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RAFFLES, SIR THOMAS STAMFORD

  • 1 Strutt, Jedediah

    SUBJECT AREA: Textiles
    [br]
    b. 26 July 1726 South Normanton, near Alfreton, Derbyshire, England
    d. 7 May 1797 Derby, England
    [br]
    English inventor of a machine for making ribbed knitting.
    [br]
    Jedediah Strutt was the second of three sons of William, a small farmer and maltster at South Normanton, near Alfreton, Derbyshire, where the only industry was a little framework knitting. At the age of 14 Jedediah was apprenticed to Ralph Massey, a wheelwright near Derby, and lodged with the Woollats, whose daughter Elizabeth he later married in 1755. He moved to Leicester and in 1754 started farming at Blackwell, where an uncle had died and left him the stock on his farm. It was here that he made his knitting invention.
    William Lee's knitting machine remained in virtually the same form as he left it until the middle of the eighteenth century. The knitting industry moved away from London into the Midlands and in 1730 a Nottingham workman, using Indian spun yarn, produced the first pair of cotton hose ever made by mechanical means. This industry developed quickly and by 1750 was providing employment for 1,200 frameworkers using both wool and cotton in the Nottingham and Derby areas. It was against this background that Jedediah Strutt obtained patents for his Derby rib machine in 1758 and 1759.
    The machine was a highly ingenious mechanism, which when placed in front of an ordinary stocking frame enabled the fashionable ribbed stockings to be made by machine instead of by hand. To develop this invention, he formed a partnership first with his brother-in-law, William Woollat, and two leading Derby hosiers, John Bloodworth and Thomas Stamford. This partnership was dissolved in 1762 and another was formed with Woollat and the Nottingham hosier Samuel Need. Strutt's invention was followed by a succession of innovations which enabled framework knitters to produce almost every kind of mesh on their machines. In 1764 the stocking frame was adapted to the making of eyelet holes, and this later lead to the production of lace. In 1767 velvet was made on these frames, and two years later brocade. In this way Strutt's original invention opened up a new era for knitting. Although all these later improvements were not his, he was able to make a fortune from his invention. In 1762 he was made a freeman of Nottingham, but by then he was living in Derby. His business at Derby was concerned mainly with silk hose and he had a silk mill there.
    It was partly his need for cotton yarn and partly his wealth which led him into partnership with Richard Arkwright, John Smalley and David Thornley to exploit Arkwright's patent for spinning cotton by rollers. Together with Samuel Need, they financed the Arkwright partnership in 1770 to develop the horse-powered mill in Nottingham and then the water-powered mill at Cromford. Strutt gave advice to Arkwright about improving the machinery and helped to hold the partnership together when Arkwright fell out with his first partners. Strutt was also involved, in London, where he had a house, with the parliamentary proceedings over the passing of the Calico Act in 1774, which opened up the trade in British-manufactured all-cotton cloth.
    In 1776 Strutt financed the construction of his own mill at Helper, about seven miles (11 km) further down the Derwent valley below Cromford. This was followed by another at Milford, a little lower on the river. Strutt was also a partner with Arkwright and others in the mill at Birkacre, near Chorley in Lancashire. The Strutt mills were developed into large complexes for cotton spinning and many experiments were later carried out in them, both in textile machinery and in fireproof construction for the mills themselves. They were also important training schools for engineers.
    Elizabeth Strutt died in 1774 and Jedediah never married again. The family seem to have lived frugally in spite of their wealth, probably influenced by their Nonconformist background. He had built a house near the mills at Milford, but it was in his Derby house that Jedediah died in 1797. By the time of his death, his son William had long been involved with the business and became a more important cotton spinner than Jedediah.
    [br]
    Bibliography
    1758. British patent no. 722 (Derby rib machine). 1759. British patent no. 734 (Derby rib machine).
    Further Reading
    For the involvement of Strutt in Arkwright's spinning ventures, there are two books, the earlier of which is R.S.Fitton and A.P.Wadsworth, 1958, The Strutts and the Arkwrights, 1758–1830, Manchester, which has most of the details about Strutt's life. This has been followed by R.S.Fitton, 1989, The Arkwrights, Spinners of Fortune, Manchester.
    R.L.Hills, 1970, Power in the Industrial Revolution, Manchester (for a general background to the textile industry of the period).
    W.Felkin, 1967, History of the Machine-wrought Hosiery and Lace Manufactures, reprint, Newton Abbot (orig. pub. 1867) (covers Strutt's knitting inventions).
    RLH

    Biographical history of technology > Strutt, Jedediah

  • 2 Stamford

    Stamford

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > Stamford

  • 3 Thomas

    ˈtɔməs сущ.;
    библ. Фома
    (разговорное) английский солдат, типичный английский служака (тж. * Atkins) (разговорное) ливрейный лакей;
    официант( библеизм) Фома - doubting * Фома неверный
    Thomas библ. Фома;
    doubting Thomas Фома неверный

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > Thomas

  • 4 Thomas

    Thomas [ˊtɒməs] n
    библ. Фома́;

    doubting Thomas Фома́ неве́рный, неве́рующий

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Thomas

  • 5 doubting Thomas

    doubting Thomas Фома неверующий, скептик

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > doubting Thomas

  • 6 Thomas

    Thomas [ˊtɒməs] n
    библ. Фома́;

    doubting Thomas Фома́ неве́рный, неве́рующий

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Thomas

  • 7 thomas

    [ʹtɒməs] n
    1. Томас ( мужское имя)
    2. разг. английский солдат, типичный английский служака (тж. Thomas Atkins)
    3. разг. ливрейный лакей; официант
    4. библ. Фома

    НБАРС > thomas

  • 8 Muntzer, Thomas

    перс.
    пол. = Munzer, Thomas

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Muntzer, Thomas

  • 9 Munzer, Thomas

    перс.
    пол. Мюнцер, Томас (ок. 1490-1525; нем. идеолог, предводитель крестьянского движения в Реформации и Крестьянской войне 1524-26 гг. в Германии; в религиозной форме проповедовал идеи насильственного ниспровержения феодального строя, передачи власти народу и установления общества без частной собственности; пытался создать в тюринго-саксонском районе единый центр Крестьянской войны, но 15 мая 1525 г. его отряд был разгромлен у г. Франкенхаузен, а Мюнцер пленен и казнен)
    Syn:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Munzer, Thomas

  • 10 Saint Thomas

    перс.
    пол. Святой Фома
    Syn:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Saint Thomas

  • 11 Thomas Aquinas

    перс.
    тж. Saint Thomas, Thomas Sanctus пол. Фома Аквинский (1225 или 1226 – 1274; философ и теолог, систематизатор схоластики на базе христианского аристотелизма; в истории политической мысли известен идеей о божественном происхождении государства, подразделением форм правления на справедливые и несправедливые, причем несправедливые отменяют сакрализацию государства; стоит у истоков нормативистской теории государства и права, изучающей политику через призму моральных ценностей и идей; политические идеи — в работах "О правлении государей" и "Сумма теологии")
    See:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Thomas Aquinas

  • 12 Thomas Saint

    пол. Святой Фома
    Syn:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Thomas Saint

  • 13 Thomas Sanctus

    перс.
    пол. Святой Фома
    Syn:

    Англо-русский экономический словарь > Thomas Sanctus

  • 14 theory, Thomas

    Англо-русский словарь по социологии > theory, Thomas

  • 15 Thomas

    Thomas, D. S. (1899-1977)
    Дороти Сваин Томас, американский социолог, занимавшаяся изучением демографических проблем.
    Thomas, W. (1863-1947)
    Уильям Айзек Томас, американский социолог, представитель феноменологической парадигмы, внесший вклад в изучение проблемы социальной дезорганизации. Соч.: "Польский крестьянин в Европе и Америке", "Ребенок в Америке" (в соавторстве), "О социальной организации и социальной личности".

    Англо-русский словарь по социологии > Thomas

  • 16 Thomas theory

    Англо-русский словарь по социологии > Thomas theory

  • 17 Christians of Saint Thomas

    Религия: малабарские христиане, фомисты, (Four major Christian groups - Syro-Malabar, Syromalankara, Syrian Jacobite, and Mar Thomite - living in India, who claim to have been Christianized by the apostle St. Thomas) христиане св. Фомы

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Christians of Saint Thomas

  • 18 Thomas Murray

    Рейтинговое агентство "Томас Мюррей"
    repoфирма образована в 1994 г.; предоставляет услуги по оценке рисков и присвоению рейтингов центральным депозитариям (см. public CSD rating), а также информационные и консалтинговые услуги кастодиальным банкам, депозитариям и другим инфраструктурным организациям рынка ценных бумаг.
    Интернет-сайт Thomas Murray:
    www.thomasmurray.com

    Англо-русский словарь терминов по депозитарному хранению и клирингу > Thomas Murray

  • 19 (Thomas) (Stearns) Eliot

    Thomas Stearns Eliot — Томас Стернс Элиот (1888 — 1965), английский поэт. В его произведениях ощущается трагическая исчерпанность созидательной энергии человечества, как в следующих строках его поэмы «Полые люди» (The Hollow Men, 1925)

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > (Thomas) (Stearns) Eliot

  • 20 (Thomas) (Stearns) Eliot

    Thomas Stearns Eliot — Томас Стернс Элиот (1888 — 1965), английский поэт. В его произведениях ощущается трагическая исчерпанность созидательной энергии человечества, как в следующих строках его поэмы «Полые люди» (The Hollow Men, 1925)

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > (Thomas) (Stearns) Eliot

См. также в других словарях:

  • Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford — (1781–1826)    As a scholar, colonial administrator, and founder of Singapore, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles played an important role in creating the British Empire in the Far East. While serving with the East India Company in Penang, Raffles came… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Raffles,Sir Thomas Stamford — Raf·fles (răfʹəlz), Sir Thomas Stamford. 1781 1826. British colonial administrator who acquired Singapore for the East India Company (1819) and founded a settlement there. * * * …   Universalium

  • Raffles, Sir (Thomas) Stamford — born July 6, 1781, at sea off Port Morant, Jam. died July 5, 1826, London, Eng. Administrator in the British East India Company and founder of Singapore. He joined the British East India Company at age 14, and his hard work won him an appointment …   Universalium

  • Raffles, Sir (Thomas) Stamford — (6 jul. 1781, en el mar, frente a Port Morant, Jamaica–5 jul. 1826, Londres, Inglaterra). Funcionario de la Compañía Inglesa de las Indias Orientales y fundador de Singapur. Se unió a la Compañía a los 14 años y su arduo trabajo le valió ser… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • RAFFLES, SIR THOMAS STAMFORD —    English administrator, born in Jamaica; entered the East India Company s service, and rose in it; became Governor of Java, and wrote a history of it; held afterwards an important post in Sumatra, and formed a settlement at Singapore; returned… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles — noun British colonial administrator who founded Singapore (1781 1826) • Syn: ↑Raffles, ↑Sir Thomas Raffles • Instance Hypernyms: ↑administrator, ↑executive …   Useful english dictionary

  • Thomas Stamford Raffles — Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles Thomas Stamford Raffles Nacimiento 6 de julio 1781 Puerto Morant, Jamaica …   Wikipedia Español

  • Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles — Thomas Stamford Raffles Pour les articles homonymes, voir Raffles. Thomas Stamford Raffles. Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles est un militaire et un …   Wikipédia en Français

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