.
    1) as the simple mark of the infinitive, to;
    at ganga, at ríða, at hlaupa, to walk, to ride, to run;
    2) in an objective sense;
    hann bauð þeim at fara, sitja, he bade (ordered) them to go, sit;
    gefa e-m at eta, at drekka, to give one to eat, to drink;
    3) denoting design or purpose, in order to (hann gekk í borg at kaupa silfr).
    1) demonstrative particle before a comparative, the, all the, so much the;
    hón grét at meir, she wept the more;
    þykkir oss at líkara, all the more likely;
    þú ert maðr at verri (so much the worse), er þú hefir þetta mælt;
    2) rel. pron., who, which, that (= er);
    þeir allir, at þau tíðindi heyrðu, all those who heard;
    sem þeim er títt, at ( as is the custom of those who) kaupferðir reka.
    conj., that;
    1) introducing a subjective or objective clause;
    þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, it happened once that H.;
    vilda ek, at þú réðist austr í fjörðu, I should like you to go;
    2) relative to svá, denoting proportion, degree;
    svá mikill lagamaðr, at, so great a lawyer, that;
    3) with subj., denoting end or purpose, in order that (skáru þeir fyrir þá (viz. hestana) melinn, at þeir dœi eigi af sulti);
    4) since, because, as (= því at);
    5) connected with þó, því, svá;
    þó at (with subj.), though, although;
    því at, because, for;
    svá at, so that;
    6) temp., þá at (= þá er), when;
    þegar at (= þegar er), as soon as;
    þar til at (= þar til er), until, till;
    áðr at (= á. en), before;
    7) used superfluously after an int. pron. or adv.;
    Ólafr spurði, hvern styrk at hann mundi fá honum, what help he was likely to give him;
    in a relative sense; með fullkomnum ávexti, hverr at (which) þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða.
    V)
    negative verbal suffix, = ata; var-at, was not.
    odda at, Yggs at, battle.
    * * *
    1.
    and að, prep., often used ellipt. dropping the case and even merely as an adverb, [Lat. ad; Ulf. at = πρός and παρά, A. S. ät; Engl. at; Hel. ad = apud; O. H. G. az; lost in mod. Germ., and rare in Swed. and Dan.; in more freq. use in Engl. than any other kindred language, Icel. only excepted]:—the mod. pronunciation and spelling is (); this form is very old, and is found in Icel. vellum MSS. of the 12th century, e. g. aþ, 623. 60; yet in earlier times it was sounded with a tenuis, as we may infer from rhymes, e. g. jöfurr hyggi at | hve ek yrkja fat, Egill: Sighvat also makes it rhyme with a t. The verse by Thorodd—þar vastu at er fjáðr klæðið þvat (Skálda 162)—is hardly intelligible unless we accept the spelling with an aspirate (), and say that þvað is = þvá = þváði, lavabat; it may be that by the time of Thorodd and Ari the pure old pronunciation was lost, or is ‘þvat’ simply the A. S. þvât, secuit? The Icelanders still, however, keep the tenuis in compounds before a vowel, or before h, v, or the liquids l, r, thus—atyrða, atorka, athöfn, athugi, athvarf, athlægi; atvinna, atvik; atlaga, atlíðanði ( slope), atriði, atreið, atróðr: but aðdjúpr, aðfinsla (critic), aðferð, aðkoma, aðsókn, aðsúgr (crowding), aðgæzla. In some words the pronunciation is irregular, e. g. atkvæði not aðkv-; atburðr, but aðbúnaðr; aðhjúkran not athjúkran; atgörvi not aðgörfi. At, to, towards; into; against; along, by; in regard to; after.
    Mostly with dat.; rarely with acc.; and sometimes ellipt.—by dropping the words ‘home,’ ‘house,’ or the like—with gen.
    WITH DAT.
    A. LOC.
    I. WITH MOTION; gener. the motion to the borders, limits of an object, and thus opp. to frá:
    1. towards, against, with or without the notion of arrival, esp. connected with verbs denoting motion (verba movendi et eundi), e. g. fara, ganga, koma, lúta, snúa, rétta at…; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, O. louted (i. e. bowed down) towards S., Nj. 77, Fms. xi. 102; sendimaðrinn sneri ( turned) hjöltum sverðsins at konungi, towards the king, i. 15; hann sneri egginni at Ásgrími, turned the edge towards A., Nj. 220; rétta e-t at e-m, to reach, hand over, Ld. 132; ganga at, to step towards, Ísl. ii. 259.
    2. denoting proximity, close up to, up to; Brynjólfr gengr … allt at honum, B. goes quite up to him, Nj. 58; Gunnarr kom þangat at þeim örunum, G. reached them even there with his arrows, 115; þeir kómust aldri at honum, they could never get near him, to close quarters, id.; reið maðr at þeim (up to them), 274; þeir höfðu rakit sporin allt at ( right up to) gammanum, Fms. i. 9; komu þeir at sjó fram, came down to the sea, Bárð. 180.
    3. without reference to the space traversed, to or at; koma at landi, to land, Ld. 38, Fms. viii. 358; ríða at dyrum, Boll. 344; hlaupa at e-m, to run up to, run at, Fms. vii. 218, viii. 358; af sjáfarganginum er hann gekk at landinu, of the surf dashing against the shore, xi. 6; vísa ólmum hundi at manni, to set a fierce hound at a man, Grág. ii. 118; leggja e-n at velli, to lay low, Eg. 426, Nj. 117; hníga at jörðu, at grasi, at moldu, to bite the dust, to die, Njarð. 378; ganga at dómi, a law term, to go into court, of a plaintiff, defendant, or bystander, Nj. 87 (freq.)
    4. denoting a motion along, into, upon; ganga at stræti, to walk along the street, Korm. 228, Fms. vii. 39; at ísi, on the ice, Skálda 198, Fms. vii. 19, 246, viii. 168, Eb. 112 new Ed. (á is perh. wrong); máttu menn ganga bar yfir at skipum einum, of ships alone used as a bridge, Fas. i. 378; at höfðum, at nám, to trample on the slain on the battle-field, Lex. Poët.; at ám, along the rivers; at merkiósum, at the river’s mouth, Grág. ii. 355; at endilöngu baki, all along its back, Sks. 100.
    5. denoting hostility, to rush at, assault; renna at, hlaupa at, ganga, fara, ríða, sækja, at e-m, (v. those words), whence the nouns atrenna, athlaup, atgangr, atför, atreið, atsókn, etc.
    β. metaph., kom at þeim svefnhöfgi, deep sleep fell on them, Nj. 104. Esp. of weather, in the impers. phrase, hríð, veðr, vind, storm görir at e-m, to be overtaken by a snow storm, gale, or the like; görði þá at þeim þoku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog, Bárð. 171.
    6. denoting around, of clothing or the like; bregða skikkju at höfði sér, to wrap his cloak over his head, Ld. 62; vefja motri at höfði sér, to wrap a snood round her head, 188; sauma at, to stick, cling close, as though sewn on; sauma at höndum sér, of tight gloves, Bs. i. 453; kyrtill svá þröngr sem saumaðr væri at honum, as though it were stitched to him, Nj. 214; vafit at vándum dreglum, tight laced with sorry tags, id.; hosa strengd fast at beini, of tight hose, Eg. 602; hann sveipar at sér iðrunum ok skyrtunni, he gathers up the entrails close to him and the skirt too, Gísl. 71; laz at síðu, a lace on the side, to keep the clothes tight, Eg. 602.
    β. of burying; bera grjót at einum, to heap stones upon the body, Eg. 719; var gör at þeim dys or grjóti, Ld. 152; gora kistu at líki, to make a coffin for a body, Eb. 264, Landn. 56, Ld. 142.
    γ. of summoning troops or followers; stefna at sér mönnum, to summon men to him, Nj. 104; stefna at sér liði, Eg. 270; kippa mönnum at sér, to gather men in haste, Ld. 64.
    7. denoting a business, engagement; ríða at hrossum, at sauðum, to go looking after after horses, watching sheep, Glúm. 362, Nj. 75; fara at fé, to go to seek for sheep, Ld. 240; fara at heyi, to go a-haymaking, Dropl. 10; at veiðum, a-hunting; at fuglum, a-fowling; at dýrum, a-sbooting; at fiski, a-fishing; at veiðiskap, Landn. 154, Orkn. 416 (in a verse), Nj. 25; fara at landskuldum, to go a-collecling rents, Eg. 516; at Finnkaupum, a-marketing with Finns, 41; at féföngum, a-plundering, Fms. vii. 78; ganga at beina, to wait on guests, Nj. 50; starfa at matseld, to serve at table, Eb. 266; hitta e-n at nauðsynjum, on matters of business; at máli, to speak with one, etc., Fms. xi. 101; rekast at e-m, to pursue one, ix. 404; ganga at liði sér, to go suing for help, Grág. ii. 384.
    β. of festivals; snúa, fá at blóti, veizlu, brullaupi, to prepare for a sacrificial banquet, wedding, or the like, hence at-fangadagr, Eb. 6, Ld. 70; koma at hendi, to happen, befall; ganga at sínu, to come by one’s own, to take it, Ld. 208; Egill drakk hvert full er at honum kom, drained every horn that came to him, Eg. 210; komast at keyptu, to purchase dearly, Húv. 46.
    8. denoting imaginary motion, esp. of places, cp. Lat. spectare, vergere ad…, to look or lie towards; horfði botninn at höfðanum, the bight of the bay looked toward the headland, Fms. i. 340, Landn. 35; also, skeiðgata liggr at læknum, leads to the brook, Ísl. ii. 339; á þann arminn er vissi at sjánum, on that wing which looked toward the sea, Fms. viii. 115; sár þau er horft höfðu at Knúti konungi, xi. 309.
    β. even connected with verbs denoting motion; Gilsáreyrr gengr austan at Fljótinu, G. extends, projects to F. from the east, Hrafh. 25; hjá sundi því, er at gengr þingstöðinni, Fms. xi. 85.
    II. WITHOUT MOTION; denoting presence at, near, by, at the side of, in, upon; connected with verbs like sitja, standa, vera…; at kirkju, at church, Fms. vii. 251, K. f). K. 16, Ld. 328, Ísl. ii. 270, Sks. 36; vera at skála, at húsi, to be in, at home, Landn. 154; at landi, Fms. i. 82; at skipi, on shipboard, Grág. i. 209, 215; at oldri, at a banquet, inter pocula; at áti, at dinner, at a feast, inter edendum, ii. 169, 170; at samförum ok samvistum, at public meetings, id.; at dómi, in a court; standa (to take one’s stand) norðan, sunnan, austan, vestan at dómi, freq. in the proceedings at trials in lawsuits, Nj.; at þingi, present at the parliament, Grág. i. 142; at lögbergi, o n the hill of laws, 17, Nj.; at baki e-m, at the back of.
    2. denoting presence, partaking in; sitja at mat, to sit at meat, Fms. i. 241; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a banquet, nuptials, Nj. 51, Ld. 70: a law term, vera at vígi, to be an accessory in manslaying, Nj. 89, 100; vera at e-u simply means to be about, be busy in, Fms. iv. 237; standa at máli, to stand by one in a case, Grág. ii. 165, Nj. 214; vera at fóstri, to be fostered, Fms. i. 2; sitja at hégóma, to listen to nonsense, Ld. 322; vera at smíð, to be at one’s work, Þórð. 62: now absol., vera at, to go on with, be busy at.
    3. the law term vinna eið at e-u has a double meaning:
    α. vinna eið at bók, at baugi, to make an oath upon the book by laying the band upon it, Landn. 258, Grág., Nj.; cp. Vkv. 31, Gkv. 3. 3, Hkv. 2. 29, etc.: ‘við’ is now used in this sense.
    β. to confirm a fact (or the like) by an oath, to swear to, Grág. i. 9, 327.
    γ. the law phrase, nefna vátta at e-u, of summoning witnesses to a deed, fact, or the like; nefna vátta at benjum, to produce evidence, witnesses as to the wounds, Nj., Grág.; at görð, Eg. 738; at svörum, Grág. i. 19: this summoning of witnesses served in old lawsuits the same purpose as modern pleadings and depositions; every step in a suit to be lawful must be followed by such a summoning or declaration.
    4. used ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kvalararnir er at vóru at pína hann, who were tormenting him; þar varstu at, you were there present, Skálda 162; at várum þar, Gísl. (in a verse): as a law term ‘vera at’ means to be guilty, Glúm. 388; vartattu at þar, Eg. (in a verse); hence the ambiguity of Glum’s oath, vask at þar, I was there present: var þar at kona nokkur ( was there busy) at binda sár manna, Fms. v. 91; hann var at ok smíðaði skot, Rd. 313; voru Varbelgir at ( about) at taka af, þau lög …, Fms. ix. 512; ek var at ok vafk, I was about weaving, xi. 49; þeir höfðu verit at þrjú sumur, they had been busy at it for three summers, x. 186 (now very freq.); koma at, come in, to arrive unexpectedly; Gunnarr kom at í því, G. came in at that moment; hvaðan komtú nú at, whence did you come? Nj. 68, Fms. iii. 200.
    5. denoting the kingdom or residence of a king or princely person; konungr at Danmörk ok Noregi, king of…, Fms. i. 119, xi. 281; konungr, jarl, at öllum Noregi, king, earl, over all N., íb. 3, 13, Landn. 25; konungr at Dyflinni, king of Dublin, 25; but í or yfir England!, Eg. 263: cp. the phrase, sitja at landi, to reside, of a king when at home, Hkr. i. 34; at Joini, Fms. xi. 74: used of a bishop; biskup at Hólum, bishop of Hólar, Íb. 18, 19; but biskup í Skálaholti, 19: at Rómi, at Rome, Fbr. 198.
    6. in denoting a man’s abode (vide p. 5, col. 1, l. 27), the prep. ‘at’ is used where the local name implies the notion of by the side of, and is therefore esp. applied to words denoting a river, brook, rock, mountain, grove, or the like, and in some other instances, by, at, e. g. at Hofi (a temple), Landn. 198; at Borg ( a castle), 57; at Helgafelli (a mountain), Eb. constantly so; at Mosfelli, Landn. 190; at Hálsi (a hill), Fms. xi. 22; at Bjargi, Grett. 90; Hálsum, Landn. 143; at Á ( river), 296, 268; at Bægisá, 212; Giljá, 332; Myrká, 211; Vatnsá, id.; þverá, Glúm. 323; at Fossi (a ‘force’ or waterfall), Landn. 73; at Lækjamoti (waters-meeting), 332; at Hlíðarenda ( end of the lithe or hill), at Bergþórshváli, Nj.; at Lundi (a grove), at Melum (sandhill), Landn. 70: the prep. ‘á’ is now used in most of these cases, e. g. á Á, á Hofi, Helgafelli, Felli, Hálsi, etc.
    β. particularly, and without any regard to etymology, used of the abode of kings or princes, to reside at; at Uppsölum, at Haugi, Alreksstöðum, at Hlöðum, Landn., Fms.
    γ. konungr lét kalla at stofudyrum, the king made a call at the hall door, Eg. 88; þeir kölluðu at herberginu, they called at the inn, Fms. ix. 475.
    7. used ellipt. with a gen., esp. if connected with such words as gista, to be a guest, lodge, dine, sup (of festivals or the like) at one’s home; at Marðar, Nj. 4; at hans, 74; þingfesti at þess bóanda, Grág. i. 152; at sín, at one’s own home, Eg. 371, K. Þ. K. 62; hafa náttstað at Freyju, at the abode of goddess Freyja, Eg. 603; at Ránar, at Ran’s, i. e. at Ran’s house, of drowned men who belong to the queen of the sea, Ran, Eb. 274; at hins heilaga Ólafs konungs, at St. Olave’s church, Fms. vi. 63: cp. ad Veneris, εις Κίμωνος.
    B. TEMP.
    I. at, denoting a point or period of time; at upphafi, at first, in the beginning, Ld. 104; at lyktum, at síðustu, at lokum, at last; at lesti, at last, Lex. Poët., more freq. á lesti; at skilnaði, at parting, at last, Band. 3; at fornu, in times of yore, formerly, Eg. 267, D. I. i. 635; at sinni, as yet, at present; at nýju, anew, of present time; at eilífu, for ever and ever; at skömmu, soon, shortly, Ísl. ii. 272, v. l.
    II. of the very moment when anything happens, the beginning of a term; denoting the seasons of the year, months, weeks, the hours of the day; at Jólum, at Yule, Nj. 46; at Pálmadegi, on Palm Sunday, 273; at Páskum, at Easter; at Ólafsvöku, on St. Olave’s eve, 29th of July, Fms.; at vetri, at the beginning of the winter, on the day when winter sets in, Grág. 1. 151; at sumarmálum, at vetrnáttum; at Tvímánaði, when the Double month (August) begins, Ld. 256, Grág. i. 152; at kveldi, at eventide, Eg. 3; at því meli, at that time; at eindaga, at the term, 395; at eykð, at 4 o’clock p. m., 198; at öndverðri æfi Abra hams, Ver. II; at sinni, now at once, Fms. vi. 71; at öðruhverju, every now and then.
    β. where the point of time is marked by some event; at þingi, at the meeting of parliament (18th to the 24th of June), Ld. 182; at féránsdómi, at the court of execution, Grág. i. 132, 133; at þinglausnum, at the close of the parliament (beginning of July), 140; at festarmálum, eðr at eiginorði, at betrothal or nuptials, 174; at skilnaði, when they parted, Nj. 106 (above); at öllum minnum, at the general drinking of the toasts, Eg. 253; at fjöru, at the ebb; at flæðum, at flood tide, Fms. viii. 306, Orkn. 428; at hrörum, at an inquest, Grág. i. 50 (cp. ii. 141, 389); at sökum, at prosecutions, 30; at sinni, now, as yet, v. that word.
    III. ellipt., or adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr,’ of the future time:
    1. ellipt., komanda or the like being understood, with reference to the seasons of the year; at sumri, at vetri, at hausti, at vári, next summer, winter…, Ísl. ii. 242; at miðju sumri, at ári, at Midsummer, next year, Fas. i. 516; at miðjum vetri, Fms. iv. 237,
    2. adding ‘komanda’ or ‘er kemr;’ at ári komanda, Bárð. 177; at vári er kemr, Dipl. iii. 6.
    IV. used with an absolute dat. and with a pres. part.:
    1. with pres. part.; at morni komanda, on the coming morrow, Fms. i. 263; at sér lifanda, in vivo, in his life time, Grág. ii. 202; at þeim sofundum, illis dormientibus, Hkr. i. 234; at öllum ásjándum, in the sight of all, Fms. x. 329; at úvitanda konungi, illo nesciente, without his knowledge, 227; at áheyranda höfðingjanum, in the chief’s bearing, 235.
    2. of past time with a past part. (Lat. abl. absol.); at hræjum fundnum, on the bodies being found, Grág. ii. 87; at háðum dómum ok föstu þingi, during the session, the courts being set, i. 484; at liðnum sex vikum, after six weeks past, Band. 13; at svá búnu, so goru, svá komnu, svá mæltu (Lat. quibus rebus gestis, dictis, quo facto, dicto, etc.), v. those words; at úreyndu, without trial, without put ting one to the test, Ld. 76; at honum önduðum, illo mortuo.
    3. ellipt. without ‘at;’ en þessum hlutum fram komnum, when all this has been done, Eb. 132.
    V. in some phrases with a slight temp, notion; at görðum gildum, the fences being strong, Gþl. 387; at vörmu spori, at once, whilst the trail is warm; at úvörum, unawares, suddenly, Nj. 95, Ld. 132; at þessu, at this cost, on that condition, Eb. 38, Nj. 55; at illum leiki, to have a narrow escape, now við illan leik, Fms. ix. 473; at því, that granted, Grág. ii. 33: at því, at pessu, thereafter, thereupon, Nj. 76.
    2. denoting succession, without interruption, one after another; hverr at öðrum, annarr maðr at öðrum, aðrir at öðrum; eina konu at annarri, Eg. 91, Fms. ii. 236, vi. 25, Bs. i. 22, 625. 80, H. E. i. 522.
    C. METAPH. and in various cases:
    I. denoting a transformation or change into, to, with the notion of destruction; brenna at ösku, at köldum kolum, to burn to ashes, to be quite destroyed, Fms. i. 105, Edda 3, Sturl. ii. 51: with the notion of transformation or transfiguration, in such phrases as, verða at e-u, göra e-t at e-u, to turn it into:
    α. by a spell; verða at ormi, to become a snake, Fms. xi. 158; at flugdrekum, Gullþ. 7; urðu þau bönd at járni, Edda 40.
    β. by a natural process it can often be translated by an acc. or by as; göra e-n at urðarmanni, to make him an outlaw, Eg. 728; græða e-n at orkumlamanni, to heal him so as to maim him for life, of bad treatment by a leech, Eb. 244: in the law terms, sár görist at ben, a wound turning into a ben, proving to be mortal, Grág., Nj.; verða at ljúgvætti, to prove to be a false evidence, Grág. i. 44; verða at sætt, to turn into reconciliation, Fms. i. 13; göra e-t at reiði málum, to take offence at, Fs. 20; at nýjum tíðindum, to tell as news, Nj. 14; verða fátt at orðum, to be sparing of words, 18; kveðr (svá) at orði, to speak, utter, 10; verða at þrifnaði, to geton well, Fms. vii. 196: at liði, at skaða, to be a help or hurt to one; at bana, to cause one’s death, Nj. 223, Eg. 21, Grág. ii. 29: at undrum, at hlátri, to become a wonder, a laughing-stock, 623. 35, Eg. 553.
    II. denoting capacity, where it may be translated merely by as or for; gefa at Jólagjöf, to give for a Christmas-box, Eg. 516; at gjöf, for a present; at erfð, at láni, launum, as an inheritance, a loan; at kaupum ok sökum, for buying and selling, Ísl. ii. 223, Grág. i. 423; at solum, ii. 204; at herfangi, as spoil or plunder; at sakbótum, at niðgjöldum, as a compensation, weregeld, i. 339, ii. 171, Hkr. ii. 168; taka at gíslingu, to take as an hostage, Edda 15; eiga e-n at vin, at óvin, to have one as friend or foe, illt er at eiga þræl at eingavin, ‘tis ill to have a thrall for one’s bosom friend (a proverb), Nj. 77; fæða, eiga, at sonum (syni), to beget a son, Edda 8, Bs. i. 60 (but eiga at dóttur cannot be said); hafa möttul at yfirhöfn, Fms. vii. 201; verða nökkut at manni (mönnum), to turn out to be a worthy man; verða ekki at manni, to turn out a worthless person, xi. 79, 268.
    2. in such phrases as, verða at orðum, to come towards, Nj. 26; var þat at erindum, Eg. 148; hafa at veizlum, to draw veizlur ( dues) from, Fms. iv. 275, Eg. 647; gora e-t at álitum, to take it into consideration, Nj. 3.
    III. denoting belonging to, fitting, of parts of the whole or the like; vóru at honum (viz. the sword) hjölt gullbúin, the sword was ornamented with a hilt of gold, Ld. 330; umgörð at ( belonging to) sverði, Fs. 97 (Hs.) in a verse; en ef mór er eigi at landinu, if there be no turf moor belonging to the land, Grág. ii. 338; svá at eigi brotnaði nokkuð at Orminum, so that no harm happened to the ship Worm, Fms. x. 356; hvatki er meiðir at skipinu eðr at reiðinu eðr at viðum, damage done t o …, Grág. ii. 403; lesta ( to injure) hús at lásum, við eðr torfi, 110; ef land hefir batnað at húsum, if the land has been bettered as to its buildings, 210; cp. the phrase, göra at e-u, to repair: hamlaðr at höndum eðr fótum, maimed as to hands or feet, Eg. 14; heill at höndum en hrumr at fótum, sound in band, palsied in foot, Fms. vii. 12; lykill at skrá, a key belonging, fitting, to the latch; hurð at húsi; a key ‘gengr at’ ( fits) skrá; and many other phrases. 2. denoting the part by which a thing is held or to which it belongs, by; fá, taka at…, to grasp by …; þú tókt við sverði hans at hjöltunum, you took it by the bill, Fms. i. 15; draga út björninn at hlustum, to pull out the bear by the ears, Fas. ii. 237; at fótum, by the feet, Fms. viii. 363; mæla ( to measure) at hrygg ok at jaðri, by the edge or middle of the stuff, Grág. i. 498; kasta e-m at höfði, head foremost, Nj. 84; kjósa e-n at fótum, by the feet alone, Edda 46; hefja frændsemi at bræðrum, eða at systkynum, to reckon kinship by the brother’s or the sister’s side, Grág. i. 28; kjósa at afli, at álitum, by strength, sight, Gs. 8, belongs rather to the following.
    IV. in respect of, as regards, in regard to, as to; auðigr at fé, wealthy of goods, Nj. 16, 30, 51; beztir hestar at reið, the best racehorses, 186; spekingr at viti, a man of great intellect, Ld. 124; vænn (fagr) at áliti, fair of face, Nj. 30, Bs. i. 61; kvenna vænst at ásjónu ok vits munum, of surpassing beauty and intellect, Ld. 122; fullkominn at hyggju, 18; um fram aðra menn at vinsældum ok harðfengi, of surpassing popularity and hardihood, Eb. 30.
    2. a law term, of challenging jurors, judges, or the like, on account of, by reason of; ryðja ( to challenge) at mægðum, guðsifjum, frændsemi, hrörum …; at leiðarlengd, on account of distance, Grág. i. 30, 50, Nj. (freq.)
    3. in arithm. denoting proportion; at helmingi, þriðjungi, fjórðungi, tíunda hluta, cp. Lat. ex asse, quadrante, for the half, third… part; máttr skal at magni (a proverb), might and main go together, Hkr. ii. 236; þú munt vera at því mikill fræðimaðr á kvæði, in the same proportion, as great, Fms. vi. 391, iii. 41; at e-s hluta, at… leiti, for one’s part, in turn, as far as one is con cerned, Grág. i. 322, Eg. 309, Fms. iii. 26 (freq.): at öðrum kosti, in the other case, otherwise (freq.) More gener., at öllu, öngu, in all (no) respects; at sumu, einhverju, nokkru, partly; at flestu, mestu, chiefly.
    4. as a paraphrase of a genitive; faðir, móðir at barni (= barns); aðili at sök (= sakar a.); morðingi at barni (= barns), faðerni at barni (barns); illvirki at fé manna (cp. Lat. felo de se), niðrfall at sökum (saka), land gangr at fiskum (fiska), Fms. iv. 274, Grág. i. 277, 416, N. G. L. i. 340, K. Þ. K. 112, Nj. 21.
    5. the phrase ‘at sér,’ of himself or in himself, either ellipt. or by adding the participle görr, and with the adverbs vel, ilia, or the like; denoting breeding, bearing, endowments, character …; væn kona, kurteis ok vel at sér, an accomplished, well-bred, gifted lady, Nj. I; vitr maðr ok vel at sér, a wise man and thoroughly good in feeling and bearing, 5; þú ert maðr vaskr ok vel at þér, 49; gerr at sér, accomplished, 51; bezt at sér görr, the finest, best bred man, 39, Ld. 124; en þó er hann svá vel at sér, so generous, Nj. 77; þeir höfðingjar er svá vóru vel at sér, so noble-minded, 198, Fms. i. 160: the phrase ‘at sér’ is now only used of knowledge, thus maðr vel að sér means clever, a man of great knowledge; illa að sér, a blockhead.
    6. denoting relations to colour, size, value, age, and the like; hvitr, svartr, grár, rauðr … at lit, white, swarthy, gray, red … of colour, Bjarn. 55, 28, Ísl. ii. 213, etc.; mikill, lítill, at stærð, vexti, tall, small of size, etc.; ungr, gamall, barn, at aldri, young, old, a child of age; tvítugr, þrítugr … at aldri, twenty, thirty … years of age (freq.): of animals; kyr at fyrsta, öðrum … kálfi, a cow having calved once, twice…, Jb. 346: value, amount, currency of money, kaupa e-t at mörk, at a mark, N. G. L. 1. 352; ok er eyririnn at mörk, amounts to a mark, of the value of money, Grág. i. 392; verðr þá at hálfri murk vaðmála eyrir, amounts to a half a mark, 500.
    β. metaph. of value, connected with verbs denoting to esteem, hold; meta, hafa, halda at miklu, litlu, vettugi, engu, or the like, to hold in high or low esteem, to care or not to care for (freq.): geta e-s at góðu, illu, öngu, to mention one favourably, unfavourably, indifferently … (freq.), prop. in connection with. In many cases it may be translated by in; ekki er mark at draumum, there is no meaning in dreams, no heed is to be paid to dreams, Sturl. ii. 217; bragð er at þá barnið finnr, it goes too far, when even a child takes offence (a proverb): hvat er at því, what does it mean? Nj. 11; hvert þat skip er vöxtr er at, any ship of mark, i. e. however small, Fms. xi. 20.
    V. denoting the source of a thing:
    1. source of infor mation, to learn, perceive, get information from; Ari nam ok marga fræði at Þuríði, learnt as her pupil, at her hands, as St. Paul at the feet of Gamaliel, (just as the Scotch say to speer or ask at a person); Ari nam at Þorgeiri afraðskoll, Hkr. (pref.); nema kunnáttu at e-m, used of a pupil, Fms. i. 8; nema fræði at e-m, xi. 396.
    2. of receiving, acquiring, buying, from; þiggja e-t at e-m, to receive a thing at his hands, Nj. 51; líf, to be pardoned, Fms. x. 173; kaupa land at e-m, to buy it from, Landn. 72, Íb. II, (now af is more freq. in this sense); geta e-t at e-m, to obtain, procure at one’s hands, impetrare; þeirra manna er þeir megu þat geta at, who are willing to do that, Grág. i. I; heimta e-t at e-m (now af), to call in, demand (a debt, money), 279; fala e-t at e-m (now af), to chaffer for or cheapen anything, Nj. 73; sækja e-t at e-m, to ask, seek for; sækja heilræði ok traust at e-m, 98; leiga e-t at e-m (now af), to borrow, Grág. ii. 334; eiga e-t (fé, skuld) at e-m, to be owed money by any one, i. 399: metaph. to deserve of one, Nj. 113; eiga mikit at e-m, to have much to do with, 138; hafa veg, virðing, styrk, at, to derive honour, power from, Fms. vi. 71, Eg. 44, Bárð. 174; gagn, to be of use, Ld. 216; mein, tálma, mischief, disadvantage, 158, 216, cp. Eg. 546; ótta, awe, Nj. 68.
    VI. denoting conformity, according to, Lat. secundum, ex, after; at fornum sið, Fms. i. 112; at sögn Ara prests, as Ari relates, on his authority, 55; at ráði allra vitrustu manna, at the advice of, Ísl. ii. 259, Ld. 62; at lögum, at landslögum, by the law of the land, Grág., Nj.; at líkindum, in all likelihood, Ld. 272; at sköpum, in due course (poet.); at hinum sama hætti, in the very same manner, Grág. i. 90; at vánum, as was to be expected, Nj. 255; at leyfi e-s, by one’s leave, Eg. 35; úlofi, Grág. ii. 215; at ósk, vilja e-s, as one likes…; at mun, id. (poet.); at sólu, happily (following the course of the sun), Bs. i. 70, 137; at því sem …, as to infer from …, Nj. 124: ‘fara, láta, ganga at’ denotes to yield, agree to, to comply with, give in, Ld. 168, Eg. 18, Fms. x. 368.
    VII. in phrases nearly or quite adverbial; gróa, vera græddr, at heilu, to be quite healed, Bárð. 167, Eb. 148; bíta at snöggu, to bite it bare, Fms. xi. 6; at þurru, till it becomes dry, Eb. 276; at endilöngu, all along, Fas. ii; vinnast at litlu, to avail little, 655 x. 14; at fullu, fully, Nj. 257, Hkr. i. 171; at vísu, of a surety, surely, Ld. 40; at frjálsu, freely, 308; at líku, at sömu, equally, all the same, Hom. 80, Nj. 267; at röngu, wrongly, 686 B. 2; at hófi, temperately, Lex. Poët.; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a great extent; at hringum, utterly, all round, (rare), Fms. x. 389; at einu, yet, Orkn. 358; svá at einu, því at einu, allt at einu, yet, however, nevertheless.
    VIII. connected with comparatives of adverbs and adjectives, and strengthening the sense, as in Engl. ‘the,’ so much the more, all the more; ‘at’ heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita yðr öllum, where it may be translated by so much the more to two, as I would willingly grant it to all of you; hon grét at meir, she grat (wept) the more, Eg. 483; þykir oss at líkara, all the more likely, Fms. viii. 6; þess at harðari, all the harder, Sturl. iii. 202 C; svá at hinn sé bana at nær, Grág. ii. 117; at auðnara, at hólpnara, the more happy, Al. 19, Grett. 116 B; þess at meiri, Fms. v. 64; auvirðismaðr at meiri, Sturl. ii. 139; maðr at vaskari, id.; at feigri, any the more fey, Km. 22; maðr at verri, all the worse, Nj. 168; ok er ‘at’ firr…, at ek vil miklu heldr, cp. Lat. tantum abest… ut, Eg. 60.
    β. following after a negation; eigi at síðr, no less, Nj. 160, Ld. 146; eigi… at meiri maðr, any better, Eg. 425, 489; erat héra at borgnara, any the better off for that, Fms. vii. 116; eigi at minni, no less for that, Edda (pref.) 146; eigi at minna, Ld. 216, Fms. ix. 50; ekki at verri drengr, not a bit worse for that, Ld. 42; er mér ekki son minn at bættari, þótt…, 216; at eigi vissi at nær, any more, Fas. iii. 74.
    IX. following many words:
    1. verbs, esp. those denoting, a. to ask, enquire, attend, seek, e. g. spyrja at, to speer (ask) for; leita at, to seek for; gæta, geyma at, to pay attention to; huga, hyggja at; hence atspurn, to enquire, aðgæzla, athugi, attention, etc.
    β. verbs denoting laughter, play, joy, game, cp. the Engl. to play at …, to laugh at …; hlæja, brosa at e-u, to laugh, smile at it; leika (sér) at e-u, to play at; þykja gaman at, to enjoy; hæða, göra gys at …, to make sport at …
    γ. verbs denoting assistance, help; standa, veita, vinna, hjálpa at; hence atstoð, atvinna, atverk:—mode, proceeding; fara at, to proceed, hence atför and atferli:—compliance; láta, fara at e-u, v. above:— fault; e-t er at e-u, there is some fault in it, Fms. x. 418; skorta at e-u, to fall short of, xi. 98:—care, attendance; hjúkra at, hlýja at, v. these words:—gathering, collecting; draga, reiða, flytja, fá at, congerere:—engagement, arrival, etc.; sækja at, to attack; ganga at, vera at, to be about; koma at, ellipt. to arrive: göra at, to repair: lesta at, to impair (v. above); finna at, to criticise (mod.); telja at, id.: bera at, to happen; kveða at e-m, to address one, 625. 15, (kveða at (ellipt.) now means to pronounce, and of a child to utter (read) whole syllables); falla at, of the flood-tide (ellipt.): metaph. of pains or straits surrounding one; þreyngja, herða at, to press hard: of frost and cold, with regard to the seasons; frjósa at, kólna at, to get really cold (SI. 44), as it were from the cold stiffening all things: also of the seasons themselves; hausta, vetra að, when the season really sets in; esp. the cold seasons, ‘sumra at’ cannot be used, yet we may say ‘vára að’ when the spring sets in, and the air gets mild.
    δ. in numberless other cases which may partly be seen below.
    2. connected ellipt. with adverbs denoting motion from a place; norðan, austan, sunnan, vestan at, those from the north, east…; utan at, innan at, from the outside or inside.
    3. with adjectives (but rarely), e. g. kærr, elskr, virkr (affectionate), vandr (zealous), at e-m; v. these words.
    WITH ACC.
    TEMP.: Lat. post, after, upon, esp. freq. in poetry, but rare in prose writers, who use eptir; nema reisi niðr at nið (= maðr eptir mann), in succession, of erecting a monument, Hm. 71; in prose, at þat. posthac, deinde, Fms. x. 323, cp. Rm., where it occurs several times, 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 24, 28, 30, 35; sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, has to take the inheritance after his father, Grág. i. 170 new Ed.; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, Grág. i. 89; at Gamla fallinn, after the death of G., Fms. x. 382; in Edda (Gl.) 113 ought to be restored, grét ok at Oð, gulli Freyja, she grat (wept) tears of gold for her lost husband Od. It is doubtful if it is ever used in a purely loc. sense; at land, Grág. (Sb.)ii. 211, is probably corrupt; at hönd = á hönd, Grág. (Sb.) i. 135; at mót = at móti, v. this word.
    ☞ In compounds (v. below) at- or að- answers in turn to Lat. ad- or in- or con-; atdráttr e. g. denotes collecting; atkoma is adventus: it may also answer to Lat. ob-, in atburðr = accidence, but might also be compared with Lat. occurrere.
    2.
    and að, the mark of the infinitive [cp. Goth. du; A. S. and Engl. to; Germ. zu]. Except in the case of a few verbs ‘at’ is always placed immediately before the infinitive, so as to be almost an inseparable part of the verb.
    I. it is used either,
    1. as, a simple mark of the infinitive, only denoting an action and independent of the subject, e. g. at ganga, at hlaupa, at vita, to go, to run, to know; or,
    2. in an objective sense when following such verbs as bjóða segja…, to invite, command …; hann bauð þeim at ganga, at sitja, be bade, ordered them to go, sit, or the like; or as gefa and fá; gefa e-m at drekka, at eta, to give one to drink or to eat, etc. etc.
    β. with the additional notion of intention, esp. when following verba cogitandi; hann ætlaði, hafði í hyggju at fara, he had it in his mind to go (where ‘to go’ is the real object to ætlaði and hafði í hyggju).
    3. answering to the Gr. ινα, denoting intention, design, in order to; hann gékk í borg at kaupa silfr, in order to buy, Nj. 280; hann sendi riddara sína með þeim at varðveita þær, 623. 45: in order to make the phrase more plain, ‘svá’ and ‘til’ are frequently added, esp. in mod. writers, ‘svá at’ and contr. ‘svát’ (the last however is rare), ‘til at’ and ‘til þess at,’ etc.
    II. in the earlier times the infin., as in Greek and Lat., had no such mark; and some verbs remain that cannot be followed by ‘at;’ these verbs are almost the same in Icel. as in Engl.:
    α. the auxiliary verbs vil, mun ( μέλλω), skal; as in Engl. to is never used after the auxiliaries shall, will, must; ek vil ganga, I will go; ek mun fara, (as in North. E.) I mun go; ek skal göra þat, I shall do that, etc.
    β. the verbs kunna, mega, as in Engl. I can or may do, I dare say; svá hygginn at hann kunni fyrir sökum ráða, Grág. ii. 75; í öllu er prýða má góðan höfðingja, Nj. 90; vera má, it may be; vera kann þat, id.: kunnu, however, takes ‘at’ whenever it means to know, and esp. in common language in phrases such as, það kann að vera, but vera kann þat, v. above.
    γ. lata, biðja, as in Engl. to let, to bid; hann lét (bað) þá fara, he let (bade) them go.
    δ. þykkja, þykjast, to seem; hann þykir vera, he is thought to be: reflex., hann þykist vera, sibi videtur: impers., mér þykir vera, mibi videtur, in all cases without ‘at.’ So also freq. the verbs hugsa, hyggja, ætla, halda, to think, when denoting merely the act of thinking; but if there be any notion of intention or purpose, they assume the ‘at;’ thus hann ætlaði, hugði, þá vera góða menn, he thought them to be, acc. c. inf.; but ætlaði at fara, meant to go, etc.
    ε. the verbs denoting to see, bear; sjá, líta, horfa á … ( videre); heyra, audire, as in Engl. I saw them come, I heard him tell, ek sá þá koma, ek heyrði hann tala.
    ζ. sometimes after the verbs eiga and ganga; hann gékk steikja, be went to roast, Vkv. 9; eiga, esp. when a mere periphrasis instead of skal, móður sína á maðr fyrst fram færa (better at færa), Grág. i. 232; á þann kvið einskis meta, 59; but at meta, id. l. 24; ráða, nema, göra …, freq. in poetry, when they are used as simple auxiliary verbs, e. g. nam hann sér Högna hvetja at rúnum, Skv. 3. 43.
    η. hljóta and verða, when used in the sense of must (as in Engl. he must go), and when placed after the infin.of another verb; hér muntu vera hljóta, Nj. 129; but hljóta at vera: fara hlýtr þú, Fms. 1. 159; but þú hlýtr at fara: verða vita, ii. 146; but verða at vita: hann man verða sækja, þó verðr (= skal) maðr eptir mann lifa, Fms. viii. 19, Fas. ii. 552, are exceptional cases.
    θ. in poetry, verbs with the verbal neg. suffix ‘-at,’ freq. for the case of euphony, take no mark of the infinitive, where it would be indispensable with the simple verb, vide Lex. Poët. Exceptional cases; hvárt sem hann vill ‘at’ verja þá sök, eða, whatever he chooses, either, Grág. i. 64; fyrr viljum vér enga kórónu at bera, en nokkut ófrelsi á oss at taka, we would rather bear no crown than …, Fms. x. 12; the context is peculiar, and the ‘at’ purposely added. It may be left out ellipt.; e. g. þá er guð gefr oss finnast (= at finnast), Dipl. ii. 14; gef honum drekka (= at drekka), Pr. 470; but mostly in unclassical writers, in deeds, or the like, written nastily and in an abrupt style.
    3.
    and að, conj. [Goth. þatei = οτι; A. S. þät; Engl. that; Germ, dass; the Ormul. and Scot. at, see the quotations sub voce in Jamieson; in all South-Teutonic idioms with an initial dental: the Scandinavian idioms form an exception, having all dropped this consonant; Swed. åt, Dan. at]. In Icel. the Bible translation (of the 16th century) was chiefly based upon that of Luther; the hymns and the great bulk of theol. translations of that time were also derived from Germany; therefore the germanised form það frequently appears in the Bible, and was often employed by theol. authors in sermons since the time of the Reformation. Jón Vidalin, the greatest modern Icel. preacher, who died in 1720, in spite of his thoroughly classical style, abounds in the use of this form; but it never took root in the language, and has never passed into the spoken dialect. After a relative or demonstr. pronoun, it freq. in mod. writers assumes the form eð, hver eð, hverir eð, hvað eð, þar eð. Before the prep. þú (tu), þ changes into t, and is spelt in a single word attú, which is freq. in some MS.;—now, however, pronounced aððú, aððeir, aððið …, = að þú…, with the soft Engl. th sound. It gener. answers to Lat. ut, or to the relat. pron. qui.
    I. that, relative to svá, to denote proportion, degree, so…, that, Lat. tam, tantus, tot…, ut; svá mikill lagamaðr, at…, so great a lawyer, that…, Nj. 1; hárið svá mikit, at þat…, 2; svá kom um síðir því máli, at Sigvaldi, it came so far, that…, Fms. xi. 95, Edda 33. Rarely and unclass., ellipt. without svá; Bæringr var til seinn eptir honum, at hann … (= svá at), Bær. 15; hlífði honum, at hann sakaði ekki, Fas. iii. 441.
    II. it is used,
    1. with indic, in a narrative sense, answering partly to Gr. οτι, Lat. quod, ut, in such phrases as, it came to pass, happened that …; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr hafði vinaboð, Nj. 2; þat var á palmdrottinsdag, at Ólafr konungr gékk út um stræti, Fms. ii. 244.
    2. with subj. answering to Lat. acc. with infin., to mark the relation of an object to the chief verb, e. g. vilda ek at þú réðist, I wished that you would, Nj. 57.
    β. or in an oblique sentence, answering to ita ut…; ef svá kann verða at þeir láti…, if it may be so that they might…, Fms. xi. 94.
    γ. with a subj. denoting design, answering to ϊνα or Lat. ut with subj., in order that; at öll veraldar bygðin viti, ut sciat totus orbis, Stj.; þeir skáru fyrir þá melinn, at þeir dæi eigi af sulti, ut ne fame perirent, Nj. 265; fyrsti hlutr bókarinnar er Kristindómsbálkr, at menn skili, in order that men may understand, Gþl. p. viii.
    III. used in connection with conjunctions,
    1. esp. þó, því, svá; þó at freq. contr. þótt; svát is rare and obsolete.
    α. þóat, þótt (North. E. ‘thof’), followed by a subjunctive, though, although, Lat. etsi, quamquam (very freq.); þóat nokkurum mönnum sýnist þetta með freku sett… þá viljum vér, Fms. vi. 21: phrases as, gef þú mér þó at úverðugri, etsi indignae (dat.), Stj. MS. col. 315, are unclass., and influenced by the Latin: sometimes ellipt. without ‘þó,’ eigi mundi hón þá meir hvata göngu sinni, at (= þóat) hon hraeddist bana sinn, Edda 7, Nj. 64: ‘þó’ and ‘at’ separated, svarar hann þó rétt, at hann svari svá, Grág. i. 23; þó er rétt at nýta, at hann sé fyrr skorinn, answering to Engl. yetthough, Lat. attamenetsi, K. Þ. K.
    β. því at, because, Lat. nam, quia, with indic.; því at allir vóru gerfiligir synir hans, Ld. 68; því at af íþróttum verðr maðr fróðr, Sks. 16: separated, því þegi ek, at ek undrumst, Fms. iii. 201; því er þessa getið, at þat þótti, it i s mentioned because …, Ld. 68.
    γ. svá at, so that, Lat. ut, ita ut; grátrinn kom upp, svá at eingi mátti öðrum segja, Edda 37: separated, so … that, svá úsvúst at …, so bad weather, that, Bs. i. 339, etc.
    2. it is freq. used superfluously, esp. after relatives; hver at = hverr, quis; því at = því, igitur; hverr at þekkr ok þægiligr mun verða, Fms. v. 159; hvern stvrk at hann mundi fá, 44; ek undrumst hvé mikil ógnarraust at liggr í þér, iii. 201; því at ek mátti eigi þar vera elligar, því at þar var kristni vel haldin, Fas. i. 340.
    IV. as a relat. conj.:
    1. temp, when, Lat. quum; jafnan er ( est) mér þá verra er ( quum) ek fer á braut þaðan, en þá at ( quum) ek kem, Grett. 150 A; þar til at vér vitum, till we know, Fms. v. 52; þá at ek lýsta (= þá er), when, Nj. 233.
    2. since, because; ek færi yðr (hann), at þér eruð í einum hrepp allir, because of your being all of the same Rape, Grág. i. 260; eigi er kynlegt at ( though) Skarphéðinn sé hraustr, at þat er mælt at…, because (since) it is a saying that…, Nj. 64.
    V. in mod. writers it is also freq. superfluously joined to the conjunctions, ef að = ef, si, (Lv. 45 is from a paper MS.), meðan að = meðan, dum; nema að, nisi; fyrst að = fyrst, quoniam; eptir að, síðan að, postquam; hvárt að = hvárt, Lat. an. In the law we find passages such as, þá er um er dæmt eina sök, at þá eigu þeir aptr at ganga í dóminn, Grág. i. 79; ef þing ber á hina helgu viku, at þat á eigi fyrir þeim málum at standa, 106; þat er ok, at þeir skulu reifa mál manna, 64; at þeir skulu með váttorð þá sök sækja, 65: in all these cases ‘at’ is either superfluous or, which is more likely, of an ellipt. nature, ‘the law decrees’ or ‘it is decreed’ being understood. The passages Sks. 551, 552, 568, 718 B, at lokit (= at ek hefi lokit), at hugleitt (= at ek hefi h.), at sent (= at ek hefi sent) are quite exceptional.
    4.
    and að, an indecl. relat. pronoun [Ulf. þatei = ος, ος αν, οστις, οσπερ, οιος, etc.; Engl. that, Ormul. at], with the initial letter dropped, as in the conj. at, (cp. also the Old Engl. at, which is both a conj. and a pronoun, e. g. Barbour vi. 24 in Jamieson: ‘I drede that his gret wassalage, | And his travail may bring till end, | That at men quhilc full litil wend.’ | ‘His mestyr speryt quhat tithings a t he saw.’—Wyntoun v. 3. 89.) In Icel. ‘er’ (the relat. pronoun) and ‘at’ are used indifferently, so that where one MS. reads ‘er,’ another reads ‘at,’ and vice versâ; this may easily be seen by looking at the MSS.; yet as a rule ‘er’ is much more freq. used. In mod. writers ‘at’ is freq. turned into ‘eð,’ esp. as a superfluous particle after the relative pron. hverr (hver eð, hvað eð, hverir eð, etc.), or the demonstr. sá (sá eð, þeir eð, hinir eð, etc.):—who, which, that, enn bezta grip at ( which) hafði til Íslands komið, Ld. 202; en engi mun sá at ( cui) minnisamara mun vera, 242; sem blótnaut at ( quae) stærst verða, Fms. iii. 214; þau tiðendi, at mér þætti verri, Nj. 64, etc. etc.
    5.
    n. collision (poët.); odda at, crossing of spears, crash of spears, Höfuðl. 8.
    β. a fight or bait of wild animals, esp. of horses, v. hesta-at and etja.
    6.
    the negative verbal suffix, v. -a.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > AT

  • 14 reichen

    I v/i
    1.
    [m2]a) (sich räumlich erstrecken) reichen bis reach (to); hinauf: reach ( oder come) up to; hinab: reach ( oder go) down to; sie reicht ihm bis zur Schulter she only comes up to his shoulder; das Wasser reichte ihm bis zu den Schultern the water was ( oder came) up to his shoulders; der Garten reicht bis zum Fluss the garden stretches as far as ( oder down to) the river; heranreichen, herankommen;
    b) (sich zeitlich erstrecken) reichen von... bis last ( oder stretch) from... till ( oder until)
    2.
    a) (ausreichen, genügen, langen) be enough; die Zeit wird nicht reichen there won’t be enough time; das Geld reicht / reicht nicht the money is / isn’t ( oder will / won’t be) enough, there is / isn’t ( oder will / won’t be) enough money; das Geld muss noch eine Woche reichen the money has got to last another week; das Gehalt reicht kaum zum Leben the salary is barely enough to live on ( oder to make ends meet), you can barely live off a salary like that; der Kaffee reicht nicht übers Wochenende there isn’t enough coffee to see us through the weekend ( oder to last us the weekend); der Kuchen soll für sechs Leute reichen there’s got to be enough cake for six people; es reicht für alle there’s enough to go (a)round ( oder for everyone); das Licht reicht nicht zum Lesen there isn’t enough light to read by, you can’t read in that light; dazu reicht meine Geduld nicht I haven’t got the patience for that (kind of thing); es waren Hunderte da - das reicht noch gar nicht it was a lot more than that; das reicht! that’ll do; rügend: auch that’s enough (of that)!; mir reicht’s! umg. I’ve had enough; jetzt reicht’s mir aber! umg. that’s done it, that’s it now;
    b) mit etw. reichen umg. (auskommen) have enough of s.th. allg.; mit dem Essen / dem Geld / der Zeit reichen have enough food / money / time; siehe auch auskommen 1, ausreichen
    3. nach etw. reichen (greifen) reach for s.th.
    II v/t (an-, darbieten) offer; (Essen) serve; (Abendmahl) administer, give; (geben) hand, pass; jemandem etw. reichen hand ( oder pass, give) s.o. s.th.; reichst du mir bitte das Salz? could you pass (me) the salt, please?; nach dem Essen wurden Getränke gereicht after the meal drinks were served; ( jemandem) die Hand reichen hold out one’s hand (to s.o.); sich die Hände reichen shake hands
    * * *
    (geben) to hand; to give; to pass;
    (genügen) to be enough
    * * *
    rei|chen ['raiçn]
    1. vi
    1) (= sich erstrecken) to stretch, to extend (bis zu to), to reach (bis zu etw sth); (Stimme) to carry (bis zu to), to reach (bis zu jdm/etw sb/sth); (Kleidungsstück) to reach (bis zu etw sth)

    sein Swimmingpool reicht bis an mein Grundstückhis swimming pool comes right up to my land

    jdm bis zur Schulter réíchen — to come up to sb's shoulder

    er reicht mit dem Kopf bis zur Deckehis head reaches or touches the ceiling

    so weit der Himmel reichtein the whole sky

    so weit réíchen meine Beziehungen nicht — my connections are not that extensive

    so weit réíchen meine Fähigkeiten nichtmy skills are not that wide-ranging

    ... aber sein Arm reichte nicht so weit —

    so weit das Auge reichtas far as the eye can see

    2) (= langen) to be enough, to suffice (form)

    reicht mein Geld noch bis zum Monatsende?will my money last until the end of the month?

    dazu réíchen meine Fähigkeiten nicht — I'm not skilled enough for that

    das muss für vier Leute réíchen — that will have to be enough or to suffice (form) or to do (inf) for four people

    das sollte eigentlich réíchen — that should be enough, that should do (inf)

    als das dann noch passierte, reichte es ihm — when that happened it was just too much for him

    jetzt reichts (mir aber)! — that's the last straw!

    das reicht ja, um den Geduldigsten aus der Fassung zu bringen! — it's enough to try the patience of a saint!

    es reichte ja schon, dass er faul war — it was bad enough that he was lazy, his being lazy was bad enough

    3) (inf)

    mit dem Essen/der Zeit etc réíchen — to have enough food/time etc

    2. vt
    (= entgegenhalten) to hand; (= geben auch) to give; (= herüberreichen, hinüberreichen auch) to pass (over); (= anbieten) to serve; (ECCL ) Abendmahl to give, to administer

    jdm etw réíchen — to hand/give/pass sb sth, to hand/give/pass sth to sb

    jdm die Hand réíchen — to hold out one's hand to sb; (fig) to extend the hand of friendship to sb

    sich die Hände réíchen — to join hands; (zur Begrüßung) to shake hands

    * * *
    1) (to go from one place to another: Sound carries better over water.) carry
    2) (to stretch or extend: My property reaches from here to the river.) reach
    * * *
    rei·chen
    [ˈraiçn̩]
    I. vi
    1. (ausreichend, genug sein) to be enough [or sufficient]
    die Vorräte \reichen noch Monate the stores will last for months still
    der Zucker muss noch bis Montag \reichen the sugar must last till Monday
    reicht das Licht zum Lesen? is there enough light to read by?
    dazu reicht meine Geduld nicht I haven't got enough patience
    dazu \reichen meine Fähigkeiten nicht I'm not skilled enough for that
    das sollte eigentlich für vier Personen \reichen that should be enough [or fam should do] for four people
    das Geld wird uns nicht \reichen we haven't got enough money
    es reicht [jdm] it's enough [for sb]
    es müsste eigentlich \reichen it really ought to be enough
    noch etwas Püree?danke, es reicht vollauf fancy any more mash? — no thanks, this plenty
    danke, es reicht! that's enough, thank you!
    muss es jetzt sein, reicht es nicht, wenn ich es morgen mache? does it have to be now, won't tomorrow do?
    mit etw dat \reichen to have enough of sth
    damit müssen wir \reichen we'll have to make it last
    mit dem Brot/Geld [nicht] \reichen to [not] have enough bread/money
    mit der Zeit \reichen to have enough time
    3. (überdrüssig sein)
    etw reicht jdm sth is enough for sb
    mir reicht's! (habe genug gehabt) that's enough for me!; (habe es satt) I've had enough!
    jetzt reicht's [mir] [aber]! that's the last straw! fam
    als das dann noch passiert ist, hat es ihr gereicht when that happened it was just too much for her
    solche ständigen Frechheiten hätten mir schon lange gereicht if that was me, I wouldn't have put up with such cheek for all that time
    es reicht [jdm], dass/wie... it's enough [for sb] that/how...
    langsam reicht es mir, wie du dich immer benimmst! I'm beginning to get fed up with the way you always behave!
    4. (sich erstrecken, gehen)
    bis zu etw dat \reichen to extend [or stretch] to sth
    meine Ländereien \reichen von hier bis zum Horizont my estates stretch from here to the horizon
    der Park reicht bis ans Ufer the park stretches [or extends] [or goes right down] to the riverbank
    die Ärmel \reichen mir nur bis knapp über die Ellenbogen the sleeves only just reach over my elbows
    das Wasser reicht mir bis zum Hals the water comes up to my neck
    so weit \reichen meine Beziehungen nicht my connections are not that extensive
    bis zum Horizont \reichen to extend [or stretch] to the horizon
    [mit etw dat] bis irgendwohin \reichen to reach somewhere [with sth]
    wenn ich mich strecke, reiche ich mit der Hand gerade bis oben hin if I stretch I can just reach the top
    er reicht mit dem Kopf bis zur Decke his head touches the ceiling
    das Kabel reicht nicht ganz bis zur Steckdose the lead doesn't quite reach to the plug; s.a. Auge
    II. vt (geh)
    1. (geben)
    jdm etw \reichen to give [or hand] [or pass] sb sth
    würdest du mir bitte mal das Brot \reichen? would you be so kind as to pass me the bread please?
    jdm Feuer \reichen to give sb a light
    sich dat [o einander] etw \reichen to [each] reach out sth
    sie reichte mir die Wange zum Kuss she proffered her cheek for a kiss
    jdm die Hand \reichen to hold out one's hand [to sb]
    sich dat die Hände \reichen to join hands
    sich dat die Hand zur Begrüßung \reichen to shake hands
    sich dat die Hand zur Versöhnung \reichen to join hands in reconciliation
    [jdm] etw \reichen to serve [sb] sth
    es wurde Champagner gereicht champagne was served
    \reichen Sie das Lamm mit neuen Kartoffeln und grünen Bohnen serve the lamb with new potatoes and green beans
    das Abendmahl \reichen REL to administer [or give] Communion; s.a. Hand
    * * *
    1.
    1) (ausreichen) be enough

    das Geld reicht nicht — I/we etc. haven't got enough money

    danke, das reicht — that's enough, thank you

    2) (sich erstrecken) reach; <forest, fields, etc.> extend
    3) (ugs.) s. auskommen 1)
    2.
    transitives Verb (geh.)
    1) pass; hand

    sich (Dat.) die Hand reichen — shake hands

    2) (servieren) serve <food, drink>
    * * *
    A. v/i
    1. (sich räumlich erstrecken)
    reichen bis reach (to); hinauf: reach ( oder come) up to; hinab: reach ( oder go) down to;
    sie reicht ihm bis zur Schulter she only comes up to his shoulder;
    das Wasser reichte ihm bis zu den Schultern the water was ( oder came) up to his shoulders;
    der Garten reicht bis zum Fluss the garden stretches as far as ( oder down to) the river; heranreichen, herankommen;
    (sich zeitlich erstrecken)
    reichen von … bis last ( oder stretch) from … till ( oder until)
    2. (ausreichen, genügen, langen) be enough;
    die Zeit wird nicht reichen there won’t be enough time;
    das Geld reicht/reicht nicht the money is/isn’t ( oder will/won’t be) enough, there is/isn’t ( oder will/won’t be) enough money;
    das Geld muss noch eine Woche reichen the money has got to last another week;
    das Gehalt reicht kaum zum Leben the salary is barely enough to live on ( oder to make ends meet), you can barely live off a salary like that;
    der Kaffee reicht nicht übers Wochenende there isn’t enough coffee to see us through the weekend ( oder to last us the weekend);
    der Kuchen soll für sechs Leute reichen there’s got to be enough cake for six people;
    es reicht für alle there’s enough to go (a)round ( oder for everyone);
    das Licht reicht nicht zum Lesen there isn’t enough light to read by, you can’t read in that light;
    dazu reicht meine Geduld nicht I haven’t got the patience for that (kind of thing);
    - das reicht noch gar nicht it was a lot more than that;
    das reicht! that’ll do; rügend: auch that’s enough (of that)!;
    mir reicht’s! umg I’ve had enough;
    jetzt reicht’s mir aber! umg that’s done it, that’s it now;
    mit etwas reichen umg (auskommen) have enough of sth allg;
    mit dem Essen/dem Geld/der Zeit reichen have enough food/money/time; auch auskommen 1, ausreichen
    3.
    nach etwas reichen (greifen) reach for sth
    B. v/t (an-, darbieten) offer; (Essen) serve; (Abendmahl) administer, give; (geben) hand, pass;
    jemandem etwas reichen hand ( oder pass, give) sb sth;
    reichst du mir bitte das Salz? could you pass (me) the salt, please?;
    nach dem Essen wurden Getränke gereicht after the meal drinks were served;
    (jemandem) die Hand reichen hold out one’s hand (to sb);
    * * *
    1.
    1) (ausreichen) be enough

    das Geld reicht nicht — I/we etc. haven't got enough money

    danke, das reicht — that's enough, thank you

    2) (sich erstrecken) reach; <forest, fields, etc.> extend
    3) (ugs.) s. auskommen 1)
    2.
    transitives Verb (geh.)
    1) pass; hand

    sich (Dat.) die Hand reichen — shake hands

    2) (servieren) serve <food, drink>
    * * *
    v.
    to hand v.

    Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch > reichen

  • 15 ENDA

    I)
    conj.
    1) with subj. (a standing phrase in the law connecting the latter clause of a conditional premiss) if, and if, and in case that, and supposing that;
    nú hefir maðr sveinbarn fram fœrt í œsku, enda verði sá maðr veginn síðan, þá …, if a man has brought a boy up in his youth, and it so happens that he (the boy) be slain, then …;
    2) even if, allhough, with subj. (seg mér, hvat til berr, at þú veizt fyrir úorðna hluti, enda sér þú eigi spámaðr);
    3) even;
    þá skal hann segja búum sínum til, enda á, þingi, even in parliment;
    4) if only with subj. (fyrir engan mun þori ek at vekja konunginn en segja má ek honum tíðindin, ef þú vill, enda vekir þú hann);
    5) and indeed, and of course, and also, and besides;
    enda skulum vér þá leysa þik, and then of course we shall loose thee;
    sýnist þat jafnan, at ek em fégjarn, enda man svá enn, and so it will be also in this case;
    eigi nenni ek at hafa þat saman, at veita Högna, enda drepa bróður hans, I cannot bear to do both, help H. and yet kill his brother;
    enda tak þú nú øxi þína, and now take thy axe.
    (að, or enda, ent), v.
    1) to end, coming to an end (í því sama klaustri endi hann sína æfi);
    impers., endar þar sögu frá honum, the tale of him ends there;
    2) to fulfil, perform (enda heit sitt);
    3) to mark the end of, to bound (af suðri endir hana [i. e. Asia] úthafit);
    4) refl., endast, to end, come to an end (reiði mannsins endist á einu augabragði);
    to last, hold out (berjast meðan dagrinn endist);
    meðan mér endast föng til, as long as my provisions last;
    ef honum endist aldr til, if he lives so long;
    meðan mér endast lífdagar, meðan ek endumst, as long as I live;
    to turn out, to end (well or ill), to do (enda mun þat fám bóndum vel endast at synja mér mægðar).
    * * *
    1.
    a copul. conj. with a slight notion of cause or even disjunction: [the use of this copulative is commonly regarded as a test word to distinguish the Scandin. and the Saxon-Germ.; the A. S. ende, Engl. and, Hel. end, Germ. und being represented by Scandin. auk, ok, or og: whereas the disjunctive particle is in Scandin. en, enn, or even enda, answering to the Engl., A. S., and Germ. aber, but; the Gothic is neutral, unless jab, by which Ulf. renders καί, be = auk, ok:—this difference, however, is more apparent than real; for the Icel. ‘enda’ is probably identical with the Germ. and Saxon und, and: in most passages it has a distinct copulative sense, but with something more than this]:—and, etc.
    I. with subj., a standing phrase in the law, connecting the latter clause of a conditional premiss, if so and so, and if …, and again if …; or it may be rendered, and in case that, and supposing that, or the like. The following references will make it plainer; ef goðinn er um sóttr, enda hafi hann öðrum manni í hönd selt …, þá skal hann ok sekja …, if a suit lies against the priest, ‘and’ he has named a proxy, then the suit lies also against him (viz. the proxy), Grág. i. 95; ef skip hverfr ok sé eigi til spurt á þrim vetrum, enda sé spurt ef þeim löndum öllum er vár tunga er á, þá …, if a ship disappears without being heard of for three years, ‘and’ inquiry has been made from all the countries where ‘our tongue’ is spoken, then …, 218; ef goðinn gerr eigi nemna féránsdóm, enda sé hann at lögum beiddr …, þá varðar goðanum fjörbaugsgarð, if the priest name not the court of férán, ‘and’ has been lawfully requested thereto, then he is liable to the lesser outlawry, 94; nú hefir maðr sveinbarn fram fært í æsku, enda verði sá maðr veginn síðan, þá …, if a man has brought a boy up in his youth, ‘and in case that’ he (the boy) be slain, then …, 281; ef maðr færir meybarn fram …, enda beri svá at…, ok ( then) skal sá maðr …, id.; ef menn selja ómaga sinn af landi héðan, ok eigi við verði, enda verði þeir ómagar færðir út hingat síðan, þá …, 274; hvervetna þess er vegnar sakir standa úbættar á milli manna, enda vili menn sættask á þau mál …, þá …, ii. 20; ef sá maðr var veginn er á ( who has) vist með konu, enda sé þar þingheyandi nokkurr …, þá …, 74; þat vóru lög, ef þrælar væri drepnir fyrir manni, enda ( and in case that) væri eigi færð þrælsgjöldin fyrir hina þriðju sól, þá …, Eg. 723, cp. Eb. 222; þótt maðr færi fram ellri mann, karl eðr konu, í barnæsku, enda ( and in case that) berisk réttarfar síðan um þá menn, þá skal …, 281; ef þú þorir, enda sér þú nokkut at manni, if thou darest, ‘and supposing that’ thou art something of a man, Fb. i. 170, segja má ek honum tíðendin ef þú vilt, enda vekir þú hann, ‘and supposing that’ thou wilt awake him, Fms. iv. 170; en þeir eru skilnaðarmenn réttir er með hvárigum fóru heiman vísir vitendr, enda ( and even) vildi þeir svá skilja þá, Grág. ii. 114; enda fylgi þeir hvárigum í braut ( supposing they), id.; hvat til berr er þú veizt úorðna hluti, enda sér þú eigi spámaðr, supposing that thou art a prophet, Fms. i. 333.
    2. rarely with indic.; ef kona elr börn með óheimilum manni, enda gelzt þó fé um, hón á eigi…, Eb. 225.
    II. even, even if, usually with indic.; kona á sakir þær allar ef hún vill reiðask við, enda komi ( even if) eigi fram loforðit, Grág. i. 338: in single sentences, þá skal hann segja búum sínum til, enda á þingi, even in parliament, ii. 351: the phrase, e. svá ( even so), eigi þau handsöl hennar at haldask, enda svá þau er, i. 334; enda er þó rétt virðing þeirra, ef …, and their taxation is even (also) lawful, if …, 209: in mod. usage very freq. in this sense (= even).
    III. denoting that a thing follows from the premiss, and consequently, and of course, and then, or the like, and forsooth, freq. in prose with indic.; man ek eigi optar heimta þetta fé, enda verða þér aldri at liði síðan, I shall not call for this debt any more, ‘and also’ lend thee help never more, Vápn. 18; ef þeir eru eigi fleiri en fimm, enda eigi færi, if they are not more than five, and also not less, Grág. i. 38; enda eigu menn þá at taka annan lögsögumann ef vilja, and they shall then elect another speaker if they choose, 4; enda skulum vér þá leysa þik, and then of course we shall loose thee, Edda 20; varðar honum skóggang, enda verðr hann þar óheilagr, and of course or and even, and to boot, Grág. ii. 114; skal hann segja til þess á mannamótum, enda varðar honum þá eigi við lög, i. 343; á sá sök er hross á, enda verðr sá jamt sekr um nautnina sem aðrir menn, 432; þá á sök þá hvárr er vill, enda skal lögsögumaðr …, 10; enda á hann kost at segja lögleigor á féit, ef hann vill þat heldr, 217; trúi ek honum miklu betr en ( than) öðrum, enda skal ek þessu ráða, and besides I will settle this myself, Eg. 731; sýnisk þat jafnan at ek em fégjarn, enda man svá enn, it is well known that I am a money-loving man, and so it will be too in this case, Nj. 102; beið ek af því þinna atkvæða, enda num öllum þat bezt gegna, I waited for thy decision, and (as) that will be the best for all of us, 78; er þat ok líkast at þér sækit með kappi, enda munu þeir svá verja, and so will they do in their turn, 227; Hallgerðr var fengsöm ok storlynd, enda ( and on the other hand) kallaði hón til alls þess er aðrir áttu í nánd, 18; mikit má konungs gæfa um slíka hluti, enda mun mikill frami fásk í ferðinni ef vel tekst, Fms. iv. í 29; Ölver var málsnjallr ok máldjarfr, e. var hann vitr maðr, 235; ekki mun ek halda til þess at þú brjótir lög þín, enda eru þau eigi brotin, ef …, neither are they broken, if …, Fb. i. 173, Mork. 81.
    2. with a notion of disjunction, and yet; eigi nenni ek at hafa þat saman, at veita Högna, enda drepa bróður hans, I cannot bear to do both, help Hogni and yet kill his brother, Nj. 145; er þér töldut Grænland vera veðrgott land, enda er þat þó fullt af jöklum ok frosti, that you call Greenland a mild climate, and yet it is full of frost and ice, Sks. 209 B.
    3. ellipt. in an abrupt sentence, without a preceding premiss; enda tak nú öxi þína, and now take thy axe (implying that I can no longer prevent thee), Nj. 58; enda þarf hér mikils við, 94; maðrinn segir, enda fauk höfuðit af bolnum, the man continued,—nay, the head flew off the body, Ld. 290: even in some passages one MS. uses ‘enda,’ another ‘ok,’ e. g. skorti nú ekki, enda var drengilega eptir sótt (ok var drengilega eptir sótt, v. l.), Fms. viii. 357; cp. Fb. iii. 258, 1. 16, and Mork. 7, 1. 15: the law sometimes uses ‘ok’ exactly in the sense of enda, ef maðr selr ómaga sinn af landi brott, ‘ok’ verði hinn aptrreki er við tók, þá …, Grág. i. 275.
    2.
    d, (enda, að, Fs. 8, Ld. 50, Bs. i. 865; mod. usage distinguishes between enda að, to end, finish, and enda t, to fulfil):—to end, bring to an end; ok endi þar líf sitt, Fms. i. 297; af ráðinn ok endaðr, Fs. l. c.; endaðir sínu valdi, Bs. i. 865.
    2. metaph. to bring to an end, fulfil, perform a promise or the like; þá sýslu er hann endi eigi, work which he did not perform, Grág. ii. 267; þótti Heinreki biskupi Gizurr eigi enda við konung þat sem hann hafði heitið, Fms. x. 51; enda þeir þat er Páll postuli mælti, Hom. 135; hefir þú komit ok ent þat er þú lofaðir, Niðrst. 8.
    II. reflex, to end, come to an end; reiði mannsins endisk á einu augabragði, 656 A. ii. 17; er svá hefjask upp at eigi endask, 656 B. 3; þá endisk sá enn mikli höfðingskapr Dana konunga, Fms. xi. 205; þær endask ok byrjask jafnfram ávalt, Rb. 232.
    2. to last out; ok endisk þá, allt á sumar fram, Nj. 18; meðan mér endask föng til, Eg. 66; en honum endisk eigi til þess líf, Bs. i. 77; en er veizlor endusk eigi fyrir fjölmennis sakir, Hkr. ii. 92; ok endisk því þetta hóti lengst, Gísl. 50; meðan ek endumk til, as long as I last, i. e. live, Fms. iv. 292.
    3. to end well, do; enda mun þat fám bóndum vel endask at synja mér mægðar, Ísl. ii. 215; ek veit, at þat má honum eigi endask, ef …, Rd. 311; ok öngum skyldi öðrum hans kappa enzk hafa betta nema þér, Fas. i. 104; segir honum eigi ella endask mundu, Fms. iv. 143.
    III. impers. in the phrase, sögu endar, endar þar sögu frá honum, it ends the tale, i. e. the tale is ended, Ld. 50: in mod. usage Icel. can say, saga endar, sögu endar, and saga endast, here the story ends.

    Íslensk-ensk orðabók > ENDA

  • 16 laugh

    1. verb
    (to make sounds with the voice in showing happiness, amusement, scorn etc: We laughed at the funny photographs; Children were laughing in the garden as they played.) reír

    2. noun
    (an act or sound of laughing: He gave a laugh; a loud laugh.) risa
    - laughably
    - laughingly
    - laughter
    - laughing-stock
    - laugh at

    laugh1 n risa
    laugh2 vb reír
    tr[lɑːf]
    1 reír, reírse
    you've got to laugh, haven't you? es mejor tomárselo a risa
    don't make me laugh! ¡no me hagas reír!
    1 risa
    what a laugh! ¡qué risa!
    she's a good laugh es muy divertida, tiene mucha gracia
    \
    SMALLIDIOMATIC EXPRESSION/SMALL
    he who laughs last laughs longest quien ríe último ríe mejor
    to burst out laughing echarse a reír
    to have the last laugh reír el/la último,-a
    to laugh like a drain SMALLBRITISH ENGLISH/SMALL familiar reírse a carcajada limpia
    to laugh one's head off familiar partirse de risa, troncharse de risa, desternillarse de risa
    to laugh up one's sleeve reír disimuladamente
    laugh ['læf] vi
    : reír, reírse
    1) laughter: risa f
    2) joke: chiste m, broma f
    he did it for a laugh: lo hizo en broma, lo hizo para divertirse
    n.
    risa s.f.
    v.
    expresar riendo v.
    reír v.
    reírse v.
    læf, lɑːf
    I
    a) (act, sound) risa f; ( loud) carcajada f, risotada f

    she gave a nervous laugh — se rió nerviosamente, soltó una risa nerviosa

    to have a laugh (about/at something) — reírse* (de algo)

    to raise a laugh — hacer* reír

    the laugh is on me/you/him — me/te/le salió el tiro por la culata

    to have the last laugh: I'll have the last laugh — quien ríe (el) último ríe mejor (, y ésa voy a ser yo)

    b) (joke, fun) (colloq)

    it will be a laugh — será divertido, va a ser un plato (AmL fam), va a ser un relajo (Méx)

    to do/say something for a laugh — hacer*/decir* algo por divertirse, hacer*/decir* algo de cachondeo (Esp) or (Méx) de puro relajo (fam)


    II
    1.
    intransitive verb reír(se)*

    she laughed out loud/to herself — se rió a carcajadas/para sus adentros

    to burst out laughing — soltar* una carcajada, echarse a reír

    to make somebody laugh — hacer* reír a alguien

    to laugh ABOUT something — reírse* de algo

    to laugh AT somebody/something — reírse* de alguien/algo

    she'll be laughing on the other side of her face when he finds outse le van a quitar las ganas de reírse cuando él se entere

    he who laughs last laughs best o (BrE) longest — quien ríe or el que ríe (el) último, ríe mejor


    2.
    vt

    they were laughed off the stage — se rieron tanto de ellos, que tuvieron que salir del escenario

    you don't say!, he laughed — -no me digas! -dijo riendo

    Phrasal Verbs:
    [lɑːf]
    1. N
    1) (lit) risa f ; (loud) carcajada f, risotada f

    if you want a laugh, read on — si te quieres reír, sigue leyendo

    she gave a little laugh — soltó una risita

    to get a laugh — hacer reír (a la gente)

    to have a (good) laugh about or over or at sth — reírse (mucho) de algo

    that sounds like a laugh a minuteiro suena como para mondarse de risa * iro

    to raise a laugh — hacer reír (a la gente)

    "I'm not jealous," he said with a laugh — -no estoy celoso -dijo riéndose

    - have the last laugh
    2) * (=fun)

    to be a laugh, he's a laugh — es un tío gracioso or divertido *, es muy cachondo (Sp) *

    life isn't a bundle of laughs just now — mi vida ahora mismo no es precisamente muy divertida or muy alegre

    to do sth for a laugh — hacer algo por divertirse

    he's always good for a laugh — siempre te ríes or te diviertes con él

    3) (=joke)

    the laugh is on you *te salió el tiro por la culata *

    that's a laugh!, what a laugh! — iro ¡no me hagas reír!

    2.
    VI reírse, reír

    you may laugh, but... — tú te ríes, pero...

    once we get this contract signed we're laughing * — (fig) una vez que nos firmen este contrato, lo demás es coser y cantar

    to laugh about sth — reírse de algo

    we're still laughing about the time that... — todavía nos reímos de cuando...

    to laugh at sb/sth — reírse de algn/algo

    to burst out laughing — echarse a reír

    I thought I'd die laughing — creí que me moría de (la) risa

    to laugh in sb's facereírse de algn en su cara

    to fall about laughing — troncharse or desternillarse de risa

    you have (got) to laugh — hay que reírse

    to laugh like a drain/hyena — reírse como una hiena

    to make sb laugh — hacer reír a algn

    don't make me laughiro no me hagas reír

    I laughed till I cried or till the tears ran down my cheeks — me reí a más no poder, me tronché de (la) risa

    I laughed to myself — me reí para mis adentros

    - laugh up one's sleeve
    3.
    VT

    "don't be silly," he laughed — -no seas bobo -dijo riéndose

    he laughed a nervous laughse rió nervioso

    to laugh sb to scornmofarse de algn

    to laugh o.s. sillyreírse a más no poder

    to laugh sth out of court —

    - laugh one's head off
    4.
    CPD

    laugh lines NPLarrugas fpl producidas al reír

    * * *
    [læf, lɑːf]
    I
    a) (act, sound) risa f; ( loud) carcajada f, risotada f

    she gave a nervous laugh — se rió nerviosamente, soltó una risa nerviosa

    to have a laugh (about/at something) — reírse* (de algo)

    to raise a laugh — hacer* reír

    the laugh is on me/you/him — me/te/le salió el tiro por la culata

    to have the last laugh: I'll have the last laugh — quien ríe (el) último ríe mejor (, y ésa voy a ser yo)

    b) (joke, fun) (colloq)

    it will be a laugh — será divertido, va a ser un plato (AmL fam), va a ser un relajo (Méx)

    to do/say something for a laugh — hacer*/decir* algo por divertirse, hacer*/decir* algo de cachondeo (Esp) or (Méx) de puro relajo (fam)


    II
    1.
    intransitive verb reír(se)*

    she laughed out loud/to herself — se rió a carcajadas/para sus adentros

    to burst out laughing — soltar* una carcajada, echarse a reír

    to make somebody laugh — hacer* reír a alguien

    to laugh ABOUT something — reírse* de algo

    to laugh AT somebody/something — reírse* de alguien/algo

    she'll be laughing on the other side of her face when he finds outse le van a quitar las ganas de reírse cuando él se entere

    he who laughs last laughs best o (BrE) longest — quien ríe or el que ríe (el) último, ríe mejor


    2.
    vt

    they were laughed off the stage — se rieron tanto de ellos, que tuvieron que salir del escenario

    you don't say!, he laughed — -no me digas! -dijo riendo

    Phrasal Verbs:

    English-spanish dictionary > laugh

  • 17 anklagen

    anklagen, accusare, absol. od. alqm (jmdm. eine Schuld zur Last legen; als gerichtl. t. t. = sind. in einer Kriminalsache durch eine Anklageredein Anklagestand versetzen, so daß er sich verteidigen muß). – alqm in crimen vocare (unter Anklage stellen). – nomen alcis od. alci deferre (jmds. Namen beim Prätor angeben u. so ihn in Anklagestand versetzen). – crimen deferre in alqm (eine Beschuldigung gegen jmd. anbringen). – alqm in ius vocare. alqm in iudicium vocare od. adducere (vor Gericht laden, ziehen); verb. in crimen et in iudicium vocare. – alqm reum facere oder agere (zum Beklagten machen, als Beklagten aufstellen, in Anklagestand versetzen). – iudicium postulare in alqm (eine gerichtliche Untersuchung gegen jmd. verlangen). – criminari alqm od. alqd (aus böswilliger Absicht anschuldigen, bei jmd., alci). – jmd. wegen einer Sache a., accusare alqm alcis rei od. crimine alcis rei od. de alqa re. – alqm in [125] crimen alcis rei vocare (unter Anklage stellen). – nomen alcis od. alci deferre de alqa re, bei jmd., ad alqm (jmds. Namen beim Prätor wegen etw. angeben und so die Sache anhängig machen), – alqm in iudicium vocare de alqa re (vor Gericht laden, ziehen). – postulare alqm alcis rei od. de alqa re (vorladen). – alqm iudicio od. crimine alcis rei u. bl. alqm alcis rei arcessere. reum alcis rei od. de re alqm facere od. agere, auch mit dem Zus. apud iudices (jmd. in Anklagestand versetzen). – alqm appellare od. compellare de alqa re od, alcis rei causā (wegen etwas gerichtlich angehen, einer Sache vor Gericht zeihen). – jmd. fälschlich a., falso accusare alqm; crimen fingere in alqm; jmd. peinlich, auf Leib und Leben a., accusare alqm capitis; iudicio capitis arcessere alqm; in iudicium capitis alqm vocare: jmd. wegen Meuchelmords a., inter sicarios accusare alqm; ich bin angeklagt, weil ich etc., reus sum, quod etc. – der Anklagende, s. Ankläger. – der Angeklagte, s. Beklagte, der. – Anklagen, das, s. Anklage no. I. – sich mit A. abgeben, aus dem A. ein Gewerbe machen, s. Ankläger (einen abgeben).

    deutsch-lateinisches > anklagen

  • 18 munus

    mūnus, eris, n. (archaist. moenus, eris, n., Plur. moenera bei Lucr. 1, 29), die Leistung, I) die Leistung als in irgend einem Wirkungskreise zu lösende Aufgabe, Verrichtung, Obliegenheit, Dienst, Amt, Bestimmung, a) übh., oft verb. magnum onus atque munus, munus pensumque, munus atque officium, officium munusque, Cic.: officii aut omnino vitae munus, Cic.: munus geometriae tueri, die Aufgabe eines Lehrers der Geometrie vollkommen lösen, Cic.: munere interpretum fungi, Cic.: servorum munere fungi, Nep. (vgl. possunt aliquando oculi non fungi suo munere, Cic.): munus fungi suum, Plaut.: octo munus hominum facile fungi, Plant.: omnia exsequi regis officia et munera, Cic.: bestia suum tenens munus, seine Bestimmung treu bewahrend, Cic. – munus alcis est, es ist jmds. Aufgabe, Bestimmung u. dgl., tuum est hoc munus, tuae partes, Cic.: m. folg. Infin., munus principum est resistere levitati multitudinis, Cic.: huius libri munus est philosophiam quoque ostendere, Lact.: mit folg. ut u. Konj., cuius (culturae) hoc munus est, ut efficiat, ut vitis quam optime se habeat, Cic. – b) die Leistung eines Staatsbürgers (vgl. functus omni civium munere = ἰσοτελής, Cic. Brut. 63), α) Dienst, Posten, Amt, Verwaltung, munera civilia, Cic. u. ICt.: iudicandi munus, Richteramt, Vell.: explere susceptum rei publicae munus, Cic.: ministri muneris provincialis, Cic.: functus est aedilicio maximo munere, machte als Ädil sehr großen Aufwand, Cic.: consulare munus sustinere, Cic.: quantum vacabit a publico officio et munere, Cic. – dah. Plur. munera rei publicae oft = politischer Wirkungskreis, orbati rei publicae muneribus, pristinis muneribus, Cic.: requiescens a rei publicae pulcherrimis muneribus, Cic.: honoribus et rei publicae muneribus perfunctus senex, Cic. – β) sonstige bürgerl. Leistung, Last, bes. Abgabe, ostendit munus illud (den Rubrius ins Quartier nehmen) suum non esse, Cic.: frumenti et tributorum exactionem aequalitate munerum mollire, Tac.: alci munus remittere, Cic.: omni munere solvi, Tac. Vgl. Gronov Iustin. 5, 2, 9. – c) die Leistung eines Soldaten, die Verrichtung, Arbeit, der Dienst, Posten, belli munera inter se partiri, von zwei Feldherren, Liv.: militare munus fungi, Nep.: munera militaria, munera vigiliarum obire, Liv.: munus equitis facere, Gell.: stationis munus relinquere, ICt.: munere vacare, dienstfrei sein, Liv.

    II) die Leistung als Akt der Gefälligkeit, eine Gefälligkeit, A) die Gefälligkeit = der Liebesdienst, die Gunstbezeigung, Gnade, 1) im allg.: munera ditium dominorum, Sall. fr.: infinita munera, Planc. in Cic. ep.: neque vero (tenuis, der Arme) verbis auget suum munus, si quo forte fungitur, seinen etwaigen Gegendienst, Cic.: me fatebor muneris esse tui, ein Werk deiner Gnade, Ov.: ebenso sui muneris rem publicam facere, Tac.; u. occuparent ipsi suum munus facere, Liv. – dah. (poet.) munere alcis rei (wie in Prosa beneficio alcis rei), mit Hilfe, vermittelst einer Sache, zB. lanae, Verg.: sortis, Ov. – 2) insbes., der letzte Liebesdienst gegen einen Toten (Tränen, Wehklagen, Leichengeschenke, bes. Bestattung der Gebeine usw.), munera suprema, Verg.: inani fungi munere, Verg.: inania morti munera dant lacrimas, Ov.

    B) die Gefälligkeit = das Geschenk mit einem bestimmten Zweck, als Gabe der Gnade, Liebe od. des Herkommens (während donum jede Gabe), die Spende, 1) im allg.: m. nuptiale, Liv. u. ICt.: m. natalicium, Val. Max.: munus locuples, Nep., dives, Ov.: dare (alci) munus, munera, Catull., Cic., Liv. u.a.: dare munus in exsequias, Tibull.: alci munus mittere, Cic.: alci alqd muneri mittere, Nep.: alqm munere donare, Verg. u. Suet.: alqd od. alqm (servum) alci muneri dare, Nep. u. Suet.: afficere alqm magnis muneribus, jmdm. gr. G. zufließen lassen, Nep. (vgl. unten no. 2, b, α): alqd alci muneri offere, Suet.: alqd muneri accipere, Suet. – velut dei munus, Iustin.: munera Bacchi od. Liberi, v. Wein, Verg. u. Hor.: munera terrae, v. Ackerfrüchten, Hor.: munera Cereris, v. Brot, Ov. – übtr., opusculum, maiorum vigiliarum munus, eine Spende, Frucht meiner größeren nächtlichen Anstrengungen, Cic.: so auch nullum opus otii, nullum solitudinis munus, Cic. – 2) insbes.: a) Opfergabe, Opfer, α) für die Götter, munus divae perficere, Verg.: munera ferre templis, Verg. – β) für die Toten, Leichengeschenk, Leichenspende, Totenopfer, munera praeferentes, Suet.: cineri haec mittite nostro munera, Verg.: alqm postremo donare munere mortis, Catull. Vgl. Thiel Verg. Aen. 4, 623 sqq. p. 415. – b) Spende der Magistrate an das Volk, u. zwar: α) Schauspiele u. andere öffentliche Belustigungen, Festspiel, popularia munera, Cic.: monumenta, munera, triumphi, Cic.: venationes, quae vocantur munera, Lact. – übtr., hoc munus aedilitatis meae populo Romano amplissimum pulcherrimumque polliceor, v. der Anklage gegen Verres, Cic.: ad quae si es, ut debes, paratus, plurimis maximisque muneribus et nos amicos et cives tuos universos afficies, so ist das das umfassendste u. schönste Fest, das du nicht allein uns, deinen Freunden, sondern auch deinen Mitbürgern allen bereiten kannst, Cic. – insbes., αα) ein Gladiatoren-, Fechterspiel, vollst. m. gladiatorium, Cic. u.a., u. vorzugsw. bl. munus, Cic. u.a., wie m. gl. u. bl. m. edere, Liv. u.a.: gl. m. dare, Liv.: m. magnificum dare, Cic.: magnificentissimum aedilitatis munus edere, Vell.: m. praebere, v. den Gladiatoren selbst, Cic. – ββ) Wasserkünste, Frontin. aqu. § 3; § 23; § 78 sqq. – β) ein öffentliches, für das Volk erbautes Gebäude, Pompeii munera (Theater), Vell.: ubi muneribus nati sua munera mater addidit, dem Theater des Marcellus einen Portikus (porticus Octavia gen.), Ov. – u. dav. viell. übtr. vom Weltgebäude, etwa Schaugebäude, Cic.: architectus tanti operis tantique muneris, Cic.; vgl. Klotz Cic. Tusc. 1, 70. – / Archaist. Dat. Sing. munere, Lucil. 166: Abl. moenere, Varro LL. 5, 141.

    lateinisch-deutsches > munus

  • 19 munus

    mūnus, eris, n. (archaist. moenus, eris, n., Plur. moenera bei Lucr. 1, 29), die Leistung, I) die Leistung als in irgend einem Wirkungskreise zu lösende Aufgabe, Verrichtung, Obliegenheit, Dienst, Amt, Bestimmung, a) übh., oft verb. magnum onus atque munus, munus pensumque, munus atque officium, officium munusque, Cic.: officii aut omnino vitae munus, Cic.: munus geometriae tueri, die Aufgabe eines Lehrers der Geometrie vollkommen lösen, Cic.: munere interpretum fungi, Cic.: servorum munere fungi, Nep. (vgl. possunt aliquando oculi non fungi suo munere, Cic.): munus fungi suum, Plaut.: octo munus hominum facile fungi, Plant.: omnia exsequi regis officia et munera, Cic.: bestia suum tenens munus, seine Bestimmung treu bewahrend, Cic. – munus alcis est, es ist jmds. Aufgabe, Bestimmung u. dgl., tuum est hoc munus, tuae partes, Cic.: m. folg. Infin., munus principum est resistere levitati multitudinis, Cic.: huius libri munus est philosophiam quoque ostendere, Lact.: mit folg. ut u. Konj., cuius (culturae) hoc munus est, ut efficiat, ut vitis quam optime se habeat, Cic. – b) die Leistung eines Staatsbürgers (vgl. functus omni civium munere = ἰσοτελής, Cic. Brut. 63), α) Dienst, Posten, Amt, Verwaltung, munera civilia, Cic. u. ICt.: iudicandi munus, Richteramt, Vell.: explere susceptum rei pu-
    ————
    blicae munus, Cic.: ministri muneris provincialis, Cic.: functus est aedilicio maximo munere, machte als Ädil sehr großen Aufwand, Cic.: consulare munus sustinere, Cic.: quantum vacabit a publico officio et munere, Cic. – dah. Plur. munera rei publicae oft = politischer Wirkungskreis, orbati rei publicae muneribus, pristinis muneribus, Cic.: requiescens a rei publicae pulcherrimis muneribus, Cic.: honoribus et rei publicae muneribus perfunctus senex, Cic. – β) sonstige bürgerl. Leistung, Last, bes. Abgabe, ostendit munus illud (den Rubrius ins Quartier nehmen) suum non esse, Cic.: frumenti et tributorum exactionem aequalitate munerum mollire, Tac.: alci munus remittere, Cic.: omni munere solvi, Tac. Vgl. Gronov Iustin. 5, 2, 9. – c) die Leistung eines Soldaten, die Verrichtung, Arbeit, der Dienst, Posten, belli munera inter se partiri, von zwei Feldherren, Liv.: militare munus fungi, Nep.: munera militaria, munera vigiliarum obire, Liv.: munus equitis facere, Gell.: stationis munus relinquere, ICt.: munere vacare, dienstfrei sein, Liv.
    II) die Leistung als Akt der Gefälligkeit, eine Gefälligkeit, A) die Gefälligkeit = der Liebesdienst, die Gunstbezeigung, Gnade, 1) im allg.: munera ditium dominorum, Sall. fr.: infinita munera, Planc. in Cic. ep.: neque vero (tenuis, der Arme) verbis auget suum munus, si quo forte fungitur, seinen etwaigen
    ————
    Gegendienst, Cic.: me fatebor muneris esse tui, ein Werk deiner Gnade, Ov.: ebenso sui muneris rem publicam facere, Tac.; u. occuparent ipsi suum munus facere, Liv. – dah. (poet.) munere alcis rei (wie in Prosa beneficio alcis rei), mit Hilfe, vermittelst einer Sache, zB. lanae, Verg.: sortis, Ov. – 2) insbes., der letzte Liebesdienst gegen einen Toten (Tränen, Wehklagen, Leichengeschenke, bes. Bestattung der Gebeine usw.), munera suprema, Verg.: inani fungi munere, Verg.: inania morti munera dant lacrimas, Ov.
    B) die Gefälligkeit = das Geschenk mit einem bestimmten Zweck, als Gabe der Gnade, Liebe od. des Herkommens (während donum jede Gabe), die Spende, 1) im allg.: m. nuptiale, Liv. u. ICt.: m. natalicium, Val. Max.: munus locuples, Nep., dives, Ov.: dare (alci) munus, munera, Catull., Cic., Liv. u.a.: dare munus in exsequias, Tibull.: alci munus mittere, Cic.: alci alqd muneri mittere, Nep.: alqm munere donare, Verg. u. Suet.: alqd od. alqm (servum) alci muneri dare, Nep. u. Suet.: afficere alqm magnis muneribus, jmdm. gr. G. zufließen lassen, Nep. (vgl. unten no. 2, b, α): alqd alci muneri offere, Suet.: alqd muneri accipere, Suet. – velut dei munus, Iustin.: munera Bacchi od. Liberi, v. Wein, Verg. u. Hor.: munera terrae, v. Ackerfrüchten, Hor.: munera Cereris, v. Brot, Ov. – übtr., opusculum, maiorum vigiliarum munus, eine Spende, Frucht meiner größe-
    ————
    ren nächtlichen Anstrengungen, Cic.: so auch nullum opus otii, nullum solitudinis munus, Cic. – 2) insbes.: a) Opfergabe, Opfer, α) für die Götter, munus divae perficere, Verg.: munera ferre templis, Verg. – β) für die Toten, Leichengeschenk, Leichenspende, Totenopfer, munera praeferentes, Suet.: cineri haec mittite nostro munera, Verg.: alqm postremo donare munere mortis, Catull. Vgl. Thiel Verg. Aen. 4, 623 sqq. p. 415. – b) Spende der Magistrate an das Volk, u. zwar: α) Schauspiele u. andere öffentliche Belustigungen, Festspiel, popularia munera, Cic.: monumenta, munera, triumphi, Cic.: venationes, quae vocantur munera, Lact. – übtr., hoc munus aedilitatis meae populo Romano amplissimum pulcherrimumque polliceor, v. der Anklage gegen Verres, Cic.: ad quae si es, ut debes, paratus, plurimis maximisque muneribus et nos amicos et cives tuos universos afficies, so ist das das umfassendste u. schönste Fest, das du nicht allein uns, deinen Freunden, sondern auch deinen Mitbürgern allen bereiten kannst, Cic. – insbes., αα) ein Gladiatoren-, Fechterspiel, vollst. m. gladiatorium, Cic. u.a., u. vorzugsw. bl. munus, Cic. u.a., wie m. gl. u. bl. m. edere, Liv. u.a.: gl. m. dare, Liv.: m. magnificum dare, Cic.: magnificentissimum aedilitatis munus edere, Vell.: m. praebere, v. den Gladiatoren selbst, Cic. – ββ) Wasserkünste, Frontin. aqu. § 3; § 23; § 78 sqq. – β) ein
    ————
    öffentliches, für das Volk erbautes Gebäude, Pompeii munera (Theater), Vell.: ubi muneribus nati sua munera mater addidit, dem Theater des Marcellus einen Portikus (porticus Octavia gen.), Ov. – u. dav. viell. übtr. vom Weltgebäude, etwa Schaugebäude, Cic.: architectus tanti operis tantique muneris, Cic.; vgl. Klotz Cic. Tusc. 1, 70. – Archaist. Dat. Sing. munere, Lucil. 166: Abl. moenere, Varro LL. 5, 141.

    Ausführliches Lateinisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch > munus

  • 20 Rechnung

    Rechnung, ratio (wenn über mehrere Posten, der Plur. rationes). – kleine R., ratiuncula: R. über Einnahme und Ausgabe, ratio accepti et expensi: eine verwickelte R., ratio implicita. – R. halten, inire rationem, über etwas, alcis rei; rationes od. calculos subducere (zusammenrechnen, die Rechnung, das Fazit ziehen); verb. rationem inire subducereque: mit jmd. R. halten, s. abrechnen no. II. – Rechnungen führen, rationes conficere: die R. über etwas sehr genau führen, rationem alcis rei diligentissime conficere: man führt gemeinschaftliche R. über das Geld, pecuniae coniunctim ratio habetur. – die Rechnungen vorlegen, rationes exhibere. – R. ablegen, [1925] rationem reddere, jmdm., alci (auch = Rechenschaft abl.); rationem edere alci; rationes referre, auch mit dem Zus. ad aerarium (von einer Magistratsperson etc., die öffentliche Gelder eingenommen hat): jmd. R. ablegen lassen, ihm abnehmen, abfordern, rationem ab alqo accipere, reposcere; auch = Rechenschaft abs.): sich von jmd. über etwas R. ablegen lassen, alqm ad rationem alcis rei reddendam vocare; auch = Rechenschaft abl. lassen): jmds. Rechnungen durchgehen, durchsehen, prüfen (revidieren), rationes alcis excutere, dispungere: R. mit jmd. haben, in R. mit jmd. stehen, rationem oder pecuniae rationem habere cum alqo: in R. bringen, auf jmds. R. schreiben, setzen, alci expensum ferre (ins Rechnungsbuch eintragen, daß man jmdm. etwas ausgezahlt habe); rationibus inferre. in rationem inducere. auch bl. inferre od. inducere, jmdm., alci (in die Rechnung eintragen, in R. aufführen, z.B. sumptum; induc. allein auch bildl.); imputare alci alqd (anrechnen, eig. u. uneig., z.B. alci sumptus: u. alci officia); attribuere alci causam alcis rei (uneig., jmdm. die Ursache von etwas beimessen, z.B. calamitatis: u. so auch alci oder alci rei attri buere quod [daß] etc. od. si etc.): unter der Rubrik »für Geschenke« in R. bringen, expensum muneribus ferre. – einer Sache R. tragen, ducere rationem alcis rei (z.B. officii). – in R. kommen, rationibus inferri: auf jmds. R. kommen, alci inferri (eig.); alci culpae dari (uneig., jmdm. zur Last gelegt werden). – auf meine R., meo nomine (eig.; dann auch uneig. = auf meine Hand, auf mein Risiko); meo sumptu. privato sumptu (auf meine, auf eigene Kosten); a me (aus meinem Beutel = auf mein Konto, z.B. solvit alqs): für gemeinschaftliche R., communi nomine (z.B. Waren einkaufen, merces comparare); de communi (z.B. bezahlen, solvere mit Akk.): auf jmds. R. lügen, *sub alcis invidia mentiri. – nach meiner R. (d. i. Vermutung), meā opinione; ut mea fert opinio; ut equidem opinor. – die R. ohne den Wirt machen (sprichw.), frustra secum rationes putare (Ter. adelph. 208): jmdm. einen Strich durch die R. machen, alci rationes omnes conturbare (jmds. Pläne vereiteln, von Pers.); alci spem praecīdere (jmdm. die Hoffnung kurzweg abschneiden, von einem Umstand): sich auf etwas R. machen, sperare od. spem habere fore, ut etc.: seine R. bei etwas finden, quaestum facere in alqa re (Profit machen); satis lucri facere ex alqa re (hinlänglich gewinnen).

    deutsch-lateinisches > Rechnung

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