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If i were King

  • 1 Manuel I, king

       King Manuel I, named "The Fortunate" in Portuguese tradition, ruled from 1495 to 1521, the zenith of Portugal's world power and imperial strength. Manuel was the 14th king of Portugal and the ninth son of Infante Dom Fernando and Dona Brites, as well as the adopted son of King João II (r. 1481-95). Manuel ascended the throne when the royal heir, Dom Afonso, the victim of a riding accident, suddenly died. Manuel's three marriages provide a map of the royal and international history of the era. His first marriage (1497) was to the widow of Dom Afonso, son of King João II, late heir to the throne. The second (1500) was to the Infanta Dona Maria of Castile, and the third marriage (1518) was to Dona Leonor, sister of King Carlos V (Hapsburg emperor and king of Spain).
       Manuel's reign featured several important developments in government, such as the centralization of state power and royal absolutism; overseas expansion, namely the decision in 1495 to continue on from Africa to Asia and the building of an Asian maritime trade empire; and innovation and creativity in culture, with the emergence of the Manueline architectural style and the writings of Gil Vicente and others. There was also an impact on population and demography with the expulsion or forcible conversion of the Jews. In 1496, King Manuel I approved a decree that forced all Jews who would not become baptized as Christians to leave the country within 10 months. The Jews had been expelled from Spain in 1492. The economic impact on Portugal in coming decades or even centuries is debatable, but it is clear that a significant number of Jews converted and remained in Portugal, becoming part of the Portuguese establishment.
       King Manuel's decision in 1495, backed by a royal council and by the Cortes called that year, to continue the quest for Asia by means of seeking an all-water route from Portugal around Africa to India was momentous. Sponsorship of Vasco da Gama's first great voyage (1497-99) to India was the beginning of an era of unprecedented imperial wealth, power, and excitement. It became the official goal to create a maritime monopoly of the Asian spice trade and keep it in Portugal's hands. When Pedro Álvares Cabral's voyage from Lisbon to India was dispatched in 1500, its route was deliberately planned to swing southwest into the Atlantic, thus sighting "The Land of the Holy Cross," or Brazil, which soon became a Portuguese colony. Under King Manuel, the foundations were laid for Portugal's Brazilian and Asian empire, from Calicut to the Moluccas. Described by France's King Francis I as the "Grocer King," with his command of the mighty spice trade, King Manuel approved of a fitting monument to the new empire: the building of the magnificent Jerónimos Monastery where, after his death in 1521, both Manuel and Vasco da Gama were laid to rest.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Manuel I, king

  • 2 João III, king

       Portugal's most talented and accomplished monarch of the late Renaissance period. João III was the 15th king of Portugal, the son of King Manuel I. Well-educated by brilliant tutors, including the humanist Luís Teixeira, João at age 12 was introduced to the study of royal governance by his father. During his reign, Portugal reached the apogee of its world imperial power at least in terms of coastal area and number of different continents over which the scattered territories were spread. Portugal had a tenuous hold on various Moroccan cities, and during João's reign was forced to abandon most of the North African fortresses, due to Muslim military pressures. It was to the colonization and exploitation of giant Brazil, though, that João turned imperial attention. In diplomacy, no other monarch during the Aviz dynasty was as active; negotiations proceeded with Spain, France, and the Holy See. In domestic affairs, João III reinforced absolutist tendencies and built up royal power. It was João, too, who introduced the Inquisition into Portugal in 1536, after lengthy negotiations. The king encouraged a flowering of humanist culture as well, and among favored intellectuals were the great writers Gil Vicente and Damião de Góis.
       João III's reign was a vital turning point in the history of Portugal's first overseas empire (1415-1580). He found the empire at its zenith, yet when he died it was showing grave signs of weakness not only in Morocco, but in Asia, where rival European powers and the Turks were on the move. Portugal's very independence from Spain and even the royal succession were under a cloud when João III died in 1557 without a son to succeed him. Following tragic deaths of his children, João's only indirect heir was Sebastião, a grandson, who succeeded to rule a menaced Portugal.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > João III, king

  • 3 Carlos I, King

       The second to last reigning king of Portugal and second to last of the Braganza dynasty to rule. Born in 1863, the son of King Luis I, Carlos was well-educated and became an accomplished sailor, as well as an artist of maritime scenes in oil paintings. A selection of his paintings remains on display in various museums and halls. His reign began in 1889, when his father died, and was immediately marked by controversy and conflict. In January 1890, the monarchy was weakened and Carlos's authority placed in question in the crisis of the " English Ultimatum" (see also Ultimatum, English) Portugal's oldest ally, Great Britain, threatened an end to the 517-year-old alliance, and hostilities arose over the question of territorial expansion in the "Scramble for Africa." Although Carlos was a talented diplomat who managed to repair the damaged Anglo-Portuguese Alliance and to promote other foreign policy initiatives, his reign was marked by the failure of monarchist politics, the weakening monarchy, and rising republicanism. As monarchist politics became more unstable and corrupt, the republic opposition grew stronger and more violent. Carlos's appointment of the dictatorial João Franco government in 1907 and Franco's measures of January 1908 repressing the opposition were, in effect, the king's death warrant. While returning from a royal trip to the Alentejo on 1 February, 1908, King Carlos and his heir apparent, Prince Luís, were shot in their open carriage in Lisbon by carbonaria (anarchist republicans). Although their two murderers were killed by guards on the spot, the official investigation of their murders was never completed.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Carlos I, King

  • 4 Filipe I, king

       Known to history usually as Phillip II of Spain, this Spanish monarch was the first king of the Phillipine dynasty in Portugal, or Filipe I. He ruled Portugal and its empire from 1580 to 1598. The son of Carlos V (Charles V) of Spain and the Hapsburg empire and of Queen Isabel of Portugal, Filipe had a strong claim on the throne of Portugal. On the death of Portugal's King Sebastião in battle in Morocco in 1578, Filipe presented his claim and candidacy for the Portuguese throne. In the Cortes of Almeirim (1579), Filipe was officially recognized as king of Portugal by that assembly, which was dominated by the clerical and noble estates. This act, however, did not take into account the feeling of the Portuguese people. A portion of the people supported a Portuguese claimant, the Prior of Crato, and they began to organize armed resistance to the Spanish intrusion. In 1580, Filipe sent a Spanish army across the Portuguese frontier under the Duke of Alba. Both on land and at sea, Spanish forces defeated the Portuguese. At the Cortes of Tomar (1581), Filipe was proclaimed king of Portugal. Before returning to Spain in 1583, Filipe resided in Portugal.
       There were grave consequences for Portugal and its scattered imperial holdings following the Spanish overthrow of Portugal's hard-won independence. Just how bitter these consequences were is reflected in how Portuguese history and literature traditionally term the Spanish takeover as "The Babylonian Captivity." Portugal suffered from the growing decline, decadence, and weaknesses of its Spanish master. Beginning with the destruction of the Spanish Armada (1588), which used Lisbon as its supply and staging point, Spanish rule over Portugal was disastrous. Not only did Spain's inveterate enemies—especially England, France, and Holland—attack continental Portugal as if it were Spain, they also attacked and conquered portions of Portugal's vulnerable, far-flung empire.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Filipe I, king

  • 5 Miguel I, king

       The third son of King João VI and of Dona Carlota Joaquina, Miguel was barely five years of age when he went to Brazil with the fleeing royal family. In 1821, with his mother and father, he returned to Portugal. Whatever the explanation for his actions, Miguel always took Carlota Joaquina's part in the subsequent political struggles and soon became the supreme hope of the reactionary, clerical, absolutist party against the constitutionalists and opposed any compromise with liberal constitutionalism or its adherents. He became not only the symbol but the essence of a kind of reactionary messianism in Portugal during more than two decades, as his personal fortunes of power and privilege rose and fell. With his personality imbued with traits of wildness, adventurism, and violence, Miguel enjoyed a life largely consumed in horseback riding, love affairs, and bull- fighting.
       After the independence of Brazil (1822), Miguel became the principal candidate for power of the Traditionalist Party, which was determined to restore absolutist royal power, destroy the constitution, and rule without limitation. Miguel was involved in many political conspiracies and armed movements, beginning in 1822 and including the coups known to history as the "Vila Francada" (1823) and the "Abrilada" (1824), which were directed against his father King João VI, in order to restore absolutist royal power. These coup conspiracies failed due to foreign intervention, and the king ordered Miguel dismissed from his posts and sent into exile. He remained in exile for four years. The death of King João VI in 1826 presented new opportunities in the absolutist party, however, and the dashing Dom Miguel remained their great hope for power.
       His older brother King Pedro IV, then emperor of Brazil, inherited the throne and wrote his own constitution, the Charter of 1826, which was to become the law of the land in Portugal. However, his daughter Maria, only seven, was too young to rule, so Pedro, who abdicated, put together an unusual deal. Until Maria reached her majority age, a regency headed by Princess Isabel Maria would rule Portugal. Dom Miguel would return from his Austrian exile and, when Maria reached her majority, Maria would marry her uncle Miguel and they would reign under the 1826 Charter. Miguel returned to Portugal in 1828, but immediately broke the bargain. He proclaimed himself an absolutist King, acclaimed by the usual (and last) Cortes of 1828; dispensed with Pedro's Charter; and ruled as an absolutist. Pedro's response was to abdicate the emperorship of Brazil, return to Portugal, defeat Miguel, and place his young daughter on the throne. In the civil war called the War of the Brothers (1831-34), after a seesaw campaign on land and at sea, Miguel's forces were defeated and he went into exile, never to return to Portugal.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Miguel I, king

  • 6 João V, king

       The son of King Pedro II and Maria Sofia Neubourg, João was acclaimed king in 1707. By any measure, his long reign (43 years) had a significant impact on Portuguese government, arts, and culture. The early period was consumed with anxiety over continental European affairs, especially the menacing War of Spanish Succession, which ended in 1714. João then shifted his emphasis to the commercial and political interests of the Atlantic empire, to the Catholic Church and religious affairs, and to reinforcing the Anglo- Portuguese Alliance. Under João, there was intensive development of colonization and exploitation in Portuguese America, namely Brazil.
       In spite of the state's usual fiscal woes, the monarchy and the nobility garnered considerable wealth from Brazilian diamonds, gold, and other materials. Large amounts of revenue were expended on royal palaces, houses, churches, chapels, and convents, and, despite the Lisbon earthquake's impact in 1755, a considerable portion of this conspicuous consumption survives in historic monuments. Most outstanding is the great Mafra Palace and Convent, a baroque monstrosity, one of the largest buildings in Europe, which was constructed during João's reign. Through his acts of piety and bribery, João was declared "Most Faithful" Majesty by the pope. Under royal largesse, Portuguese arts and culture were cultivated, and Italian opera was introduced in Lisbon.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > João V, king

  • 7 Afonso V, King

    (r. 1446-1481)
       Born in 1432, the son of King D. Duarte I and D. Leonor of Aragon, Afonso was only six years old when his father died suddenly and a succession crisis and consequent civil strife began. His mother fled into exile in Castile, where she died in 1445. He attained his majority in 1446. In the 1450s, King Afonso presided over more Portuguese expansion in Morocco by the capture of more Moroccan cities, but progress down the western African coast was delayed by the king's intervention in Iberian royal politics in Castile. His ambitions in Spain were thwarted after his loss of the battle of Toro to Castilian forces in 1476. In the 1470s, the king encouraged Portuguese exploration, trade, and colonization in western Africa, including settlement in the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in the Bight of Biafra. The king died in 1481, and as a member of the Aviz dynasty, he became known in the history of Portugal as "O Africano" ("the African") and had one of the longest reigns in Portuguese history.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Afonso V, King

  • 8 João II, king

       Known in Portuguese history as "The Perfect Prince," he ruled Portugal from 1481 to 1495. The son of King Afonso V and Dona Isabel, his life and reign reflected Portugal's ongoing struggle with Castile, a suppression of Portugal's more powerful nobility in order to reassert royal authority, and a continuation of Portugal's search for an all-water route to India around the coast of Africa. During his reign, two further exploratory steps were taken in this overseas strategy: the key voyages of Diogo Cão (as far south as the coast of Angola) and of Bartolomeu Dias, who rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean in 1488. As part of Portugal's quest to find and help "Prester John," supposedly a Christian king in Africa or Asia, King João also encouraged the departure in the late 1480s of Afonso de Paiva and Pero de Covilhã, at least one of whom reached Ethiopia, on an expedition overland in Africa.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > João II, king

  • 9 Luís I, King

       King Luís I was the second son of Queen Maria II and Dom Fernando. When his older brother, King Pedro V, died suddenly in October 1861, he ascended the throne. Well-educated, with the temperament of a writer and artist, Luís probably preferred the literary life to politics and public affairs. In the history of Portugal's literature, Luís is noted for his translations into Portuguese of several of Shakespeare's plays. During his 28-year reign, Portugal experienced a phase of the Regeneration and, for part of the period after 1870, relatively stable politics and a lack of military intervention in public life. During his reign, too, there was material progress and great literary accomplishment; for example, the famous novels of José Maria Eça de Queirós and the poetry of Antero de Quental. While republicanism became a greater force after 1871, and the first republican deputy was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1878, this party and its ideology were not a threat to the monarchy until after the reign of Dom Luís. When King Luís died in 1889, he was succeeded by his oldest son, Dom Carlos, whose stormy reign witnessed the rise of republicanism and serious degeneration of the monarchy.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Luís I, King

  • 10 Pedro II, king

    (1648- 1706)
       The 23rd king of Portugal who ascended the throne in 1668. This followed the 1667 coup d'etat that deposed Pedro's handicapped brother, King Afonso VI, who was later held under house arrest in the Azores and then in the National Palace of Sintra for the remainder of his life. Pedro then married his sister-in-law. During his reign, Pedro signed the great peace treaty of 1668 with Spain, thus ending the War of Restoration. With increased revenues from mineral exploitation in Brazil, Portugal's national finances under Pedro were strengthened. With his chief minister, the count of Eriçeira, Pedro promoted the establishment of early basic industries.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Pedro II, king

  • 11 Pedro IV, king

    (also Emperor Pedro I of Brazil)
       The first emperor of Brazil and restorer of the liberal, constitutional monarchy, as well as of the throne of his daughter, Queen Maria II. Born in Queluz Palace, the second son of the regent João VI and Queen Carlota Joaquina, Pedro at age nine accompanied his parents and the remainder of the Braganza royal family to Brazil, fleeing the French invasion of Portugal in late 1807. Raised and educated in Brazil, following the return of his father to Portugal, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil from Portugal in the famous "cry of Ipiranga," on 7 September 1822. As Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, he ruled that fledgling nation-state-empire from 1822 to 1831, when he abdicated in favor of his son Pedro, and then went to Portugal and the Azores.
       Pedro's absolutist brother, Dom Miguel, following the death of their father João VI in 1826, had broken his word on defending Portugal's constitution and had carried out an absolutist counterrevolution, which was supported by his reactionary mother Carlota Joaquina. Pedro's daughter, Queen Maria II, who was too young to assume the duties of monarch of Portugal, had lost her throne to King Miguel, in effect, and Pedro spent the remainder of his life restoring the constitutional monarchy and his young daughter to the throne of Portugal. In the 1832-34 War of the Brothers, Pedro IV's armed forces triumphed over those of Dom Miguel and the latter fled to exile in Austria. Exhausted from the effort, Pedro died on 24 September 1834, and was buried in Lisbon. In 1972, his remains were moved to Ipiranga, Brazil.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Pedro IV, king

  • 12 Maria I, queen

       Daughter of King José I (r. 175077), she married her uncle Pedro III, her father's brother. Upon becoming queen in 1777, with the death of her father, Maria I dismissed the Marquis of Pombal, the king's prime minister. Known in Portuguese history by the nickname of "The Pious," Maria was extremely religious and, during her brief reign, attempted to reverse the dictator Pombal's statist, anticlerical policies, but to little avail. Her life and reign were transformed by family tragedies and by personal reactions to the news of the cataclysmic events in France. Maria's mental weakness was exacerbated progressively by the death of her consort Pedro (1786) and her eldest son João (1788) and gravely affected by news of the French Revolution and its excesses (1789-92). In 1792, she went insane and ceased to reign; her son João took her place and, in 1799, became prince regent. When, in 1807, the royal family fled with a British fleet to Brazil as France occupied Portugal, mad Maria, restrained, it was said, in an iron cage, was taken along. In 1816, while the royal court remained in Brazil, she died in Rio de Janeiro.
        See also João VI, king

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Maria I, queen

  • 13 be short

    Американизм: лишиться (smb.; напр., близкого человека; Less than a minute later, Ned Wilcox and his sisters were short a daddy and Michelle Wilcox was short a husband. / S.King)

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > be short

  • 14 powerful

    мощный, могущественный, сильный

    Our forces were powerful enough to repel the attack. — У нас были достаточно мощные силы, чтобы отразить наступление

    - powerful state
    - powerful country
    - powerful blow
    - powerful king

    English-Russian combinatory dictionary > powerful

  • 15 Peace treaty of 1668, Luso-Spanish

       Portugal and Spain signed the Peace Treaty of 13 February 1668 that ended the War of Restoration, which had continued since 1641. The negotiations were mediated by England, which guaranteed that the peace would be kept. By this important document, both states promised to return their respective conquests during that war, with the exception of the city of Ceuta in Morocco, which declared for Spanish sovereignty and was not returned to Portugal. Spain's signing of the treaty also signified that Portuguese independence was definitively recognized.
        See also Pedro II, king.

    Historical dictionary of Portugal > Peace treaty of 1668, Luso-Spanish

  • 16 pass muster

       выдepжaть иcпытaниe, пpoвepку, oкaзaтьcя гoдным, пpиeмлeмым [букв. вoeн. пpoйти ocмoтp, пpoвepку]
        His shoes were old and cracked, but they would pass muster (J. Wain). 'That's a pallid excuse,' replied Hollenbach... 'And it doesn't pass muster with me' (F. Knebel). Rachel... made a munute adjustment to his tie, and looked him up critically. 'Do I pass muster, Sarge?' he asked. 'You look very nice' (S. King)

    Concise English-Russian phrasebook > pass muster

  • 17 sweat like a pig

       oбливaтьcя пoтoм
        We worked on, I began to grow tired and cross. We were sweating like pigs. I had a maddening thirst and nothing in the world to drink (W. S. Maugham). He removed his shirt and washed. He had been sweating like a pig in spite of the cold (S. King)

    Concise English-Russian phrasebook > sweat like a pig

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