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Joseph Whitworth

  • 1 Whitworth, Sir Joseph

    [br]
    b. 21 December 1803 Stockport, Cheshire, England
    d. 22 January 1887 Monte Carlo, Monaco
    [br]
    English mechanical engineer and pioneer of precision measurement.
    [br]
    Joseph Whitworth received his early education in a school kept by his father, but from the age of 12 he attended a school near Leeds. At 14 he joined his uncle's mill near Ambergate, Derbyshire, to learn the business of cotton spinning. In the four years he spent there he realized that he was more interested in the machinery than in managing a cotton mill. In 1821 he obtained employment as a mechanic with Crighton \& Co., Manchester. In 1825 he moved to London and worked for Henry Maudslay and later for the Holtzapffels and Joseph Clement. After these years spent gaining experience, he returned to Manchester in 1833 and set up in a small workshop under a sign "Joseph Whitworth, Tool Maker, from London".
    The business expanded steadily and the firm made machine tools of all types and other engineering products including steam engines. From 1834 Whitworth obtained many patents in the fields of machine tools, textile and knitting machinery and road-sweeping machines. By 1851 the company was generally regarded as the leading manufacturer of machine tools in the country. Whitworth was a pioneer of precise measurement and demonstrated the fundamental mode of producing a true plane by making surface plates in sets of three. He advocated the use of the decimal system and made use of limit gauges, and he established a standard screw thread which was adopted as the national standard. In 1853 Whitworth visited America as a member of a Royal Commission and reported on American industry. At the time of the Crimean War in 1854 he was asked to provide machinery for manufacturing rifles and this led him to design an improved rifle of his own. Although tests in 1857 showed this to be much superior to all others, it was not adopted by the War Office. Whitworth's experiments with small arms led on to the construction of big guns and projectiles. To improve the quality of the steel used for these guns, he subjected the molten metal to pressure during its solidification, this fluid-compressed steel being then known as "Whitworth steel".
    In 1868 Whitworth established thirty annual scholarships for engineering students. After his death his executors permanently endowed the Whitworth Scholarships and distributed his estate of nearly half a million pounds to various educational and charitable institutions. Whitworth was elected an Associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1841 and a Member in 1848 and served on its Council for many years. He was elected a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1847, the year of its foundation.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Baronet 1869. FRS 1857. President, Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1856, 1857 and 1866. Hon. LLD Trinity College, Dublin, 1863. Hon. DCL Oxford University 1868. Member of the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers 1864. Légion d'honneur 1868. Society of Arts Albert Medal 1868.
    Bibliography
    1858, Miscellaneous Papers on Mechanical Subjects, London; 1873, Miscellaneous Papers on Practical Subjects: Guns and Steel, London (both are collections of his papers to technical societies).
    1854, with G.Wallis, The Industry of the United States in Machinery, Manufactures, and
    Useful and Ornamental Arts, London.
    Further Reading
    F.C.Lea, 1946, A Pioneer of Mechanical Engineering: Sir Joseph Whitworth, London (a short biographical account).
    A.E.Musson, 1963, "Joseph Whitworth: toolmaker and manufacturer", Engineering Heritage, Vol. 1, London, 124–9 (a short biography).
    D.J.Jeremy (ed.), 1984–6, Dictionary of Business Biography, Vol. 5, London, 797–802 (a short biography).
    W.Steeds, 1969, A History of Machine Tools 1700–1910, Oxford (describes Whitworth's machine tools).
    RTS

    Biographical history of technology > Whitworth, Sir Joseph

  • 2 Clement (Clemmet), Joseph

    [br]
    bapt. 13 June 1779 Great Asby, Westmoreland, England
    d. 28 February 1844 London, England
    [br]
    English machine tool builder and inventor.
    [br]
    Although known as Clement in his professional life, his baptism at Asby and his death were registered under the name of Joseph Clemmet. He worked as a slater until the age of 23, but his interest in mechanics led him to spend much of his spare time in the local blacksmith's shop. By studying books on mechanics borrowed from his cousin, a watchmaker, he taught himself and with the aid of the village blacksmith made his own lathe. By 1805 he was able to give up the slating trade and find employment as a mechanic in a small factory at Kirkby Stephen. From there he moved to Carlisle for two years, and then to Glasgow where, while working as a turner, he took lessons in drawing; he had a natural talent and soon became an expert draughtsman. From about 1809 he was employed by Leys, Mason \& Co. of Aberdeen designing and making power looms. For this work he built a screw-cutting lathe and continued his self-education. At the end of 1813, having saved about £100, he made his way to London, where he soon found employment as a mechanic and draughtsman. Within a few months he was engaged by Joseph Bramah, and after a trial period a formal agreement dated 1 April 1814 was made by which Clement was to be Chief Draughtsman and Superintendent of Bramah's Pimlico works for five years. However, Bramah died in December 1814 and after his sons took over the business it was agreed that Clement should leave before the expiry of the five-year period. He soon found employment as Chief Draughtsman with Henry Maudslay \& Co. By 1817 Clement had saved about £500, which enabled him to establish his own business at Prospect Place, Newington Butts, as a mechanical draughtsman and manufacturer of high-class machinery. For this purpose he built lathes for his own use and invented various improvements in their detailed design. In 1827 he designed and built a facing lathe which incorporated an ingenious system of infinitely variable belt gearing. He had also built his own planing machine by 1820 and another, much larger one in 1825. In 1828 Clement began making fluted taps and dies and standardized the screw threads, thus anticipating on a small scale the national standards later established by Sir Joseph Whitworth. Because of his reputation for first-class workmanship, Clement was in the 1820s engaged by Charles Babbage to carry out the construction of his first Difference Engine.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Society of Arts Gold Medal 1818 (for straightline mechanism), 1827 (for facing lathe); Silver Medal 1828 (for lathe-driving device).
    Bibliography
    Further Reading
    S.Smiles, 1863, Industrial Biography, London, reprinted 1967, Newton Abbot (virtually the only source of biographical information on Clement).
    L.T.C.Rolt, 1965, Tools for the Job, London (repub. 1986); W.Steeds, 1969, A History of Machine Tools 1700–1910, Oxford (both contain descriptions of his machine tools).
    RTS

    Biographical history of technology > Clement (Clemmet), Joseph

  • 3 Armstrong, Sir William George, Baron Armstrong of Cragside

    [br]
    b. 26 November 1810 Shieldfield, Newcastle upon Tyne, England
    d. 27 December 1900 Cragside, Northumbria, England
    [br]
    English inventor, engineer and entrepreneur in hydraulic engineering, shipbuilding and the production of artillery.
    [br]
    The only son of a corn merchant, Alderman William Armstrong, he was educated at private schools in Newcastle and at Bishop Auckland Grammar School. He then became an articled clerk in the office of Armorer Donkin, a solicitor and a friend of his father. During a fishing trip he saw a water-wheel driven by an open stream to work a marble-cutting machine. He felt that its efficiency would be improved by introducing the water to the wheel in a pipe. He developed an interest in hydraulics and in electricity, and became a popular lecturer on these subjects. From 1838 he became friendly with Henry Watson of the High Bridge Works, Newcastle, and for six years he visited the Works almost daily, studying turret clocks, telescopes, papermaking machinery, surveying instruments and other equipment being produced. There he had built his first hydraulic machine, which generated 5 hp when run off the Newcastle town water-mains. He then designed and made a working model of a hydraulic crane, but it created little interest. In 1845, after he had served this rather unconventional apprenticeship at High Bridge Works, he was appointed Secretary of the newly formed Whittle Dene Water Company. The same year he proposed to the town council of Newcastle the conversion of one of the quayside cranes to his hydraulic operation which, if successful, should also be applied to a further four cranes. This was done by the Newcastle Cranage Company at High Bridge Works. In 1847 he gave up law and formed W.G.Armstrong \& Co. to manufacture hydraulic machinery in a works at Elswick. Orders for cranes, hoists, dock gates and bridges were obtained from mines; docks and railways.
    Early in the Crimean War, the War Office asked him to design and make submarine mines to blow up ships that were sunk by the Russians to block the entrance to Sevastopol harbour. The mines were never used, but this set him thinking about military affairs and brought him many useful contacts at the War Office. Learning that two eighteen-pounder British guns had silenced a whole Russian battery but were too heavy to move over rough ground, he carried out a thorough investigation and proposed light field guns with rifled barrels to fire elongated lead projectiles rather than cast-iron balls. He delivered his first gun in 1855; it was built of a steel core and wound-iron wire jacket. The barrel was multi-grooved and the gun weighed a quarter of a ton and could fire a 3 lb (1.4 kg) projectile. This was considered too light and was sent back to the factory to be rebored to take a 5 lb (2.3 kg) shot. The gun was a complete success and Armstrong was then asked to design and produce an equally successful eighteen-pounder. In 1859 he was appointed Engineer of Rifled Ordnance and was knighted. However, there was considerable opposition from the notably conservative officers of the Army who resented the intrusion of this civilian engineer in their affairs. In 1862, contracts with the Elswick Ordnance Company were terminated, and the Government rejected breech-loading and went back to muzzle-loading. Armstrong resigned and concentrated on foreign sales, which were successful worldwide.
    The search for a suitable proving ground for a 12-ton gun led to an interest in shipbuilding at Elswick from 1868. This necessitated the replacement of an earlier stone bridge with the hydraulically operated Tyne Swing Bridge, which weighed some 1450 tons and allowed a clear passage for shipping. Hydraulic equipment on warships became more complex and increasing quantities of it were made at the Elswick works, which also flourished with the reintroduction of the breech-loader in 1878. In 1884 an open-hearth acid steelworks was added to the Elswick facilities. In 1897 the firm merged with Sir Joseph Whitworth \& Co. to become Sir W.G.Armstrong Whitworth \& Co. After Armstrong's death a further merger with Vickers Ltd formed Vickers Armstrong Ltd.
    In 1879 Armstrong took a great interest in Joseph Swan's invention of the incandescent electric light-bulb. He was one of those who formed the Swan Electric Light Company, opening a factory at South Benwell to make the bulbs. At Cragside, his mansion at Roth bury, he installed a water turbine and generator, making it one of the first houses in England to be lit by electricity.
    Armstrong was a noted philanthropist, building houses for his workforce, and endowing schools, hospitals and parks. His last act of charity was to purchase Bamburgh Castle, Northumbria, in 1894, intending to turn it into a hospital or a convalescent home, but he did not live long enough to complete the work.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knighted 1859. FRS 1846. President, Institution of Mechanical Engineers; Institution of Civil Engineers; British Association for the Advancement of Science 1863. Baron Armstrong of Cragside 1887.
    Further Reading
    E.R.Jones, 1886, Heroes of Industry', London: Low.
    D.J.Scott, 1962, A History of Vickers, London: Weidenfeld \& Nicolson.
    IMcN

    Biographical history of technology > Armstrong, Sir William George, Baron Armstrong of Cragside

  • 4 Porter, Charles Talbot

    [br]
    b. 18 January 1826 Auburn, New York, USA
    d. 1910 USA
    [br]
    American inventor of a stone dressing machine, an improved centrifugal governor and a high-speed steam engine.
    [br]
    Porter graduated from Hamilton College, New York, in 1845, read law in his father's office, and in the autumn of 1847 was admitted to the Bar. He practised for six or seven years in Rochester, New York, and then in New York City. He was drawn into engineering when aged about 30, first through a client who claimed to have invented a revolutionary type of engine and offered Porter the rights to it as payment of a debt. Having lent more money, Porter saw neither the man nor the engine again. Porter followed this with a similar experience over a patent for a stone dressing machine, except this time the machine was built. It proved to be a failure, but Porter set about redesigning it and found that it was vastly improved when it ran faster. His improved machine went into production. It was while trying to get the steam engine that drove the stone dressing machine to run more smoothly that he made a discovery that formed the basis for his subsequent work.
    Porter took the ordinary Watt centrifugal governor and increased the speed by a factor of about ten; although he had to reduce the size of the weights, he gained a motion that was powerful. To make the device sufficiently responsive at the right speed, he balanced the centrifugal forces by a counterweight. This prevented the weights flying outwards until the optimum speed was reached, so that the steam valves remained fully open until that point and then the weights reacted more quickly to variations in speed. He took out a patent in 1858, and its importance was quickly recognized. At first he manufactured and sold the governors himself in a specially equipped factory, because this was the only way he felt he could get sufficient accuracy to ensure a perfect action. For marine use, the counterweight was replaced by a spring.
    Higher speed had brought the advantage of smoother running and so he thought that the same principles could be applied to the steam engine itself, but it was to take extensive design modifications over several years before his vision was realized. In the winter of 1860–1, J.F. Allen met Porter and sketched out his idea of a new type of steam inlet valve. Porter saw the potential of this for his high-speed engine and Allen took out patents for it in 1862. The valves were driven by a new valve gear designed by Pius Fink. Porter decided to display his engine at the International Exhibition in London in 1862, but it had to be assembled on site because the parts were finished in America only just in time to be shipped to meet the deadline. Running at 150 rpm, the engine caused a sensation, but as it was non-condensing there were few orders. Porter added condensing apparatus and, after the failure of Ormerod Grierson \& Co., entered into an agreement with Joseph Whitworth to build the engines. Four were exhibited at the 1867 Paris Exposition Universelle, but Whitworth and Porter fell out and in 1868 Porter returned to America.
    Porter established another factory to build his engine in America, but he ran into all sorts of difficulties, both mechanical and financial. Some engines were built, and serious production was started c. 1874, but again there were further problems and Porter had to leave his firm. High-speed engines based on his designs continued to be made until after 1907 by the Southwark Foundry and Machine Company, Philadelphia, so Porter's ideas were proved viable and led to many other high-speed designs.
    [br]
    Bibliography
    1908, Engineering Reminiscences, New York: J. Wiley \& Sons; reprinted 1985, Bradley, Ill.: Lindsay (autobiography; the main source of information about his life).
    Further Reading
    R.L.Hills, 1989, Power from Steam. A History of the Stationary Steam Engine, Cambridge University Press (examines his governor and steam engine).
    O.Mayr, 1974, "Yankee practice and engineering theory; Charles T.Porter and the dynamics of the high-speed engine", Technology and Culture 16 (4) (examines his governor and steam engine).
    RLH

    Biographical history of technology > Porter, Charles Talbot

  • 5 Joseph

    Joseph - Джозеф; Иосиф

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Joseph

  • 6 Joseph

    Joseph noun Джозеф; Иосиф

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > Joseph

  • 7 joseph

    [ʹdʒəʋzıf] n
    1. Джозеф ( мужское имя)
    2. 1) библ. Иосиф
    2) целомудренный юноша
    3. (joseph) ист. длинный женский плащ для верховой езды

    НБАРС > joseph

  • 8 Joseph's coat

    1) Общая лексика: предмет зависти
    3) Религия: (An allusion to Gn:37:31 - And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood) одежда Иосифа

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Joseph's coat

  • 9 Sister Mary Joseph's nodule

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Sister Mary Joseph's nodule

  • 10 Banks, Joseph

    брит. Джозеф Бэнкс (ботаник)

    An earlier house of the same name on this site had been the home of Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist who named Botany Bay with Captain Cook in 1770.

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > Banks, Joseph

  • 11 Joseph Banks

    брит. Джозеф Бэнкс (ботаник)

    An earlier house of the same name on this site had been the home of Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist who named Botany Bay with Captain Cook in 1770.

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > Joseph Banks

  • 12 Jesus, Maria, Joseph

    Религия: ("Jesus, Mary, Joseph", сокр. J.M.J.) Иисус, Мария, Иосиф

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Jesus, Maria, Joseph

  • 13 Joseph Barsabas

    Христианство: (Joseph Barsabbas) Иосиф Варсава (святой, апостол из 70-ти)

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Joseph Barsabas

  • 14 Joseph

    n. יוסף, בנו של יעקב אבינו, בעל החלומות (בתנ"ך); ג'וסף, בעלה של מרים הקדושה אמו של ישו (בברית החדשה); שם פרטי לזכר; שם משפחה; שם פרטי נדיר לנקבה; עיירה באורגון (ארה"ב); עיירה במדינת יוטה (ארה"ב)
    n. סוג מעיל רכיבה בעל שכמייה קטנה אותו נהגו ללבוש נשים במאה ה-18
    * * *
    (ב"הרא) הטוי תנידמב הרייע ;(ב"הרא) ןוגרואב הרייע ;הבקנל רידנ יטרפ םש ;החפשמ םש ;רכזל יטרפ םש ;(השדחה תירבב) ושי לש ומא השודקה םירמ לש הלעב,ףסו'ג ;(ך"נתב) תומולחה לעב,וניבא בקעי לש ונב,ףסוי

    English-Hebrew dictionary > Joseph

  • 15 joseph

    n. יוסף, בנו של יעקב אבינו, בעל החלומות (בתנ"ך); ג'וסף, בעלה של מרים הקדושה אמו של ישו (בברית החדשה); שם פרטי לזכר; שם משפחה; שם פרטי נדיר לנקבה; עיירה באורגון (ארה"ב); עיירה במדינת יוטה (ארה"ב)
    joseph
    n. סוג מעיל רכיבה בעל שכמייה קטנה אותו נהגו ללבוש נשים במאה ה-18
    * * *
    81-ה האמב םישנ שובלל וגהנ ותוא הנטק היימכש לעב הביכר ליעמ גוס

    English-Hebrew dictionary > joseph

  • 16 British Standard Whitworth thread

    (BSW) BS 84 < join> (coarse series) ■ Whitworth-Gewinde n (BSW) DIN ISO 1891 ; British-Standard-Whitworth-Gewinde n ; Englisches Gewinde n ugs ; Britisches Gewinde n ugs

    English-german technical dictionary > British Standard Whitworth thread

  • 17 British Whitworth fine thread

    < join> ■ Whitworth-Feingewinde n (BSF) BS 84 ; Britisches Whitworth-Feingewinde n ; Britisches Feingewinde n

    English-german technical dictionary > British Whitworth fine thread

  • 18 British Whitworth special

    (WHIT) BS 84 < join> ■ Whitworth-Spezialgewinde n (WHIT); Britisches Spezialgewinde n

    English-german technical dictionary > British Whitworth special

  • 19 Rudge-Whitworth hub

    form.obs < mvhcl> (on sports and racing cars) ■ Zentralverschlussnabe f ; Kerbnabe f prakt ; Nabe mit Kerbverzahnung f did ; Rudge-Nabe f obs ; Rudge-Whitworth-Nabe f obs

    English-german technical dictionary > Rudge-Whitworth hub

  • 20 Rudge-Whitworth wheel

    obs < mvhcl> ■ Zentralverschlussfelge f ; Rudge-Whitworth-Felge f obs

    English-german technical dictionary > Rudge-Whitworth wheel

См. также в других словарях:

  • Joseph - получить на Академике актуальный промокод на скидку Kupivip RU или выгодно joseph купить с дисконтом на распродаже в Kupivip RU

  • Joseph Whitworth — Le baronnet Sir Joseph Whitworth (Stockport, Cheshire, 21 décembre 1803 – Monte Carlo, 22 janvier 1887) est un ingénieur et industriel britannique. Il porta la précision de l usinage à un degré inouï, perfectionna le contrôle… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Whitworth — Joseph Whitworth. Sir Joseph Whitworth (21 diciembre de 1803 – 22 de enero de 1887) fue un ingeniero y emprendedor inglés. Fue el creador del rifle Whitworth. Biografía Whitworth nació en Stockport, hijo de Charles Whitworth, profesoy y cura… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph Whitworth — Infobox Engineer image size = caption = Sir Joseph Whitworth name = Sir Joseph Whitworth nationality = British birth date = December 21 1803 birth place = Stockport death date = January 22 1887 death place = Monte Carlo education = spouse =… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Whitworth — Sir Joseph Whitworth, Stich nach einer Fotografie um 1882 Sir Joseph Whitworth (* 21. Dezember 1803 in Stockport; † 22. Januar 1887 in Monte Carlo) war ein britischer Ingenieur und ist bekannt für sein bahnbrechendes Wirken zur Abkehr von… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Whitworth — can refer to two villages in England: *Whitworth, County Durham *Whitworth, LancashireIt also refers to a private, liberal arts institution in Spokane, Washington *Whitworth UniversityIt can also refer to a specification for screw… …   Wikipedia

  • Whitworth-Rohrgewinde — Whitworth Rohrgewinde, benannt nach Sir Joseph Whitworth, auch British Standard Pipe (BSP), ursprünglich britische Gewindeform für Rohrverschraubungen, die bei Rohrinstallationen in Europa gebräuchlich ist. Es gibt auch Feinschrauben mit… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Whitworth — bezeichnet: das erste genormte Gewinde der Welt, siehe Whitworth Gewinde eine Stadt in Lancashire, England, siehe Whitworth (Lancashire) einen britischen Motorradhersteller, siehe Rudge Whitworth Whitworth ist der Familienname folgender Personen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Whitworth gun — Whit worth gun (Gun.) A form of rifled cannon and small arms invented by Sir Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester, England. [1913 Webster] Note: In Mr. Whitworth s system, the bore of the gun has a polygonal section, and the twist is rapid. The ball,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Joseph Clement — (* 13. Juni 1779 in Asby, Distrikt Eden (Cumbria); † 28. Februar 1844 in Southwark, South London) war ein britischer Ingenieur und Industrieller.[1] Leben und Wirken Sein Vater Thomas, ein Weber, der sich selbst eine Drehbank gebaut hatte, lehrte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Whitworth-Gewinde — Das Whitworth Gewinde ist benannt nach Sir Joseph Whitworth, der es 1841 einführte. Es wurde das erste genormte Gewinde der Welt. In Deutschland war dieses Gewinde lange Zeit als DIN 11 und DIN 12 genormt. Es wird heute noch als British Standard… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Whitworth Art Gallery — Infobox Historic building name = Whitworth Art Gallery caption = The Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester map type = latitude = 53.460278 longitude = 2.229444 location town = Manchester location country = United Kingdom architect = J and J.W.… …   Wikipedia


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