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Equal channel angular extrusion

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  • Equal channel angular extrusion — (ECAE) is an extrusion process, developed in the early 1990s in the Soviet Union. The technique is able to refine the microstructure of metals and alloys, thereby improving their strength according to the Hall Petch relationship. ECAE is unique… …   Wikipedia

  • Extrusion — is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes is its ability to create… …   Wikipedia

  • Work hardening — Work hardening, also known as strain hardening or cold working, is the strengthening of a metal by plastic deformation. This strengthening occurs because of dislocation movements within the crystal structure of the material.[1] Any material with… …   Wikipedia

  • Earth Sciences — ▪ 2009 Introduction Geology and Geochemistry       The theme of the 33rd International Geological Congress, which was held in Norway in August 2008, was “Earth System Science: Foundation for Sustainable Development.” It was attended by nearly… …   Universalium

  • Architecture and Civil Engineering — ▪ 2009 Introduction Architecture       For Notable Civil Engineering Projects in work or completed in 2008, see Table (Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in work or completed, 2008)).        Beijing was the centre of the world of architecture… …   Universalium

  • Science and mathematics from the Renaissance to Descartes — George Molland Early in the nineteenth century John Playfair wrote for the Encyclopaedia Britannica a long article entitled ‘Dissertation; exhibiting a General View of the Progress of Mathematics and Physical Science, since the Revival of Letters …   History of philosophy

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