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  • 1 oficina de los directores ejecutivos

    • OED
    • office of executive directors

    Diccionario Técnico Español-Inglés > oficina de los directores ejecutivos

  • 2 Key to Sources Frequently Cited

    Adams - Western Words: A Dictionary of the Old West
    Bentley - A Dictionary of Spanish Terms in English, with
    Blevins - Dictionary of the American West
    Cabrera - Diccionario de aztequismos
    Carlisle - “A Southwestern Dictionary”
    Clark - Western Lore and Language: A Dictionary for Enthusiasts of the American West
    Cobos A Dictionary of New Mexico and Southern Colorado
    Corominas Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana or Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico
    DARE Dictionary of American Regional English
    DM Diccionario de mejicanismos
    DRAE Diccionario de la Real Academia Española
    Hendrickson Happy Trails: A Dictionary of Western Expressions
    Hoy Spanish Terms of the Sonoran Dessert Borderlands:
    A Basic Glossary
    Islas Vocabulario campesino nacional
    OED Oxford English Dictionary
    Royal Academy Diccionario de la Real Academia Española
    Santamaría Diccionario de mejicanismos
    Sobarzo Vocabulario sonorense
    Smith A Southwestern Vocabulary: The Words They Used
    VCN Vocabulario campesino nacional
    VS Vocabulario sonorense
    Watts A Dictionary of the Old West

    Vocabulario Vaquero > Key to Sources Frequently Cited

  • 3 adobe

    (Sp. model spelled same [aðóβe] < Arabic at-tub 'the brick')
        DARE: 1759.
       1) Sundried brick made of clay, straw, and water.
       2) A structure, usually a house, made from the same material.
       3) Clay suitable for fashioning such bricks.
       The first definition is attested to in the DRAE; Santamaría confirms the usage of the second in the Southwest, providing the example "She lived in her old adobe," also noting that the lot or grounds on which such a structure was to be built could be referred to as "an adobe sole." ( Sole, according to the OED, is an obsolete term meaning "the foundation of a building; the site of a city, etc.") Spanish architecture was also greatly influenced by the Moors who introduced styles and materials now intimately associated with the Southwest.
       4) As an adjective, several English sources note that the term denotes Mexican origin and usually connotes inferiority. For instance, the Mexican dollar or silver peso was called a "dobie dollar," or "dobie," for short. Cowboys were familiar with adobe as building material on the ranches and haciendas where they worked. Cowboy English is the source of the expression dobe wall listed below, according to Bentley, Adams, and Watts.
       5) Hendrickson's contention that adobe is the model for doughboy (military personnel) is not supported by any of the sources consulted. See the OED for possible etymologies. Doughboy is attested, however, by the OED as slang for (1). Common compounds: adobe brick, adobe block, adobe house.
        Alternate forms: adabe, adaube, adaubi, adobey, adobi, adobie, adoby, 'dobe, 'dobie, dob, doba, dobbey, dobby, dobie, doby, dogie, doughboy.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > adobe

  • 4 aguardiente

    (Sp. model spelled same [agwarðjénte] compound, agglutinated Spanish form < Latin aqua 'water' and arder < Latin ardere 'to burn, be on fire' plus the Spanish suffix - iente equivalent to the English - ing, in this case, literally burning water; hence, fire, or fiery, water)
        DARE: 1818. According to the OED, it originally referred to "a coarse kind of brandy made in Spain and Portugal" and was extended to native whiskey in the Southwest. Watts notes the continued evolution of the term: it also came to refer to spirits distilled from Mexican red wine or rum. As the Spanish sources note, it can refer to any distilled drink where the resultant alcohol is diluted with water. Hence it is a generic term translatable as booze (Blevins), strong (alcoholic) drink, or liquor (Hendrickson). It is likely that this generic meaning was the one used by cowboys and American Indians alike.
        Alternate forms: agua ardiente, aguadiente, aguadinte, aguardent, aquadiente, aquadinte, aquardiente, aquedent, aquediente, argadent, awerdente, awerdenty.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > aguardiente

  • 5 alfalfa

    (Sp. model spelled same [alfalfa] < Arabic al-fasfasa)
        OED: 1880s. A plant of the genus Medicago sativa. When in bloom it bears cloverlike purple flowers. The plant is widely used as animal fodder and as a cover crop. Spanish sources concur. It made its way to the Southwest from Mexico, having been originally introduced by the Spanish. Also known as lucern(e). It is still in common use among cowmen and ranchers today.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > alfalfa

  • 6 alfilaria

    ( alfilería [alfilería] < alfilerillo < alfiler < Arabic al-hhilel 'pin,' plus the diminutive suffix -illo; hence, 'small pin')
        OED: 1868. Acommon forage in the Southwest, also known as pin grass ( Erodium cicu-tarium). According to Cobos, alfilería (also alfilerillo) is used in New Mexican and Southern Colorado Spanish to denote a plant of the Cranesbill family called pinclover. He indicates that the term derives from alfilerillo, which the DRAE defines as an herbaceous plant used as forage in Argentina and Chile. It is likely that the Argentine and Chilean varieties are unrelated to the southwestern alfilaria or alfile-ria, but share the common characteristic of a pinlike shape. No doubt the cowboy distinguished among the various types of forage that cattle would eat, since there was always the danger that they might ingest locoweed or some other poisonous plant.
        Alternate forms: alfilena, alfileria, alfilerilla, filaree, fileree.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > alfilaria

  • 7 arena

    (Sp. model spelled same [arena] < Latin harenam 'sand')
       Sand. Spanish sources concur. Its use in the Southwest as in rodeo arena may not be a Hispanicism since both the OED and the DRAE define it similarly ("sand-strewn place of combat") and attribute its origin to Latin.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > arena

  • 8 bajada

    (Sp. model spelled same [baxáda] < Spanish verb bajar 'to go down' < Latin bassiare 'to go down' plus Spanish derivational suffix -¿/a)
       OED, SW: 1866. This term is referenced by Hendrickson, Hoy, Clark, Watts, the DARE, and the OED. It is generally defined as an incline sloping downward formed by the merging of several alluvial fans (composed of rock debris, such as gravel, sand, and silt). The term may also refer to a steeply descending trail. The DRAE also references bajada as a trail that leads downward. Santamaría adds that in Mexico the term also refers not only to a trail, but to any downward slope. The trail boss and drivers encountered many bajadas and subidas (trail leading up) in the uneven, rocky, and sometimes treacherous western terrain.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > bajada

  • 9 banda

    (Sp. model spelled same [bánda], of disputed origin; the DRAE indicates that it comes from Germanic band 'sash, band'; according to Corominas it is from Old French bende, bande 'sash, band, or bandage')
       Carlisle: 1925. Referenced by Carlisle as "a bright-colored triangular or square shaped piece of material folded to make a strip about 3 or 4 inches wide and worn around the forehead; used extensively by the male Indians of the Southwest." Similiar to a bandana, a term of Hindustani-Portuguese origin, according to the OED.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > banda

  • 10 cholla

    (Sp. model spelled same [t∫ója] 'head' or 'good judgment,' a popular and affective term of uncertain origin, perhaps from antiquated dialectal French cholle 'ball' < Frankish keula 'mace' [weapon])
       California: 1846.
       1) A common cactus, known for its long sharp spines that are so loosely attached to the plant that they seem to jump onto any person or thing that brushes them. Adams notes that the cactus can grow to up to eight feet; he indicates that the branches of the cactus, rather than the spines, are easily detached from the plant and seem to jump onto passersby. The OED defines cholla as one of several species of Opontia cacti. The DARE says that it is the prickly pear cactus. Santamaría glosses cholla as the common name used in northern Mexico for various native cacti of the same genus. He gives O. cholla and O. thurberi as examples. Cobos glosses it as the "buck-horn or cane cactus." Sobarzo describes the plant as a cactus with a vascular, pulpy stalk divided into sections about four inches in length and covered with very sharp spines. Its fruit is like that of the prickly pear, but quite small. It grows to a height of approximately four feet. Sobarzo suggests that the plant gets its name from the shape of its fruit. This variety of cactus is also commonly depicted in western films.
        Alternate form: choya.
        Also called jumping cholla, staghorn cholla, tree cholla, deer brush.
       2) The term also has figurative meanings in the Southwest. Smith notes that it may be a colloquial term for 'skull,' or it may refer to a dull or stupid person. No Spanish source references the latter meaning.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cholla

  • 11 cigarito

    ( cigarrito [siyaríto]< cigarro see above)
       A cigarette or small cigar. OED: 1844. Not referenced in Spanish sources; however, the DRAE references cigarrillo as a small cigar made of shredded tobacco wrapped in a piece of smoking paper, i.e., a cigarette.
        Alternate forms: cigarillo, cigarrillo, cigarrito, segarrito.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cigarito

  • 12 cinch

    ( cincha [síntfa] < Latin cingulam 'belts; girdles')
       Noun forms:
       1) Colorado: 1859. The saddle girth or strap used to hold a saddle on an animal. It is generally made of braided horsehair, leather, canvas, or cordage, and has a metal ring on either end.
        Alternate forms: cincha, cinche, cincher, cincho, sinche.
       2) New York: 1888. A sure bet; an easy thing.
        Alternate forms: cincha, cincho, sinch.
       3) DARE: 1889. A four-player card game also known as Double Pedro or High Five.
        Verb forms:
       4) DARE: 1871. To tighten the strap on a saddle; to secure the saddle on a horse's back.
        Alternate form: cinch up (Adams says that cinch up is the proper term and that cinch alone was never used in Old West).
       5) California: 1968. To secure or fasten something.
       6) Nebraska: 1905. To secure a deal, to make certain.
        Alternate form: cinch up.
       7) California: 1875. According to the DARE, "to squeeze into a small place." This was also used figuratively. For instance, a person caught committing a dishonest act was cinched. Spanish sources reference only the first of the above definitions. The rest are extensions. The DRAE glosses cincha as a band made of hemp, wool, horsehair, leather, or esparto grass with which one secures the saddle on an animal. It fits behind the front legs or under the belly of the horse and is tightened with one or more buckles. Santamaría and Islas give similar definitions to that found in the DRAE, but they indicate that in Mexico the term is commonly spelled cincho.
       A broken cinch strap or a figurative expression for any failed venture.
       Washington: 1916. According to Watts and Adams, a horse that bucks and falls backward when the cinch on its saddle is pulled too tightly.
        cinch hook
       Blevins glosses this term as a hook on a spur that attaches to the cinch to prevent an animal from throwing its rider.
        cinch ring
       The ring on a cinch, according to Blevins.
       As Clark notes, this term refers to the two straps on a western-style saddle; one in the front and the other at the rear.
       Carlisle: 1912. According to Carlisle, a saddle strap that fits "between the ribs and the hips of the horse."
        hind cinch
       Carlisle: 1930. The rear strap on a western saddle.
        OED: 1898. A sure thing; something that is easy. Hendrickson suggests that the term comes from a combination of cinch ( See 2) and a reference to the underworld where criminals used lead pipes as weapons because they were a surefire way to dispose of their victims. He goes on to say the lead pipes were easy to get rid of if the criminals were approached by police. His etymology is unsupported by other English sources consulted, and appears fanciful, to say the least. Also referenced in the OED as "a complete certainty."

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cinch

  • 13 Comanche

    (Sp. model spelled same [komán,t∫e], from a Shoshonean word)
        OED: 1806. An Indian nation of the Shoshonean family. Comanche Indians were known for their horsemanship and bellicose nature and are also linked in the popular mind with the cowboy and the Old West. The DRAE notes that the Comanches live in tribes in Texas and New Mexico. Santamaría adds that in past eras they were nomads who wandered in New Mexico and west Texas, continually waging war against the Apaches. They frequently invaded Mexico, sometimes committing atrocities as far south as the state of Durango, up until several years after Mexican independence. Comanche is also used as an attributive adjective in English (see below).
        Alternate forms: Camanche, Cumanche.
       Southwest: 1844. According to the DARE, riding while hanging off one side of a horse.
        Alternate form: á la comanche.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > Comanche

  • 14 corral

    (Sp. model spelled same [korál], a term of uncertain origin common to Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese, Galician, and Occitan. It is related to Spanish and Portuguese corro 'enclosure' or 'circle of people,' but it is uncertain which of the two terms derives from which. Corominas notes that corral was probably the original term; if so, it derives from Vulgar Latin * curralem 'race track' or 'place where vehicles are enclosed' < Latin currum 'cart')
       1) DARE: 1829. A pen or enclosure for horses or livestock. Such pens were generally made of wooden posts and slatting or other fencing material, but they could be constructed of rope or adobe walls (Watts notes that the latter was used to protect herds from pillaging Indians).
       2) Rocky Mountains: 1848. A group of wagons drawn into a circle for defense.
       3) DARE: 1859. According to a quote included in the DARE, a correll was a hedge built around a campsite to protect travelers from the wind.
       4) OED: 1847. As a verb, corral means to herd animals into an enclosure, or (5) to draw wagons into a circle.
       6) OED: 1860. Blevins notes that, by extension from (4), to corral is to gain control of anything. Hendrickson includes a quote from the New York Times (1867) that demonstrates the variety of meanings the term corral had in the West at that time: "If a man is embarrassed in any way, he is 'cor-raled.' Indians 'corral' men on the plains; storms 'corral' tourists. The criminal is 'corraled' in prison, the gambler 'corrals' the dust of the miner." The DRAE references corral as an enclosed, uncovered place in a home or a field that serves as a pen for animals. The additional meanings above are not referenced in Spanish sources, but are extensions of the original meaning.
        Alternate forms: coral, corel, corell, corrale, correll, coural.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > corral

  • 15 dally

    ( dale vuelta [dále bwéjta]< dar 'to give' < Latin dare 'to give' plus dative pronoun le and vuelta [bwéjta] 'a turn,' nominalized participial form of volver 'to return' < Latin volvere 'to roll, turn around'; the theory that this term derived from the infinitive form dar la vuelta 'to take the turn' is less plausible).
       1) West: 1921. As a verb, to pass the rope around the saddlehorn after making a throw in order to bring an animal down; to snub. This is an early technique, associated with the Mexican vaqueros. Blevins notes that in Texas the more popular technique was the "hard-and-fast" method, in which ropers would secure one end of the rope to the saddlehorn before making a throw.
        Alternate forms: dale, dalebuelta, dally welta, dolly, dolly welter.
       2) Arizona: 1915. As a noun, a turn of the rope around the saddlehorn. Neither of these meanings is referenced in Spanish sources. In Spanish, dale vuelta has the general meaning of 'give it a turn.' Clark provides a third meaning for the term: to move slowly, "as if a brake had been applied." Clark's suggestion that this is an extension of one of the above meanings is unfounded; the OED references dally with this meaning and attests to its use in English as early as 1538.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > dally

  • 16 istle

    ( iscle [ískle] < Nahuatl ichtli; also ixtle < Nahuatl ixtli)
        OED: 1883. A fiber obtained from an agave or yucca plant, used to make carpets, nets, ropes, and other items. The OED indicates that it comes from Bromelia sylvestris and several species of agave, such as Agave ixtli. Santamaría glosses two related terms. He indicates that in Mexico iscle refers to the filament of the maguey plant before it has been rinsed. After the rinsing process, it is called pita. It is also the common name of several agave plants that produce the fiber, such as Agave rigida and A. endlichiana. Ixtle is a related Aztequism that has become a universal name for any vegetable fiber, especially the ones produced by plants of the genus Agave. By extension, it refers to several ropes made of such fiber used by charros. See also lechuguilla.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > istle

  • 17 ixtle

    ( iscle [ískle] < Nahuatl ichtli; also ixtle < Nahuatl ixtli)
        OED: 1883. A fiber obtained from an agave or yucca plant, used to make carpets, nets, ropes, and other items. The OED indicates that it comes from Bromelia sylvestris and several species of agave, such as Agave ixtli. Santamaría glosses two related terms. He indicates that in Mexico iscle refers to the filament of the maguey plant before it has been rinsed. After the rinsing process, it is called pita. It is also the common name of several agave plants that produce the fiber, such as Agave rigida and A. endlichiana. Ixtle is a related Aztequism that has become a universal name for any vegetable fiber, especially the ones produced by plants of the genus Agave. By extension, it refers to several ropes made of such fiber used by charros. See also lechuguilla.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > ixtle

  • 18 jacal

    (Sp. model spelled same [xakál] < Nahuatl xacalli 'hut; cabin; house made of straw'; either from xacámitl 'adobe' and calli 'house' or from xalli 'sand')
       Texas: 1838. A primitive hut or shelter, especially one owned by a Mexican or Indian. The OED describes it as a hut built of poles or stakes plastered over with mud. It also indicates that such huts are common in Mexico and the Southwest. The DARE notes that the term may also refer to the method or material used to construct such a hut. It is referenced in the DRAE as a term used in Mexico for a hut or hovel. Santamaría adds that it commonly refers to a hut made of adobe, with roof made of straw or thin strips of wood.
        Alternate forms: hackel, jacel, jackall, jeccal.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > jacal

  • 19 jicarilla

    (Sp. model spelled same [xikaríja], diminutive of jícara [see above])
       1) Carlisle: 1867. A small cup used for drinking hot chocolate, or a small, tightly woven basket. Cobos concurs with both of these definitions. See jicara above.
       2) OED: 1850. An Apache tribe found primarily in New Mexico. Hendrickson suggests that the tribe takes its name from a hill in southeast Colorado or northern New Mexico shaped like an upside-down chocolate cup, a place where they once lived. He also notes that the tribe may have been named for the baskets woven by its members. Also known as Jicarilla Apaches.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > jicarilla

  • 20 manso

    (Sp. model spelled same [manso] < Vulgar Latin mansum 'meek' < Latin mansuetum)
        OED: 1836. An Indian who has been converted to Christianity. Santamaría glosses indio manso as a term still used in Mexico (at the time of publication) to refer to an Indian who lives in a settlement or Indian encampment and submits himself to the government, as opposed to one who is still considered 'savage' or 'wild.' The diminutive form, mansito, is also common. Such Indians posed little threat to pioneers, traders, trappers, and ranchers and their hands.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > manso

См. также в других словарях:

  • OED — steht als Abkürzung für: Oxford English Dictionary ortsempfindliche Detektoren Oed ist der Name folgender Orte: Oed am Rain, Ortsteil der Gemeinde Frasdorf, Landkreis Rosenheim, Bayern Oed bei Reisach, Ortsteil der Gemeinde Neukirchen, Landkreis… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Oed — steht als Abkürzung für: Oxford English Dictionary ortsempfindliche Detektoren Oed ist der Name folgender Orte: die Gemeinde Oed Oehling in Niederösterreich die Ortschaft Oed (Gemeinde Oed Oehling) in Niederösterreich die Ortschaft Oed (Gemeinde… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • oed — oed·i·pal; oed·i·pe·an; oed·i·pus; pat·i·oed; oed·i·pal·ly; …   English syllables

  • OED — puede referirse a: Oxford English Dictionary, un diccionario publicado por la editorial Oxford University Press, considerado el más erudito y completo diccionario de la lengua inglesa, así como el principal punto de referencia para su estudio… …   Wikipedia Español

  • OED — OED, the the abbreviation of the Oxford English Dictionary …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • OED — acronym of Oxford English Dictionary, attested from 1898, according to the Oxford English Dictionary …   Etymology dictionary

  • OED — abbrev. Oxford English Dictionary …   English World dictionary

  • OED — abbr. Oxford English Dictionary. * * * noun an unabridged dictionary constructed on historical principles • Syn: ↑Oxford English Dictionary, ↑O.E.D. • Instance Hypernyms: ↑unabridged dictionary, ↑unabridged * * * Oxford English Dictionary. Also,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • OED — abbreviation Oxford English Dictionary …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • OED — Oxford English Dictionary L Oxford English Dictionary est un dictionnaire de référence pour la langue anglaise. Il est publié par l Oxford University Press et contient des mots venant du Royaume Uni et des diverses régions du monde… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • OED — Oxford English Dictionary. Also, O.E.D. * * * …   Universalium


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