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Brunelleschi, Filippo

  • 1 Brunelleschi, Filippo

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    b. 1377 Florence, Italy
    d. 15 April 1446 Florence, Italy
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    Italian artist, craftsman and architect who introduced the Italian Renaissance style of classical architecture in the fifteenth century.
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    Brunelleschi was a true "Renaissance Man" in that he excelled in several disciplines, as did most artists of the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He was a goldsmith and sculptor; fifteenth-century writers acknowledge him as the first to study and demonstrate the principles of perspective, and he clearly possessed a deep mathematical understanding of the principles of architectural structure.
    Brunelleschi's Foundling Hospital in Florence, begun in 1419, is accepted as the first Renaissance building, one whose architectural style is based upon a blend of the classical principles and decoration of Ancient Rome and those of the Tuscan Romanesque. Brunelleschi went on to design a number of important Renaissance structures in Florence, such as the basilicas of San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito, the Pazzi Chapel at Santa Croce, and the unfinished church of Santa Maria degli Angeli.
    However, the artistic and technical feat for which Brunelleschi is most famed is the completion of Florence Cathedral by constructing a dome above the octagonal drum which had been completed in 1412. The building of this dome presented what appeared to be at the time insuperable problems, which had caused previous cathedral architects to shy away from tackling it. The drum was nearly 140 ft (43 m) in diameter and its base was 180 ft (55 m) above floor level: no wooden centering was possible because no trees long enough to span the gap could be found, and even if they had been available, the weight of such a massive framework would have broken centering beneath. In addition, the drum had no external abutment, so the weight of the dome must exert excessive lateral thrust. Aesthetically, the ideal Renaissance dome, like the Roman dome before it (for example, the Pantheon) was a hemisphere, but in the case of the Florence Cathedral such a structure would have been unsafe, so Brunelleschi created a pointed dome that would create less thrust laterally. He constructed eight major ribs of stone and, between them, sixteen minor ones, using a light infilling. He constructed a double-shell dome, which was the first of this type but is a design that has been followed by nearly all major architects since this date (for example Michelangelo's Saint Peter's in Rome, and Wren's Saint Paul's in London). Further strength is given by a herringbone pattern of masonry and brick infilling, and by tension chains of massive blocks, fastened with iron and with iron chains above, girding the dome at three levels. A large lantern finally stops the 50 ft (15.25 m) diameter eye at the point of the dome. Construction of the Florence Cathedral dome was begun on 7 August 1420 and was completed to the base of the lantern sixteen years later. It survives as the peak of Brunelleschi's Renaissance achievement.
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    Further Reading
    Peter Murray, 1963, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, Batsford, Ch. 2. Howard Saalman, 1980, Filippo Brunelleschi: The Cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore, Zwemmer.
    Piero Sanpaolesi, 1977, La Cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore: Il Progetto: La Costruzione, Florence: Edam.
    Eugenio Battisti, 1981, Brunelleschi: The Complete Work, Thames and Hudson.
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  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — born 1377, Florence [Italy] died April 15, 1446, Florence Florentine architect and engineer. Trained as a sculptor and goldsmith, he turned his attention to architecture after failing to win a competition for the bronze doors of the Baptistery of …   Universalium

  • BRUNELLESCHI, Filippo — (c. 1377 1446)    Filippo Brunelleschi, traditionally considered the founder of early Renaissance architecture in Italy, trained as a goldsmith in Florence and gained an understanding of architecture while studying classical buildings in Rome.… …   Historical Dictionary of Architecture

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — (1377 1446)    Considered the pioneer of Early Renaissance architecture. The son of a Florentine notary and diplomat, Brunelleschi received a humanistic education. He was trained as a goldsmith, and turned to architecture after losing to Lorenzo… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — (1377 1446)    Florentine artist, initially active as a sculptor but known principally as the creator of the early Italian Renaissance architectural style. According to a story told by two later Renaissance authors, after he was defeated by… …   Historical Dictionary of Renaissance

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — ► (1377 1446) Arquitecto, escultor y pintor italiano. Iniciador y creador de la arquitectura renacentista. Inició su actividad artística cultivando la escultura: relieve en bronce del sacrificio de Abraham. Destacó en arquitectura. Autor de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Brunelleschi,Filippo — Bru·nel·le·schi (bro͞o nə lĕsʹkē), Filippo. 1377 1446. Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral. * * * …   Universalium

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo —  (c. 1377–1446) Renaissance architect and sculptor …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

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  • Filippo Brunelleschi — Filippo Brunelleschi, zur Kuppel des Domes Santa Maria del Fiore hinaufblickend; Statue in Florenz Filippo Brunelleschi (* 1377 in Florenz; † 15. April 1446 ebenda) war einer der führenden italienischen Architekten und Bildhauer der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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