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James Wilson

  • 1 Marshall, James Wilson

    (1810-1885) Маршалл, Джеймс Уилсон
    Пионер освоения Калифорнии. В 1849 открыл золото на земле Дж. Саттера [ Sutter, John Augustus], что положило начало "золотой лихорадке" [ Gold Rush] в Калифорнии. Как и Саттер, умер в бедности

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Marshall, James Wilson

  • 2 Coloma

    Поселок на востоке штата Калифорния, в округе Эльдорадо [El Dorado County], центр т.н. "Золотого края" [California Gold Country]. 24 января 1848 у лесопилки Саттера [ Sutter's Mill] на р. Американ [ American River] Дж. Маршалл [ Marshall, James Wilson] обнаружил золото, что послужило началом "золотой лихорадки" [ Gold Rush]. К 1849 в Коломе было 10 тыс. жителей. Исторический заповедник штата "Открытие золота Маршаллом" [Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park], где реконструирована лесопилка. В окрестностях - Национальный лесной заказник Эльдорадо [Eldorado National Forest], зона отдыха на берегу озера Фолсом [Folsom Lake State Recreation Area]

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Coloma

  • 3 Wilson, James

    (1742-1798) Уилсон, Джеймс
    Политический деятель, юрист. В 1774 был избран председателем местного Комитета связи [ Committee of Correspondence] в Пенсильвании; автор ряда антибританских памфлетов. В 1774-87 неоднократно был делегатом Континентальных конгрессов [ Continental Congresses]; его подпись среди других стоит под текстом Декларации независимости [ Declaration of Independence]. Выступал за включение в Статьи Конфедерации [ Articles of Confederation] положений о сильной центральной власти. Один из наиболее влиятельных участников Конституционного конвента [ Constitutional Convention] (1787); инициатор создания коллегии выборщиков [ electoral college]. В местной политике проявил себя как консерватор, выступая против демократической конституции Пенсильвании 1776 года. В 1789-98 член Верховного суда [ Associate Justice of the Supreme Court]. На этом посту стал известен своей позицией по делу "Чизхолм против Джорджии" [ Chisholm v. Georgia] (1793), поддержав принцип верховенства федеральных законов. В 1790 стал первым профессором права в Пенсильванском университете [ Pennsylvania, University of]. После нескольких неудачных земельных спекуляций бежал в 1797 в Северную Каролину от возможного ареста за долги

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Wilson, James

  • 4 Mackenzie, Sir James

    SUBJECT AREA: Medical technology
    [br]
    b. 12 April 1853 Scone, Perthshire, Scotland
    d. 26 January 1925 London, England
    [br]
    Scottish physician and clinical researcher, inventor of the "polygraph" for the investigation of normal and abnormal cardiac rhythms.
    [br]
    Mackenzie graduated in medicine from Edinburgh University in 1878. The next year he moved to a practice in Burnley, Lancashire, where he began the exhaustive clinical studies into irregularities of cardiac rhythm that he was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1907 he moved to London and in 1913 was appointed physician to the London Hospital.
    It was while engaged in the heavy industrial practice in Burnley that he developed, with the aid of a Lancashire watchmaker, the "polygraph" apparatus, which by recording vascular pulses permitted analysis of cardiac function and performance. He also investigated herpes zoster (shingles) and was a pioneer in the treatment of heart disease with digitalis. He himself suffered from angina pectoris for the last fifteen years of his life and his views on the condition were published in a book in 1923. When shown the electrocardiogram (ECG) machine of Einthoven, he expressed reservations as to its future utility.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Knighted 1915. FRS 1915.
    Bibliography
    1902, The Study of the Pulse, Edinburgh. 1908, Diseases of the Heart, London. 1925, Heart, London.
    Further Reading
    M.Wilson, 1926, The Beloved Physician: Sir James Mackenzie.
    MG

    Biographical history of technology > Mackenzie, Sir James

  • 5 Nasmyth, James Hall

    [br]
    b. 19 August 1808 Edinburgh, Scotland
    d. 7 May 1890 London, England
    [br]
    Scottish mechanical engineer and inventor of the steam-hammer.
    [br]
    James Nasmyth was the youngest son of Alexander Nasmyth (1758–1840), the portrait and landscape painter. According to his autobiography he was named James Hall after his father's friend, the geologist Sir James Hall (1761–1832), but he seems never to have used his second name in official documents. He received an elementary education at Edinburgh High School, but left at the age of 12. He attended evening classes at the Edinburgh School of Arts for the instruction of Mechanics between 1821 and 1825, and gained experience as a mechanic at an early age in his father's workshop. He shared these early experiences with his brother George, who was only a year or so older, and in the 1820s the brothers built several model steam engines and a steam-carriage capable of carrying eight passengers on the public roads. In 1829 Nasmyth obtained a position in London as personal assistant to Henry Maudslay, and after Maudslay's death in February 1831 he remained with Maudslay's partner, Joshua Field, for a short time. He then returned to Edinburgh, where he and his brother George started in a small way as general engineers. In 1834 they moved to a small workshop in Manchester, and in 1836, with the aid of financial backing from some Manchester businessmen, they established on a site at Patricroft, a few miles from the city, the works which became known as the Bridgewater Foundry. They were soon joined by a third partner, Holbrook Gaskell (1813–1909), who looked after the administration of the business, the firm then being known as Nasmyths Gaskell \& Co. They specialized in making machine tools, and Nasmyth invented many improvements so that they soon became one of the leading manufacturers in this field. They also made steam locomotives for the rapidly developing railways. James Nasmyth's best-known invention was the steam-hammer, which dates from 1839 but was not patented until 1842. The self-acting control gear was probably the work of Robert Wilson and ensured the commercial success of the invention. George Nasmyth resigned from the partnership in 1843 and in 1850 Gaskell also resigned, after which the firm continued as James Nasmyth \& Co. James Nasmyth himself retired at the end of 1856 and went to live at Penshurst, Kent, in a house which he named "Hammerfield" where he devoted his time mainly to his hobby of astronomy. Robert Wilson returned to become Managing Partner of the firm, which later became Nasmyth, Wilson \& Co. and retained that style until its closure in 1940. Nasmyth's claim to be the sole inventor of the steam-hammer has been disputed, but his patent of 1842 was not challenged and the fourteen-year monopoly ensured the prosperity of the business so that he was able to retire at the age of 48. At his death in 1890 he left an estate valued at £243,805.
    [br]
    Bibliography
    1874, with J.Carpenter, The Moon Considered as a Planet, a World, and a Satellite, London.
    1883, Autobiography, ed. Samuel Smiles, London.
    Further Reading
    R.Wailes, 1963, "James Nasmyth—Artist's Son", Engineering Heritage, vol. I, London, 106–11 (a short account).
    J.A.Cantrell, 1984, James Nasmyth and the Bridgewater Foundry: A Study of Entrepreneurship in the Early Engineering Industry, Manchester (a full-length critical study).
    ——1984–5, "James Nasmyth and the steam hammer", Transactions of the Newcomen Society 56:133–8.
    RTS

    Biographical history of technology > Nasmyth, James Hall

  • 6 Wilson, Robert

    [br]
    b. September 1803 Dunbar, Haddingtonshire, East Lothian, Scotland
    d. 28 July 1882 Matlock, Derbyshire, England
    [br]
    Scottish mechanical engineer and inventor who developed the self-acting control gear applied to the steam-hammer.
    [br]
    Robert Wilson was the son of a fisherman who was drowned in a lifeboat rescue attempt in December 1810. He received only a meagre education and was apprenticed to a joiner. From a very early age he was much concerned with the idea of applying screw propellers to ships, and his invention was approved by the Highland Society and by the Scottish Society of Arts, who in 1832 awarded him a silver medal. He must have gained some experience as a mechanic and while working on his invention he made the acquaintance of James Nasmyth. In 1838 he became Works Manager at Nasmyth's Bridgewater Foundry and made an important contribution to the success of the steam-hammer by developing the self-acting control gear. From 1845 he was with the Low Moor Ironworks near Bradford, Yorkshire, but in July 1856 he returned to the Bridgewater Foundry so that he was able to take over as Managing Partner after Nasmyth's early retirement at the end of 1856. In 1867 the name of the firm was changed to Nasmyth, Wilson \& Co., and Wilson remained a partner until May 1882, when the firm became a limited company. Wilson often returned to his first invention, and two of his many patents related to improvements in screw propellers. In 1880 he received £500 from the War Department for the use of his double-action screw propeller as applied to the torpedo.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Member, Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1857. FRSE 1873. Member, Royal Scottish Society of Arts.
    Bibliography
    1860, The Screw Propeller: Who Invented It?, Glasgow.
    Further Reading
    J.A.Cantrell, 1984, James Nasmyth and the Bridgewater Foundry, Manchester, Appendix F, pp. 262–3 (a short biographical account and a list of his patents).
    RTS

    Biographical history of technology > Wilson, Robert

  • 7 Wilson, Thomas

    SUBJECT AREA: Canals, Ports and shipping
    [br]
    b. 1781 Dunbar, Scotland
    d. 1 December 1873 Grangemouth, Scotland
    [br]
    Scottish shipwright and canal engineer, builder of the barge Vulcan, the world's first properly constructed iron ship.
    [br]
    Wilson, the son of a sailor, spent his early years on the Forth. Later his father moved home to the west and Wilson served his apprenticeship as a shipwright on the Clyde at the small shipyards of Bowling, fifteen miles (24 km) west of Glasgow and on the river's north bank. In his late thirties Wilson was to take the leading role in what is arguably the most important development in Scotland's distinguished shipbuilding history: the building of the world's first properly constructed iron ship. This ship, the Vulcan, was the culmination of several years' effort by a group of people well connected within the academic establishment of Scotland. The Forth and Clyde Canal Company had passed instructions for investigations to be made into reducing running expenses and a distinguished committee looked into this matter. They included John Robison (Secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh), Professor Joseph Black of Glasgow University, James Watt and John Schanck. After a period of consideration it was decided to build a new, fastpassage barge of iron, and tenders were invited from several appropriate contractors. Wilson, with the assistance of two blacksmiths, John and Thomas Smellie, was awarded the work, and the Vulcan was constructed and ultimately launched at Faskine near Glasgow in 1819. The work involved was far beyond the comprehension of engineers of the twentieth century, as Wilson had to arrange puddled-iron plates for the shell and hand-crafted angle irons for the frames. His genius is now apparent as every steel ship worldwide uses a form of construction literally "hammered out on the anvil" between 1818 and 1819. The Vulcan was almost 64 ft (19.5 m) in length and 11 ft (3.4 m) broad. In 1822 Wilson was appointed an inspector of works for the Canal Company, and ultimately he superintended the building of the docks at Grangemouth, where he died in 1873, the same year that the Vulcan was broken up.
    [br]
    Further Reading
    R.Harvey, 1919, Early Days of Engineering in Glasgow, Glasgow: Aird and Coghill. F.M.Walker, 1989–90, "Early iron shipbuilding. A reappraisal of the Vulcan and other pioneer vessels", Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in
    Scotland 133:21–34.
    FMW

    Biographical history of technology > Wilson, Thomas

  • 8 Wilson

    Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь > Wilson

  • 9 James

    James - Дже(й)мс; библ. Иаков

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > James

  • 10 James

    James noun Дже(й)мс; bibl. Иаков

    Англо-русский словарь Мюллера > James

  • 11 court of st james


    Court of St. James
    1> Сентджеймский двор, двор короля или королевы Великобритании
    2> _ист. английское правительство

    НБАРС > court of st james

  • 12 Wilson

    уилсоновский

    Wilson seal

    Wilson cloud chamber<phys.> камера Вильсона

    Англо-русский технический словарь > Wilson

  • 13 James

    James, W. (1842-1910)
    Уильям Джеймс, американский социальный исследователь и философ, один из основоположников неопозитивизма и символического интеракционизма.

    Англо-русский словарь по социологии > James

  • 14 James Sel.Cas.

    Юридический термин: James' Select Cases, Nova Scotia, James' Select Cases (Новая Шотландия, составитель Джеймс, 1853-1855)

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > James Sel.Cas.

  • 15 Hoban, James

    архитек. Джеймс Хобан

    It was in the same year (1792) that James Hoban, an Irish American, won a prize of 500 dollars offered for the best design of the "President's House", according to L'Enfant's designation. — В том же году (1792) Джеймс Хобан, американец ирландского происхождения, выиграл премию в 500 долларов, предложенную за лучший дизайн «Президентского дворца» в соответствии с указаниями Л’Анфана.

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > Hoban, James

  • 16 James Barrie

    имя собст. James Barrie — Джеймс Барри (1860 — 1937), английский писатель, драматург; автор популярной детской сказки «Питер Пэн» (Peter Pan)

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > James Barrie

  • 17 James Hoban

    архитек. Джеймс Хобан

    It was in the same year (1792) that James Hoban, an Irish American, won a prize of 500 dollars offered for the best design of the "President's House", according to L'Enfant's designation. — В том же году (1792) Джеймс Хобан, американец ирландского происхождения, выиграл премию в 500 долларов, предложенную за лучший дизайн «Президентского дворца» в соответствии с указаниями Л’Анфана.

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > James Hoban

  • 18 (James) Smithson

    the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory — Астрофизическая обсерватория (основана в 1890 г.) Смитсоновского института, одного из старейших государственных научно-исследовательских и культурных центров, Вашингтон, США, учрежденного в 1846 г. на средства английского ученого Джеймса Смитсона (James Smithson, 1765 — 1829).

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > (James) Smithson

  • 19 (James) Smithson

    the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory — Астрофизическая обсерватория (основана в 1890 г.) Смитсоновского института, одного из старейших государственных научно-исследовательских и культурных центров, Вашингтон, США, учрежденного в 1846 г. на средства английского ученого Джеймса Смитсона (James Smithson, 1765 — 1829).

    Англо-русский универсальный дополнительный практический переводческий словарь И. Мостицкого > (James) Smithson

  • 20 James

    [dʒeɪmz]
    N Jaime, Diego; (British kings) Jacobo

    English-spanish dictionary > James

См. также в других словарях:

  • James Wilson — puede referirse a: James Wilson, un político estadounidense; El Dr. James Wilson, un personaje de la serie House M.D. Véase también James, (desambiguación). Wilson, (desambiguación) …   Wikipedia Español

  • James Wilson — Infobox Judge name = James Wilson imagesize = caption = office = Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court termstart = October 5 1789 termend = August 21 1798 nominator = George Washington appointer = predecessor = (none) successor =… …   Wikipedia

  • James Wilson — Das offizielle Bildnis von Wilson als Richter des Obersten Gerichtshofes James Wilson (* 14. September 1742 in Carskerdo, Fife, Schottland; † 21. August 1798 in Edenton, North Carolina, USA) war einer der Unterzeichner der Unabhängigkeit …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Wilson —  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie différentes personnes partageant un même nom. Le nom James Wilson est porté par les personnes suivantes : James Wilson, (1742 1798), juge à la Cour suprême des États Unis d Amérique ; James Wilson …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Wilson — noun American Revolutionary leader who was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence (1742 1798) • Syn: ↑Wilson • Instance Hypernyms: ↑American Revolutionary leader …   Useful english dictionary

  • James Wilson (Begriffsklärung) — James Wilson ist der Name folgender Personen: James Wilson (1742–1798), US amerikanischer Rechtstheoretiker und Gründervater James Wilson (1766–1839), US amerikanischer Politiker James Wilson (Kapitän) (1769–1814), britischer Kapitän und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Wilson (House) — James Wilson (Dr House) Pour les articles homonymes, voir James Wilson et Wilson. James Wilson Personna …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Wilson Morrice — James Wilson Morrice, né à Montréal (Canada) en 1865 et mort à Tunis (Tunisie) en 1924, était un peintre canadien. Passant la majorité de sa carrière à l étranger, surtout à Paris (France), Morrice est considéré par certains comme « le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Wilson (Minister) — James Wilson während seiner Zeit als Minister James Wilson (* 16. August 1835 in Ayrshire, Schottland; † 26. August 1920 in Traer, Iowa) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker der Republikanischen P …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Wilson Grimes — James W. Grimes James Wilson Grimes (* 20. Oktober 1816 in Deering, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire; † 7. Februar 1872 in Burlington, Iowa) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und von 1854 bis 1858 der 3.  …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Wilson (1797–1881) — James Wilson (* 18. März 1797 in Peterborough, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire; † 29. Mai 1881 in Keene, New Hampshire) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Zwischen 1847 und 1850 vertrat er den Bundesstaat New Hampshire im US… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Книги

  • Memoirs of the life of James Wilson... of Woodville, Hamilton James. Книга представляет собой репринтное издание. Несмотря на то, что была проведена серьезная работа по восстановлению первоначального качества издания, на некоторых страницах могут обнаружиться… Подробнее  Купить за 1317 руб
  • The post in grant and farm, Hyde James Wilson. Книга представляет собой репринтное издание. Несмотря на то, что была проведена серьезная работа по восстановлению первоначального качества издания, на некоторых страницах могут обнаружиться… Подробнее  Купить за 1315 руб
  • Euangelium Secundum Iohannem The Gospel Of Saint John In West-saxon, Bright James Wilson. Книга представляет собой репринтное издание. Несмотря на то, что была проведена серьезная работа по восстановлению первоначального качества издания, на некоторых страницах могут обнаружиться… Подробнее  Купить за 1311 руб
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