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Fort William, Scotland

  • 1 Fort William

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Fort William

  • 2 Fort William

    География: (г.) Форт-Уильям, г. Форт-Уильям, (г.) Тандер-Бей (пров. Онтарио, Канада)

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Fort William

  • 3 Fort William

    г. Форт-Уильям; г. Тандер-Бей (пров. Онтарио, Канада); г. Форт-Уильям
    * * *
    Форт-Уильям (Великобритания, Шотландия)

    Англо-русский географический словарь > Fort William

  • 4 Fort William Henry

    ист
    Английский колониальный форпост у южной оконечности озера Джордж [ George, Lake] на северо-востоке штата Нью-Йорк. Сооружен в 1756, во время войны с французами и индейцами [ French and Indian War] для защиты транспортного сообщения между озером и р. Хадсон [ Hudson River]. В начале 1757 гарнизон форта выдержал осаду французов, но в конце года пал под натиском отрядов Монкальма. Большая часть гарнизона была убита и захвачена индейцами, которых французы не смогли удержать от этих действий. Позднее форт был снесен французами. Реплика сооружена в 1953 в поселке Лейк-Джордж [Lake George], музей.

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Fort William Henry

  • 5 Fort William

    [ʹfɔ:tʹwıljəm] геогр.
    г. Форт-Уильям

    НБАРС > Fort William

  • 6 Fort William

    геогр. Форт-Уильям

    English-Russian base dictionary > Fort William

  • 7 Fort William

    n
    ფორტ უილიამი

    English-Georgian dictionary > Fort William

  • 8 FWM

    1) Оптика: four-wave mixing
    2) Сокращение: Feinmechanische Werke Mainz GmbH (Germany)
    3) Аэропорты: Fort William, Scotland

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > FWM

  • 9 Morrison, William Murray

    [br]
    b. 7 October 1873 Birchwood, Inverness-shire, Scotland
    d. 21 May 1948 London, England
    [br]
    Scottish pioneer in the development of the British aluminium industry and Highlands hydroelectric energy.
    [br]
    After studying at the West of Scotland Technical College in Glasgow, in January 1895 Morrison was appointed Engineer to the newly formed British Aluminium Company Limited (BAC); it was with this organization that he spent his entire career. The company secured the patent rights to the Héroult and Bayer processes. It constructed a 200 tonne per year electrolytic plant at Foyers on the shore of Loch Ness, together with an adjacent 5000 kW hydroelectric scheme, and it built an alumina factory at Larne Harbour in north-eastern Ireland. Morrison was soon Manager at Foyers, and he became the company's Joint Technical Adviser. In 1910 he was made General Manager, and later he was appointed Managing Director. Morrison successfully brought about improvements in all parts of the production process; between 1915 and 1930 he increased the size of individual electrolytic cells by a factor of five, from 8,000 to 40,000 amperes. Soon after 1901, BAC built a second works for electrolytic reduction, at Kinlochleven in Argyllshire, where the primary design originated from Morrison. In the 1920s a third plant was erected at Fort William, in the lee of Ben Nevis, with hydroelectric generators providing some 75 MW. Alumina factories were constructed at Burntisland on the Firth of Forth and, in the 1930s, at Newport in Monmouthshire. Rolling mills were developed at Milton in Staffordshire, Warrington, and Falkirk in Stirlingshire, this last coming into use in the 1940s, by which time the company had a primary-metal output of more than 30,000 tonnes a year. Morrison was closely involved in all of these developments. He retired in 1946 as Deputy Chairman of BAC.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Commander of the Order of St Olav of Norway 1933 (BAC had manufacturing interests in Norway). Knighted 1943. Vice-Chairman, British Non-Ferrous Metals Research Association, Faraday Society, Institute of Metals. Institute of Metals Platinum Medal 1942.
    Bibliography
    1939, "Aluminium and highland water power", Journal of the Institute of Metals 65:17– 36 (seventeenth autumn lecture),
    JKA

    Biographical history of technology > Morrison, William Murray

  • 10 Bent's Fort

    Был известен также как Форт-Уильям [Fort William]. Торговая фактория [ trading post] на северном берегу р. Арканзас [ Arkansas River], примерно в 11 км от современного города Ла-Джунта, шт. Колорадо. Заложен в 1833 первым гражданином штата Колорадо У. Бентом [Bent, William] и его братьями. В течение 20 лет служил центром бартерной торговли с индейцами Юго-Запада, прежде всего шайеннами [ Cheyenne] и арапахо [ Arapaho] и был важным пунктом на Тропе Санта-Фе [ Santa Fe Trail]; использовался в качестве склада провизии во время американо-мексиканской войны [ Mexican War]. В 1849, когда правительство захотело купить форт, предложив за него слишком низкую цену, Бент отчасти разрушил его и забросил. Спустившись на 65 км вниз по реке, он построил новый, каменный форт [Bent's New Fort], известный также под названием "форт Лион" [Fort Lyon] и сдал его в аренду властям в 1859. В 1866 из-за угрозы наводнений форт был перенесен на место старого торгового поста.

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Bent's Fort

  • 11 George, Lake

    Горное озеро на северо-востоке штата Нью-Йорк, у подножья Адирондакских гор [ Adirondack Mountains], соединено с озером Шамплейн [ Champlain, Lake]. Протяженность 50 км (с севера на юг), ширина 2-5 км. Центр туризма и летнего отдыха - поселок Лейк-Джордж [Lake George] у южной оконечности озера; 985 жителей (2000), колония художников. Озеро названо в честь английского короля Георга II в 1755. В колониальный период французы и англичане построили в районе несколько фортов, в том числе Уильям Генри [ Fort William Henry] и Тикондерога [ Fort Ticonderoga]; в XVIII в. здесь происходили частые вооруженные столкновения.

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > George, Lake

  • 12 Nonjurors (The beneficed clergy of the Church of England and the Episcopal Church in Scotland who refused to take the oaths of allegiance to William III and Mary II)

    Религия: неприсягатели

    Универсальный англо-русский словарь > Nonjurors (The beneficed clergy of the Church of England and the Episcopal Church in Scotland who refused to take the oaths of allegiance to William III and Mary II)

  • 13 McNaught, William

    [br]
    b. 27 May 1813 Sneddon, Paisley, Scotland
    d. 8 January 1881 Manchester, England
    [br]
    Scottish patentee of a very successful form of compounding beam engine with a high-pressure cylinder between the fulcrum of the beam and the connecting rod.
    [br]
    Although born in Paisley, McNaught was educated in Glasgow where his parents had moved in 1820. He followed in his father's footsteps and became an engineer through an apprenticeship with Robert Napier at the Vulcan Works, Washington Street, Glasgow. He also attended science classes at the Andersonian University in the evenings and showed such competence that at the age of 19 he was offered the position of being in charge of the Fort-Gloster Mills on the Hoogly river in India. He remained there for four years until 1836, when he returned to Scotland because the climate was affecting his health.
    His father had added the revolving cylinder to the steam engine indicator, and this greatly simplified and extended its use. In 1838 William joined him in the business of manufacturing these indicators at Robertson Street, Glasgow. While advising textile manufacturers on the use of the indicator, he realized the need for more powerful, smoother-running and economical steam engines. He provided the answer by placing a high-pressure cylinder midway between the fulcrum of the beam and the connecting rod on an ordinary beam engine. The original cylinder was retained to act as the low-pressure cylinder of what became a compound engine. This layout not only reduced the pressures on the bearing surfaces and gave a smoother-running engine, which was one of McNaught's aims, but he probably did not anticipate just how much more economical his engines would be; they often gave a saving of fuel up to 40 per cent. This was because the steam pipe connecting the two cylinders acted as a receiver, something lacking in the Woolf compound, which enabled the steam to be expanded properly in both cylinders. McNaught took out his patent in 1845, and in 1849 he had to move to Manchester because his orders in Lancashire were so numerous and the scope was much greater there than in Glasgow. He took out further patents for equalizing the stress on the working parts, but none was as important as his original one, which was claimed to have been one of the greatest improvements since the steam engine left the hands of James Watt. He was one of the original promoters of the Boiler Insurance and Steam Power Company and was elected Chairman in 1865, a position he retained until a short time before his death.
    [br]
    Bibliography
    1845, British patent no. 11,001 (compounding beam engine).
    Further Reading
    Obituary, Engineer 51.
    Obituary, Engineering 31.
    R.L.Hills, 1989, Power from Steam. A History of the Stationary Steam Engine, Cambridge University Press (the fullest account of McNaught's proposals for compounding).
    RLH

    Biographical history of technology > McNaught, William

  • 14 Fort Laramie

    ист
    Находится в штате Вайоминг, у впадения р. Ларами [ Laramie River] в р. Норт-Платт [ North Platte River]. Основан в 1834 на землях племен сиу [ Sioux] и шайеннов [ Cheyenne] как торговый пост [ trading post] торговцами пушниной У. Саблеттом [Sublette, William] и Р. Кэмпбеллом [Campbell, Robert] из г. Сент-Луиса, шт. Миссури. В 1836 куплен Американской пушной компанией [ American Fur Company]. Служил для охраны переселенцев на Орегонской тропе [ Oregon Trail] от индейцев; место заключения нескольких договоров с ними [ Fort Laramie, Treaty of]. В 1855 превращен в военный пост и перестроен. После переселения индейцев в резервации потерял стратегическое значение и в 1890 был заброшен. Уцелевшие здания форта превращены в музей [Fort Laramie National Historic Site], входящий в систему национальных парков [ National Park System] с 1938

    English-Russian dictionary of regional studies > Fort Laramie

  • 15 Fort Worth

    [ˊfɔ:rt ˊwǝ:rƟ] г. Форт-Уэрт, один из крупнейших городов штата Техас <назв. в честь героя войны с Мексикой Уильяма Уэрта [Worth, William Jenkins]>. Находится всего в 30-ти милях к востоку от своего более крупного и яркого собрата Далласа и часто воспринимается как часть конгломерата, однако значительно отличается от Далласа: Форт- Уэрт стоит на границе двух различных частей Техаса — к западу от него настоящая прерия, которую мало чем затронул прогресс за последние сто лет, к востоку — яркий, пышный, утопающий в роскоши Даллас. Форт- Уэрт был важным пунктом на скотопрогонном Чисхолмском тракте [*Chisholm Trail], и его центральная улица, Пенсильвания-авеню, была застроена салунами и танц-залами сомнительной репутации. С приходом сюда железной дороги город становится центром мясной промышленности; с открытием в 1917 нефти — новый бум, и хотя скот и нефть остаются основой экономики Форт-Уэрта, появились и новые отрасли промышленности. С начала II мировой войны здесь процветают военно-промышленные корпорации: «Тэнди» [Tandy Corp.], «Белл геликоптер» [Bell Helicopter], «Дженерал дайнамикс» [General Dynamics]. Магнаты бизнеса стали больше уделять внимания культуре, и сейчас этот «коровий город» [Cowtown], как его часто называют, приобрёл новое лицо: смесь «скота, культуры и бизнеса» [cattle, culture, and commerce]. Прозвище: «коровий город» [Cowtown]. Река: Тринити [Trinity River]. Районы, улицы, площади: Пенсильвания- авеню [Pennsylvania Avenue], Санданс- Сквер [Sundance Square], Мэйн- стрит [Main Street]. Здания: башня муниципалитета [City Center Tower II]. Музеи, памятные места: Музей науки и истории [Museum of Science and History]. Худ. музеи, выставки: Художественный музей Кимбалла [*Kimball Art Museum], Музей искусства американского Запада им. Амона Картера [*Amon G. Carter Museum of Western Art], Художественный музей Форт- Уэрта [*Fort Worth Art Museum]. Культурные центры, театры: Театр «Каса Маньяна» [‘Casa Manana']. Учебные заведения, научные центры: Техасский христианский университет [Texas Christian University], Баптистская семинария Юго- Запада США [Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary]. Периодические издания: «Форт-Уэрт стар телеграм» [‘Fort Worth Star Telegram']. Парки, зоопарки: «Сезам-Плейс» [Sesame Place], тематический парк телевизионной программы «Сезам-стрит». Спорт: стадион «Арлингтон» [‘Arlington']; бейсбольная команда «Техасские рейнджеры» [*‘Texas Rangers']. Отели: «Американа» [Americana Hotel]. Рестораны: «Мишель» [Michel]. Достопримечательности: «Скотные дворы Форт-Уэрта» [*Fort Worth Stockyards]; парк аттракционов «Шесть флагов над Техасом» [*Six Flags Over Texas]. Фестивали, праздники: Выставка Юго- Запада США и показ скота [Southwestern Exposition and Fat Stock Show]

    США. Лингвострановедческий англо-русский словарь > Fort Worth

  • 16 Castle, William

    1914-1977
       Procedente de Broadway, donde llevo a cabo los mas dispares oficios, William Castle desembarca en Hollywood a los 23 anos, y seis mas tarde dirige su primera pelicula. Especialista en peliculas baratas de terror, de sarrollo diversos artilugios para el espectador, entre los que cabe citar la electrificacion de asientos para aumentar la tension en el espectador, y el diseno de esqueletos inflables que flotaban sobre la audiencia durante la proyeccion. No fue, a la vista de lo dicho, un especialista del western, pero rodo un punado de ellos, siempre con presupuestos ajustados y resultados artisticos mejores de lo que cabria suponer. En su curriculo hay que citar dos peliculas celebres, La dama de Shanghai (The Lady from Shanghai, Orson Welles,1947) y La semilla del diablo (Rosemary’s Ba by, Roman Polanski, 1968), de las que fue productor.
        Klondike Kate. 1943. 64 minutos. Blanco y Negro. Columbia. Anne Savage, Tom Neal, Glenda Farrell.
        Cave of Outlaws. 1951. 75 minutos. Technicolor. Universal. MacDonald Carey, Alexis Smith.
        Fort Ti (Fort Ti). 1953. 73 minutos. Technicolor. 3-D. Columbia. George Montgomery, Joan Vohs.
        Conquest of Cochise. 1953. 70 minutos. Technicolor. Columbia. John Hodiak, Robert Stack, Joy Page.
        The Battle of Rogue River. 1954. 71 minutos. Technicolor. Columbia. George Montgomery, Richard Denning, Martha Hyer.
        Jesse James Vs. The Daltons. 1954. 65 minutos. Technicolor. 3-D. Columbia. Brett King, Barbara Lawrence.
        The Law Vs. Billy the Kid. 1954. 73 minutos. Technicolor. Columbia. Scott Brady, Betta St. John.
        Masterson of Kansas. 1955. 73 minutos. Technicolor. Columbia. George Montgomery, Nancy Gates.
        The Americano (El americano). 1955. 85 minutos. Technicolor. RKO. Glenn Ford, Frank Lovejoy, Ursula Thiess.
        The Gun That Won the West. 1955. 71 minutos. Technicolor. Columbia. Dennis Morgan, Paula Raymond.

    English-Spanish dictionary of western films > Castle, William

  • 17 Congreve, Sir William

    SUBJECT AREA: Weapons and armour
    [br]
    b. 20 May 1772 London, England
    d. 16 May 1828 Toulouse, France
    [br]
    English developer of military rockets.
    [br]
    He was the eldest son of Lieutenant-General Sir William Congreve, Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery, Superintendent of Military Machines and Superintendent Comptroller of the Royal Laboratory at Woolwich, and the daughter of a naval officer. Congreve passed through the Naval Academy at Woolwich and in 1791 was attached to the Royal Laboratory (formerly known as the Woolwich Arsenal), of which his father was then in command. In the 1790s, an Indian prince, Hyder Ali, had had some success against British troops with solid-fuelled rockets, and young Congreve set himself to develop the idea. By about 1806 he had made some 13,000 rockets, each with a range of about 2 km (1¼ miles). The War Office approved their use, and they were first tested in action at sea during the sieges of Boulogne and Copenhagen in 1806 and 1807 respectively. Congreve was commissioned to raise two companies of rocket artillery; in 1813 he commanded one of his rocket companies at the Battle of Leipzig, where although the rockets did little damage to the enemy, the noise and glare of the explosions had a considerable effect in frightening the French and caused great confusion; for this, the Tsar of Russia awarded Congreve a knighthood. The rockets were similarly effective in other battles, including the British attack on Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, in 1814; it is said that this was the inspiration for the lines "the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air" in Francis Scott Key's poem The Star Spangled Banner, which became the United States' national anthem.
    Congreve's father died in 1814, and he succeeded him in the baronetcy and as Comptroller of the Royal Laboratory and Superintendent of Military Machines, holding this post until his death. For the last ten years of his life he was Member of Parliament for Plymouth, having previously represented Gatton when elected for that constituency in 1812.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    FRS 1812.
    Further Reading
    F.H.Winter, 1990, The First Golden Age of Rocketry: Congreve and Hale Rockets of the Nine-teenth Century, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
    IMcN

    Biographical history of technology > Congreve, Sir William

  • 18 Cruickshank, William

    SUBJECT AREA: Electricity
    [br]
    d. 1810/11 Scotland
    [br]
    Scottish chemist and surgeon, inventor of a trough battery developed from Volta's pile.
    [br]
    Cruickshank graduated MA from King's College, Aberdeen, in 1765, and later gained a Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons. When chemistry was introduced in 1788 into the course at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, Cruickshank became a member of staff, serving as Assistant to Dr A.Crawford, the Lecturer in Chemistry. Upon Crawford's death in 1796 Cruickshank succeeded him as Lecturer and held the post until his retirement due to ill health in 1804. He also held the senior posts of Chemist to the Ordnance at Woolwich and Surgeon to the Ordnance Medical Department. He should not be confused with William Cumberland Cruickshank (1745–1800), who was also a surgeon and Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1801, shortly after Volta's announcement of his pile, Cruickshank built a voltaic pile to facilitate his experiments in electrochemistry. The pile had zinc and silver plates about 1½ in2 (10 cm2) with interposed papers moistened with ammonium chloride. Dissatisfied with this arrangement, Cruickshank devised a horizontal trough battery in which a wooden box was divided into cells, each holding a pair of zinc and silver or zinc and copper plates. Charged with a dilute solution of ammonium chloride, the battery, which was typically of sixty cells, was found to be more convenient to use than a pile and it, or a derivative, was generally adopted for electrochemical experiments including tose of Humphrey Davy during the early years of the nineteenth century.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    FRS 1802.
    Bibliography
    1801, article in Nicholsons Journal 4:187–91 (describes Cruickshank's original pile). 1801, article in Nicholsons Journal 4:245–64 (describes his trough battery).
    Further Reading
    B.Bowers, 1982, A History of Electric Light and Power, London (a short account). A.Courts, 1959, "William Cruickshank", Annals of Science 15:121–33 GW

    Biographical history of technology > Cruickshank, William

  • 19 Denny, William

    SUBJECT AREA: Ports and shipping
    [br]
    b. 25 May 1847 Dumbarton, Scotland
    d. 17 March 1887 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    [br]
    Scottish naval architect and partner in the leading British scientific shipbuilding company.
    [br]
    From 1844 until 1962, the Clyde shipyard of William Denny and Brothers, Dumbarton, produced over 1,500 ships, trained innumerable students of all nationalities in shipbuilding and marine engineering, and for the seventy-plus years of their existence were accepted worldwide as the leaders in the application of science to ship design and construction. Until the closure of the yard members of the Denny family were among the partners and later directors of the firm: they included men as distinguished as Dr Peter Denny (1821(?)–95), Sir Archibald Denny (1860–1936) and Sir Maurice Denny (1886– 1955), the main collaborator in the design of the Denny-Brown ship stabilizer.
    One of the most influential of this shipbuilding family was William Denny, now referred to as William 3! His early education was at Dumbarton, then on Jersey and finally at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, before he commenced an apprenticeship at his father's shipyard. From the outset he not only showed great aptitude for learning and hard work but also displayed an ability to create good relationships with all he came into contact with. At the early age of 21 he was admitted a partner of the shipbuilding business of William Denny and Brothers, and some years later also of the associated engineering firm of Denny \& Co. His deep-felt interest in what is now known as industrial relations led him in 1871 to set up a piecework system of payment in the shipyard. In this he was helped by the Yard Manager, Richard Ramage, who later was to found the Leith shipyard, which produced the world's most elegant steam yachts. This research was published later as a pamphlet called The Worth of Wages, an unusual and forward-looking action for the 1860s, when Denny maintained that an absentee employer should earn as much contempt and disapproval as an absentee landlord! In 1880 he initiated an awards scheme for all company employees, with grants and awards for inventions and production improvements. William Denny was not slow to impose new methods and to research naval architecture, a special interest being progressive ship trials with a view to predicting effective horsepower. In time this led to his proposal to the partners to build a ship model testing tank beside the Dumbarton shipyard; this scheme was completed in 1883 and was to the third in the world (after the Admiralty tank at Torquay, managed by William Froude and the Royal Netherlands Navy facility at Amsterdam, under B.J. Tideman. In 1876 the Denny Shipyard started work with mild-quality shipbuilding steel on hulls for the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company, and in 1879 the world's first two ships of any size using this weight-saving material were produced: they were the Rotomahana for the Union Steamship Company of New Zealand and the Buenos Ayrean for the Allan Line of Glasgow. On the naval-architecture side he was involved in Denny's proposals for standard cross curves of stability for all ships, which had far-reaching effects and are now accepted worldwide. He served on the committee working on improvements to the Load Line regulations and many other similar public bodies. After a severe bout of typhoid and an almost unacceptable burden of work, he left the United Kingdom for South America in June 1886 to attend to business with La Platense Flotilla Company, an associate company of William Denny and Brothers. In March the following year, while in Buenos Aires, he died by his own hand, a death that caused great and genuine sadness in the West of Scotland and elsewhere.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    President, Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland 1886. FRS Edinburgh 1879.
    Bibliography
    William Denny presented many papers to various bodies, the most important being to the Institution of Naval Architects and to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. The subjects include: trials results, the relation of ship speed to power, Lloyd's Numerals, tonnage measurement, layout of shipyards, steel in shipbuilding, cross curves of stability, etc.
    Further Reading
    A.B.Bruce, 1889, The Life of William Denny, Shipbuilder, London: Hodder \& Stoughton.
    Denny Dumbarton 1844–1932 (a souvenir hard-back produced for private circulation by the shipyard).
    Fred M.Walker, 1984, Song of the Clyde. A History of Clyde Shipbuilding, Cambridge: PSL.
    FMW

    Biographical history of technology > Denny, William

  • 20 Fairbairn, William

    SUBJECT AREA: Ports and shipping
    [br]
    b. 19 February 1789 Kelso, Roxburghshire, Scotland
    d. 18 August 1874 Farnham, Surrey, England
    [br]
    Scottish engineer and shipbuilder, pioneer in the use of iron in structures.
    [br]
    Born in modest circumstances, Fairbairn nevertheless enjoyed a broad and liberal education until around the age of 14. Thereafter he served an apprenticeship as a millwright in a Northumberland colliery. This seven-year period marked him out as a man of determination and intellectual ability; he planned his life around the practical work of pit-machinery maintenance and devoted his limited free time to the study of mathematics, science and history as well as "Church, Milton and Recreation". Like many before and countless thousands after, he worked in London for some difficult and profitless years, and then moved to Manchester, the city he was to regard as home for the rest of his life. In 1816 he was married. Along with a workmate, James Lillie, he set up a general engineering business, which steadily enlarged and ultimately involved both shipbuilding and boiler-making. The partnership was dissolved in 1832 and Fairbairn continued on his own. Consultancy work commissioned by the Forth and Clyde Canal led to the construction of iron steamships by Fairbairn for the canal; one of these, the PS Manchester was lost in the Irish Sea (through the little-understood phenomenon of compass deviation) on her delivery voyage from Manchester to the Clyde. This brought Fairbairn to the forefront of research in this field and confirmed him as a shipbuilder in the novel construction of iron vessels. In 1835 he operated the Millwall Shipyard on the Isle of Dogs on the Thames; this is regarded as one of the first two shipyards dedicated to iron production from the outset (the other being Tod and MacGregor of Glasgow). Losses at the London yard forced Fairbairn to sell off, and the yard passed into the hands of John Scott Russell, who built the I.K. Brunel -designed Great Eastern on the site. However, his business in Manchester went from strength to strength: he produced an improved Cornish boiler with two firetubes, known as the Lancashire boiler; he invented a riveting machine; and designed the beautiful swan-necked box-structured crane that is known as the Fairbairn crane to this day.
    Throughout his life he advocated the widest use of iron; he served on the Admiralty Committee of 1861 investigating the use of this material in the Royal Navy. In his later years he travelled widely in Europe as an engineering consultant and published many papers on engineering. His contribution to worldwide engineering was recognized during his lifetime by the conferment of a baronetcy by Queen Victoria.
    [br]
    Principal Honours and Distinctions
    Created Baronet 1869. FRS 1850. Elected to the Academy of Science of France 1852. President, Institution of Mechnical Engineers 1854. Royal Society Gold Medal 1860. President, British Association 1861.
    Bibliography
    Fairbairn wrote many papers on a wide range of engineering subjects from water-wheels to iron metallurgy and from railway brakes to the strength of iron ships. In 1856 he contributed the article on iron to the 8th edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica.
    Further Reading
    W.Pole (ed.), 1877, The Life of Sir William Fairbairn Bart, London: Longmans Green; reprinted 1970, David and Charles Reprints (written in part by Fairbairn, but completed and edited by Pole).
    FMW

    Biographical history of technology > Fairbairn, William

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